Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (94 journals)
    - GEOPHYSICS (33 journals)
    - HYDROLOGY (29 journals)
    - OCEANOGRAPHY (88 journals)

EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

Showing 401 - 371 of 371 Journals sorted alphabetically
Physical Science International Journal     Open Access  
Physics in Medicine & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Physics of Life Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics of Metals and Metallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Physics of Plasmas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Physics of the Solid State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Physics of Wave Phenomena     Hybrid Journal  
Physics World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Physik in unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Pirineos     Open Access  
Planet     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Plasma Physics Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Polar Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Positioning     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pramana     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Preview     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Earth and Planetary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Pure and Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Quaternary     Open Access  
Quaternary Australasia     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Quaternary International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Quaternary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Quaternary Science Advances     Open Access  
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Radiocarbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Remote Sensing in Earth Systems Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Remote Sensing Science     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Rendiconti Lincei     Hybrid Journal  
Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Space Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Resource Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resources, Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Results in Geochemistry     Open Access  
Results in Geophysical Sciences     Open Access  
Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews of Modern Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Revista Cerrados     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Exatas Aplicadas e Tecnológicas da Universidade de Passo Fundo : CIATEC-UPF     Open Access  
Revista de Ingenieria Sismica     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones en Energía, Medio Ambiente y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales     Open Access  
Revista de Teledetección     Open Access  
Revista Geológica de Chile     Open Access  
Revue Française de Géotechnique     Hybrid Journal  
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Rocks & Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Geology and Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Journal of Pacific Geology     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Physics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science China Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Science News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Science of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Scientific Annals of Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava. Geography Series     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Earth Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 85)
Sedimentary Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Sedimentology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Seismic Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Seismological Research Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Soil Security     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Solid Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Solid Earth Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Solid Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Geomatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Standort - Zeitschrift für angewandte Geographie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica     Open Access  
Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai, Geologia     Open Access  
Survey Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Surveys in Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Swiss Journal of Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Tectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Tectonophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Terra Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Terra Nova     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Compass : Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon     Open Access  
The Holocene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
The Leading Edge     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access  
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
Unconventional Resources     Open Access  
Underwater Technology: The International Journal of the Society for Underwater     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Universal Journal of Geoscience     Open Access  
Unoesc & Ciência - ACET     Open Access  
Vadose Zone Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Volcanica     Open Access  
Water     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Water Resources Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 94)
Watershed Ecology and the Environment     Open Access  
Weather, Climate, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews - Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Yugra State University Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Zitteliana     Open Access  
Землеустрій, кадастр і моніторинг земель     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3     

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South African Journal of Geomatics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.113
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2225-8531
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • GIS time series mapping of the Ciskei homeland

    • Authors: Salih Ali, Siddique Motala
      Pages: 216 - 221
      Abstract: This study reports on the creation and evaluation of a spatio-temporal mapping of the Ciskei, one of the so-called ‘Bantustans’ or ‘homelands’ located in South Africa. The Ciskei was created as a result of race-based legislation during the colonial and apartheid periods. Its geographical extent changed over time, and the spatial changes coincided with the promulgation of different legislation. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology was used to create a time series animation and a static map to display the spatial change of the Ciskei boundaries. Questionnaires and interviews were used to investigate two main aspects. The questionnaire’s purpose was to investigate and compare map-readers’ cognition at detecting change between static and animated maps. Interviews allowed the researchers to qualitatively assess the value of such an exercise. Both the animated and static maps have advantages over each other but neither one of them has an overall clear advantage, confirming previous research. There is value of such mapping to decision-makers in government, as such an exercise can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of legislative, cadastral, planning and historical effects.
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
      DOI: 10.4314/sajg.v7i3.1
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Review of the use of remote sensing for monitoring wildfire risk
           conditions to support fire risk assessment in protected areas

    • Authors: Olga Dipuo Molaudzi, Samuel Adewale Adelabu
      Pages: 222 - 242
      Abstract: Fire risk assessment is one of the most important components in the management of fire that offers the framework for monitoring fire risk conditions. Whilst monitoring fire risk conditions commonly revolved around field data, Remote Sensing (RS) plays key role in quantifying and monitoring fire risk indicators. This study presents a review of remote sensing data and techniques for fire risk monitoring and assessment with a particular emphasis on its implications for wildfire risk mapping in protected areas. Firstly, we concentrate on RS derived variables employed to monitor fire risk conditions for fire risk assessment. Thereafter, an evaluation of the prominent RS platforms such as Broadband, Hyperspectral and Active sensors that have been utilized for wildfire risk assessment. Furthermore, we demonstrate the effectiveness in obtaining information that has operational use or immediate potentials for operational application in protected areas (PAs). RS techniques that involve extraction of landscape information from imagery were summarised. The review concludes that in practice, fire risk assessment that consider all variables/indicators that influence fire risk is impossible to establish, however it is imperative to incorporate indicators or variables of very high heterogeneous and “multi-sensoral or multivariate fire risk index approach for fire risk assessment in PA.Keywords: Protected Areas, Fire Risk conditions; Remote Sensing, Wildfire risk assessment
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
      DOI: 10.4314/sajg.v7i3.2
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Validation of satellite soil moisture in the absence of in situ soil
           moisture: the case of the Tropical Yankin Basin

    • Authors: Djigbo F. Badou, Bernd Diekkrüger, Carsten Montzka
      Pages: 243 - 256
      Abstract: Soil moisture is known to be important in hydrology, agronomy, flood and drought forecasting. Acquisition of in situ soil moisture data is time consuming, costly, and does not cover the scale required for basin analysis. The consideration of remotely-sensed soil moisture is therefore promising. However, considering the limitations of satellite data, there is a need to check their validity prior to their utilization for impact studies. This, in turn, poses a problem in the absence of in situ soil moisture. The present study suggests a methodology for testing the validity of remotely-sensed soil moisture without in situ soil moisture. Hydrological models with a detailed soil moisture routine are calibrated and validated with measured stream flows. The most behavioural solutions of modelled soil moistures are averaged, and used as proxy measurements. This methodology was applied to the Yankin Basin (8,171 km2), a tributary of the Niger River Basin. The soil moistures of three hydrological models (UHP-HRU, SWAT and WaSiM) used as proxy were compared with the daily ESA-CCI soil moisture for a four year period (2005-2008). The coefficient of determination (R2), bias and visual inspection were used as quality criteria. A rather small bias ranging from -0.01cm3/cm3 (SWAT & UHP-HRU) to -0.04cm3/cm3 (WaSiM &UHP-HRU) was determined as well as good R2 varying between 0.71 (SWAT & UHP-HRU) and 0.81 (WaSiM & SWAT & UHP-HRU). The ESA-CCI soil moisture was therefore judged as reliable for the study area. More important, this research shows that averaging soil moistures from different hydrological models provides valuable proxy measurements for testing the reliability of satellite soil moistures.
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
      DOI: 10.4314/sajg.v7i3.3
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • The application of an Urban Sprawl Index: comparing towns and cities in
           the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    • Authors: Anele Horn, Amanda Van Eeden
      Pages: 257 - 267
      Abstract: The incidence and effects of urban sprawl have been the subject of a great many academic research mainly as a result of the challenges posed by continued urbanisation, especially in developing countries (see inter alia Jenks, Kozak and Takkanon 2008; Mander, Brebbia and Tiezzi 2006; Jenks and Burgess 2000; and Soja 2000). South Africa witnessed a proliferation of legislation and spatial policies to limit urban sprawl and contain the physical expansion and development of urban areas during the last two decades in response to exponential post-apartheid urbanization. In 2005, the Provincial Spatial Development Framework of the Western Cape Province, South Africa stated that “an Urban Edge shall be drawn around all villages, towns and cities in the province with the primary function to contain outward growth of urban settlements” (City of Cape Town, 2009) and in parallel the Provincial Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning published the Western Cape Urban Edge Guideline document assisting all municipalities in the province to delineate urban edges to be included in municipal Spatial Development Frameworks (SDF) thereby illustrating intent on maintaining urban footprints that are compact and limit developments that could be considered urban sprawl. Subsequently municipal urban edges have been delineated and are presently reflected in most municipal Spatial Development Frameworks in the province. This paper presents an Urban Sprawl Index as a tool to comparatively analyse the extent of urban sprawl between cities and towns of different sizes, making use of cadastre, land use and population data over time. The Urban Sprawl Index (USI) for the Western Cape put forward by this research will enable the comparative measurement of the extent of urban sprawl proportionately between the Metropolitan and local municipalities in the province and thereby aid in understanding the impact of planning instruments such as urban edges in the context of development dynamics and pressures experienced by individual cities.
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
      DOI: 10.4314/sajg.v7i3.4
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Extraction of low cost houses from a high spatial resolution satellite
           imagery using Canny edge detection filter

    • Authors: Naledzani Mudau, Paidamoyo Mhangara
      Pages: 268 - 278
      Abstract: Since its democratic dispensation in 1994, the South African government enacted a number of legislative and policy interventions aimed at availing equal housing opportunities to the previously marginalized citizens. Mismanagement and unreliable reporting has been widely reported in publicly funded housing programmes which necessitated the government to audit and monitor housing development projects in municipalities using more robust and independent methodologies. The objective of this study was therefore to test and demonstrate the effectiveness of high spatial resolution satellite imagery in validating the presence of government funded houses using an object-oriented classification technique that applies a Canny edge detection filter. The results of this study demonstrate that object-orientated classification applied on pan-sharpened SPOT 6 satellite imagery can be used to conduct a reliable inventory and validate the number of houses. The application of the multi-resolution segmentation and Canny edge detection filtering technique proved to be an effective means of mapping individual houses as shown by the high detection accuracy of 99% and quality percentage of 96%.Keywords: Houses, Remote Sensing, SPOT 6, Canny edge detection, Multi-resolution Segmentation, Object-Oriented Classification
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
      DOI: 10.4314/sajg.v7i3.5
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Estimating potential future (2030 and 2040) land use in the Bonsa
           catchment, Ghana, West Africa

    • Authors: Michael S. Aduah, M.L. Toucher, G.P.W. Jewitt
      Pages: 279 - 291
      Abstract: This study combined logistic regression, Markov chain and the Dyna-CLUE models to simulate land use patterns in the Bonsa catchment of Ghana, West Africa. Historical model validation produced Relative Operating Characteristics (ROC) statistics above 0.69; indicating a significant relationship between the driving factors and the land cover types, and overall accuracy of 71% as well as a Kappa statistic of 55%, indicating a moderate agreement between observed and simulated land uses. The statistics of the historical model were used to simulate three plausible future land use scenarios. The historical simulation revealed that increases in population density, proximity to roads and expansion of mines were the major drivers that significantly increased the probability of settlement expansion and deforestation. Simulations of future land use showed that settlement expansion and deforestation may increase by similar margins for all scenarios, but the increase in secondary forests may be higher for the economic growth and reforestation (EGR) scenario, compared to the economic growth (EG) and the business-as-usual (BAU) scenarios. The mining areas may double in the future for all the scenarios, but shrubs/farms may increase in the BAU scenario, but reduce marginally in the EG and the EGR scenarios. The results of this study can be used to support land use planning and evaluation of the impacts of different future development pathways.Keywords: Bonsa catchment, deforestation, driving factors, Dyna-CLUE, land use, logistic regression, West Africa
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
      DOI: 10.4314/sajg.v7i3.6
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • A method for connecting traverses to GNSS controls eliminating troublesome
           short GNSS orientation lines

    • Authors: Akajiaku C. Chukwuocha
      Pages: 292 - 303
      Abstract: Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) surveys are used to establish long baseline control networks. Further breaking down of the controls are accomplished using total station traversing connected to the GNSS networks. Auxiliary stations are established at relatively short distances to each GNSS main station for traverse azimuth orientation. If the GNSS azimuth reference lines are short, the allowable uncertainties in the GNSS determined coordinates heavily encumber the accuracies of the azimuths derived from them. This is the problem with connecting traverses to GNSS controls via azimuth reference lines that are short. Reorientation traversing can solve the short GNSS azimuth reference line problem by running control traverses linked to GNSS controls without referencing the short GNSS azimuth lines. Four reorientation traverses of total traverse lengths of 1.4Km to 5.1Km were run between GNSS network stations to demonstrate the validity of the new method. A corresponding traditional traverse was run to compare with each of the reorientation traverse cases. Some t-distribution tests established that there were no statistical differences between the coordinates determined by the reorientation traverses and the corresponding traditional traverses coordinates at the 99% confidence level. P-value tests revealed that there were no significant probabilities of an extreme occurrence in which the coordinates from the two methods of traversing may be statistically different at the P < 0.01 confidence level. The research results thus show that reorientation traversing is a valid procedure that may be used to avoid the use of short GNSS reference lines.Keywords: Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Reorientation Traversing, Azimuth, Controls
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
      DOI: 10.4314/sajg.v7i3.7
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Network database design for conflict and post-conflict Land Tenure
           Information Systems (LTIS)

    • Authors: Alaa Dabboor, Michael Barry
      Pages: 304 - 318
      Abstract: The paper presents the Talking Titler Network (TTN) database design for land records in complex situations. In conflict and post-conflict situations, conventional land record database models are limited in how they can handle the complex constellations of interests in particular land units. One solution is a network database model that can capture multiple, overlapping and layered tenure relationships in a changing environment which can be augmented by data mining and social network analysis to overcome the limitations of the relational data model in handling complex, competing evidence. The Triple Store graph database development system and its ontology languages were used to design and develop the TTN prototype. The authors’ observations from the Gaza Strip, an ongoing conflict situation, and Somaliland, a post-conflict situation, were used as illustrative contexts. The test results show that graph database flexibly captured, described, and automatically revealed tenure patterns. TTN simplified the complexity of tenure relationships among objects by organizing them into sets of connected triples, revealing tenure relationships, and visualizing tenure information as a graph network, and as a table. The initial design shows promise in capturing and revealing relationships in complex, contested tenure scenarios.
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
      DOI: 10.4314/sajg.v7i3.8
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Evaluating the effects of leaf characteristics on spectral signatures of
           savannah woody species on remotely sensed imagery

    • Authors: Chris Munyati, Lebo Eneth Malomane, Oupa Ermos Malahlela
      Pages: 319 - 330
      Abstract: Woody species on savannahs provide nutrition to wildlife and livestock ungulates. Understanding of woody leaf reflectance would benefit the application of remote sensing in analysis of these rangelands. This study sought to establish the influence of the leaf characteristics of size (leaf form) and chlorophyll content on the spectral reflectance characteristics of savannah woody species. The ability of optical remotely-sensed imagery to identify these two leaf characteristics and use them to determine the woody content of savannahs was then assessed. Two species that represented narrow leaf and broad leaf savannah woody species were studied: Acacia tortilis (renamed Vachellia tortilis) and Ziziphus mucronata, respectively. Forty seven woody individuals representing these species were sampled in north-western South Africa. Chlorophyll content, leaf area index (LAI) and spectral reflectance were determined in-situ using a chlorophyll meter, a canopy analyser and spectroradiometer, respectively. A SPOT 6 NAOMI image acquired at a time of year when grass reflectance was excluded from the spectral signature of non-senescent vegetation was used. The image data were converted to reflectance (%), and the green and near infrared (NIR) reflectance of the field-sampled trees on the image were correlated with the in-situ data. The results showed that the woody species differed significantly in their chlorophyll content and green reflectance, but only the NIR reflectance of the broad leaf species correlated strongly with a leaf characteristic, LAI. From the results it is concluded that LAI is the more reliable leaf characteristic for analysing the characteristics of savannahs in terms of woody content.
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
      DOI: 10.4314/sajg.v7i3.9
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Conformity assessment to development plan implementation as a tool for
           development control in Kisii Town, Kenya

    • Authors: Wilfred Ochieng Omollo
      Pages: 331 - 344
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine if the current land use development patterns in Kisii Town conformed to development zones in approved 1972 Kisii Town Physical Development Plan. Spatio-temporal analysis guided by Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) was undertaken using QGIS software, integrating satellite image epochs of 2005, 2010 and 2017. Results showed that all approved development zones were not conformed to by ensuing land use development patterns, thus denoting nonconformity. The study also tested the hypothesis that there was no statistically significant difference between approved land use development patterns in the 1972 Kisii Town Physical Development Plan and ensuing land use development patterns in 2017. The test however found a significant difference between the two paired samples (M = 43.555, SD = 34.661) and (M = 36.344, SD = 34.047), t (9) = 4.03, p = 0.003. The null hypothesis was as a result rejected at 95% confidence level. The study concluded that because conformity to the development plan declined by a mean of 7.206, its objective as a tool for development control in Kisii Town was not attained. Recommendation was made that since the plan is outdated, a comprehensive plan covering the entire town should be prepared to provide a framework for development control. Additionally, there is need to adopt a strict enforcement and monitoring regime that ensures compliance with the plan.Keywords: Conformity, physical development plan, development control, Kisii Town
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
      DOI: 10.4314/sajg.v7i3.10
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • The mapping and investigation of radionuclide pollution in the processing
           plant of a spent phosphate mine by using GIS techniques

    • Authors: Jacques Bezuidenhout
      Pages: 345 - 359
      Abstract: The mining and refinement of phosphate is characterised by high levels of uranium. An in situ gamma ray survey was done at the processing plant of a spent phosphate mine near Vredenburg on the west coast of South Africa in order to assess radionuclide concentrations. The concentrations of potassium, thorium and radioactive progeny of uranium were measured and plotted with the help of QGIS software. The results demonstrated high concentrations in specific areas of the plant. The highest concentrations were found to be 898 Bq/kg for potassium, 162 Bq/kg for 232Th and 639 Bq/kg for 226Ra. It was demonstrated that the refinement process technologically enhanced the naturally occurring radioactive nuclides and contaminated sections of the processing plant. The causes of the contamination were also investigated. The effective dose for the various parts of the processing plant was also estimated and the highest level was found to be 0.45 mSv/y. The article finally draws conclusions as to the environmental impact of the radiation and possible future preventative measures that could be followed in order to minimize pollution.Keywords: Environmental pollution, GIS techniques, Gamma ray measurements, uranium, phosphate mining
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
      DOI: 10.4314/sajg.v7i3.11
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Application of remote sensing method for geological interpretation of
           Sokoto Plain, Nigeria

    • Authors: Aisabokhae Joseph, Oresajo Bamidele
      Pages: 360 - 371
      Abstract: Landsat-8 OLI imagery of Sokoto, Nigeria, was processed to emphasize the geology features and mineral potential of the area. Band ratios (4/2,5/6,6/7) were assigned to RGB. Band ratio 4/2 highlights ferric ion minerals, 5/6 emphasizes ferrous minerals, and 6/7 distinguishes iron oxide minerals from carbonate minerals. In a second technique, band ratio 6/7 was replaced with 7/5 in order to accentuate clay minerals with high reflectance within band 7. The last technique evaluated in this study used spectral information from minimum noise fraction image to map surface geology. Supervised classification training sites were selected using five classes (clay, ironstone, alteration zone, water and vegetation). The band ratio classification using maximum likelihood classification was fairly accurate and matched the geologic map of the area, also showing an alteration zone that coincided with the migmatite-quartz/mica schist contact. The classified image was finally passed through a filtering effect for generalization of the data. This filtering effect was helpful in discriminating the pixels of ironstone and those of the alteration zone on the classified map. This study shows the distribution of classified earth-surface materials in Sokoto plain with the aid of supervised classification of Landsat-8 multispectral bands interpreted to reflect in-situ features.Keywords: Landsat-8 imagery, Sokoto, mineral potential, supervised classification
      PubDate: 2019-02-27
      DOI: 10.4314/sajg.v7i3.12
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Improving traverse redundancy and precision by running on double lines

    • Authors: Akajiaku Chukwunyere Chukwuocha, Franklin Enyinnaya Onyeagoro
      Pages: 372 - 383
      Abstract: Good redundancy is required in measured quantities to isolate gross errors and improve the qualities of derived parameters. Improving the weak redundancies of traditional traverses by traversing on double lines is now possible with total stations which provide for less cumbersome measurements than previously possible and more so now that control traverses are computed by least squares adjustment using readily available computer software. Traversing on double lines requires some care in choosing traverse stations with inter-visibility to two immediately preceding and two directly succeeding stations from the instrument station. Traverses were run on double lines resulting in redundancy increase of seven per station. Local accuracy precision parameters improved also by as much as 25% and 52% with implementation at 30% and 100% of the traverse stations respectively. A chart that may be used to determine percentage number of traverse stations where traversing on double lines would be implemented to achieve set local accuracy improvements is presented.Keywords: traverse, redundancy, precision, total station, control surveys, traversing on double lines, gross errors
      PubDate: 2019-02-27
      DOI: 10.4314/sajg.v7i3.13
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2019)
       
 
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