Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (94 journals)
    - GEOPHYSICS (33 journals)
    - HYDROLOGY (29 journals)
    - OCEANOGRAPHY (88 journals)

EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 371 Journals sorted by number of followers
Nature Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 161)
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149)
International Journal of Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144)
Earth and Planetary Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Ocean & Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Marine Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
International Journal of Geographical Information Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Natural Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Journal of Earth System Science     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Hydrological Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Geophysical Journal International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Groundwater     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Geomorphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Marine Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Geology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Marine Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Reviews of Modern Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
GPS Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Landslides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Structural Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Tectonophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Geocarto International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Coral Reefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Bulletin of Volcanology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Hydrogeology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Hydrobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Marine and Petroleum Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Earthquake Spectra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Marine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Sedimentary Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Quaternary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Geological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Global and Planetary Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Physics of Metals and Metallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Natural Hazards Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Geological Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
The Holocene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Metamorphic Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Sedimentology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ocean Development & International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Quaternary International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Pramana     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ocean Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
European Journal of Mineralogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Frontiers of Earth Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Continental Shelf Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Pure and Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
CATENA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ore Geology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of African Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Marine Mammal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cretaceous Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Earth Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences: An International Geoscience Journal of the Geological Society of Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Gondwana Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Physics of Plasmas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Seismology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Physik in unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Lithos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Contemporary Physics (Armenian Academy of Sciences)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Marine Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Geotectonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Facies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Comptes Rendus : Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Geodesy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Natural Resources Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geophysical Prospecting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Physics of the Solid State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Plasma Physics Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ocean Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Petrology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sea Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geochemistry : Exploration, Environment, Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geo-Marine Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Coastal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Ocean Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Geographical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Geodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resource Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ocean Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Geomechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Island Arc     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Marine Geophysical Researches     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Permafrost and Periglacial Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Terra Nova     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Energy Exploration & Exploitation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Organic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mineralium Deposita     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Marine Geodesy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Limnologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Surveys in Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Lithology and Mineral Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Geology and Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
JETP Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematical Physics, Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Fundamental and Applied Limnology / Archiv für Hydrobiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Geomagnetism and Aeronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Marine Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Rocks & Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Newsletters on Stratigraphy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Polar Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Helgoland Marine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geophysics and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mining Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
The Leading Edge     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Russian Physics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Glass Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics of Life Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Russian Journal of Pacific Geology     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Physics of Wave Phenomena     Hybrid Journal  
Moscow University Physics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Moscow University Geology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Marine Georesources & Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Mountain Science     Hybrid Journal  
Grassland Science     Hybrid Journal  
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 | Last

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Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.354
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0001-4338 - ISSN (Online) 1555-628X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Erratum to: Improving the Calculation of the Sulfate Aerosol Evolution and
           Radiative Effects in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian
           Academy of Sciences, Climate Model

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      Abstract: An Erratum to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1134/S0001433822020128
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Igor’ Leonidovich Karol’: 70 Years in Science

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      Abstract: The contribution of Igor’ Leonidovich Karol’ to world and national science is described. Three stages of his scientific research are identified: (1) modeling of the dynamics of the atmosphere, (2) modeling of chemical and radiation processes in the atmosphere, and (3) modeling of modern climate changes. Attention is paid to the pedagogical work of Karol’ and his contribution to the popularization of science.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Estimating Contributions of Natural Climate Variability Modes and
           Greenhouse Gases to Surface Temperature Trends in the Southern Hemisphere
           from Observations

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      Abstract: Contributions of the anthropogenic influence characterized by variations in the atmospheric greenhouse gas radiative forcing and of the key modes of natural climate variability to the trends of surface air temperatures at different latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere on different temporal horizons are quantified from observations. The role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, El Niño/Southern Oscillation, Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation in driving these temperature trends is estimated using trivariate autoregressive models and data since the 19th century. We note the substantial contributions of the key modes of natural climate variability to temperature trends on rather short intervals of about two or three decades, which is comparable to or even greater than the contribution of greenhouse gases. The estimates characterizing polar, middle, and tropical latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere are compared with those obtained for the Northern Hemisphere. According to these estimates, a dominant contribution to temperature trends at different latitudes and for the Earth as a whole on the intervals of about half a century and longer is made by the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Clouds as Manifestation of Wave Disturbance above Mountain Ridges

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      Abstract: Eleven photographs of clouds observed above the mountains of the Southern Crimea on March 24, 2011, in the time period from 17:40 to 18:10 are analyzed. Based on the results of photography from different sides and altitude levels, as well as theoretical and experimental studies of similar situations, the assumption that clouds existed in the crests of waves arising when an air stream was flowing over the mountains is verified. The estimated values of the height, length, and vertical depth of the clouds led to the conclusion that these clouds had a wave nature.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • On Ozone Depletion in the Mesosphere

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      Abstract: Data are presented on the rate of ozone depletion in the catalytic cycles of Ox, HOx, NOx, ClOx, and BrOx in the mesosphere in January and June 2020, as well as chain length in the HOx, NOx, ClOx, and BrOx cycles for the same conditions. The height profiles of the concentrations of small atmospheric components, temperature, and turbulent diffusion coefficients were calculated using the SOCRATES interactive two-dimensional model for the conditions of June and January 2020 at a latitude of 50° N in the height range of 50–90 km. As the initial data for the calculations, we used forecasts of the atmospheric content of greenhouse gases of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change RCP 4.5 for the above conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Transfer of the Substance of a Colored Drop in a Liquid Layer with
           Travelling Plane Gravity–Capillary Waves

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      Abstract: The evolution of the distribution pattern of an ink droplet freely falling on the wavy surface of a liquid is traced by video-recording methods. A system of travelling plane gravity–capillary waves with a frequency of \(5.0 < f < 50\) Hz (a wavelength of \(0.7 < \lambda < 6.6\) cm) was created by a vertically oscillating pointed strip. Drops of alizarin ink with diameter \(D = 0.5\) cm fell freely from the dispenser and reached contact velocity \(U = 370\) cm/s in the mode of splash formation. In the phase of primary contact and coalescence, the colored drop spreads in agitated liquid like in a quiet medium with the formation of a cavity with its bottom covered by colored fibers, a crown, and a splash. The growing crown is surrounded by a group of thin radial trickles with vortex heads and separate spots (wakes of earlier returned ejected droplets). Subsequently, the colored liquid on the surface is divided into three independently moving formations: a finely structured area of primary contact of an irregular shape, a submerging vortex ring, and a near-surface vortex dipole. In all components of the flow, the dye is distributed in the form of thin fibers for a long time until the final phase of erosion by residual flows and molecular diffusion processes. The geometry of movement and the general structure of the separated colored areas are traced.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Variability of Surface Methane Concentration in Moscow at Different Time
           Scales

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      Abstract: — The variability of surface methane (СН4) concentration in Moscow at different time scales is analyzed using long-term regular measurements from the State Environmental Institution Mosecomonitoring (2005–2020). Possible mechanisms that form the methane-concentration field in the city’s atmosphere are discussed. The average concentration of methane in the urban surface layer during the cold half of the year is lower, the higher the average air temperature of the previous warm half-year. The lowest methane concentrations in Moscow in 2010 and 2011 are associated with the hot summer of 2010, which was accompanied by severe wildfires and partial dry-out of wetlands in central European Russia. The intra-annual variations in СН4 concentration exhibit minima in summer and maxima in winter. An additional maximum concentration in August–September is typical only of the night methane concentrations. In the diurnal cycle, there is a higher methane concentration in the air at night than during the day. The results demonstrate the complexity of multidirectional natural processes in the atmosphere and at the underlying surface that form a dynamically changing field of methane concentration in the surface air of a megacity.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • About the Annual Course of Moscow Heat Island and the Impact on It of the
           Quarantine Measures to Prevent the COVID-19 Pandemic in 2020

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      Abstract: Seasonal differences in the Moscow urban heat-island intensity (UHII) have been studied in detail based on data obtained in 2018–2020 by the meteorological network of stations located in Moscow and Moscow region. It is shown that the annual cycle of this phenomenon is slightly pronounced. In most cases, the UHI is manifested stronger in summer and weaker in winter; however, in some months, the situation may be reverse. The question of the statistical significance of seasonal differences remains open. The closest statistical relationship was revealed between the UHI and lower clouds during the night hours, so that its highest intensity is observed in the least cloudy seasons (usually in summer). The UHII distribution functions are close to the normal law in summer and spring, and, in winter and fall, they are characterized by a noticeable positive asymmetry, because their values decrease and the mode approaches the lower physical limit. The period of strict quarantine restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic in the spring and early summer of 2020 led to a rapid and statistically significant decrease in the Moscow UHII, probably due to both natural factors (increased cloudiness) and human activities (rapidly decreased anthropogenic heat fluxes and a weakened urban industrial haze creating an additional counterradiation).
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Spatial and Temporal Variations in CO2 Concentration in the Surface
           Atmospheric Layer of the Territory of the Russian Federation Based on the
           CAMS Database

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      Abstract: Based on the data of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service reanalysis, the spatial and temporal variations of the CO2 concentration near the surface on the territory of the Russian Federation for the period 2010–2019 were investigated. It was found that the Southwestern part of the country has high values of CO2 concentrations and anthropogenic emissions. However, the growth over 10 years in this area is minimal. The maximum increase is observed in the Far Eastern, Ural, and Siberian federal districts, reaching values of 2.48, 2.41, and 2.39 ppm/year, respectively. In addition, these parts of the Russian Federation have the highest carbon emissions from fires and the highest soil-temperature changes. This change in temperature can lead to a significant release of carbon stored in permafrost. It is possible that these two factors were responsible for the maximum increase in CO2 concentrations in the area over the period 2010–2019. It was found that, in 2016, for the Ural and Volga federal districts, the increase in the average annual CO2 concentration reached 5.8 and 5.65 ppm, and the amplitude value was 31.73 and 26.07 ppm, respectively. This result may be due to a sharp increase in carbon emissions from fires by 310% in the Ural Federal District, as well as a change in soil temperature by about 0.8°C, which in turn may have increased soil emissions in both regions of the Russian Federation. No significant influence of anthropogenic emissions on the change in CO2 concentration is observed. Thus, it can be concluded that the greatest contribution to the increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide over 10 years is due to its natural sources, such as fires, and soil emissions.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Normal Mode as a Cause of Large-Scale Variations in the Troposphere and
           Stratosphere

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      Abstract: In a study of zonally averaged meteorological fields in the middle atmosphere, synchronous oscillations (in phase or antiphase) occupying extended latitudinal bands were detected. The lines of separation of the ascending and descending movements coincide with the average climatic position of the jet streams. It is shown that similar eigenmodes occur in a simple barotropic quasi-geostrophic model. This is possible if the average velocity field is determined by the Polar vortex and a high latitude stratospheric anticyclone. To study the vertical structure of low-frequency oscillations in the troposphere and stratosphere, the one-point lag correlation method was used. The oscillations propagating from the troposphere to higher layers and from the stratosphere to the troposphere are considered. It turned out that the low-frequency oscillations that occur in the troposphere weakly penetrate the upper atmosphere. However, disturbances developing in the stratosphere can be traced to the upper troposphere. The disturbances are barotropic in nature and, consequently, the quasi-geostrophic barotropic model used to study instabilities quite well describes the real dynamic processes in the stratosphere.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Stratified Flows Due to Spatial Inhomogeneities of Exchange Coefficients

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      Abstract: Attention is drawn to the unexplored mechanism of generation of density currents in stratified media. Horizontal inhomogeneities of the exchange coefficients in a stratified medium lead to inhomogeneities of the vertical diffusion flow of buoyancy and its horizontal distribution and, consequently, to the emergence of horizontal inhomogeneities of hydrostatic pressure and the generation of currents. The appearance of ordered flows in a temperature (density) stratified turbulent medium in a gravity field near an inclined surface is considered as an example. This is due to the existence of a region of weakened turbulent exchange near the solid surface. In this case, horizontal components of the temperature, density and, consequently, pressure gradients appear near the inclined surface. This, in turn, leads to the emergence of an average (nonturbulent) slope current even in the absence of heat and momentum sources/sinks.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Modeling Residual Meridional Circulation at Different Phases of the
           Quasi-Biennial Oscillation

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      Abstract: The sensitivity of the residual meridional circulation (RMC) in the middle and upper atmosphere to the phase change of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of the low-latitude zonal wind in the stratosphere has been studied. Wind and temperature data obtained from a nonlinear numerical model of general circulation of the middle and upper atmosphere (MUAM) have been used to calculate the RMC. For the first time, statistically significant results have been obtained illustrating the change in wave-induced eddy flows in the extratropical strato–mesosphere at different QBO phases. Specifically, a general weakening of the eddy circulation in the Northern Hemisphere at the westerly QBO phase has been demonstrated, with the exception of the region located at midlatitudes in the altitude range of 50–60 km. The study of the RMC sensitivity to changes in QBO phases helps better understand the features of the dynamic interaction between tropical and extratropical latitudes, as well as different atmospheric layers that affect the circulation transport and mixing of long-lived atmospheric components.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • On Coherent and Stochastic Structures in Hydrodynamic Flows with a
           Velocity Shift

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      Abstract: We described various structures formed during the stabilization of instability in wave and vortex flows of an ideal liquid. The problem of wave structures in an incompressible fluid flow stratified by density and velocity is considered in detail. Instability stabilization occurs as a result of the interaction of an unstable wave with waves forming a resonant triplet with it. In this case, structures of a regular and stochastic nature arise. We analyzed and described the scenario of the transition of the system to the stochastic mode. The formulation corresponds to atmospheric currents under wind shear, but the results can be used in other problems of the theory of nonlinear waves and vortices. In this paper we showed that structures of a similar nature also arise in vortex flows, both ideal and viscous liquids.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Properties of the Vertical Distribution of Diurnal Temperature Variations
           in Different Seasons in the Black Sea Based on the NEMO Model Data

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      Abstract: A study has been performed for the Black Sea basin investigating the properties of the vertical distribution of the daily temperature variation in different seasons of 2015 and their relationship with stratification based on the results of the NEMO model simulations. It is shown that the seasonal variation and spatial features of the diurnal temperature variation based on the model simulation results coincide quite well with the measurements using the SEVIRI scanner. The simulation results and satellite measurements demonstrate the presence of a pronounced linear relationship between the amplitude of daily fluctuations and wind speed. The properties of seasonal variation of daily fluctuations are investigated based on the simulation results. A spectral analysis of the vertical distribution of temperature shows that, in the warm period of the year, the maximum daily fluctuations in energy are observed, which are localized in the upper 0–10 m water layer. In the cold period of the year, the intensity of daily fluctuations is much lower; however, the penetration depth of the daily temperature variation reaches 35–40 m. In March, there is an abrupt heating of rather deep layers, which is formed under conditions when night convection, which promotes sinking of warm waters, is preceded by calm conditions and significant daytime warming. In summer, in the presence of stable stratification, the waters that warmed during the day remain in the surface thin layer. During the cold season, daily temperature fluctuations penetrate deeper into the downwelling zones at the periphery of the basin than in the center of the sea. These spatial features qualitatively coincide with the position of the upper quasi-homogeneous layer, where stratification is weakly pronounced and does not interfere with night convection events.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Studying Specific Features of the Propagation of Atmospheric Waves
           Generated by Tropospheric Sources and Variations in the Surface Pressure

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      Abstract: The generation and propagation of waves from model tropospheric meteorologic heat sources are theoretically studied. The processes of gas heating/cooling in water phase transitions at tropospheric altitudes are assumed to be the wave sources. In an analytical part of the study, equations are derived which describe the generation and propagation of acoustic and internal gravity waves separately. It is shown that powers of partial sources of acoustic and internal gravity waves always approximately coincide, regardless of wave frequencies, and the generation of internal gravity waves cannot occur without the generation of acoustic waves, and vice versa. Explicit analytical expressions are obtained for the generated waves. Due to resonant properties of the atmosphere, the high-frequency sources generate predominantly acoustic waves. The low-frequency sources generate mainly internal gravity waves if the sources work long enough for the resonance properties of atmosphere to be manifested. Using numerical experiments, the issue of error is investigated which is introduced if a tropospheric source is replaced with a surface one in which the pressure fluctuations on the surface are the recorded pressure fluctuations caused by the tropospheric source. It is shown that, if a tropospheric source operates at the infrasonic wave frequencies, then the wave patterns generated in the upper atmosphere from the tropospheric source and from the surface pressure fluctuations are almost identical. In the case of a tropospheric source operating at frequencies of internal gravity waves, the amplitude of waves from the surface pressure may be overestimated no more than twice. It is shown that, based on pressure fluctuations on the Earth’s surface, some corrected surface pressure source can be constructed which takes into account the phase shifts of interfering waves that propagate into the upper atmosphere. This provides a significant improvement in the simulation of waves from meteorological sources based on data on atmospheric pressure fluctuations.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Spatiotemporal Variations in the Content of Pollutants in the Moscow Air
           Basin and Their Emissions

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      Abstract: The location of Moscow on a plain within higher latitudes when compared to other megacities creates conditions for the chemical transformation of pollutants in the urban atmosphere and their transport and accumulation. Observational data on surface concentrations of NO, NO2, CO, CH4, O3, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and aerosols (PM10), which were obtained at the Moscow Ecological Monitoring (MEM) network from 2005 to 2020, have been processed and analyzed. Both temporal and spatial parameters characterizing the dynamics of atmospheric pollution of Moscow’s air basin have been calculated. It is noted that the content of most pollutants in the urban air has decreased due to the renewal of the vehicle fleet; the introduction of restrictions on the entry of freight transport in the city; and the modernization of industrial enterprises, treatment facilities, and the gas transmission system. Significant negative trends have been obtained for NMHCs, CO, NOx, and PM10 (4.3, 4.0, 2.6, and 1.7% y–1, respectively). An insignificant negative trend has been obtained for O3 and no negative trend has been found for CH4. Total emissions from urban sources of substances determining the air quality have been calculated. Their values also manifest negative trends. The content of ozone almost did not change within such a long period, which suggests a weak sensitivity of the oxidizing properties of the Moscow atmosphere and the rate of ozone generation to variations in the atmospheric content of nitrogen radicals and their high sensitivity to volatile organic compounds.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Changes in the Frequency of Phase Transitions of Different Types of El
           NIño Phenomena in Recent Decades

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      Abstract: Estimates of changes in the frequency of transitions between different phases of El Niño processes over the past seven decades (1950–2019) have been obtained. Positive (El Niño phase) and negative (La Niña phase) surface temperature anomalies in the equatorial latitudes of the Pacific Ocean are associated with the strongest interannual variations in global surface air temperature. Significant differences in trends have been revealed for different types of El Niño and La Niña phenomena, characterized by surface temperature anomalies in the equatorial latitudes of the eastern (Niño3) and central (Niño4) regions of the Pacific Ocean. The tendencies of an increase in the frequency of occurrence of El Niño phases using the Niño4 index and neutral phases using the Niño3 index are noted. At the same time, for both types of El Niño, there is a tendency towards a decrease in the frequency of occurrence of La Niña phases. A significant contribution to the noted trends is associated with the regimes of a long (at least one year) manifestation of the corresponding phases.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Methodological Approaches and Results of an Analysis of the Climatic
           Seasonal Course of Stable Stratification Parameters of a Dimictic Lake
           (Case Study of the Central Part of Lake Ladoga)

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      Abstract: On the basis of general physical concepts of the thermic of a dimictic lake and the proposed methodological developments, the average climatic course of the parameters of the thermocline during the period of stable stratification for the central part of Lake Ladoga is reproduced. We consider the joint distribution of the seasonal variation of the water surface temperature; the temperature of the mixed layer, which differs by no more than 0.5°C; and the deepening of the upper boundary of the thermocline, the depth of the maximum density gradient, and the depth of the lower boundary of the thermocline, which characterize their climatic course. Statistical analysis of vertical temperature profiles measured over a long period of time from 1897 to 2017 made it possible for the first time to develop empirical quantitative relationships between stratification parameters with high determination coefficients. Based on the difference in the physical characteristics of the processes of heating and cooling of the lake surface, useful regression relationships were found for each of the periods which describe the seasonal variation of the thermal parameters of Lake Ladoga. The rates of change in water temperature and change in the parameters of the thermocline are estimated. The forms of the proposed approximation dependences can be used to study the thermic of other dimictic lakes.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Relationship between Anomalies of the Rate of Snow Cover Formation in
           Western Siberia and Atmospheric Dynamics in the Northern Hemisphere in the
           Autumn–Winter Season

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      Abstract: The relationship between the anomalies of the intensity of snow cover formation in Western Siberia (WS) and thermodynamic state of the atmosphere of both the WS sector and the entire Northern Hemisphere in the autumn–winter season is considered based on the data of satellite observations of the extent of the NOAA snow cover data and the ERA-Interim reanalysis data. The study is based on a comparison of two composites differing in the intensity of snow cover formation in WS. Differences in the behavior of both the instability characteristics of the atmosphere (wave action and baroclinicity) and standard meteorological variables (temperature, pressure, and geopotential height) are analyzed. It is found that the anomalies in the formation of snow cover in WS are more likely a consequence of the anomalies in the atmosphere at midlatitudes and arctic latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere that had existed before the beginning of this process. At the same time, it is possible that the anomalously rapid formation of the snow cover may further contribute to the wave activity in the atmosphere according to the feedback principle. However, this impact is not long-lasting and does not cause new long-lasting disturbances in the atmosphere.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Modeling Seasonal Variations in the Intensity of Internal Gravity Waves in
           the Lower Thermosphere

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      Abstract: An updated numerical model of the propagation of a set of spectral harmonics of internal gravity waves (IGWs) in the inhomogeneous atmosphere from the earth’s surface to the lower thermosphere is described. IGW dissipation due to turbulent viscosity and thermal conductivity, radiative heat exchange, and ion drag in the lower ionosphere is taken into account. A numerical simulation of the propagation of the IGW spectrum is performed for the background fields of wind and temperature corresponding to the coordinates of the Zvenigorod (56° N, 37° E), Maymaga (63° N, 130° E), and Tory (52° N, 103° E) stations, where systematic observations of OH nightglow are carried out. Seasonal variations of standard deviations of perturbations of the horizontal velocity components created by the model of IGW spectrum are calculated. A general similarity exists between seasonal variations of the model IGW amplitudes and observations of the variance of mesoscale disturbances of the OH rotational temperature at Zvenigorod and Tory. This gives evidence that the intensity of mesoscale temperature disturbances near the mesopause may depend on the intensity of IGWs propagating from the lower atmosphere and on the profiles of the background characteristics of the middle atmosphere along the path of wave packages propagation in different seasons and at different geographical locations.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
 
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