Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)     - EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)    - GEOLOGY (94 journals)    - GEOPHYSICS (33 journals)    - HYDROLOGY (29 journals)    - OCEANOGRAPHY (88 journals) EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)            First | 1 2 3
 Showing 401 - 371 of 371 Journals sorted alphabetically Physical Science International Journal Physics in Medicine & Biology       (Followers: 15) Physics of Life Reviews       (Followers: 1) Physics of Metals and Metallography       (Followers: 18) Physics of Plasmas       (Followers: 10) Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors       (Followers: 34) Physics of the Solid State       (Followers: 5) Physics of Wave Phenomena Physics World       (Followers: 18) Physik in unserer Zeit       (Followers: 9) Pirineos Planet       (Followers: 4) Plasma Physics Reports       (Followers: 7) Polar Record       (Followers: 2) Positioning       (Followers: 4) Pramana       (Followers: 13) Precambrian Research       (Followers: 7) Preview Proceedings of the Geologists' Association       (Followers: 6) Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales       (Followers: 2) Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society       (Followers: 1) Progress in Earth and Planetary Science       (Followers: 16) Pure and Applied Geophysics       (Followers: 12) Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology       (Followers: 4) Quaternary Quaternary Australasia Quaternary Geochronology       (Followers: 8) Quaternary International       (Followers: 14) Quaternary Research       (Followers: 19) Quaternary Science Advances Quaternary Science Reviews       (Followers: 26) Radiocarbon       (Followers: 12) Remote Sensing       (Followers: 58) Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment       (Followers: 10) Remote Sensing in Earth Systems Sciences       (Followers: 5) Remote Sensing Letters       (Followers: 46) Remote Sensing Science       (Followers: 29) Rendiconti Lincei Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics       (Followers: 8) Reports on Mathematical Physics       (Followers: 2) Research & Reviews : Journal of Space Science & Technology       (Followers: 18) Resource Geology       (Followers: 6) Resources, Environment and Sustainability       (Followers: 2) Results in Geochemistry Results in Geophysical Sciences Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry       (Followers: 4) Reviews of Modern Physics       (Followers: 31) Revista Cerrados Revista de Ciências Exatas Aplicadas e Tecnológicas da Universidade de Passo Fundo : CIATEC-UPF Revista de Ingenieria Sismica Revista de Investigaciones en Energía, Medio Ambiente y Tecnología Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales Revista de Teledetección Revista Geológica de Chile Revue Française de Géotechnique Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering       (Followers: 7) Rocks & Minerals       (Followers: 3) Russian Geology and Geophysics       (Followers: 3) Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics Russian Journal of Pacific Geology Russian Physics Journal       (Followers: 1) Science China Earth Sciences       (Followers: 3) Science News       (Followers: 11) Science of Remote Sensing       (Followers: 7) Scientific Annals of Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava. 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 Transportation Infrastructure GeotechnologyJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.592 Citation Impact (citeScore): 1Number of Followers: 8      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 2196-7202 - ISSN (Online) 2196-7210 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2469 journals]
• Correction to: Stability of Embankment Constructed on Soft Soil Treated
with Soil–Cement Columns

PubDate: 2022-08-04

• Correction to: Effect of Adjacent Support Condition on Premature Wood
Crosstie Failure

Abstract: A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40515-021-00182-7
PubDate: 2022-08-01

• Evaluation of a Clayey Soil Stabilized by Calcium Carbide Residue as

Abstract: Assessment of resilient modulus property of subgrade soil is prerequisite for design of flexible pavement using mechanistic-empirical approach. Though clayey soils possess good resilient characteristics, they also undergo significant plastic deformation. This necessitates determination of permanent deformation along with resilient modulus to understand the intricate nature of the soil under consideration. Tropical red soils of Indian subcontinent possess good strength characteristics at optimum moisture content; however, excess of moisture decreases the strength of these soils drastically. Utilization of industrial by-products for soil amelioration is one way to make the regional soils meet the requirements of mechanistic-empirical design approach. In addition to this, industrial by-products not only improve the engineering behavior of the soil but also help reduce the landfill area. In the present study, effect of calcium carbide residue (CCR), a by-product of acetylene industry, on static strength and accumulation of permanent strain in red soils is investigated. Natural red soil and CCR-beneficiated red soils are examined under various moisture contents and stress levels for understanding the effect of these variables on permanent strain. Shakedown theory is used to differentiate the stress levels as stable behavior and unstable behavior. Results indicated that the addition of CCR to red soil leads to a significant reduction in the permanent strain. Power law and VTT models are also used in order to check the consistency of experimental data, and results yielded higher coefficient of determination (R2) values indicating the strength of developed models.
PubDate: 2022-08-01

• Effect of Reinforcement Width on Dynamic response of Basal
Geosynthetic-Reinforced Embankment

Abstract: High compressibility and poor shear strength properties of soft clayey foundation soils are problems to be dealt with in the design and construction of embankments or roads. The inclusion of geosynthetic at the embankment base is one of the ground improvement techniques used to construct roads or embankments over soft clayey subsoils. This article aims to present the seismic behaviour of basal geosynthetic-reinforced embankments, and various parameters are analysed to identify the suitable width of basal geogrid using time-history analysis. Embankments of heights 4 to 10 m with varying side slope angles are studied. Analysis of results shows that the addition of basal geogrid not only improves the stability of the embankment under static loading conditions but also improves the seismic performance of the embankment. From the results of this study, it is found that the basal geogrid reinforcement of a total width equal to the embankment base width plus embankment height and with a high tensile modulus of 4000 kN/m is required to effectively withstand the seismic forces in seismic regions with peak ground accelerations up to 0.6 g.
PubDate: 2022-08-01

• Shear Strength Behaviour of Pervious Concrete Column Improved Soft Clay
Bed: A Numerical Study

Abstract: In this study, the shear strength of plain and reinforced stone column improved weak soil is presented by numerically analysing direct shear test models. The reinforced stone column considered is pervious concrete column. The objective is to compare the shear behaviour of ordinary stone column improved weak soil with pervious concrete column improved weak soil. A total of 378 direct shear test models were analysed to study the effect of normal pressure, effect of diameter, effect of reinforcement and lateral deformation of columns. Inclined direct shear tests were also analysed by varying the slope (±) of potential failure surface with horizontal to represent the actual practical conditions and findings are presented. The ultimate shear strength of pervious concrete column improved soil bed is found to be higher than ordinary stone column improved soil bed. It is found that the pervious concrete column improved weak soil under zero normal pressure has significant shear resistance than ordinary stone column improved weak soil. It is concluded that pervious concrete columns could be provided beneath the toe of the embankment for better shear performance.
PubDate: 2022-08-01

• Modeling Triaxial Testing with Flexible Membrane to Investigate Effects of
Particle Size on Strength and Strain Properties of Cohesionless Soil

Abstract: A 3D DEM model using Particle Flow Code (PFC3D) software was developed utilizing a bonded-ball flexible membrane approach to study cohesionless soil as a discontinuous discrete material. This approach is not yet widely used because of its complexity and high computational cost, but it allowed the authors to observe the stress-strain curves of triaxial specimens, to single out effects of individual factors on the strength and strain properties, and to observe the formation of the shear band and failure surface. The 3D model was calibrated and verified with experimental data, and a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the microparameters. Triaxial tests were simulated to observe the stress-strain curves and volumetric changes, as well as the strength parameters of soils consisting of spherical particles with different gradations but the same porosity. The authors investigated the effects of mean particle size, larger particle size, smaller particle size, and soil gradation on three soil parameters: peak deviatoric stress, internal friction angle, and dilatancy angle. Four different cases with different soil gradations and particle sizes were studied: a uniform soil, a soil with randomly created particle sizes, and two soils each contains two particle sizes. For two out of the four cases studied, peak deviatoric stress, internal friction angle, and dilatancy angle increased when the mean particle size D50 increased. For the other two cases, the parameters decreased when the mean particle size D50 increased. One important finding is that the relationships between particle size and deviatoric stress, internal friction angle, and dilatancy angle were found to be linear. These relationships can provide predictions on soil strength and strain properties when the particle size changes. Observations and discussions on the formation of shear bands during shear testing are also presented. A step-by-step delineation of the DEM model development is also presented with the development process of a flexible membrane carefully described.
PubDate: 2022-08-01

• A Case Study of Slope Stability Improvement in Central Bengkulu Landslide
in Indonesia

Abstract: The increase of landslide potential in the mountainous area in Central Bengkulu, especially Kelindang Village, is generally caused by the high rainfall intensity. The landslides had resulted in material, infrastructure, social, and economic losses. Therefore, slope countermeasure methods are needed to prevent the potential impact in the future. This study is initiated by performing site investigation, which is addressed to understand the general condition and soil sampling. Furthermore, the soil samples are tested in the laboratory to determine the physical and engineering properties, which are also used as the input parameters for finite element analysis. Several parameters such as factor of safety (SF) and the deformation under the existing condition and the countermeasure condition for the slopes are observed. Several alternatives of slope countermeasure such as controlling method and reinforcement method are studied. A logic tree analysis considering the environmental setting, factor of safety, experts’ availability, equipment mobilization, and workability is performed to determine the most suitable method. The results show that the suitable method for the study area is the combination between slope cutting and berm. Generally, the framework of this study can be implemented in other areas.
PubDate: 2022-08-01

• Stability and Settlement Analysis of a Lightweight Embankment Filled with
Waste Tyre Bales over Soft Ground

Abstract: The waste tyre-derived products, including whole tyres, tyre bales, shreds, chips, and crumb rubber, have begun to be used in various geotechnical applications. In particular, the use of tyre bales in the construction of a lightweight embankment on the soft ground has the potential to satisfy the demand for low-cost materials exhibiting such beneficial properties. This paper presents the comparison between the common medium sand-filled embankment and two tyre-baled structures with various granular interlayers: medium sand and rubber aggregate. To assess the efficiency of tyre bale application in soft ground conditions, two subsoils were considered in the study: sandy clay and silty clay. The stability and settlement analysis of embankments, as well as subsoil bearing capacity checking, were performed for all structural cases. Bishop’s limit equilibrium slicing method and the finite element method were used in the embankment and subsoil analysis. The comprehensive testing of tyre bales and filling materials was also carried out to obtain the set of parameters used in both analyses. The comparison allowed qualitatively assessing the effectiveness of using waste tyre bales as a filling of road embankment when founded on soft ground. The analysis revealed that the application of tyre bales generally enhanced the embankment stability, effectively reduced the embankment settlement, and reduced the normal stress in the subsoil. In the tyre-baled embankments, the slip surface is located mostly within the embankment slope, showing good rotational stability, independent of subsoil conditions.
PubDate: 2022-08-01

• An Overview of the Impact of Constitutive Models for Unbound Materials on
Pavement Elastic Response Through Numerical Analysis

Abstract: The current paper investigates through finite element analysis (FEM) procedures critical pavement responses taking into consideration material variability, pavement cross-sectional variations, and changes in moisture conditions to highlight the base layer constitutive model’s impact on expected pavement responses. To achieve this aim, initially the material’s physical and mechanical properties are determined. This is followed by the implementation and assessment of a number of unbound material constitutive models. These models are first coded into a subroutine. They are then incorporated into the FEM analysis procedures. The results of the analysis are presented and evaluated comparatively to highlight the effect base material constitutive models have on predicted critical pavement responses. Based on the results, the investigation highlights the importance when utilizing FEM techniques; emphasis should be placed during the design of the unbound base material constitutive model, with the goal to customize the chosen model to the specific conditions investigated.
PubDate: 2022-08-01

• Stiffness of Ballastless Railway Embankments Determined by Repetitive

Abstract: In the repetitive static plate load test, a plate is loaded in two cycles where the second loading cycle provides a modulus denoted Ev2. When calculating the stiffness of a railway embankment, Young’s modulus is often assumed to be equal to Ev2 throughout the embankment. This approach, however, provides inaccurate results, mainly due to soil nonlinearity and the influence of confinement stress. Currently, there exists no method to account for these aspects to derive reliable deformation properties of embankments. Occasionally, correction factors are applied to Ev2, resulting in crude estimations. In this study, plate load tests were simulated in PLAXIS 2D using the Hardening Soil Model and calibrated against four field tests, conducted on crushed rock-fill sub-ballast. The calibrated soil properties were applied in finite element simulations of railway embankments with ballastless slab-track systems. Based on the results of finite element analyses, a semi-empirical approach is proposed, which considers confinement stress through a hyperbolic stress–strain relationship. Soil properties for compacted rock-fill with particle grading 0–150 mm were assumed through the results of the calibrated finite element analyses and the method was verified against 43 plate load tests. This semi-empirical method is more accurate than assuming a constant Young’s modulus, while maintaining simplicity and ease of use.
PubDate: 2022-07-27

• Reply: Effects of Plastic Waste Materials on Geotechnical Properties of
Clayey Soil [DOI: 10.1007/s40515-020–00,145-4]

PubDate: 2022-07-25

• Analytical and Numerical Analyses of the Support System for a Large-span
Tunnel in Challenging and Seismically Active Ground Conditions

Abstract: The Dogancay T1 tunnel, projected within the scope of the Ankara-Istanbul high-speed train project, is being excavated entirely through clay and cohesionless units and is located in the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). To determine the support system in the tunnel, innovative approaches require investigation through analytical and numerical methods to evaluate their suitability. The present study investigates rigid support systems, including the intermediate lining and pre-support excavation techniques in the new Austrian tunneling method (NATM), with 3D numerical analyses. The tunnel is in a seismically active zone, and the study also addresses the seismic sustainability of the proposed support system. The results of analyses showed that the proposed excavation and support system can be successfully implemented in the Dogancay T1 tunnel. The case study provides guidelines for investigating tunnel excavation and support systems in poor ground conditions in tectonically active zones.
PubDate: 2022-07-25

• Studying the Relation of the Residual Stresses in the Ballast Layer to the
Elastic Wave Propagation

Abstract: During track construction or ballast bed maintenance, ballast layer compaction quality plays an essential role in the following track irregularity accumulation, its lifecycle, and maintenance costs. The ballast compaction process is characterized by its compaction and the accumulation of the stressed state. The elastic wave propagation methods are an effective way for the identification of the ballast bed compaction properties. The paper presents the theoretical and experimental studies of the ballast consolidation under the vibration loading of the sleeper. The practical laboratory study is given by the 1:2.5 scaled physical model of one sleeper and the corresponding ballast layer box. The measurements of ballast pressure and deformations under the vibration loading in the ballast layer and the photogrammetric recording of the ballast flow are carried out. The measurements demonstrate the accumulation of the residual stresses under the ballast layer. Furthermore, the measurements of elastic wave time of flight (ToF) using the shakers under the sleeper and acceleration sensors under the ballast show the substantial increase of the ToF velocities after the tamping process. Moreover, the distribution of the velocities along the sleeper is spatially inhomogeneous. The numeric simulation using the discrete element method (DEM) of the tamping and the testing processes proves the inhomogeneous wave propagation effect. The modeling shows that the main reason for the wave propagation inhomogeneity is the accumulated residual stress distribution and the minor one – the compaction density. Additionally, a method for identifying wave velocity spatial distribution is developed by wave tracing the inhomogeneous medium. The procedures allow ballast identification in the zones outside the shakers.
PubDate: 2022-07-18

• Behavior of Back-to-Back MSE Walls: Interaction Analysis Using Finite
Element Modeling

Abstract: Back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth (BBMSE) wall is a specific case of modern earth retention technique, where the design of the wall system depends on the spacing between two walls as the limited space behind the wall controls the interaction between them as well as their stability and lateral earth pressure distribution along the wall height (H). In view of the above, this study comprehensively analyzes geogrid reinforced BBMSE walls using finite element numerical modeling to examine the stability and interaction behavior by varying the distance between two interacting MSE walls and investigating the possible mode of failure using the strength reduction method. To attain the aim set for the present study, the width to height (W/H) ratio of the wall is varied, and its consequent effect on the lateral earth pressure ( $${\sigma }_{h}/\gamma H$$ ) of the wall is investigated. Based on the findings, a correction factor for active earth pressure coefficient (i.e., K*) is proposed, facilitating geotechnicians to design a safer and optimized structure with due consideration of the lateral earth pressure on the wall. The factor of safety (FOS) of the wall is evaluated, which indicates that FOS is significantly increased when W/H is reduced. It is also noted that the maximum tension mobilized in the geogrid layers (Tmax) reduces when the two interacting MSE walls are in close proximity. This study also analyzes the critical angle of the failure wedge (β), which significantly reduces with the decreasing D/H ratio of the wall (where D is the distance between two interacting MSE walls). A nonlinear regression analysis is implemented to obtain a generalized equation for predicting the normalized distance of failure peak from the wall facing (x/H) for various W/H ratios along the wall height. This study recommends an optimum overlap length of 0.3H to utilize the reinforced infill and save space during the BBMSE wall construction.
PubDate: 2022-07-12

• Analysis of Bored Pile Subjected to Machine Vibration: an Insight into the
Influence of the Soil-Pile Interface Coefficient

Abstract: Settlement limitation is one of the major concerns for the designers of machine foundation as machines are very sensitive to settlement. This restricted criterion necessitates the need for deep foundations as using deep foundations reduces the settlement. However, little attention is given in past studies regarding the dynamic response of bored piles subjected to machine vibrations. Specifically, no attention is given to the influence of the soil-pile interface coefficient on the dynamic response of bored pile. Thus, this research aimed to fulfill this gap by examining the response of bored pile subjected to vibration using finite element analysis. Seven hundred eighty scenarios have been examined to study the effect of the vibration frequency, length to diameter ratio of the pile, and soil-pile coefficient of interface on the dynamic response of bored pile. It has been noted that increasing the pile length to diameter ratio reduces the dynamic settlement. In addition, the coefficient of interface is found to remarkably affect the resonant frequency of the soil-pile system. Furthermore, increasing the coefficient of friction decreases the dynamic settlement; however, the percentage reduction is controlled by the resonant frequency. Finally, design charts of dynamic impedance have been developed to enable the use of the results in practical designs.
PubDate: 2022-07-04

• Three-dimensional elasto-plastic analysis for the undrained capacity of
ring and circular footings embedded in heterogeneous clay

PubDate: 2022-06-23

• Dr. Suraparb Keawsawasvong of Thammasat University Is the Winner for the
2021 Fumio Tatsuoka Best Paper Award

PubDate: 2022-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40515-022-00235-5

• Correction to: Improvement in Field CBR Values of Subgrade Soil Using
Construction-Demolition Materials

Abstract: A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40515-021-00176-5
PubDate: 2022-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40515-021-00176-5

• Numerical Analysis of the Dynamic Behavior of Shallow Tunnel: a Case Study
of Djebel El-Ouahch Tunnel, Algeria

Abstract: The study of the seismic behavior of tunnels has become a major concern for geotechnicians in recent years, especially after the collapse of the many underground structures around the world, constructed in soft ground at shallow depths. Several studies focused on the distortion of the tunnel cross section caused by shear waves which propagate vertically to the tunnel axis. However, the study of the tunnel seismic response to the compression waves which propagate parallel to the axis of the tunnel is almost neglected. These compression waves can cause a serious axial and bending deformation in the tunnel lining. Therefore, this paper aims to present a numerical analysis of part of the T1 tunnel of the Algerian East-West Highway, in the province of Constantine, that suffered a very significant damage caused by a sudden collapse. The goal is to demonstrate the influence of seismic waves of compression as well as the effect of embedment depth on the behavior of the lining of the tunnel and its surrounding soils. The study was performed using a 3D finite difference calculation method (FDM) using the FLAC3D calculation code. The nonlinear soil is considered by using Hardin-Drnevich model of the hysteretic damping and an elastoplastic model of Mohr-Coulomb. The results were presented in terms of horizontal stresses, shear stresses, horizontal displacements, and shear strains developed at the level of the two elements of the tunnel (lining, soil). The results show that the most affected parts of the tunnel are the concrete of the side wall, the tunnel raft, and their surrounding soil. These results suggest the appearance of cracks at those locations. In other hand, the results show that when decreasing the tunnel depth, the horizontal tensile stresses increase, which causes the reduction of the shear strength of the soil mass and the lining. Consequently, they cause the failure of the soil-tunnel system, increasing the risk of damage instability of the tunnel. In addition, increasing the depth reduces greatly the horizontal tensile stresses and contributes to the stability of the soil-tunnel system. Finally, the novelty of the work is the study of the impact of seismic compression waves by the application of the FDM to evaluate the behavior of a real case of damaged tunnel.
PubDate: 2022-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40515-021-00183-6

• Stability Analysis of Layered Soil Slope Using Truncated Pile with
Numerical Solution

Abstract: Available literature reveals that the use of truncated pile would be a good solution to increase the stability of slope which is introduced to date for homogeneous soil. Here an attempt is made to perform both experimental and numerical studies introducing truncated piles in layered soil. Both top and bottom layers are cohesive-friction soil. The sand layer is sandwiched between these layers. The influential factors include water content variation, frequency of base shaking, types of reinforcement used, and depth of the truncation. Slopes are manually prepared and tested using a shake table instrument. The horizontal deformation, root means square acceleration, and crest deformation are evaluated and shown at different water content, frequency, and types of reinforcement. In practical engineering, the piles could be truncated reasonably while ensuring the reinforcement effect. The truncated part of piles is filled with the cement sand mortar. A 2D finite element analysis has been done to validate the results obtained from the experimental investigations. The results show that the introduction of truncated piles increases the stability of the slope. Also, the more increase in the truncated part of the pile, the more will be the effectiveness of the pile.
PubDate: 2022-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40515-021-00174-7

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