Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (94 journals)
    - GEOPHYSICS (33 journals)
    - HYDROLOGY (29 journals)
    - OCEANOGRAPHY (88 journals)

EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

Showing 401 - 371 of 371 Journals sorted alphabetically
Radiocarbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 60)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Remote Sensing in Earth Systems Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Remote Sensing Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Rendiconti Lincei     Hybrid Journal  
Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Reports on Progress in Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Space Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Resource Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resources, Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews of Modern Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Revista Cerrados     Open Access  
Revista de Ingenieria Sismica     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones en Energía, Medio Ambiente y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales     Open Access  
Revista de Teledetección     Open Access  
Revista Geológica de Chile     Open Access  
Revue Française de Géotechnique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Rocks & Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Geology and Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Journal of Pacific Geology     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Physics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science China Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Science News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Science of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Scientific Annals of Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava. Geography Series     Open Access  
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 83)
Sedimentary Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Sedimentology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Seismic Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Seismological Research Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Soil Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Solid Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Solid Earth Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Solid Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Geomatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Standort - Zeitschrift für angewandte Geographie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Survey Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Surveys in Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Swiss Journal of Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Tectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Tectonophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Terra Nova     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Compass : Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon     Open Access  
The Holocene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
The Leading Edge     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
Unconventional Resources     Open Access  
Underwater Technology: The International Journal of the Society for Underwater     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Unoesc & Ciência - ACET     Open Access  
Vadose Zone Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Volcanica     Open Access  
Water     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Water Resources Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 101)
Watershed Ecology and the Environment     Open Access  
Weather, Climate, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews - Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Yugra State University Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Zitteliana     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Землеустрій, кадастр і моніторинг земель     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3     

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Science China Earth Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.787
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1674-7313 - ISSN (Online) 1869-1897
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2468 journals]
  • Unveiling the secrets of diatom-mediated calcification: Implications for
           the biological pump

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      Abstract: Abstract Siliceous diatoms are one of the most prominent actors in the oceans, and they account for approximately 40% of the primary production and particulate organic carbon export flux. It is believed that changes in carbon flux caused by variations in diatom distribution can lead to significant climate shifts. Although the fundamental pathways of diatom-driven carbon sequestration have long been established, there are no reports of CaCO3 precipitation induced by marine diatom species. This manuscript introduces novel details regarding the enhancement of aragonite precipitation during photosynthesis in Skeletonema costatum in both artificial and natural seawater. Through direct measurements of cell surfaces via a pH microelectrode and zeta potential analyzer, it was determined that the diatom-mediated promotion of CaCO3 precipitation is achieved through the creation of specific microenvironments with concentrated [CO32−] and [Ca2+] and/or the dehydrating effect of adsorbed Ca2+. Based on this mechanism, it is highly plausible that diatom-mediated calcification could occur in the oceans, an assertion that was supported by the significant deviation of total alkalinity (TA) from the conservative TA-salinity mixing line during a Skeletonema costatum bloom in the East China Sea and other similar occurrences. The newly discovered calcification pathway establishes a link between particulate inorganic and organic carbon flux and thus helps in the reassessment of marine carbon export fluxes and CO2 sequestration efficiency. This discovery may have important ramifications for assessing marine carbon cycling and predicting the potential effects of future ocean acidification.
      PubDate: 2024-07-12
       
  • Physically modulated phytoplankton production and export at submesoscales
           in the oligotrophic South China Sea Basin

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      Abstract: Abstract Oceanic submesoscales can significantly influence phytoplankton production and export owing to their similar timescales of days. Based on two-year Biogeochemical Argo (BGC-Argo) observations, this study investigated the development of submesoscale instabilities, particularly symmetric and mixed-layer baroclinic instabilities, and their impacts on biological production and export in the oligotrophic South China Sea basin. In the northern basin, near-surface winter blooms consistently cooccurred with seasonally deepened mixed layers. However, significantly stronger and weaker winter blooms were observed over two consecutive winters within the BGC-Argo observation period. During the first winter, symmetric-instability-induced upward nutrient entrainment played a crucial role in initiating the strong winter bloom in early December, when the mixed layer was approximately 20–30 m shallower than the nutricline. This bloom occurred approximately 20–30 days earlier than that anticipated owing to the contact between the seasonally deepened mixed layer and mesoscale-cyclone-induced uplifted nutricline. The symmetric instability also facilitated the export of fixed phytoplankton carbon from the surface to deeper layers. Conversely, during the second winter, remarkably intense mixed-layer baroclinic instability associated with an intense mesoscale anticyclone led to more significant shoaling of the mixed layer compared to the nutricline, thus increasing the vertical distance between the two layers. Under this condition, upward nutrient injection, phytoplankton bloom, and carbon export were suppressed. In contrast, the BGC-Argo float in the central basin revealed significantly inhibited seasonality of phytoplankton biomass and submesoscale instabilities compared to those in the northern basin, primarily owing to the significantly shallower winter mixed layer.
      PubDate: 2024-07-11
       
  • Key processes of carbon cycle and sink enhancement paths in natural
           wetland ecosystems in China

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      Abstract: Abstract Wetland ecosystems have become one of the long-term solutions for mitigating global climate change due to their strong carbon sequestration potential. However, the key carbon cycle processes in wetland ecosystems still lack a systematic summary. In the context of wetland protection and restoration, there is still a lack of consensus on the technical pathways to realize carbon sink multiplication in wetland ecosystems. In this paper, the key processes of carbon cycle, such as photosynthetic carbon uptake, microbial carbon decomposition and carbon deposition and burial, are sorted out and summarized in four major wetland types, namely, swamp and peat wetlands, river and riparian wetlands, lake and lakeshore wetlands, and estuarine and coastal wetlands. Based on the key processes of carbon cycle, three technological pathways for carbon sink multiplication are proposed, including, vegetation carbon sequestration and sink enhancement technology, soil carbon emission reduction technology and carbon deposition and burial technology. The key technologies under each pathway are further refined. And the carbon sink effects of the carbon sink technologies in different wetland types are qualitatively described. Also, wetland protection and restoration methods in corresponding regions are given in the light of the regional characteristics of wetlands in China. This will provide a scientific basis for the strategy of doubling the carbon sinks of China’s wetland ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
       
  • Divergent responses of runoff to climate change in the upper basins of the
           Third Pole dominated by westerlies and monsoon

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      Abstract: Abstract The diverse climates, distribution of snow and glaciers, and geographic locations directly affect the runoff response to climate change in the upper basins of the Third Pole. At present, a comprehensive analysis of runoff variations and their distinct responses to climate change in the westerlies- and monsoon-dominated upper basins is still lacking. This study comprehensively analyzed annual runoff variations in westerlies-dominated basins (the upper basins of the Aksu (UAKS), Syr Darya (USRD), Yarkant (UYK), Hotan (UHT), Amu Darya (UAMD), and Indus (UI)) and monsoon-dominated basins (the upper basins of the Yangtze (UYA), Yellow (UYE), Lancang (ULC), Nujiang (UNJ), and Yarlung Zangbo (UYZ)) of the Third Pole from 1961 to 2015. Using multi-source meteorological data and large-scale circulation factors, this study investigated the divergent responses of runoff in the upper basins to climate change, and explored the large-scale circulation mechanisms underlying runoff variations in these upper basins. The results showed that: (1) The annual runoff in the majority of upper basins (except for the UYE and UYZ) exhibited an increasing trend, and the annual runoff in the UAKS, UYK, and UI showed a significant increasing trend from 1961 to 2015. The annual runoff in the upper basins of the Third Pole changed abruptly from decreasing to increasing between the 1980s and 2000s, with the exception of the UYE. (2) The runoff in the monsoon-dominated upper basins has been controlled primarily by changes in precipitation over the past 55 years. In contrast, the runoff in the westerlies-dominated upper basins exhibited three distinct long-term responses to climate change: temperature-dominated (UYK and UHT), precipitation-dominated (USRD and UAMD), and the combined influence of precipitation and temperature (UAKS and UI). Since the 1960s, the sensitivity of runoff to warm season temperature changes in the most westerlies-dominated upper basins has decreased, while the response of runoff to precipitation changes has intensified. (3) The study revealed the connection between large-scale circulation, climate, and runoff in the upper basins of the Third Pole. The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, the Westerly Index, and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation predominantly impact the precipitation or temperature in the upper basins of the Third Pole, which in turn affect the runoff variations in the upper basins dominated by either the westerlies or the monsoon. This study will be a valuable scientific reference for water resource management and climate change adaptation for both the westerlies- and monsoon-dominated upper basins in the Third Pole.
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
       
  • Anthropogenic mineral generation and its potential resource supply: The
           case of niobium

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      Abstract: Abstract The strategy of carbon neutrality is reshaping the global landscape of resource flow and recycling. As the final sink of geological minerals, the proliferated anthropogenic minerals, also called secondary resources, play an increasingly important role in resource supply enrichment. Niobium is a critical metal that lacks full concern for its sustainability. The fundamental principle of niobium circularity is to recycle and maintain the material as close to the manufacturing process as possible. Here we estimate the niobium-containing applications lost at their end-of-life, underscoring the imperative to minimize such disposal. Additionally, we elucidate the extraction processes for scrap and alloy quantities throughout the industry’s lifecycle. Drawing from anticipated waste generated by the majority of niobium applications, a forecast indicates a potential loss of approximately 168 kt by 2090 in the absence of recycling. Contrastingly, with a recycling efficiency of 90% for niobium, the projected loss diminishes to approximately 16 kt. We delve into the significance of niobium’s circular economy and explore various aspects that demand further investigation for a seamless transition from linear to circular practices.
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
       
  • Elevational distribution of forests and its spatiotemporal dynamics in
           subtropical China from 2000 to 2019

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      Abstract: Abstract The subtropical region of China possesses abundant forest resources and features a mountainous terrain. Under the implementation of policies such as natural forest protection, the Grain for Green Project, and other initiatives since the beginning of the 21st century, coupled with climate change, the forest resources in this region have undergone significant changes compared to historical periods. In addition, forest resources distributing mainly in mountainous areas also implies that these changes may vary significantly with elevation. To explore the spatiotemporal dynamics of forest distribution in subtropical China since 2000, especially the trend of changes with elevation, we analyzed the data from two land cover products focusing on forest cover and forest types. We used a hierarchical approach, in which coarse-classification forest cover data with relatively small uncertainties impose constraints on forest type data with larger uncertainties, to achieve a reasonable balance between obtaining more details and reducing data uncertainty. We first divided the forest cover data into ‘unchanged’ and ‘changed’ categories. With the constraints by the forest cover results, we further analyzed the ‘unchanged’ and ‘changed’ forest types. The results indicated that, since the implementation of ecological engineering and management policies, 54% of the area in the subtropical region had maintained unchanged forest cover attributes over the past 20 years, which implied the good state of ecological environment. The results also showed that dynamic conversions existed in the long term between forests and lands for essential production needs like croplands. The elevational variations of forest cover suggested that the dominant changes came from the conversion between forests and croplands in low-elevation regions below 700 m, the conversion between forests and shrublands in mid-elevation regions of 700–1500 m, and the conversion between forests and grasslands in high-elevation regions above 2000 m. In the regions with unchanged forest cover, 96% exhibited unchanged forest types as well. Evergreen broad-leaved forests (EBF) were most widely distributed below 1700 m, while evergreen needle-leaved forests (ENF) dominated above 1700 m. There was still a large area of ENF and EBF undergoing dynamic conversions from/to transitional forest types such as mosaic of tree, shrub, and herbaceous cover (T-S-H) and mosaic of natural vegetation and cropland (NV-CRO). ENF almost unidirectionally transformed into T-S-H in low-elevation regions below 1000 m, and transformed from NV-CRO in mid- and high-elevation regions above 1000 m. EBF experienced an areal decrease and transformed into T-S-H in low-elevation regions, but the areal increase in mid- to low-elevation regions mainly transformed from NV-CRO. These variations with elevation may involve the impacts of specific human activities and climate change, and will provide a vertical dimension of information and perspectives for an in-depth exploration of the evolving ecosystem services of forest resources in subtropical China.
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
       
  • Plant type effect overweighs seasonal variation in n-alkanoic acid
           biomarker on regional Loess Plateau of China

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      Abstract: Abstract The effect of plant type on n-alkane biomarker has been widely studied, but the influence of plant type on n-alkanoic acids (n-FAs) has received less attention. Understanding the effect of the distribution of n-FAs and their hydrogen isotope composition (δ2HFA) is critical for interpreting sedimentary δ2HFA values as proxies of hydroclimate and/or vegetation changes. In this study, we systematically investigated the distribution of n-FAs and δ2HFA values across seasons on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). Our results showed that there were no significant seasonal differences in n-FAs distribution and δ2HFA values, but there were significant differences in δ2HFA values across plant types. The δ2HFA values ranged from −185‰ to −125‰ in dicots (−161‰±28‰), and from −215‰ to −170‰ in monocots (−196‰±22‰) on the CLP. Isotope fractionation between δ2HFA values and precipitation δ2H (εFA-P) was also 2H-enriched in dicots relative to monocots. At the regional scale of the CLP, δ2HFA values were not correlated with δ2H values of precipitation. However, δ2HFA values from the CLP were similar to expectations from a global comparison, both in terms of their mean values and high variability among plants growing in sites with similar δ2H values of precipitation. As some of this variability in εFA-P is due to the effect of plant type, a careful assessment of the likely sources of waxes in terrestrial sediments is critical when using δ2HFA values for paleohydroclimate reconstruction.
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
       
  • New perspectives on deep carbon cycling

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      Abstract: Abstract The proto-atmosphere serves as a crucial starting point for the carbon cycle. Estimations based on atmospheric data from Mars and Venus suggest that Earth’s proto-atmosphere contained >110 bar of CO2 and >2.6 bar of nitrogen. The proto-atmosphere had over 1000 bar of water vapor during the magma ocean stage, assuming the proto-ocean had a volume of two oceans of water. During this stage both water and carbon dioxide were in a supercritical state at the magma-atmosphere interface. Intense serpentinization reactions occurred due to rock-water interaction, producing abundant hydrogen. Consequently, nitrogen is reduced to ammonia, and carbon dioxide to methane, forming carbonate simultaneously. The proto-atmosphere dominated by methane, ammonia, and hydrogen formed a significant amount of amino acids through lightning. This process is essential not only to the origin of life, but also to the early carbon-nitrogen cycle on Earth. By the Hadean eon, a large amount of CO2 was sequestered as carbonate and organic material. Subsequently, it mainly entered the deep mantle through mantle overturn or subduction. In the mantle transition zone, carbonate undergoes “Redox freezing”, where carbonate is reduced to diamond through oxidation of ferrous iron in the melt. In the lower mantle, Fe2+ undergoes disproportionation reactions, forming Fe3+ and metallic iron. Among these, Fe3+ mainly resides in bridgmanite, thereby increasing the oxygen fugacity of the lower mantle, while metallic iron falls to the Earth’s core. The distribution of carbon in the mantle is crucial for deep carbon cycling. The density curves of diamond and mantle peridotite melt intersect at the bottom of the mantle transition zone (about 660 km). This density crossover leads to the accumulation of diamond during the magma ocean stage. When materials such as subducting slabs enter the lower mantle, compensatory upwelling of lower mantle material occurs. Bridgmanite enters the upper mantle, decomposes, releasing Fe3+ ions and oxidizes diamond to carbonate, which under thermal disturbance from kimberlite and igneous carbonatites, moves upward. This carbonate layer may have caused significant topographic fluctuations at the 660 km boundary. Currently, diamond in this layer may still not have been completely oxidized to carbonate or carbon dioxide, serving as a redox buffering layer. This is a key factor in constraining deep carbon cycling. Subduction zones are important pathways for facilitating the cycling. Processes in the Earth’s deep carbon cycle significantly influence the carbon content of surface reservoirs. The fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 content since the Neogene are closely linked to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the subduction of the western Pacific Plate. Around 60 million years ago, the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean led to subduction of the Indian passive margin. The massive sediments on the Indian margin carried down large amounts of carbonate and organic material into the mantle, and the resulting volcanism released large amounts of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and methane into the atmosphere. The subduction of the Neo-Tethys Ocean passive margin weakened at about 51 Ma, and subduction of the western Pacific began. The depth of the western Pacific Ocean generally exceeds the carbonate compensation depth, and the amount of carbonate carried by subducting oceanic crust is minimal. Consequently, the input of subducted carbonate decreased significantly, leading to a substantial reduction in CO2 emissions from volcanoes. Based on volcanic data from the past 12,000 years, the average rate of volcanic eruptions in subduction zones is estimated to be about 3 cubic kilometers per year. The weathering rate of volcanic ash is much higher than that of continental crust materials such as granite. The calcium, magnesium, and other ions provided by weathering of global volcanic ash are equivalent to the flux of global rivers into the oceans. The increase in volcanic ash and the decrease in CO2 emissions from subduction zones have led to a decrease in atmospheric CO2 levels, which is a key factor in the sustained global cooling since 51 million years ago.
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
       
  • The influence of proxy selection on global annual mean temperature
           reconstructions during the Common Era

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      Abstract: Abstract The reconstruction of global annual mean temperatures made by the PAGES 2k Consortium in 2019 represents one of the most influential sequences of global climate variability over the Common Era. However, it is still not clear how the reconstruction can be influenced by the selection of reconstruction methods and the selection of proxy records with different temporal resolutions over different regions. We adopt a widely used Composite-Plus-Scale method to elucidate the effects of the selection of the proxy records on temperature reconstruction. To ensure the uniformity of data, different types of proxy records spanning the past ∼2000 years from the PAGES 2k proxy network were used to investigate the potential effects of proxy selection in hemispheric and global temperature reconstructions during the past two millennia. The long-term trends, spectral characteristics, and volcanic responses of the annual temperatures were studied based on the reconstructions. Our results reveal a significant cooling trend in the global annual mean temperature using both tree-ring and non-tree-ring records during the 1–1850 CE period, and show that the cooling exhibits a stronger trend in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) than that in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). Yet, the long-term trends vary according to different combinations of proxy records. Different reconstructions based on different types of proxies also exhibit different features in terms of volcanic responses and spectral properties. Tree-ring-based temperature reconstructions show stronger cooling responses to tropical volcanic eruptions, while non-tree-ring-based reconstructions suggest less robust volcanic responses, which may be related to dating uncertainties and low temporal resolution of the proxies. Tree-ring width records tend to preserve a substantial proportion of high-frequency (<200 years) variability, whereas non-tree-ring proxies tend to capture a larger fraction of low-frequency (>200 years) variations. Efforts are needed to reduce uncertainties of the temperature reconstruction over the Common Era associated with the insufficient spatiotemporal coverage of the current proxy network, especially for the first millennium and for the SH and tropics, also to develop statistical methods and to improve the signal strength and constrain uncertainties in existing proxy records.
      PubDate: 2024-07-03
       
  • Amelioration of habitat since the early Holocene contributed to the origin
           of agriculture in the farming-pastoral zone of northern China

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      Abstract: Abstract The origin of agriculture in the farming-pastoral zone of northern China remains in dispute. The central region of the Inner Mongolia Plateau is located in the core area of the farming-pastoral zone; thus, it is a critical region for exploring the origin of the dryland farming system in northern China. This study selected the Yumin Site and Banan Site, which belong to the Yumin Culture-the beginning of Neolithic culture in Inner Mongolia-as the research objects. Based on the quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating on the sedimentary sections from the Yumin site (YM) and Banan site (BN1 and BN2), the Holocene chronology framework of each section was established. After that, by identifying carbonized grains in the Yumin site and the multi-proxy analysis of each section, we investigated the relationship between the origin of agriculture and climate change in this region. The results revealed that the timing of the origin of agriculture recorded in the Yumin site lagged behind the timing of a significant increase of precipitation during the early Holocene but coincided with the timing of a significant increase of vegetation around 8.4 ka. This phenomenon was further confirmed by the published high-resolution paleoenvironmental records from the surrounding area of the Yumin Culture. We propose that with the gradual amelioration of hydrothermal conditions since the beginning of the Holocene, the regional ecosystem had been improved, resulting in the gradual conversion of the land surface from infertile sand to organic-rich soil, providing an appropriate environmental foundation for the origin of dryland farming in northern China around 8.4 ka. This study highlighted that the “accumulative environmental effects” during the early Holocene played a vital role in the origin of agriculture in northern China and provided a reference for agricultural management in the context of future climate change.
      PubDate: 2024-07-03
       
  • Multiscale causes of the 2022 Yangtze mega-flash drought under climate
           change

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      Abstract: Abstract The 2022 Yangtze mega-flash drought is characterized by strong intensity and rapid development both in time and space, accompanied by a persistent anticyclonic circulation anomaly. However, the causes of the extreme event remain elusive given the multiscale nature of drought. Here we presented a brief overview for the oceanic and terrestrial causes of the mega-flash drought during the summer of 2022, and estimated the risk in a changing climate. Using the soil moisture percentile as the drought index, it was found that the drought expanded to the entire Yangtze River basin within two months, with 80% of basin under severe drought conditions at the end of August. Both the intensity and onset speed of the 2022 mega-flash drought were ranked as the first during the past 62 years, with return periods of 86 and 259 years, respectively. The results of composite analysis showed that the spring La Niña can facilitate the abrupt change from a wet/normal condition in May–June to drought in July–August over the Yangtze River basin, which was beneficial for the increase of flash drought intensity and onset speed in 2022. The analysis through the linear regression also indicated that the unprecedented intensity was associated with the negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Quantified by a coupling strength index for soil moisture and vapor pressure deficit, it was found that there was a strong land-atmosphere coupling over the Yangtze River basin during July–August 2022. The attribution by using CMIP6 climate models suggested that land-atmosphere coupling increased the risks of flash drought intensity and onset speed like 2022 by 61%±6% and 64%±7% under natural climate forcings, and the synergy of coupling and anthropogenic climate change would increase the risks by 75%±22% and 85%±12%. Our findings emphasized the role of land-atmosphere coupling combined with anthropogenic climate change in intensifying flash droughts.
      PubDate: 2024-07-03
       
  • Microbial carbon pump shapes chemical signatures of refractory dissolved
           organic carbon in ocean water column

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      PubDate: 2024-07-01
       
  • Bivariate attribution of the compound hot and dry summer of 2022 on the
           Tibetan Plateau

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      Abstract: Abstract The extraordinarily high temperatures experienced during the summer of 2022 on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) demand attention when compared with its typical climatic conditions. The absence of precipitation alongside the elevated temperatures resulted in 2022 being the hottest and driest summer on record on the TP since at least 1961. Recognizing the susceptibility of the TP to climate change, this study employed large-ensemble simulations from the HadGEM3-A-N216 attribution system, together with a copula-based joint probability distribution, to investigate the influence of anthropogenic forcing, primarily global greenhouse gas emissions, on this unprecedented compound hot and dry event (CHDE). Findings revealed that the return period for the 2022 CHDE on the TP exceeds 4000 years, as determined from the fitted joint distributions derived using observational data spanning 1961–2022. This CHDE was directly linked to large-scale circulation anomalies, including the control of equivalent-barotropic high-pressure anomalies and the northward displacement of the subtropical westerly jet stream. Moreover, anthropogenic forcing has, to some extent, promoted the surface warming and increased variability in precipitation on the TP in summer, establishing conditions conducive for the 2022 CHDE from a long-term climate change perspective. The return period for a 2022-like CHDE on the TP was estimated to be approximately 283 years (142–613 years) by the large ensemble forced by both anthropogenic activities and natural factors. Contrastingly, ensemble simulations driven solely by natural forcing indicated that the likelihood of occurrence of a 2022-like CHDE was almost negligible. These outcomes underscore that the contribution of anthropogenic forcing to the probability of a 2022-like CHDE was 100%, implying that without anthropogenically induced global warming, a comparable CHDE akin to that observed in 2022 on the TP would not be possible.
      PubDate: 2024-07-01
       
  • Quick and automatic detection of co-seismic landslides with multi-feature
           deep learning model

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      Abstract: Abstract Co-seismic landslide detection is essential for post-disaster rescue and risk assessment after an earthquake event. However, a variety of ground objects, including roads and bare land, have spectral characteristics similar to those of co-seismic landslides, making it difficult to gather information and assess their impact rapidly and accurately. Therefore, an automatic detection method based on a deep learning model, named ENVINet5, with multiple features (ENVINet5_MF) was proposed to solve this problem and improve the detection accuracy of co-seismic landslides. The ENVINet5_MF method is advantageous for co-seismic landslide detection because it features a landslide gain index (LGI) that effectively eliminates the spectral interference of bare land and roads. We conducted two experiments using multi-temporal PlanetScope images acquired in Hokkaido, Japan, and Mainling, China. The accuracy evaluation and rationality analysis show that ENVINet5_MF performed better than comparative methods and that the co-seismic landslide areas detected by ENVINet5_MF were the most consistent with ground reference data. The findings of this study suggest that ENVINet5_MF can provide an efficient and accurate method for coseismic landslide detection to ensure a rapid response to co-seismic landslide disasters.
      PubDate: 2024-06-20
       
  • High-resolution tsunami hazard assessment for the Guangdong-Hong
           Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area based on a non-hydrostatic tsunami model

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      Abstract: Abstract The Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) is threatened by potential tsunami hazards from the Littoral Fault Zone (LFZ) and the Manila subduction zone (MSZ), and may suffer huge damage because of its dense population, concentrated infrastructure, and low-lying coasts. Previous tsunami studies for the GBA made simple assumptions on the mechanisms of LFZ earthquakes, and used coarse bathymetry data in tsunami simulation, which limited the prediction of detailed tsunami hazard characteristics. In this paper, we develop a parallel dispersive tsunami model PCOMCOT to efficiently simulate dispersive, nonlinear, and breaking tsunami waves. We also construct large-scale and high-resolution bathymetry models for the GBA by correcting and integrating various data sources. Dynamic rupture simulation is performed for the LFZ to obtain a more reliable earthquake source model. We propose several representative earthquake scenarios for the LFZ and MSZ, and use PCOMCOT to calculate the resulting tsunami waves, currents, and inundation in the GBA. Our results indicate that if an Mw7.5 oblique-slip earthquake occurs in the LFZ off the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), the subsequent tsunami will primarily impact Hong Kong, causing maximum positive and negative waves of around 1 m and −2 m, respectively, along with slightly destructive currents (⩾1.5 m/s). An Mw9.0 MSZ megathrust earthquake can lead to widespread inundation with >1 m depth on the outlying islands of Macao and in the urban areas of Hong Kong around the Victoria Harbour. Besides, it will also cause catastrophic tsunami currents along the narrow waterways in Hong Kong and Macao, and the spatial distribution of strong currents (⩾3 m/s) shows a considerable discrepancy from the areas of serious inundation. Thus, more attention should be paid to the potential impacts of tsunami currents on the GBA.
      PubDate: 2024-06-19
       
  • Characteristics of orthorhombic anisotropic seismic response induced by
           horizontal in situ stress in vertical transversely isotropic media

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      Abstract: Abstract Sedimentary strata typically exhibit the characteristics of transverse isotropy (VTI) with a vertical axis of symmetry. However, fractures in sedimentary strata tend to produce anisotropic closure due to horizontal in situ stress, resulting in pronounced orthorhombic anisotropy in VTI media under such stress conditions and influencing the propagation behavior of seismic waves. Previous studies have primarily focused on the elastic wave velocity anisotropy induced by applied stress in isotropic background media, neglecting the impact of VTI background media on the anisotropy induced by horizontal in situ stress and the response characteristics of seismic wave propagation. To address these gaps, we first establish the effective elastic stiffness tensor of VTI media under horizontal in situ stress using nonlinear acoustoelastic theory. Then, we derive the accurate and linearized approximate equations for P-wave seismic reflectivity of VTI media under horizontal in situ stress, based on wave equations and scattering theory, respectively. Finally, we compare and analyze the characteristics of orthorhombic anisotropic seismic response induced by horizontal in situ stress at various types of elastic reflection interfaces. Our results demonstrate that the linearized approximation of the seismic reflection response characteristics closely aligns with the accurate equations under conditions of small stress below 10 MPa, effectively capturing the azimuth-dependent orthorhombic anisotropy induced by horizontal in situ stress in VTI media. The results of this study also provide a novel theoretical approach and valuable insights into the seismic prediction of in situ stress.
      PubDate: 2024-06-13
       
  • Productivity in the Southern Ocean Antarctic Zone during the Northern
           Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG) and its link to atmospheric pCO2

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      Abstract: Abstract A decrease in atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) is considered an important prerequisite for the onset and intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG). However, how the ocean sequestered missing CO2 during the NHG is still uncertain. Changes in surface productivity and deep ventilation in the Southern Ocean (SO) have been proposed to explain the variations in atmospheric pCO2 over the last eight glacial cycles, but it is unclear whether these mechanisms contributed to the decrease in atmospheric pCO2 during the NHG. Using titanium-normalized contents and mass accumulation rates of biogenic opal and total organic carbon from the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 374 Site U1524A, we reconstruct the productivity in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, from 3.3 Ma to 2.4 Ma. The productivity records exhibit a long-term decreasing trend and several distinct phased evolutionary features. Specifically, the local productivity fluctuated dramatically during 3.3–3.0 Ma, decreased gradually during 3.0–2.6 Ma, and remained relatively constant during 2.6–2.4 Ma. By comparing productivity with its potential influences, we infer that the phased and long-term evolutions of productivity were mainly controlled by changes in deep ocean ventilation. Sea ice expansion might have decreased productivity during 3.3–3.0 Ma by light attenuation. Changes in eolian dust input have little effect on productivity. Further analysis revealed no coupling linkage between productivity and atmospheric pCO2, indicating that the productivity in the SO Antarctic Zone (AZ) was not the main factor controlling the atmospheric CO2 decrease during the NHG. To improve our understanding of the role of SO processes in the NHG, further studies should focus on the potential influences of deep ocean ventilation on atmospheric pCO2 in the AZ, and similar studies should also be extended to the sea area in the Subantarctic Zone.
      PubDate: 2024-06-12
       
  • Characteristics and influencing factors of greenhouse gas emissions from
           reservoirs in the Yellow River Basin: A Meta-analysis

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      Abstract: Abstract Reservoir construction and operation profoundly alter the hydrological, hydrodynamic, and carbon and nitrogen cycling processes of rivers. However, current research still lacks a systematic understanding of the characteristics of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from reservoirs in arid/semi-arid regions. This study integrates existing monitoring data to discuss the characteristics of GHG emissions from reservoirs in the Yellow River Basin and illustrate the controlling factors and underlying mechanism of these processes. The results indicate that while CO2 emission flux from reservoirs is lower than that from river channels, the emission fluxes of CH4 and N2O are 1.9 times and 10 times those from rivers, respectively, indicating that the emission of GHG with stronger radiative effect is significantly enhanced in reservoirs. Compared to the reservoirs in humid climates (e.g., the Three Gorges Reservoir), reservoirs in the Yellow River Basin exhibit relatively lower emissions of CO2 and CH4 due to lower organic matter concentrations, but significantly higher N2O emissions due to higher nitrogen loads. Monte Carlo simulations for 237 reservoirs in the Yellow River Basin showed that total emission of the three GHGs is 3.05 Tg CO2-eq yr−1, accounting for 0.39% of the total emission from global reservoirs and lower than the area percentage of the basin (0.53%). This study has important implications on revealing the GHG emission characteristics and control mechanisms of reservoirs in arid/semi-arid regions.
      PubDate: 2024-06-12
       
  • Characteristics of super drought in Southwest China and the associated
           compounding effect of multiscalar anomalies

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      Abstract: Abstract In recent decades, Southwest China (SWC) has suffered from frequent super droughts, leading to severe economic losses and ecological degradation. This study investigates the characteristics of super droughts in SWC during 1961–2022, reveals the compounding effect of multiscalar anomalies, and explores the plausible atmospheric circulation mechanisms responsible. The nature of super drought is a compound drought caused by the superposition of extreme drought events across multiple time scales. By contrasting the typical drought cases in 2006 and 2022, the decisive role of multiscalar drought compounding is confirmed. Based on the Comprehensive Multiscalar Index (CMI), multiple super drought events in SWC were identified to be temporally clustered during 2006–2014. Among them, the decadal background of enhanced evaporation and precipitation deficit at long time scales is a necessary condition for shaping the overall pattern of super droughts, while the precipitation and evaporation anomalies at short time scales trigger the outbreak of super droughts, determining the exact timing of occurrence. These events include August–September 2006, November 2009 to May 2010, July–October 2011, April–May 2012, January–April 2013, etc. Statistical results suggest that the contribution of superposed precipitation anomalies to super drought is 2.4 times that of evaporation. As regards the circulation mechanisms affecting multiscalar precipitation, the anomalous spatial patterns at short-term and long-term scales are similar, featuring the cyclonic circulation over the South China Sea and the northeasterly wind anomalies together with the subsidence center over SWC. During 2006–2014, the possible causes for the cross-seasonal persistent precipitation reduction in SWC are the extreme negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in the North Pacific as well as the pronounced warming of the warm pool in the western Pacific. The key dynamic processes are outlined as follows. On the one hand, the negative PDO phase generates anomalous anticyclonic circulation in the North Pacific, with the northeasterly winds on its southwest flank extending to Southeast Asia, hindering moisture transport into SWC. On the other hand, the warming of the warm pool excites anomalous cyclonic circulation to its northwest, also giving rise to northeasterly wind anomalies over SWC. Meanwhile, the ascending motion over the warm pool region diverges at upper levels with outflows converging aloft over SWC, which further induces compensating downward motion there. The combined effect of the above two remote forcings establishes a climatic background state unfavorable for precipitation over SWC at long time scales, thus constituting a crucial prerequisite for the superimposition of short-term precipitation anomalies to develop into super droughts.
      PubDate: 2024-06-06
       
  • Large porewater exchange reshapes saltmarsh carbon and greenhouse gas
           budgets on local and global scales

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      Abstract: Abstract Saltmarshes are carbon-rich ecosystems that play a role in climate regulation by efficiently sequestrating atmospheric CO2. Climate change is a major threat to saltmarshes and will impact saltmarsh carbon sequestration. Notably, porewater-derived carbon outwelling emerges as a crucial pathway for carbon sequestration, but it has been largely overlooked in saltmarshes. Here, we assessed the drivers of dissolved carbon exports and greenhouse gas emissions in a saltmarsh and placed those observations into a global context. In our study site, porewater exchange (PEX) was the major process controlling dissolved carbon and greenhouse gas dynamics. Combining our results with 33 other studies in saltmarshes worldwide, porewater-derived carbon fluxes were equivalent to ∼48% of average global saltmarsh primary productivity and 2.2 times greater than global organic carbon burial. Hence, our local observations and global upscaling demonstrate the major role played by PEX in saltmarsh carbon budgets. While part of dissolved inorganic carbon returns to the atmosphere as CO2, the remaining bicarbonate fraction is stored in the ocean over long time scales. Our findings strengthen global blue carbon assessments and build arguments for the use of saltmarshes as nature-based solutions for global climate change.
      PubDate: 2024-06-05
       
 
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  Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)
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EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

Showing 401 - 371 of 371 Journals sorted alphabetically
Radiocarbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 60)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Remote Sensing in Earth Systems Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Remote Sensing Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Rendiconti Lincei     Hybrid Journal  
Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Reports on Progress in Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Space Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Resource Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resources, Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews of Modern Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Revista Cerrados     Open Access  
Revista de Ingenieria Sismica     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones en Energía, Medio Ambiente y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales     Open Access  
Revista de Teledetección     Open Access  
Revista Geológica de Chile     Open Access  
Revue Française de Géotechnique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Rocks & Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Geology and Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Journal of Pacific Geology     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Physics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science China Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Science News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Science of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Scientific Annals of Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava. Geography Series     Open Access  
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 83)
Sedimentary Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Sedimentology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Seismic Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Seismological Research Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Soil Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Solid Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Solid Earth Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Solid Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Geomatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Standort - Zeitschrift für angewandte Geographie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Survey Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Surveys in Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Swiss Journal of Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Tectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Tectonophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Terra Nova     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Compass : Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon     Open Access  
The Holocene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
The Leading Edge     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
Unconventional Resources     Open Access  
Underwater Technology: The International Journal of the Society for Underwater     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Unoesc & Ciência - ACET     Open Access  
Vadose Zone Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Volcanica     Open Access  
Water     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Water Resources Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 101)
Watershed Ecology and the Environment     Open Access  
Weather, Climate, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews - Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Yugra State University Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Zitteliana     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Землеустрій, кадастр і моніторинг земель     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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