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Authors:Gedalin; Michael, Ganushkina, Natalia First page: 905880301 Abstract: Collisionless shocks undergo structural changes with the increase of Mach number. Observations and numerical simulations indicate development of time-dependent rippling. It is not known at present what causes the rippling. However, effects of such rippling on the field pattern and ion motion and distributions can be studied without precise knowledge of the causes and detailed shape. It is shown that deviations of the normal component of the magnetic field from the constant value indicate certain spatial dependence of the rippling. Deviations of the motional electric field from the constant value indicate time dependence. It is argued that whistler waves should propagate towards upstream and downstream regions from the rippled ramp. It is shown that the downstream pattern of the fields and ion distributions should follow the rippling pattern, while collisionless relaxation should be faster than in the stationary planar case. PubDate: 2022-05-10 DOI: 10.1017/S0022377822000356

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Authors:Thuecks; Derek J., McCollam, Karsten J. First page: 905880302 Abstract: Fluctuation measurements reveal the outward electromagnetic energy flux needed to drive the dynamo electromotive force supporting magnetic self-organization in a reversed-field pinch plasma. The radial Poynting flux due to tearing mode fluctuations is measured with an insertable probe during magnetic relaxation. This flux corresponds to transient power levels much larger than the input power and comparable to the global equilibrium magnetic energy transient loss rate. The probe measurements of this flux are roughly as predicted by a simple Poynting's theorem model upon substitution of equilibrium measurement data. PubDate: 2022-05-11 DOI: 10.1017/S0022377822000368

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Authors:Francisquez; Manaure, Juno, James, Hakim, Ammar, Hammett, Gregory W., Ernst, Darin R. First page: 905880303 Abstract: The Dougherty model Fokker–Planck operator is extended to describe nonlinear full- ( f is the distribution function) collisions between multiple species in plasmas. Simple relations for cross-species primitive moments are developed which obey conservation laws, and reproduce familiar velocity and temperature relaxation rates. This treatment of multispecies Dougherty collisions, valid for arbitrary mass ratios, avoids unphysical temperatures and satisfies the -theorem (H is related to the entropy) unlike an analogous Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook operator. Formulas for both a Cartesian velocity space and a gyroaveraged operator are provided for use in Vlasov as well as long-wavelength gyrokinetic models. We present an algorithm for the discontinuous Galerkin discretization of this operator, and provide results from relaxation and Landau damping benchmarks. PubDate: 2022-05-12 DOI: 10.1017/S0022377822000289

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Authors:Frei; B.J., Hoffmann, A.C.D., Ricci, P. First page: 905880304 Abstract: We present a study of the linear properties of the ion-temperature gradient (ITG) modes with collisions modelled for the first time by the linearized gyrokinetic (GK) Coulomb collision operator (Frei et al., J. Plasma Phys., vol. 87, issue 5, 2021, 905870501) in the local limit. The study is based on a Hermite–Laguerre polynomial expansion of the perturbed ion distribution function applied to the linearized GK Boltzmann equation, yielding a hierarchy of coupled equations for the expansion coefficients, referred to as gyromoments. We explore the collisionless and high-collisional limits of the gyromoment hierarchy analytically. Parameter scans revealing the dependence of the ITG growth rate on the collisionality modelled using the GK Coulomb operator are reported, showing strong damping at small scales as the collisionality increases and, therefore, the need for a steeper gradient for the ITG onset at high collisionality to overcome the finite Larmor radius (FLR) collisional stabilization. The predictions on the ITG growth rate by the GK Coulomb operator are compared with other collision operator models, such as the Sugama, the Dougherty, as well as the momentum-conserving pitch-angle scattering and the Hirshman–Sigmar–Clarke collision operators derived for the first time in terms of gyromoments. The importance of FLR terms in the collision operators is pointed out by the appearance of a short wavelength ITG branch when collisional FLR terms are neglected, this branch being completely suppressed by FLR collisional effects. Energy diffusion is shown to be important at high collisionality and at small scale lengths. Among the GK collision operators considered in this work, the GK Sugama collision operator yields, in general, the smallest deviation compared with the GK Coulomb collision operator, while the largest deviations are found with the GK Dougherty operator. Convergence studies of the gyromoment method are reported and show that the drifts associated with the gradient and curvature of the magnetic field increase the required number of gyromoments at low collisionality. Nevertheless, the low number of gyromoments necessary for convergence at high collisionality constitutes an attractive numerical and analytical feature of the gyromoment approach to study the plasma dynamics in the boundary of fusion devices. PubDate: 2022-05-13 DOI: 10.1017/S0022377822000344

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Authors:Lee; Hee J., Cho, Sang-Hoon First page: 905880305 Abstract: The dispersion relation of a surface wave generated by a drifting plasma in an infinite duct surrounded by vacuum is derived non-relativistically by means of the Vlasov equation. The kinematic boundary condition imposed on the distribution function, the specular reflection conditions on the four sides of duct, can be satisfied by placing an infinite number of fictitious surface charge sheets spaced by the duct widths. The surface wave mode is specifically the transverse magnetic mode, often called the surface polariton, which propagates with phasor . The method of placing appropriate fictitious surface charge sheets enables one to treat the surface waves in semi-infinite, slab and duct plasmas simultaneously on an equal footing, kinetically. The streaming effect manifests itself through the Doppler-shifted frequency and a correction-like term , where u is the streaming velocity and c is the speed of light. PubDate: 2022-05-16 DOI: 10.1017/S0022377822000332