Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (94 journals)
    - GEOPHYSICS (33 journals)
    - HYDROLOGY (29 journals)
    - OCEANOGRAPHY (88 journals)

EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 371 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Earth and Space Chemistry     Free   (Followers: 6)
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acta Geológica Lilloana     Open Access  
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Limnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AGU Advances     Open Access  
Algological Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
All Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropocene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Anuário do Instituto de Geociências     Open Access  
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computing and Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Ocean Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Petrochemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Arctic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
arktos : The Journal of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Artificial Intelligence in Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Artificial Satellites     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atlantic Geology : Journal of the Atlantic Geoscience Society / Atlantic Geology : revue de la Société Géoscientifique de l'Atlantique     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences: An International Geoscience Journal of the Geological Society of Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Austrian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AWWA Water Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bonorowo Wetlands     Open Access  
Boreas: An International Journal of Quaternary Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Brill Research Perspectives in Map History     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of Volcanology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Carbonates and Evaporites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CATENA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Chinese Geographical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Espaciales     Open Access  
Climate and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Cogent Geoscience     Open Access  
Communications Earth & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus : Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Continental Shelf Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Coral Reefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Cretaceous Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Depositional Record     Open Access  
Développement durable et territoires     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
E&S Engineering and Science     Open Access  
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Earth and Planetary Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Earth and Planetary Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141)
Earth and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Earth Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Earth Science Malaysia     Open Access  
Earth Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Earth Sciences Pakistan     Open Access  
Earth Sciences Research Journal     Open Access  
Earth Surface Dynamics (ESurf)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions (ESurfD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Earth System Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Earth System Dynamics Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Earth, Planets and Space     Open Access   (Followers: 77)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Earthquake Research Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Spectra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Energy Exploration & Exploitation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Energy Geoscience     Open Access  
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Environmental Geosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Processes : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal  
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Estudios Geográficos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Mineralogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
European Journal of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Exploration Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Facies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
FIGEMPA : Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Física de la Tierra     Open Access  
Folia Musei rerum naturalium Bohemiae occidentalis. Geologica et Paleobiologica     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Frontiers in Earth Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Soil Science     Open Access  
Frontiers of Earth Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Fundamental and Applied Limnology / Archiv für Hydrobiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geo-Marine Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geoacta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GeoArabia     Hybrid Journal  
Geobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geocarto International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Geochemical Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geochemistry : Exploration, Environment, Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Geochronology (GChron)     Open Access  
Geochronometria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoderma Regional : The International Journal for Regional Soil Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geodynamics & Tectonophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geoenvironmental Disasters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Geography and Natural Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GeoHealth     Open Access  
Geoheritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoinformatics & Geostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Geologia USP : Série Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Geological Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Geology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Geology, Geophysics and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geomagnetism and Aeronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources     Hybrid Journal  
Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription  
GEOmedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geomorphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geophysical Journal International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Geophysical Prospecting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geoscience Canada : Journal of the Geological Association of Canada / Geoscience Canada : journal de l'Association Géologique du Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Geoscience Communication     Open Access  
Geoscience Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Geoscience Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Geoscience Letters     Open Access  
Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosciences Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoscientific Model Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Geoscientific Model Development Discussions     Open Access  
Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Geosystems and Geoenvironment     Open Access  
Geotectonic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Geotectonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Glass Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Global and Planetary Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Global Biogeochemical Cycles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Gondwana Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
GPS Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Grassland Science     Hybrid Journal  
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Groundwater     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Helgoland Marine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
History of Geo- and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hydrobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Hydrogeology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)

        1 2 3 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Frontiers of Earth Science
Number of Followers: 12  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2095-0195 - ISSN (Online) 2095-0209
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Coalbed methane desorption characteristics controlled by coalification and
           its implication on gas co-production from multiple coal seams

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      Abstract: Abstract In this work, CH4 isothermal adsorption measurements were carried out on 64 coal samples collected from western Guizhou Province of China, and the coalbed methane (CBM) desorption processes were quantitatively analyzed. The results show that the Langmuir volume and the Langmuir pressure are controlled by coalification, and tend to increase as the vitrinite reflectance changes from 0.98% to 4.3%. Based on a division method of CBM desorption stages, the CBM desorption process were divided into four stages (inefficient, slow, fast and sensitive desorption stages) by three key pressure nodes (the initial, turning and sensitive pressures). The fast and sensitive desorption stages with high desorption efficiency are the key for achieving high gas production. A theoretical chart of the critical desorption pressure (Pcd) and its relationship with different pressure nodes was established. The higher-rank coals have the higher initial, turning and sensitive pressures, with larger difference between pressure nodes. Most CBM wells only undergo partial desorption stages due to the differences in Pcd caused by the present-gas content. Under the same gas content conditions, the higher the coal rank, the less desorption stages that CBM needs to go through. During coalbed methane co-production from multiple coal seams within vertically superposed pressure systems, the reservoir pressure, the Pcd, the initial working liquid level (WLL) height, and coal depth are key factors for evaluating whether coal seams can produce CBM simultaneously. It must be ensured that each production layer enters at least the fast desorption stage prior to that the WLL was lower than the depth of each layer. Only on this basis can all layers achieve the maximum gas production.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
       
  • Ensemble forecast of tropical cyclone tracks based on deep neural networks

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      Abstract: Abstract A nonlinear artificial intelligence ensemble forecast model has been developed in this paper for predicting tropical cyclone (TC) tracks based on the deep neural network (DNN) by using the 24-h forecast data from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC). Data from a total of 287 TC cases over the Northwest Pacific Ocean from 2004 to 2015 were used to train and validate the DNN based ensemble forecast (DNNEF) model. The comparison of model results with Best Track data of TCs shows that the DNNEF model has a higher accuracy than any individual forecast center or the traditional ensemble forecast model. The average 24-h forecast error of 82 TCs from 2016 to 2018 is 63 km, which has been reduced by 17.1%, 16.0%, 20.3%, and 4.6%, respectively, compared with that of CMA, JMA, JTWC, and the error-estimation based ensemble method. The results indicate that the nonlinear DNNEF model has the capability of adjusting the model parameter dynamically and automatically, thus improving the accuracy and stability of TC prediction.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
       
  • The capability of Sentinel-2 image and FieldSpec3 for detecting
           lithium-containing minerals in central Iran

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      Abstract: Abstract To date, there are very few studies about the spectroscopy of lithium-containing minerals (LCMs) in the scientific community. The main objective of this study is to investigate the capability of Sentinel-2 image and FieldSpec3 spectro-radiometer in terms of mapping five important LCMs, including spodumene, lepidolite, amblygonite, petalite, and eucryptite. Therefore, first the FieldSpec3 spectro-radiometer was used to create the spectral curves of the LCMs. Then, accurate spectral analysis and comparison of the studied LCMs were performed using The Spectral Geologist (TSG) and the Prism software. These two software can show even slight difference in absorption features of different LCMs, which can discriminate and identify these minerals. Lithium-bearing rocks show absorption features at ∼365, ∼2200, and ∼2350 nm and reflective features at ∼550–770 nm. These features are consistent with Sentinel-2 bands. Therefore, the created spectral curves were utilized for calibration of Sentinel-2 optical image to detect and map the potential zones of the rock units containing minerals mentioned above in a part of the central Iranian terrane. By using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classifier module, the potential areas were demarcated. Out of the five LCMs, petalite and spodumene showed more extensive coverage in the study area. Generally speaking, the largest concentration of those LCMs can be seen in southern and centraleastern parts of the study area. The comparison between spectral curves of reference and classified minerals confirmed the high capability of Sentinel-2 image for LCMs mapping. ASTER image classification results also confirmed the presence of the LCMs, but it cannot distinguish the LCMs type successfully.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
       
  • Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of some gold mine tailings
           in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

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      Abstract: Abstract The adverse environmental effects of mine tailings disposal on the surrounding ecosystems are worldwide environmental problems. Due to environmental issues related to tailings discharged on land surface, detailed tailings characterization is a prerequisite for a long-term management solution. The tailings from four gold mines in Egypt, namely Fatira, El Sid, Barramiya, and Atud were investigated for their geochemical-mineralogical features and the effect of weathering behavior on the release of their heavy elements. The tailings samples were investigated by mineralogical (XRD and ESEM-EDS), physical (grain-size distribution) and geochemical (XRF) techniques. Most of the tailings have uniform silt-size with fine to very finesand and clay. Atud tailings have coarse to fine sands. High carbonate, predominantly calcite was found for the samples from Fatira and Atud, calcite-ankerite from El Sid and dolomite from Barramiya with little sulfide-content. High-mean of Cr (569287 mg/kg), Ni (89191 mg/kg) and Co (4221 mg/kg) values are coinciding with the ultramafic nature in Atud and Barramiya tailings. El Sid tailings have a high-mean concentration of Zn (1357 mg/kg) and Pb (1349 mg/kg). Barramiya tailings have a high-mean As concentration (2635 mg/kg). The Fatira tailings are characterized by high-mean values of Sr (444 mg/kg) and Cu (280 mg/kg) arising from auriferous mineralization. High Sr concentrations in Fatira tailings are mainly due to its adsorption to iron oxides. Pyrite oxidation is conceded along the cracks and/or the edges of the crystals in the El Sid, Barramiya and Atud tailings. The Threshold Effect Level (TEL) values indicated high contamination from heavy elements to the neighboring ecosystem. The tailings were deposited downstream into the small wadis. Wind and water erosion can dissolve efflorescent materials enriched in toxic elements like As, Zn, and Pb at tailings surface. The release of contaminants could be catastrophic for the environment without mine site rehabilitation strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-04-23
       
  • Geospatial approach to elucidate anomalies in the hierarchical
           

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      Abstract: Abstract An assessment of anomalies in the hierarchical organization of the drainage network in the Kuttiyadi River Basin (KuRB), Kerala, has been performed by considering various morphometric parameters such as bifurcation index (R), hierarchical anomaly index (∆a), hierarchical anomaly density (ga), and stream gradient index (SL) in a geographical information system (GIS) platform. Further, a digital elevation model (DEM) of the area has been generated from Cartosat stereo pair data at 2.5-m resolution. The computed quantitative information about drainage characteristics reveals the highest drainage anomaly is observed in sub-watersheds (SW) III and IV. It is observed that neo-tectonic activity caused the development of younger stage drainage patterns of structural controls in the sub-watersheds of this river basin. The tectonic activity-induced diffusion, high energy fluvial erosion, and anthropogenic interferences altered the hierarchical organization of the drainage network of the sub-watersheds in mature to old stages of geomorphic evolution. The results of finding validated with asymmetry factor and ratio of the hierarchical index (∆a) with hierarchical anomaly number (A), bifurcation index (R), direct bifurcation ratio (Rdb), stream gradient index (SL), and denudation index (logTu). From the denudation index analysis, the sediment yield of the river basin is identified as 0.67 t·km−2·yr−1. Moreover, the asymmetric factor (AF) in the KuRB shows the imprints of Paleo—Neo Proterozoic crustal tilting toward a NNW—SSE direction.
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
       
  • P-wave and S-wave response of coal rock containing gas-water with
           different saturation: an experimental perspective

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      Abstract: Abstract The acoustic response of gas and/or water saturated coal rock is fundamental for establishing the correspondence between the physical properties of the coal reservoir and the characteristics of the well-logging response, which is the technology essential for the geophysical exploration of coalbed methane (CBM). This acoustic response depends on water (Sw) and gas (Sg) saturation among other factors. In this study, we performed acoustic tests on dry and different gas-water saturated coal samples with different degrees of metamorphism and deformation, collected from several coal mining areas in China. These tests enabled us to analyze the influence of coal type and gas-water saturation on the acoustic response of CBM formations. Our results show that the acoustic velocity of P-wave and S-wave (Vp and Vs, respectively), and the relative anisotropy of and Vs, increased with increasing vitrinite reflectance, density, Vp and Sw. With Sw increasing from 0 to 100%, the growth rate of the acoustic velocity decreased with increasing vitrinite reflectance. The Vp/Vs ratio of tectonic coal was generally higher than that of primary coal. The growth rate of the relative anisotropy in tectonic coal was markedly higher than that in primary coal.
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
       
  • Seasonal variations of leaf wax n-alkane distributions and δ2H values in
           peat-forming vascular plants from the Dajiuhu peatland, central China

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      Abstract: Abstract Leaf wax n-alkane compositions have been widely applied to reconstruct paleoclimate histories in peat deposits, yet understanding of how the n-alkanes vary during seasonal plant growth remains limited. Here we report variations in the molecular and wax-derived n-alkane hydrogen isotope (δ2Halk) in the three dominant vascular plant species (Sanguisorba officinalis, Carex argyi, Euphorbia esula) and surface peat deposits nearby from the Dajiuhu peatland over a growing season. All three species show a relatively high carbon preference index (CPI) in the beginning of the growing season, with the CPI values reaching as high as 50 in two of the three species. Two species (S. officinalis, E. esula) display relatively stable average chain length (ACL) values over the four sampling intervals, with standard derivations of 0.2–0.3. In contrast, C. argyi exhibits a significant fluctuation of ACL values (averaging 28.1 ± 1.4) over the growing season. The δ2Halk in all three species decreased during leaf growth. In the final stage of growth, the δ2Halk values of the three species are similar to those in the surface peats collected from the peatland. Combining the results of our measurements of alkane concentration and δ2H values, it is likely that de novo synthesis of leaf wax n-alkanes in the peat-forming plant species is mainly at the early stage of leaf development. In the following months, the removal process exceeds renewal, resulting in a general decrease of the concentration of the total n-alkanes and the integrated δ2Halk values. Thus the δ2Halk values probably integrate the environmental variations at the end of the plant growth period rather than the whole period or the early growth period. These results are significant and have the potential to improve the utility of δ2Halk values in paleoenvironmental reconstructions.
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
       
  • Estimates of strength and cracking behaviors of pre-flawed granite
           specimens treated by chemical corrosion under triaxial compression tests

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      Abstract: Abstract Four types of granite specimens were prepared and treated by chemical corrosion for 5 and 30 days, which were then used to carry out triaxial compression tests under different confining pressures σ3. Type A is the intact sample with no preexisting flaws. Types B and C are the samples containing two relatively low-dip flaws and two relatively high-dip flaws, respectively. Type D is the sample including both relatively low-dip and relatively high-dip flaws. The influences of pH value of chemical solutions, flaw distribution, corrosion time and σ3 on triaxial stress-strain curves and ultimate failure modes are analyzed and discussed. The results show that the pH value of the chemical solution, corrosion time and the arrangement of preexisting flaws play crucial roles in the cracking behaviors of granite specimens. Type A specimens have the largest peak axial deviatoric stress, followed by Type C, Type D, and Type B specimens, respectively. It is because the decrease in the inclination of preexisting flaws induces the weakening effect due to the decrease in the shadow area along the compaction direction. Under a σ3 of 5 MPa, the peak axial deviatoric stress drops by approximately 40.89%, 29.08%, 4.08%, and 23.53% for pH = 2, 4, 7, and 12, respectively. For intact granite (Type A) specimens, the ultimate failure mode displays a typical shear mode. The connection of two secondary cracks initiated at the tips of preexisting cracks is always the ultimate failure and crack coalescence mode for Type B specimens. The ultimate failure and crack coalescence mode of Types C and D specimens are significantly affected by pH value of the chemical solution, corrosion time and σ3, which is different from those of Types A and B specimens due to the differences in flow distributions.
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
       
  • The history of agriculture in the mountainous areas of the lower Yangtze
           River since the late Neolithic

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      Abstract: Abstract Understanding the role of agriculture in the development of human societies around the world is an important field of study with many unanswered questions. As a step toward that greater understanding, we have studied the archeobotanical remains at the Jingshuidun site in the mountainous areas of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River in southern Anhui Province which are part of the core area of rice cultivation today. Our analyses of macrobotanical remains and phytoliths formed the basis for the reconstruction of the subsistence economy of ancient humans at the Jingshuidun site from the late Neolithic to early historical times. When our data are combined with that of previous archeobotanical work, we obtain a clearer picture of the development of rice and millet agriculture in the southern Anhui Province region, as well as the spread of millet cultivation. Macrobotanical remains and phytoliths of domesticated rice are present in layers at the Jingshuidun site dated to 4874–4820 cal. yr B.P. (middle-late Liangzhu Period) and 2667–2568 cal. yr B.P. (late Western Zhou Dynasty to the early Spring and Autumn Period). Moreover, macrobotanical remains and phytoliths from the site document the earliest remains of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) in southern Anhui Province, from a layer dating to the late Western Zhou Dynasty and the early Spring and Autumn Period (2667-2568 cal. yr B.P.). These results suggest that the people occupying the Jingshuidun site used single rice farming as far back as 4874–4820 cal. yr B.P., and they began to plant millet by at least 2667–2568 cal. yr B.P., documenting the spread of millet agriculture to the southern area by that time.
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
       
  • The influence of lunar surface position on irradiance of moon-based earth
           radiation observation

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      Abstract: Abstract As a platform for longer-term continuous moon-based earth radiation observation (MERO) which includes reflected solar short-wave (SW) radiation and long-wave infrared (LW) radiation, the huge lunar surface space can provide multiple location choices. It is important to analyze the influence of lunar surface position on irradiance which is the aim of the present work based on a radiation heat transfer model. To compare the differences caused by positions, the site of 0°E 0°N was selected as the reference site and a good agreement of the calculation results was verified by the comparison with the NISTAR’s actual detected data. By analyzing the spatial characteristics of the irradiance, the results showed that the irradiance on the lunar surface was of circular distribution and the instrument that was placed in the region of 65°W–65°E and 65°S–65°N could detect the irradiance most effectively. The relative deviation between the reference site and the marginal area (region of > 65°S or 65°N or > 65°W or 65°E) was less than 0.9 mW·m−2 and the small regional differences make a small-scale network conducive to radiometric calibration between instruments. To achieve accurate measurement of the irradiance, the sensitivity design goal of the MERO instrument should be better than 1 mW·m−2 in a future actual design. Because the lunar polar region is the priority region for future exploration, the irradiance at the poles has also been analyzed. The results show that the irradiance changes periodically and exhibits complementary characteristics of time. The variation range of irradiance for short-wave radiation is greater than long-wave radiation and the irradiance of SW reaches the maximum at different times. The MERO at the polar region will provide valuable practical experiment for the follow-up study of the moon-based earth observation in low latitudes.
      PubDate: 2022-03-06
       
  • Rainfall forecast errors in different landfall stages of Super Typhoon
           Lekima (2019)

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      Abstract: Abstract The rainfall forecast performance of the Tropical Cyclone (TC) version Model of Global and Regional Assimilation PrEdiction System (GRAPES-TCM) of the China Meteorological Administration for landfalling Super Typhoon Lekima (2019) is studied by using the object-oriented verification method of contiguous rain area (CRA). The major error sources and possible reasons for the rainfall forecast uncertainties in different landfall stages (including near landfall and moving further inland) are compared. Results show that different performance and errors of rainfall forecast exist in the different TC stages. In the near landfall stage the asymmetric rainfall distribution is hard to be simulated, which might be related to the too strong forecasted TC intensity and too weak vertical wind shear accompanied. As Lekima moves further inland, the rain pattern and volume errors gradually increase. The Equitable Threat Score of the 24 h forecasted rainfall over 100 mm declines quickly with the time-length over land. The diagnostic analysis shows that there exists an interaction between the TC and the mid-latitude westerlies, but too weak frontogenesis is simulated. The results of this research indicate that for the current numerical model, the forecast ability of persistent heavy rainfall is very limited, especially when the weakened landing TC moves further inland.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
       
  • Short-fetch high waves during the passage of 2019 Typhoon Faxai over Tokyo
           Bay

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      Abstract: Abstract The risk of wind waves in a bay is often overlooked, owing to the belief that peninsulas and islands will inhibit high waves. However, during the passage of a tropical cyclone, a semi-enclosed bay is exposed to two-directional waves: one generated inside the bay and the other propagated from the outer sea. Typhoon Faxai in 2019 resulted in the worst coastal disaster in Tokyo Bay in the last few decades. The authors conducted a post-disaster survey immediately after this typhoon. Numerical modeling was also performed to reveal the mechanisms of unusual high waves. No significant high-wave damage occurred on coasts facing the Pacific Ocean. By contrast, Fukuura-Yokohama, which faces Tokyo Bay, suffered overtopping waves that collapsed seawalls. To precisely reproduce multi-directional waves, the authors developed an extended parametric typhoon model, which was embedded in the JMA mesoscale meteorological model (JMA-MSM). The peak wave height was estimated to be 3.4 m off the coast of Fukuura, in which the contribution of the outer-sea waves was as low as 10%–20%. A fetch-limited wave developed over a short distance in the bay is considered the primary mechanism of the high wave. The maximum wave occurred on the left-hand side of the typhoon track in the bay, which appears to be contrary to the common understanding that it is safer within the semicircle of a storm than on the opposite side. Typhoon Faxai was a small typhoon; however, if the radius was tripled, it is estimated that the wave height would exceed 3 m over the entire bay and surpass 4 m off the coasts of Yokohama and Chiba.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
       
  • Research of Super Typhoon Lekima: forecast, observation, numerical
           simulation and disaster survey

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      PubDate: 2022-03-01
       
  • Predictability and dynamics of the rapid intensification of Super Typhoon
           Lekima (2019)

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      Abstract: Abstract This study explores the effect of the initial axisymmetric wind structure and moisture on the predictability of the peak intensity of Typhoon Lekima (2019) through a 20-member ensemble forecast using the WRF model. The ensemble members are separated into Strong and Weak groups according to the maximum 10-m wind speed at 48 h. In our study of Lekima (2019), the initial intensity defined by maximum 10-m wind speed is not a good predictor of the intensity forecast. The peak intensity uncertainty is sensitive to the initial primary circulation outside the radius of maximum wind (RMW) and the initial secondary circulation. With greater absolute angular momentum (AAM) beyond the RMW directly related to stronger primary circulation, and stronger radial inflow, Strong group is found to have larger AAM import in low-level, helping to spin up the TC. Initial moisture in inner-core is also critical to the intensity predictability through the development of inner-core convection. The aggregation and merger of convection, leading to the TC intensification, is influenced by both radial advection and gradient of system-scale vortex vorticity. Three sensitivity experiments are conducted to study the effect of model uncertainty in terms of model horizontal grid resolution on intensity forecast. The horizontal grid resolution greatly impacts the predictability of Lekima’s intensity, and the finer resolution is helpful to simulate the intensification and capture the observed peak value.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
       
  • Consistency correction of echo intensity data for multiple radar systems
           and its application in quantitative estimation of typhoon precipitation

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      Abstract: Abstract Calibration error is one of the primary sources of bias in echo intensity measurements by ground-based radar systems. Calibration errors cause data discontinuity between adjacent radars and reduce the effectiveness of the radar system. The Global Precipitation Measurement Kuband Precipitation Radar (GPM KuPR) has been shown to provide stable long-term observations. In this study, GPM KuPR observations were converted to S-band approximations, which were then matched spatially and temporally with ground-based radar observations. The measurements of stratiform precipitation below the melting layer collected by the KuPR during Typhoon Ampil were compared with those of multiple radar systems in the Yangtze River Delta to determine the deviations in the echo intensity between the KuPR and the ground-based radar systems. The echo intensity data collected by the ground-based radar systems was corrected using the KuPR observations as reference, and the correction results were verified by comparing them with rain gauge observations. It was found that after the correction, the consistency of the echo intensity measurements of the multiple radar systems improved significantly, and the precipitation estimates based on the revised ground-based radar observations were closer to the rain gauge measurements.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
       
  • Drastic change in dynamics as Typhoon Lekima experiences an eyewall
           replacement cycle

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      Abstract: Abstract Why does the 1909 typhoon, Lekima, become so destructive after making landfall in China' Using a newly developed mathematical apparatus, the multiscale window transform (MWT), and the MWT-based localized mutliscale energetics analysis and theory of canonical transfer, this study is intended to give a partial answer from a dynamical point of view. The ECMWF reanalysis fields are first reconstructed onto the background window, the TC-scale window, and the convection-scale window. A localized energetics analysis is then performed, which reveals to us distinctly different scenarios before and after August 8–9, 2019, when an eyewall replacement cycle takes place. Before that, the energy supply in the upper layer is mainly via a strong upper layer-limited baroclinic instability; the available potential energy thus-gained is then converted into the TC-scale kinetic energy, with a portion to fuel Lekima’s upper part, another portion carried downward via pressure work flux to maintain the cyclone’s lower part. After the eyewall replacement cycle, a drastic change in dynamics occurs. First, the pressure work is greatly increased in magnitude. A positive baroclinic transfer almost spreads throughout the troposphere, and so does barotropic transfer; in other words, the whole air column is now both barotropically and baroclinically unstable. These newly occurred instabilities help compensate the increasing consumption of the TC-scale kinetic energy, and hence help counteract the dissipation of Lekima after making landfalls.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
       
  • Estimation of marine winds in and around typhoons using multi-platform
           satellite observations: Application to Typhoon Soulik (2018)

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      Abstract: Abstract Estimating horizontal winds in and around typhoons is important for improved monitoring and prediction of typhoons and mitigating their damages. Here, we present a new algorithm for estimating typhoon winds using multiple satellite observations and its application to Typhoon Soulik (2018). Four kinds of satellite remote sensing data, along with their relationship to typhoon intensity, derived statistically from hundreds of historical typhoon cases, were merged into the final product of typhoon wind (MT wind): 1) geostationary-satellite-based infrared images (IR wind), 2) passive microwave sounder (MW wind), 3) feature-tracked atmospheric motion vectors, and 4) scatterometer-based sea surface winds (SSWs). The algorithm was applied to two cases (A and B) of Typhoon Soulik and validated against SSWs independently retrieved from active microwave synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and microwave radiometer (AMSR2) images, and vertical profiles of wind speed derived from reanalyzed data and dropsonde observations. For Case A (open ocean), the algorithm estimated the realistic maximum wind, radius of maximum wind, and radius of 15 m/s, which could not be estimated using the reanalysis data, demonstrating reasonable and practical estimates. However, for Case B (when the typhoon rapidly weakened just before making landfall in the Korean Peninsula), the algorithm significantly overestimated the parameters, primarily due to the overestimation of typhoon intensity. Our study highlights that realistic typhoon winds can be monitored continuously in real-time using multiple satellite observations, particularly when typhoon intensity is reasonably well predicted, providing timely analysis results and products of operational importance.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
       
  • The impact of Typhoon Lekima (2019) on East China: a postevent survey in
           Wenzhou City and Taizhou City

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      Abstract: Abstract Typhoon Lekima (2019) struck Zhejiang Province on 10 August 2019 as a supertyphoon, which severely impacted Zhejiang Province. The typhoon killed 45 people and left three others missing, and the total economic loss reached 40.71 billion yuan. This paper reports a postdisaster survey that focuses on the storm precipitation, flooding, landslides, and weather services associated with Typhoon Lekima (2019) along the southeastern coastline of Zhejiang Province. The survey was conducted by a joint survey team from the Shanghai Typhoon Institute and local meteorological bureaus from 26 to 28 August, 2019, approximately two weeks after the disaster. Based on this survey and subsequent analyses of the results, we hope to develop countermeasures to prevent future tragedies.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
       
  • Application of the frequency-matching method in the probability forecast
           of landfalling typhoon rainfall

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, a revised method for typhoon precipitation probability forecast, based on the frequency-matching method, is developed by combining the screening and the neighborhood methods. The frequency of the high-resolution precipitation forecasts is used as the reference frequency, and the frequency of the low-resolution ensemble forecasts is used as the forecast frequency. Based on frequency-matching method, the frequency of rainfall above the rainstorm magnitude increases. The forecast members are then selected by using the typhoon tracks of the short-term predictions, and the precipitation probability is calculated for each member using a combination of the neighbor and the traditional probability statistical methods. Moreover, four landfalling typhoons (i.e., STY Lekima and STS Bailu in 2019, and TY Hagupit and Higos in 2020) were chose to test the rainfall probability forecast. The results show that the method performs well with respect to the forecast rainfall area and magnitude for the four typhoons. The Brier and Brier skill scores are almost entirely positive for the probability forecast of 0.1–250 mm rainfall during Bailu, Hagupit and Higos (except for 0.1mm of Hagupit), and for < 100 mm rainfall (except for 25 mm) during Lekima.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
       
  • Evaluation of forecast performance for Super Typhoon Lekima in 2019

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      Abstract: Abstract The predictions for Super Typhoon Lekima (2019) have been evaluated from official forecasts, global models, regional models and ensemble prediction systems (EPSs) at lead times of 1–5 days. Track errors from most deterministic forecasts are smaller than their annual mean errors in 2019. Compared to the propagation speed, the propagation direction of Lekima (2019) was much easier to determine for the official agency and numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Ensemble Forecast System (NCEP-GEFS), Japan Meteorological Agency Global Ensemble Prediction System (JMA-GEPS) and Meteorological Service of Canada Ensemble System (MSC-CENS) are underdispersed, and the Shanghai Typhoon Institute Typhoon Ensemble Data Assimilation and Prediction System (STI-TEDAPS) is overdispersed, while the ensemble prediction system from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) shows adequate dispersion at all lead times. Most deterministic forecasting methods underestimated the intensity of Lekima (2019), especially for the rapid intensification period after Lekima (2019) entered the East China Sea. All of the deterministic forecasts performed well at predicting the first landfall point at Wenling, Zhejiang Province with a lead time of 24 and 48 h.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
       
 
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