Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (94 journals)
    - GEOPHYSICS (33 journals)
    - HYDROLOGY (29 journals)
    - OCEANOGRAPHY (88 journals)

EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 371 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Earth and Space Chemistry     Free   (Followers: 6)
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Acta Geochimica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acta Geológica Lilloana     Open Access  
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Limnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AGU Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algological Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
All Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AMBIO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Andean geology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annals of GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropocene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Anuário do Instituto de Geociências     Open Access  
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computing and Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Applied Geomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Ocean Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Petrochemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Arctic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
arktos : The Journal of Arctic Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Artificial Intelligence in Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Artificial Satellites     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atlantic Geology : Journal of the Atlantic Geoscience Society / Atlantic Geology : revue de la Société Géoscientifique de l'Atlantique     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences: An International Geoscience Journal of the Geological Society of Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Austrian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AWWA Water Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bonorowo Wetlands     Open Access  
Boreas: An International Journal of Quaternary Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Brill Research Perspectives in Map History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of Volcanology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Carbonates and Evaporites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CATENA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Chinese Geographical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ciencia del suelo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Espaciales     Open Access  
Climate and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Cogent Geoscience     Open Access  
Communications Earth & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus : Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Continental Shelf Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Coral Reefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cretaceous Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Depositional Record     Open Access  
Développement durable et territoires     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Diatom Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
E&S Engineering and Science     Open Access  
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Earth and Planetary Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Earth and Planetary Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148)
Earth and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Earth Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Earth Science Malaysia     Open Access  
Earth Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Earth Sciences Pakistan     Open Access  
Earth Sciences Research Journal     Open Access  
Earth Surface Dynamics (ESurf)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions (ESurfD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Earth System Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Earth System Dynamics Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Earth, Planets and Space     Open Access   (Followers: 78)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Earthquake Research Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Spectra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Energy Efficiency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Energy Exploration & Exploitation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Energy Geoscience     Open Access  
Environmental Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Environmental Geosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Processes : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal  
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Estudios Geográficos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Mineralogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
European Journal of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Exploration Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Facies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
FIGEMPA : Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Física de la Tierra     Open Access  
Folia Musei rerum naturalium Bohemiae occidentalis. Geologica et Paleobiologica     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Frontiers in Earth Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Soil Science     Open Access  
Frontiers of Earth Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Fundamental and Applied Limnology / Archiv für Hydrobiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geo-Marine Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geoacta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GeoArabia     Hybrid Journal  
Geobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geocarto International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Geochemical Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geochemistry : Exploration, Environment, Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Geochronology (GChron)     Open Access  
Geochronometria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoderma Regional : The International Journal for Regional Soil Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geodynamics & Tectonophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geoenvironmental Disasters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Geography and Natural Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GeoHealth     Open Access  
Geoheritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geoinformatics & Geostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Geologia USP : Série Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Geological Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Geology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Geology, Geophysics and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geomagnetism and Aeronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources     Hybrid Journal  
Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription  
GEOmedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geomorphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geophysical Journal International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Geophysical Prospecting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geoscience Canada : Journal of the Geological Association of Canada / Geoscience Canada : journal de l'Association Géologique du Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Geoscience Communication     Open Access  
Geoscience Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Geoscience Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Geoscience Letters     Open Access  
Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosciences Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoscientific Model Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Geoscientific Model Development Discussions     Open Access  
Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Geosystems and Geoenvironment     Open Access  
Geotectonic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Geotectonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Glass Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Global and Planetary Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Global Biogeochemical Cycles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Gondwana Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
GPS Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Grassland Science     Hybrid Journal  
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Groundwater     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Helgoland Marine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
History of Geo- and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hydrobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Hydrogeology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)

        1 2 3 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
GeoHazards
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-795X
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 3, Pages 144-161: A Non-Signalized Junction Model for
           Agent-Based Simulations of Car–Pedestrian Mode Mass Evacuations

    • Authors: Maddegedara Lalith, Wasuwat Petprakob, Muneo Hori, Tsuyoshi Ichimura, Kohei Fujita
      First page: 144
      Abstract: During major disasters, such as a subduction earthquake and the associated tsunami, combinations of uncommon conditions such as non-functioning traffic signals, a large number of pedestrians on traffic lanes, and debris scattered on roads can be widespread. It is vital to take these uncommon conditions into account since they can significantly influence the evacuation progress. Agent-Based Models (ABMs) with capabilities to reproduce evacuees’ behaviors as emergent phenomena is promising method to simulate combinations of such rare conditions. This paper presents a new model to cover the current research gap in accurately modeling car–car and car–pedestrian interactions at non-signalized junctions. Specifically, the details of accurately approximating car trajectories at junctions and automated construction, approximating free-flow speed of cars along curved trajectories, and accurately calculating the points of collision and time to collision are presented. As a demonstrative application, we simulated a hypothetical evacuation scenario with non-functioning traffic signals in which different numbers of slow evacuees are allowed to use cars. While the ABM is yet to be thoroughly validated, the presented demonstrative scenarios indicates that a considerable number of the needy can be allowed to use cars for evacuation if their routes and evacuation start time window are well planned.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards3020008
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 3, Pages 162-177: Impact of Ambiguity of Physical
           Properties of Three-Dimensional Crustal Structure Model on Coseismic Slip
           and Interseismic Slip Deficit in the Nankai Trough Region

    • Authors: Sota Murakami, Tsuyoshi Ichimura, Kohei Fujita, Takane Hori, Yusaku Ohta
      First page: 162
      Abstract: Since huge earthquakes are expected along plate subduction zones such as the Japan Trench and Nankai Trough, the estimation of coseismic slip and interseismic slip deficit is essential for immediate response and preliminary measures to reduce damage. Recently, analysis considering the complex topography and underground structure of the plate subduction zone has been performed for improving the estimation performance. However, the three-dimensional (3D) crustal structural model needs to be improved continuously. In this paper, we obtained Green’s functions for 3D crustal structural models with ambiguity by 3D crustal deformation analysis, and the coseismic slip and interseismic slip deficit were estimated. Here we enabled the calculation of many Green’s functions with different physical properties of the 3D crustal structure by utilizing a GPU-based 3D crustal deformation analysis method that significantly reduces the analysis cost. The physical properties on the upper plate’s side, which are located above the plate boundary fault, were changed. We found no significant difference in the estimation performance, except for the upper crust, which most of the fault slip area is in contact with, in the case of coseismic slip estimation. In contrast, the coseismic slip estimation when the properties of the upper crust was changed had a significant error, and a negative slip was estimated at the deep part of the plate boundary where no slip was originally given.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards3020009
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 3, Pages 178-198: Modelling the Roles of Community-Based
           Organisations in Post-Disaster Transformative Adaptation

    • Authors: Oluwadunsin Ajulo, Ishmael Adams, Ali Asgary, Patrick Tang, Jason Von-Meding
      First page: 178
      Abstract: Disasters result where hazards and vulnerabilities intersect. The concept of vulnerability itself is mainly a social construct and the extent to which this can be overcome while transforming disaster-prone systems has often been emphasised in the critical hazard literature. However, the extent to which community-based organisations contribute to post-disaster transformation at the community level remains unexamined. This paper is aimed at examining the extent of the role of community-based organisations (CBOs) in the transformative adaptation of post-earthquake Lyttelton. Quantitative data was obtained from community members using a questionnaire survey of 107 respondents, supporting interviews, and secondary data to explain the phenomenon in this study. System dynamics and agent-based modelling tools were applied to analyse the data. The results show that while CBOs played a major role in Lyttelton’s transformation by fostering collaboration, innovation, and awareness, the extent of their impact was determined by differences in their adaptive capacities. The transformation was influenced by the impacts of community initiatives that were immediate, during, and a long time after the disaster recovery activities in the community. Our research extends the discourse on the role of community-based organisations in disaster recovery by highlighting the extent of CBOs’ impacts in community post-disaster transformation.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards3020010
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 3, Pages 199-226: Earthquake Nowcasting with Deep
           Learning

    • Authors: Geoffrey Charles Fox, John B. Rundle, Andrea Donnellan, Bo Feng
      First page: 199
      Abstract: We review previous approaches to nowcasting earthquakes and introduce new approaches based on deep learning using three distinct models based on recurrent neural networks and transformers. We discuss different choices for observables and measures presenting promising initial results for a region of Southern California from 1950–2020. Earthquake activity is predicted as a function of 0.1-degree spatial bins for time periods varying from two weeks to four years. The overall quality is measured by the Nash Sutcliffe efficiency comparing the deviation of nowcast and observation with the variance over time in each spatial region. The software is available as open source together with the preprocessed data from the USGS.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards3020011
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 3, Pages 227-241: Correlation Dimension in Sumatra Island
           Based on Active Fault, Earthquake Data, and Estimated Horizontal Crustal
           Strain to Evaluate Seismic Hazard Functions (SHF)

    • Authors: Wahyu Triyoso, David P. Sahara, Dina A. Sarsito, Danny H. Natawidjaja, Sigit Sukmono
      First page: 227
      Abstract: This study intends to evaluate the possible correlation between the correlation dimension (DC) and the seismic moment rate for different late Quaternary active fault data, shallow crustal earthquakes, and GPS on the island of Sumatra Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). The seismicity smoothing was applied to estimate the DC of active faults (DF) and earthquake data (DE) and then to correlate that with the b-value, which will be used to identify seismic hazard functions (SHF) along with the Sumatra Fault Zone (SFZ). The seismicity based on GPS data was calculated by the seismic moment rate that is estimated based on pre-seismic horizontal surface displacement data. The correlation between DF, DE, and the b-value was analyzed, and a reasonable correlation between the two seismotectonic parameters, DF-b, and DE-b, respectively, could be found. The relatively high DC coincides with the high seismic moment rate model derived from the pre-seismic GPS data. Furthermore, the SHF curve of total probability of exceedance versus the mean of each observation point’s peak ground acceleration (PGA) shows that the relatively high correlation dimension coincides with the high SHF. The results of this study might be very beneficial for seismic mitigation in the future.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards3020012
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 3, Pages 242-251: Construction and Usefulness
           Verification of Modeling Method of Subsurface Soil Layers for Numerical
           Analysis of Urban Area Ground Motion

    • Authors: Hiroki Motoyama, Muneo Hori
      First page: 242
      Abstract: Estimation of urban seismic damage using numerical simulation needs an automatic modeling method of surface layers and residential buildings. This study focuses on modeling of surface layers and shows a method of constructing models by interpolating boring data. An important property of the modeling method is robustness, that means that the method works for boring data with inconsistent soil layers. To satisfy this, we developed the method using artificial layers. We applied the method to a test site and checked its robustness. This test also showed that the method gave realistic models. Finally, we applied the method to the estimation of urban seismic damage and discussed the usefulness by comparing the result with one obtained by a conventional method.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards3020013
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 3, Pages 252-276: Forensic Geology Applied to Decipher
           the Landslide Dam Collapse and Outburst Flood of the Santa Cruz River (12
           November 2005), San Juan, Argentina

    • Authors: Juan Pablo Milana, Philipp Geisler
      First page: 252
      Abstract: A well-known landslide dam that collapsed and generated a large outburst flood is used to show the importance of forensic geology analysis, which is the on-site multidisciplinary study of geohazards carries out as soon as possible after their occurrence; this study is focused on understanding the complete spectrum of all mechanisms that caused the disaster. Diagnostic elements of all natural processes fade with time, allowing for progressively divergent interpretations that may impact the appropriateness of potential mitigation actions, as we demonstrate. The multidisciplinary field control of the abrupt rupture of a natural dam on the Santa Cruz River on 12 November 2005, that released c. 37 million m3 of water and sediment, can radically change the interpretation of how this dam collapsed. In situ sedimentological, geomorphological and topographical analyses of the remains of the collapsed natural dam suggest it was built in two mass-wasting episodes instead of one, as previously interpreted, involving different slide materials. The first episode matches previous interpretations; a landslide that evolved into a rock avalanche, generating an initial dam of high stability due to its density, and observed angles of repose. This dam was not removed completely during the rupture, but rather suffered minor erosion at its top by the flood drag effect. The second episode is interpreted as a snow-dominated mixed avalanche, reaching much greater heights on the opposite side of the valley. This avalanche is estimated to be 85% snow, 8% debris and 7% ice-cemented permafrost fragments, and is evidenced by a thin residual deposit draping the valley sides, as most of this deposit melted out before any field control was undertaken. The growth of the lake level, along with the dam weight loss due to ablation, generated the hydrostatic instability that caused the floating of the central sector of this second dam and the violent evacuation of the water, similar to a jökulhlaup. This analysis explains the partial dam collapse, sudden water release and the preserved field evidence. This different interpretation suggests that the mitigation actions already taken can be improved and that monitoring systems are urgently needed. A rapid and professional assessment of any large-scale geohazard site would be the way to avoid interpretation discrepancies, and to guarantee that mitigation actions taken are adequate. Learning from this event may help decision makers to take better mitigation measures and potentially save lives.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards3020014
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 3, Pages 277-293: Prospective Fault Displacement Hazard
           Assessment for Leech River Valley Fault Using Stochastic Source Modeling
           and Okada Fault Displacement Equations

    • Authors: Katsuichiro Goda, Parva Shoaeifar
      First page: 277
      Abstract: In this study, an alternative method for conducting probabilistic fault displacement hazard analysis is developed based on stochastic source modeling and analytical formulae for evaluating the elastic dislocation due to an earthquake rupture. It characterizes the uncertainty of fault-rupture occurrence in terms of its position, geometry, and slip distribution and adopts so-called Okada equations for the calculation of fault displacement on the ground surface. The method is compatible with fault-source-based probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and can be implemented via Monte Carlo simulations. The new method is useful for evaluating the differential displacements caused by the fault rupture at multiple locations simultaneously. The proposed method is applied to the Leech River Valley Fault located in the vicinity of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Site-specific fault displacement and differential fault displacement hazard curves are assessed for multiple sites within the fault-rupture zone. The hazard results indicate that relatively large displacements (∼0.5 m vertical uplift) can be expected at low probability levels of 10−4. For critical infrastructures, such as bridges and pipelines, quantifying the uncertainty of fault displacement hazard is essential to manage potential damage and loss effectively.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2022-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards3020015
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 3, Pages 294-322: Pseudo-Probabilistic Design for
           High-Resolution Tsunami Simulations in the Southwestern Spanish Coast

    • Authors: Alejandro González, Marta Fernández, Miguel Llorente, Jorge Macías, Carlos Sánchez-Linares, Julián García-Mayordomo, Carlos Paredes
      First page: 294
      Abstract: The application of simulation software has proven to be a crucial tool for tsunami hazard assessment studies. Understanding the potentially devastating effects of tsunamis leads to the development of safety and resilience measures, such as the design of evacuation plans or the planning of the economic investment necessary to quickly mitigate their consequences. This article introduces a pseudo-probabilistic seismic-triggered tsunami simulation approach to investigate the potential impact of tsunamis in the southwestern coast of Spain, in the provinces of Huelva and Cádiz. Selected faults, probabilistic distributions and sampling methods are presented as well as some results for the nearly 900 Atlantic-origin tsunamis computed along the 250 km-long coast.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards3020016
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 3, Pages 323-344: Use of Neural Networks for Tsunami
           Maximum Height and Arrival Time Predictions

    • Authors: Juan F. Rodríguez, Jorge Macías, Manuel J. Castro, Marc de la Asunción, Carlos Sánchez-Linares
      First page: 323
      Abstract: Operational TEWS play a key role in reducing tsunami impact on populated coastal areas around the world in the event of an earthquake-generated tsunami. Traditionally, these systems in the NEAM region have relied on the implementation of decision matrices. The very short arrival times of the tsunami waves from generation to impact in this region have made it not possible to use real-time on-the-fly simulations to produce more accurate alert levels. In these cases, when time restriction is so demanding, an alternative to the use of decision matrices is the use of datasets of precomputed tsunami scenarios. In this paper we propose the use of neural networks to predict the tsunami maximum height and arrival time in the context of TEWS. Different neural networks were trained to solve these problems. Additionally, ensemble techniques were used to obtain better results.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards3020017
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 3, Pages 345-370: Systematic Comparison of Tsunami
           Simulations on the Chilean Coast Based on Different Numerical Approaches

    • Authors: Sven Harig, Natalia Zamora, Alejandra Gubler, Natalja Rakowsky
      First page: 345
      Abstract: Tsunami inundation estimates are of crucial importance to hazard and risk assessments. In the context of tsunami forecast, numerical simulations are becoming more feasible with the growth of computational power. Uncertainties regarding source determination within the first minutes after a tsunami generation might be a major concern in the issuing of an appropriate warning on the coast. However, it is also crucial to investigate differences emerging from the chosen algorithms for the tsunami simulations due to a dependency of the outcomes on the suitable model settings. In this study, we compare the tsunami inundation in three cities in central Chile (Coquimbo, Viña del Mar, and Valparaíso) using three different models (TsunAWI, Tsunami-HySEA, COMCOT) while varying the parameters such as bottom friction. TsunAWI operates on triangular meshes with variable resolution, whereas the other two codes use nested grids for the coastal area. As initial conditions of the experiments, three seismic sources (2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, 2015 Mw 8.3 Coquimbo, and 1730 Mw 9.1 Valparaíso) are considered for the experiments. Inundation areas are determined with high-resolution topo-bathymetric datasets based on specific wetting and drying implementations of the numerical models. We compare each model’s results and sensitivities with respect to parameters such as bottom friction and bathymetry representation in the varying mesh geometries. The outcomes show consistent estimates for the nearshore wave amplitude of the leading wave crest based on identical seismic source models within the codes. However, with respect to inundation, we show high sensitivity to Manning values where a non-linear behaviour is difficult to predict. Differences between the relative decrease in inundation areas and the Manning n-range (0.015–0.060) are high (11–65%), with a strong dependency on the characterization of the local topo-bathymery in the Coquimbo and Valparaíso areas. Since simulations carried out with such models are used to generate hazard estimates and warning products in an early tsunami warning context, it is crucial to investigate differences that emerge from the chosen algorithms for the tsunami simulations.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards3020018
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 3, Pages 16-53: Global Precedent-Based Extrapolation
           Estimate of the M8+ Earthquake Hazard (According to USGS Data as of 1 June
           2021)

    • Authors: Aleksandr Malyshev, Lidiia Malysheva
      First page: 16
      Abstract: The paper describes the algorithm and the results of the seismic hazard estimate based on the data of the seismological catalog of the US Geological Survey (USGS). The prediction algorithm is based on the search for clusters of seismic activity in which current activity trends correspond to foreshock sequences recorded before strong earthquakes (precedents) that have already occurred. The time of potential hazard of a similar earthquake is calculated by extrapolating the detected trends to the level of activity that took place at the time of the precedent earthquake. It is shown that the lead time of such a forecast reaches 10–15 years, and its implementation is due to the preservation and stability of the identified trends. The adjustment of the hazard assessment algorithm was carried out in retrospect for seven earthquakes (M8+) that had predictability in foreshock preparation. The evolution of the potential seismic hazard from 1 January 2020 to 1 June 2021 has been traced. It is concluded that precedent-based extrapolation assessments have prospects as a tool designed for the early detection and monitoring of potentially hazardous seismic activity.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2022-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards3010002
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 3, Pages 54: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of GeoHazards in
           2021

    • Authors: GeoHazards Editorial Office GeoHazards Editorial Office
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards3010003
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 3, Pages 55-87: A Concise Appraisal of Cameroon’s
           Hazard Risk Profile: Multi-Hazard Inventories, Causes, Consequences and
           Implications for Disaster Management

    • Authors: Henry Ngenyam Bang
      First page: 55
      Abstract: The paucity of a comprehensive document on Cameroon’s hazard/disaster risk profile is a limitation to the country wide risk assessment and adequate disaster resilience. This article narrows this gap by retrospectively exploring Cameroon’s hazard/disaster profile. This has been achieved through an investigative approach that applies a set of qualitative methods to derive and articulate an inventory and analysis of hazards/disasters in Cameroon. The findings indicate that Cameroon has a wide array and high incidence/frequency of hazards that have had devastating consequences. The hazards have been structured along four profiles: a classification of all hazard types plaguing Cameroon into natural, potentially socio-natural, technological, and social and anthropogenic hazards; occurrence/origin of the hazards; their impacts/effects to the ‘at risk’ communities/populace and potential disaster management or mitigation measures. In-depth analysis indicate that natural hazards have the lowest frequency but the potential to cause the highest fatalities in a single incident; potentially socio-natural hazards affect the largest number of people and the widest geographical areas, technological hazards have the highest frequency of occurrence; while social/anthropogenic hazards are the newest in the country but have caused the highest population displacement. Arguably, the multi-hazard/disaster inventory presented in this article serves as a vital preliminary step to a more comprehensive profile of Cameroon’s disaster risk profile.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards3010004
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 3, Pages 88-105: Predictive Simulation for Surface Fault
           Occurrence Using High-Performance Computing

    • Authors: Masataka Sawada, Kazumoto Haba, Muneo Hori
      First page: 88
      Abstract: Numerical simulations based on continuum mechanics are promising methods for the estimation of surface fault displacements. We developed a parallel finite element method program to perform such simulations and applied the program to reproduce the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake, where surface rupture was observed. We constructed an analysis model of the 5 × 5 × 1 km domain, including primary and secondary faults, and inputted the slip distribution of the primary fault, which was obtained through inversion analysis and the elastic theory of dislocation. The simulated slips on the surface were in good agreement with the observations. We then conducted a predictive simulation by inputting the slip distributions of the primary fault, which were determined using a strong ground motion prediction method for an earthquake with a specified source fault. In this simulation, no surface slip was induced in the sub-faults. A large surface slip area must be established near a sub-fault to induce the occurrence of a slip on the surface.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards3010005
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 3, Pages 106-124: The Crete Isl. (Greece) Mw6.0
           Earthquake of 27 September 2021: Expecting the Unexpected

    • Authors: Ioanna Triantafyllou, Andreas Karavias, Ioannis Koukouvelas, Gerassimos A. Papadopoulos, Issaak Parcharidis
      First page: 106
      Abstract: The 27 September 2021 damaging mainshock (Mw6.0) is the first known strong earthquake that ruptured the Arkalochori area, Crete Isl., Greece, during the entire historical period, making it an unexpected event in the long-term sense. The area is characterized by the presence of the normal active Kastelli Fault (KF) striking NNE-SSW and dipping towards ~WNW. The KF, of surface exposure only ~6 km, at its southern tip is truncated by the nearly perpendicular active Nipiditos fault. The main shock was preceded by foreshock activity lasting for ~3.9 months, thus the mainshock turned out to be an expected event in the short-term sense. Maximum ground subsidence of ~20 cm was estimated from InSAR images, but this also incorporates deformation that may have been caused by the largest aftershock (Mw5.1) of 28 September 2021. The fault model produced from the inversion of InSAR observations indicated strike 216°, dip towards ~NW at angle 53°, rake −95°, and is consistent with fault-plane solutions obtained from routine moment tensor analysis. The geodetic seismic moment calculated from the Okada’s formalism is 1.14 × 1018 N·m (Mw6.0), while a maximum slip of 1.03 m was found at depths from 3.5 km to 5 km. The entire aftershock epicenters cloud strikes in a ~SW-NE direction but is distributed in two clusters, the southern and the northern ones. The foreshock cloud, the main slip patch, the deformation area, and the strongest aftershocks all fall within the southern cluster. The foreshocks concentration at the deepest edge of the main slip patch was a foreshadow of the mainshock nucleation area. The northern cluster, which is very likely due to the gradual expansion of aftershocks, is situated in the KF hanging wall block. To interpret the main seismic slip in the southern cluster area we propose the existence of a buried KF segment at the SSW-wards prolongation of the emerged at the surface segment. Assuming a rectangular seismic fault stress drop Δσ~7 bars was found. However, for a circular fault area, which in this case is more realistic, we get Δσ = 55 bars. This is a relatively large value for Greek earthquakes but is explainable by increased fault rigidity as a result of the long repeat time of strong earthquakes in KF.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards3010006
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 3, Pages 125-143: Investigation of Tsunami Waves in a
           Wave Flume: Experiment, Theory, Numerical Modeling

    • Authors: Boris Vladimirovich Boshenyatov
      First page: 125
      Abstract: To protect the coastal areas of the seas and oceans from the destructive force of tsunami waves, coastal and surface barriers are usually built. However, for high waves, these barriers turn into underwater barriers through which tsunami waves pass practically without losing their energy. In this paper, we study a new principle of suppression of the energy of tsunami waves by underwater barriers. The problems of experimental and numerical modeling of the processes of generation, propagation, and interaction of gravity wave of the tsunami type with underwater barriers are considered. It is shown that, under certain conditions near the underwater barriers, large-scale vortex structures occur that accumulate a significant part of the energy of the incident wave. Here, if the barriers parameter h/(H + A) = 0.84 ÷ 0.85 (h—height of the barriers, A—amplitude of incident wave on a barrier, H—depth of the reservoir), then the vortex structures accumulate up to 50% of the wave energy incident on the barrier. A theoretical model explaining the effect of anomalous vortex suppression of tsunami wave energy by underwater barriers has been developed. Theoretical calculations and results of numerical modeling based on the Navier–Stokes Equations are consistent with experimental studies in a hydrodynamic wave flume.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards3010007
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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