Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (94 journals)
    - GEOPHYSICS (33 journals)
    - HYDROLOGY (29 journals)
    - OCEANOGRAPHY (88 journals)

EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

Showing 401 - 371 of 371 Journals sorted alphabetically
Physical Science International Journal     Open Access  
Physics in Medicine & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Physics of Life Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics of Metals and Metallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Physics of Plasmas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Physics of the Solid State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Physics of Wave Phenomena     Hybrid Journal  
Physics World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Physik in unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Pirineos     Open Access  
Planet     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Plasma Physics Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Polar Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Positioning     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pramana     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Preview     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Earth and Planetary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Pure and Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Quaternary     Open Access  
Quaternary Australasia     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Quaternary International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Quaternary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Quaternary Science Advances     Open Access  
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Radiocarbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Remote Sensing in Earth Systems Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Remote Sensing Science     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Rendiconti Lincei     Hybrid Journal  
Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Space Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Resource Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resources, Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Results in Geochemistry     Open Access  
Results in Geophysical Sciences     Open Access  
Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews of Modern Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Revista Cerrados     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Exatas Aplicadas e Tecnológicas da Universidade de Passo Fundo : CIATEC-UPF     Open Access  
Revista de Ingenieria Sismica     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones en Energía, Medio Ambiente y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales     Open Access  
Revista de Teledetección     Open Access  
Revista Geológica de Chile     Open Access  
Revue Française de Géotechnique     Hybrid Journal  
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Rocks & Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Geology and Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Journal of Pacific Geology     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Physics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science China Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Science News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Science of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Scientific Annals of Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava. Geography Series     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Earth Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 85)
Sedimentary Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Sedimentology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Seismic Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Seismological Research Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Soil Security     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Solid Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Solid Earth Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Solid Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Geomatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Standort - Zeitschrift für angewandte Geographie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica     Open Access  
Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai, Geologia     Open Access  
Survey Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Surveys in Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Swiss Journal of Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Tectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Tectonophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Terra Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Terra Nova     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Compass : Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon     Open Access  
The Holocene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
The Leading Edge     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access  
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
Unconventional Resources     Open Access  
Underwater Technology: The International Journal of the Society for Underwater     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Universal Journal of Geoscience     Open Access  
Unoesc & Ciência - ACET     Open Access  
Vadose Zone Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Volcanica     Open Access  
Water     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Water Resources Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 94)
Watershed Ecology and the Environment     Open Access  
Weather, Climate, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews - Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Yugra State University Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Zitteliana     Open Access  
Землеустрій, кадастр і моніторинг земель     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3     

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Journal Cover
Science China Earth Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.787
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1674-7313 - ISSN (Online) 1869-1897
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Predictability and skill of convection-permitting ensemble forecast
           systems in predicting the record-breaking “21·7” extreme rainfall
           event in Henan Province, China

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      Abstract: Abstract During 19–21 July 2021, an extreme rainfall event occurred in Henan Province, China, during which a record-breaking maximum hourly rainfall of 201.9 mm was recorded in Zhengzhou at 09 UTC July 20. In this study, the predictability of this extreme rainfall event is investigated using two convection-permitting ensemble forecast systems (CEFSs): one initialized from NCEP GEFS (named CEFS_GEFS) and the other initialized from time-lagged ERA5 data (named CEFS_ERA). Both are able to reproduce the daily heavy rainfall along the Taihang Mountains, but most members have significant position biases for the extreme rainfall in Zhengzhou. For the hourly rainfall, a few members are able to capture the evolution and propagation of extreme rainfall. However, all ensemble members underestimate the extreme hourly rainfall and have position errors of a few tens to a few hundreds of kilometers. Such results suggest that the predictability of the extreme hourly rainfall at the accuracy of city scale in Zhengzhou is low, especially by deterministic forecasting models, and the occurrence of the extreme requires that many favorable conditions to happen simultaneously. In terms of the Brier score, CEFS_GEFS performs better than CEFS_ERA. The latter lacks spread, especially in regions with scarce rain, resulting in less dispersion in precipitation distributions and larger probability forecast error. When a neighborhood is applied, the probability of precipitation (POP) is significantly increased over Zhengzhou. While the traditional POP shows almost no skill for hourly rainfall ≥ 25 mm h−1, the neighborhood POP significantly improves the forecast skill score, for both daily and hourly rainfall, suggesting higher predictability when spatial error among the ensemble members is allowed.
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
       
  • Spring snow-albedo feedback from satellite observation, reanalysis and
           model simulations over the Northern Hemisphere

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      Abstract: Abstract The snow-albedo feedback (SAF) is one of the key processes that lead to rapid temperature increases at high latitude and altitude regions. Here, we examine the strength of SAF in the Northern Hemisphere (NH, 30°–90°N) from satellite-based observation, climate reanalysis (i.e., ERA5) and climate model projections (i.e., CMIP5 and CMIP6). Using satellite-derived estimates as an observational reference, our results show that the strength of SAF is considerably overestimated by both climate reanalysis and climate models throughout the NH. This positive bias is mainly caused by a much higher month-to-month changing rate of surface albedo simulated by climate reanalysis and climate models, compared with satellite-based observation. In addition, we find that the strength of SAF is primarily controlled by changes in snow cover fraction (SNC) while the snow metamorphosis effect only plays a secondary role at the hemispheric scale and the regional scales. Finally, we demonstrate that there exists an emergent relationship between historical SAF and future SAF in climate model projections, which is then used to constrain modeled SAF in both CMIP5 and CMIP6 under various climate change scenarios. After constraining, the magnitude of modeled SAF is reduced to be more consistent with satellite-based estimates and the uncertainties of the modeled SAF are reduced by 10–50% for 13 sub-regions of the NH. Our results highlight the need for improving the representation of surface albedo and snow cover fraction in climate reanalysis and models and the advantage of combining observation and model predictions such that to achieve a more realistic quantification of SAF and a better understanding of the impacts of SAF on the climate system.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Multi model forecast biases of the diurnal variations of intense rainfall
           in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region

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      Abstract: Abstract Forecasts of the intense rainfall events are important for the disaster prevention and reduction in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (BTHR). What are the common biases in the forecasts of intense rainfall in the current operational numerical models' What are the possible causes of model bias' In this study, intense rainfall events in the BTHR were categorized into two types: those mainly due to strong synoptic forcings (SSF) and those with weak synoptic forcings (WSF). The results showed that, the numerical forecasts tend to overestimate the frequency of intense rainfall events but underestimate the rainfall intensity. Of these, the overestimation of precipitation frequency mainly appeared in the mountainous areas in the afternoon. Compared with global models, high-resolution mesoscale models showed a notable improvement in forecasting the afternoon intense rainfall, while they all have an obvious bias in forecasting the nighttime rainfall. For the WSF type, both global model and mesoscale model have a low forecast skill, with large biases in subdaily propagation feature. The possible causes are related to a poor performance of the model in reproducing the local thermodynamical circulations and the dynamical processes in the planetary boundary layer. So, the biases in forecasting the WSF type intense rainfall showed notable features of nonlinearity, which made it really challenging to understand their physical processes and to improve the associated forecasts.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • High-precision potassium isotope analysis using the Nu Sapphire collision
           cell (CC)-MC-ICP-MS

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      Abstract: Abstract This study presents high-precision analyses of stable potassium (K) isotope ratio using the recently-developed, collision-cell multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CC-MC-ICP-MS, Nu Sapphire). The accuracy of our analyses is confirmed by measuring well-characterized geostandards (including rocks and seawater). Our results are consistent with literature values and a precision of 0.04‰ (2SD) has been achieved based on multiple measurements of BCR-2 geostandard over a six-month period. We also evaluate factors that may lead to artificial isotope fractionations, including the mismatches in K concentration and acid molarity between samples and bracketing standards, as well as potential matrices. As the K adsorption capacity of AGW50-X8 (200–400 mesh) is reduced with an increasing amount of matrix elements, less than 150 µg K was loaded during the column chemistry. To evaluate the potential use of K isotopes as an archive of paleo seawater composition, δ41K values of an international seawater standard (IAPSO), a Mn-nodule (NOD-P-1), and two iron formation standards (FeR-2 and FeR-4) are reported. The δ41K value of IAPSO is consistent with other seawater samples reported previously, further substantiating a homogeneous K isotopic distribution in modern global oceans. The K isotopes in Mn-nodule (NOD-P-1: −0.121±0.013‰) and iron formation samples (FeR-2: −0.538±0.009‰; FeR-4: −0.401±0.008‰) seem to be an effective tracer of their formation genesis and compositional changes of ancient seawater. Our results suggest that high-precision measurements of stable K isotopes can be routinely obtained and open up a large variety of geological applications, such as continental weathering, hydrothermal circulation and alteration of oceanic crust.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • A preliminary study on the volcanic intrusive complex type beryllium
           metallogenic belt from the southeast coast of China

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      Abstract: Abstract Beryllium (Be) is one of the unsubstitutable key metals in strategic emerging industries and national defense industries, mainly originating from volcanogenic Be deposits. Thus, volcanogenic Be deposits have become important research objects of key metal deposits, with a focus on their occurrence, metallogenic mechanism, and resource distribution. In the southeast coast of China, the Late Mesozoic volcanic intrusive complex has a good Be metallogenic background, and strong Be mineralization occurs in some areas. Field geological investigation and analyses of samples from Southeast Zhejiang as well as Northeast and Southeast Fujian indicate that Be mineralization in the southeast coast of China is closely related to the hydrothermal processes in the volcanic intrusive complex. In Southeast Zhejiang, Be ore in the Qingtian area mainly occurs in granite porphyry, with the Be content reaching 939 ppm, while strong Be mineralization from Zhangji rhyolite porphyry in the Pingyang area contains up to 11400 ppm Be. In Xiapu County, Northeastern Fujian, the Dawan Be deposit is characterized by constituents of helvite and beryl. In Pinghe County, Southeastern Fujian, the Fulishi Be ore is a quartz vein beryl-type ore. These results suggest that the volcanic intrusive complex area in the southeast coast of China has a wide range of Be mineralization and better Be metallogenic potential, and it is expected to become an important Be metallogenic belt in China. Thus, we should thoroughly investigate the Be resources of granite porphyry, rhyolite porphyry, quartz porphyry, and quartz vein in this volcanic rock area, which can provide a theoretical basis for the exploration and guiding prospecting of volcanic intrusive complex Be deposits.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • The seismogenic structures and migration characteristics of the 2021
           Yangbi M6.4 Earthquake sequence in Yunnan, China

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      Abstract: Abstract We constructed a more complete earthquake catalog in the 2021 Yangbi M6.4 focal area by re-scanning the continuous waveforms integrated with deep learning and template matching techniques, to explore the seismogenic structures of the Yangbi mainshock and its nucleation process. The new catalog has three times the number of earthquakes than the CENC catalog, and the magnitude completeness has dropped from 1.1 to 0.5. The distribution of earthquakes indicates a broom-shaped structure consisting of several oblique secondary faults and a strike-slip main fault which strikes to 315° with 80° dipping to NE. The earthquakes extend along the fault strike about 27 km in width and 2–13 km at depth and have noticeable variations on seismicity in the mainshock’s north and south. Compared with the north, the south has denser and higher magnitude aftershocks and also has a seismic gap probably weakened by the fluid at the depth range of about 5–6 km. The foreshocks were mainly active in the 8-kilometer-long fault zone south of the mainshock, which show a steady drop in b-values over time and a migration pattern toward the epicenter of two steep jumps, stagnation, and then acceleration which finally triggered the mainshock. While in the north, seldom foreshock occurred, and the aftershocks were delayed triggered 3 hours after the mainshock, and sparsely scattered shallow at depth and small in magnitude. To summarize, the northern part of the Yangbi seismogenic fault is thought to be relatively locked, whereas the southern part has a weakening zone and promotes pre-slip. The nucleation mechanism of the mainshock and its onset at the junction of the locked and pre-slip zones may be a combination of pre-slip and cascade triggering.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Three-dimensional electrical resistivity structure beneath the Cuonadong
           dome in the Northern Himalayas revealed by magnetotelluric data and its
           implication

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      Abstract: Abstract The North Himalayan gneiss domes (NHGD), as one of the extensional structures widely distributed across the southern Tibetan Plateau, are an important window for studying post-collisional diastrophism and magmation as well as polymetallic mineralization. However, the deep mechanism for the formation of NHGD remains controversial. The magneto-telluric (MT) method was adopted to study the deep structure of the Cuonadong dome in the Northern Himalayas. The characteristics of the dome were explored by using the MT sounding curves and phase tensors. Three-dimensional (3D) MT inversion was performed to determine the electrical resistivity structure beneath the Cuonadong dome. The preferred 3D electrical resistivity model shows that an obvious low-resistivity anomaly develops beneath the Cuonadong dome which is overlaid by a high-resistivity body and surrounded by an apparent subcircular zone of low-resistivity anomalies. The integrated conductivity (longitudinal conductance) from depths of 1–20 km indicates that the average longitudinal conductance at the core of the Cuonadong dome is about 10,000 S. The high-conductivity anomaly at the core is found to be analogous to that of lava, mainly resulting from the crustal partial melting, and the estimated melt content is 11.0–17.3%. The high conductance surrounding the dome reaches 20,000 S on average, which is mainly attributed to saline fluids. MT results in this study support that the Cuonadong dome experienced magmatic diapirism. Taken together with previous geological and geochemical studies, we suggest that under the east-west (E-W) extensional tectonic setting in southern Tibet, deep crustal partial melting constantly accumulated beneath the dome, and therefore the magmatic diapirism resulted in the formation of the Cuonadong dome. In addition, the MT results also indicate that the development of the Cuonadong dome provides abundant mineralizing fluids and the space for migration of metallogenic fluids for (rare-metal) polymetallic mineralization.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Deriving the magnetopause position from wide field-of-view soft X-ray
           imager simulation

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      Abstract: Abstract Imaging techniques provide essential information in astronomical and space physics studies. The Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) will obtain images of the Earth’s magnetosphere via the solar wind charge exchange process in a global view. However, it is a challenge to reconstruct its 3-D structures from the observed 2-D image(s). In this paper, a recently proposed method, Tangent Fitting Approach (TFA), is validated to reconstruct the large-scale magnetopause from a single X-ray image obtained by instrument simulation. It is revealed that the large-scale magnetopause under a medium solar wind number density can be well reconstructed, although the locations of maximum X-ray photon counts are scattered in the image due to instrumental effects and diffusive sky background. Higher solar wind number density leads to stronger signals and further leads to better reconstruction results. For lower solar wind density, the X-ray maximum photon counts may not be identified from the SXI simulations, preprocessing of the images shall be considered before applying TFA. Furthermore, the subsolar magnetopause can be well derived when the satellite is on the dayside orbits.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Successive formation of secondary pores via feldspar dissolution in deeply
           buried feldspar-rich clastic reservoirs in typical petroliferous basins
           and its petroleum geological significance

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      Abstract: Abstract Clastic rock reservoirs in petroliferous basins are generally rich in feldspars. Feldspar dissolution has developed widely in clastic reservoirs, and the resulting secondary pores are crucial in deeply buried reservoirs. Based on a study of the diagenesis of clastic reservoirs in the Bohai Bay Basin, Tarim Basin, and Pearl River Mouth Basin and physical and numerical simulation experiments of fluid-rock interactions, this paper proposed a successive formation model of secondary pores via feldspar dissolution in deeply buried clastic reservoirs, considering the global research progresses in feldspar dissolution in clastic rocks. Feldspar dissolution can occur from shallow open systems to deep-ultra deep closed systems in petroliferous basins, resulting in the successive formation of secondary pores at different diagenetic stages. The successive mechanism includes three aspects. The first aspect is the succession of corrosive fluids that dissolve minerals. Meteoric freshwater dominates at the Earth’s surface and the early diagenetic A stage. Subsequently, organic acids and CO2 formed via kerogen maturation dominate at the early diagenetic B stage to the middle diagenetic stage. CO2 and organic acids formed via hydrocarbon oxidation in hydrocarbon reservoirs dominate at the middle diagenetic B stage to the late diagenetic stage. The second aspect is the successive formation processes of secondary pores via feldspar dissolution. Large-scale feldspar secondary pores identified in deep reservoirs include secondary pores formed at shallow-medium depths that are subsequently preserved into deep layers, as well as secondary pores formed at deep depths. Existing secondary pores in deeply buried reservoirs are the superposition of successively feldspar dissolution caused by different acids at different stages. The third aspect is a successive change in the feldspar alteration pathways and porosity enhancement/preservation effect. Open to semi-open diagenetic systems are developed from the Earth’s surface to the early diagenetic stage, and feldspar dissolution forms enhanced secondary pores. Nearly closed to closed diagenetic systems develop in the middle to late diagenetic stages, and feldspar dissolution forms redistributional secondary pores. The associated cementation causes compression resistance of the rock, which is favorable for the preservation of secondary pores in deep layers. These new insights extend the formation window of secondary pores in petroliferous basins from the traditional acid-oil generation window to a high-temperature gas generation window after hydrocarbon charging. The proposed model explains the genesis of deep-ultra deep high-quality reservoirs with low-permeability, medium-porosity and dominating feldspar secondary pores, which is significant for hydrocarbon exploration in deep to ultra-deep layers.
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
       
  • The methods and program implementation for river longitudinal profile
           analysis—RiverProAnalysis, a set of open-source functions based on the
           Matlab platform

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      Abstract: Abstract River is one of the geomorphic units that are the most sensitive to tectonic activity, of which the longitudinal profile serves as a key archieve to record information on active tectonics. The stream-power incision model is an important means to analyze channel long profiles and to extract both temporal and spatial patterns of regional tectonic activity. Analytical solutions to the steady-state and linear transient-state equations of the model provides means to calibrate drainage basin concavity, calculate channel steepness index, determine drainage divide stability, project the paleo-channel profile, and to invert the tectonic uplift rate history. Yet, not all of these functions have been implemented in the published open-source tools. Here, we developed a set of open-source codes, RiverProAnalysis, which was based on the Matlab platform and integrated all of these functions. The products of the tool set are in the format of image, text and vector files, which not only can be used for visual analysis, but be read by softwares of geographic information system. Taking examples of two transient drainage catchments in the northern margin of the Taiyuan Basin, we analyzed the long profiles of the trunk streams, identified two generations of knickpoints, and estimated the minimum amount of river incision. We combined all the trunk and tributary channels together to model the catchment-wide uplift history and found moderate increases in the uplift rates since the Middle Pliocene and rapid accelation since the late Quaternary. The inverted results are consistent with the sedimentary records in the adjacent basin. By comparing the chi value, slope, and topographic relief of both sides of the catchment divide, we concluded the stability of the drainage divide. Our tool set integrates the main functions of the modern studies on fluvial landsape, thus providing a powerful tool for analyzing river long profiles and for understanding tectonic geomorphology.
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
       
  • The elevation gradient of stable isotopes in precipitation in the eastern
           margin of Tibetan Plateau

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      Abstract: Abstract Tibetan Plateau (TP) receives moistures from different directions, so variations of isotope elevation gradient on different sides may exist. In this study, we systematically monitored and modeled the elevation effect of stable isotopes in precipitation of the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, where we collected 265 water samples for stable isotope (δ2H and δ18O) analyses, of which 70 are eventful rainfall samples, and 195 are surface water samples, for comparison. Alpine lakes on the mountain peaks were used to reconstruct the average isotope composition of the local precipitation based on the evaporation effect. An elevation gradient of −4.2‰ km−1 (R2=0.93) was established for the eastern marginal region of TP. This elevation gradient was further confirmed by fractionation assessment using the Rayleigh fractionation model. This is the highest ever reported for the TP and it is the highest as compared to those of all the other slopes as well as that of the interior part of the TP. Precipitation isotopes in the interior of TP show a lower elevation gradient, which is likely caused by significant local moisture recycling. This paper also discusses the limitations of using river water samples to construct the elevation gradient.
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
       
  • Ocean-based climate actions recommended by academicians from Europe and
           China

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      PubDate: 2022-07-18
       
  • Regulation characteristics of underlying surface on runoff regime metrics
           and their spatial differences in typical urban communities across China

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      Abstract: Abstract The regulation and spatial differences of urban runoffs are of great concern in contemporary hydrological research. However, owing to a shortage of basic data sources and restrictions on urban hydrological simulation functions, simulating and investigating the regulation mechanism behind rainfall-runoff processes remain significantly challenging. In this study, the Time Variant Gain Model (TVGM), a hydrological nonlinear system model, was extrapolated to the hydrodynamic model of an urban drainage network system by integrating it with the widely used Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) to adequately simulate urban runoff events while considering various underlying surfaces and runoff routing modes, such as surface, drainage network and river runoff, in urban regions (i.e., TVGM-SWMM). Moreover, runoff events were characterized using the following four runoff regime metrics: runoff coefficient, capture ratio of annual runoff volume, standardized flood timescale, and the ratio of occurrence time differences between flow and rainfall peak to event duration (peak flow delay time). The characteristics and spatial differences of urban runoff regulations were investigated, and the key impact factors and their relative contributions were identified using multivariate statistical analyses. Four communities were selected as our study areas, consisting of communities from Beijing, Shenzhen, Wuhan, and Chongqing. Our results showed that the TVGM-SWMM performed considerably better than SWMM alone. The comprehensive simulation accuracy of 60% of the events (12/20) improved by 486%, with the bias improving the most, followed by the efficiency coefficient. Barring the runoff coefficient, significant spatial differences were identified at the patch scale for the runoff regime metrics, with differences of 0.43, 0.22, and 0.16 (p<0.05). The key impact factors were the pipe length (r=0.51) in the drainage network system and the forest area ratios (r=0.56), sponge measures (r=0.52), grassland (r=0.48), and impervious surface (r=0.46) in the underlying surfaces. The contributions of the drainage network system and the underlying surfaces were 4.27% and 37.83%, respectively. Regulation in the Beijing community, dominated by grassland regulation, delayed and reduced the peak flow and total runoff volume. In the Shenzhen community, sharp and thin runoff events were mainly generated by impervious surfaces and were not adequately regulated. Forest regulation was the dominant regulation type in the Wuhan community, which reduced the total runoff volume and delayed the peak flow. Waterbody regulation was the primary regulation type in the Chongqing community, which reduced the total runoff volume and peak flow. This study aims to introduce a comprehensive theoretical and technical assessment of the hydrological effects of urbanization and the performance of sponge city construction and provide a reference for urban hydrological model improvements in China.
      PubDate: 2022-07-14
       
  • Regional difference and influencing factors of the green development level
           in the urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River

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      Abstract: Abstract The urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River (UAMRYR) is a key area to promote the central region rise and the green development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt. In this paper, an evaluation index system was comprehensively constructed for the green development level of the UAMRYR from five aspects: resource utilization, green environment, green economy, green life, and support mechanisms. Entropy weight-TOPSIS method and multivariate statistical method, including spatial autocorrelation analysis and geographic detectors, were used to analyze the regional differences and influencing factors of the green development level of the UAMRYR from 2008 to 2018. The results showed that: (1) the overall green development level of the UAMRYR showed a fluctuating upward trend from 2008 to 2018, among which the provincial capital cities such as Wuhan, Changsha, and Nanchang, as well as the cities covered by the Poyang Lake urban agglomeration had relatively higher green development levels. (2) The green development level of the 31 cities in the UAMRYR showed insignificant spatial heterogeneity within the study period. Compared with other areas, the green development levels varied greatly among the regions of the Wuhan metropolitan area, which was a typical high-low aggregation type. (3) Green economy, green life, and support mechanisms were the highly influential aspects of the green development of the UAMRYR, and the main influencing factors were the total value added of secondary and tertiary industries, urbanization rate, and fixed asset investment. The explanatory power of the interaction of influencing factors on the green development of the UAMRYR was greater than that of a single factor. This study is intended to provide a reference for the green transformation development and the coordinated development of the “resources-environment-economy” in the UAMRYR.
      PubDate: 2022-07-14
       
  • Small water bodies in China: Spatial distribution and influencing factors

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      Abstract: Abstract Inland water bodies, including ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and rivers, provide extensive ecosystem services for human beings. Among these, small water bodies (SWBs), such as ponds and small reservoirs, are more common landscape features and important biogeochemical reactors. SWBs can significantly influence biogeochemical processes and hydrologic cycles. However, due to their small size, SWBs (<10 ha) have been largely ignored in natural resource surveys, leading to a limited understanding of their spatial distribution in China. Insufficient geospatial datasets of SWBs limit the accurate assessments of resource utilization and fluxes of biogenic elements in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. To address this, in this study, we applied a convolutional neural network and a visual interpretation approach to extract SWBs from high-resolution satellite images from Google Earth. The spatial distribution of SWBs in China was mapped, and drivers of the spatial pattern of SWBs were also identified. As a result, a total of 5.18 million water bodies with a surface area larger than 0.1 ha, including ponds, lakes, and reservoirs, were identified. These water bodies (>0.1 ha) cover approximately 179300 km2, which is approximately 1.8% of the land area in China. In addition, the combined shoreline length of the water bodies was approximately 2157400 km. Of these water bodies, 96.85% were SWBs, accounting for 17.85% of the total water area and 76.4% of the total shoreline length. Precipitation, terrain, and human activity cumulatively explained 45% of the variance in SWB distribution, with precipitation being the strongest climatic explanatory factor. Our results provide important data for determining the roles of SWBs in biogeochemical cycles, habitat protection, and hydrological cycles.
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
       
  • Late Mesozoic rifting and its deep dynamic mechanisms in the central Sulu
           orogenic belt: Records from Lingshan Island

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      Abstract: Abstract The Lingshan Island scientific drill confirms that two episodes (Laiyang period and Qingshan period) of rifting developed in the central Sulu orogenic belt (SOB) in Late Mesozoic. With a set of methods including fieldwork, drilling, core logging, zircon U-Pb dating and whole rock geochemistry applied, the age, the depositional sequence and the deep dynamic mechanisms of rift evolution were unraveled. The stratigraphic sequence of the Laiyang-Qingshan Groups on Lingshan Island was composed of two different rifting sequences: (1) Laiyang Group (147–125 Ma), which consists of deep-water gravity flow deposits with interlayers of intermediate volcanic rocks; and (2) Lower Qingshan Group (125–119 Ma), which unconformably overlies the former sequence and contains subaerial volcanic deposits and terrestrial deposits. The tectonic environment changed during the evolution of these two episodes of rifting: the rift was in a NNW-SSE extensional environment in the Laiyang period and showed the typical passive rifting character that “lithospheric extension and rifting preceded volcanism”. The passive rifting period was ended by a short WNW-ESE compression at about 125 Ma. After that, the tectonic environment transferred to a strong NW-SE extensional environment and the rifting evolved into a volcanic arc basin in the Qingshan period. The igneous rocks are shoshonitic to high-K calc-alkaline trachyandesites to trachytes with a few intercalated lamprophyres and a rhyolite. The geochemical characteristics of the igneous rocks indicate that they are mantle-derived melts with a metasomatized mantle source and/or crustal contamination. In addition, an increased thinning of the lithosphere happened during the rifting episodes. The low-angle subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate in the Jurassic weakened the thickened SOB lithospheric mantle. The rollback of the subducting plate started in late Jurassic to early Cretaceous, and the SOB lithospheric mantle was delaminated synchronously because of the gravity collapse. Thus, this caused passive rifting in the Laiyang period. Thereafter, the rollback and trench retreat of the high-angle subducting Paleo-Pacific plate would have achieved its climax, resulting in the strong regional extension. Passive rifting was ended by the crustal uplift caused by asthenospheric upwelling beneath the rift. The lower crust was heated by the upwelling asthenosphere and partially melted to form felsic melts, which were emplaced upwards and erupted explosively. The rift evolved into a volcanic arc basin in the Qingshan period and showed some characteristics of active rifting. Above all, a passive rifting in the Laiyang period and a volcanic arc basin in the Qingshan period developed successively in the Lingshan Island area (the central SOB). This records the transfer of the study area from the Paleo-Tethys tectonic domain to the circum-Pacific tectonic domain. The delamination of SOB lithospheric mantle and the upwelling of asthenospheric material were the deep dynamic mechanisms driving the development and evolution of two rift episodes. Additionally, the rift development was controlled remotely by the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate.
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
       
  • Plate boundary processes of the Caroline Plate

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      Abstract: Abstract The tectonic evolution of the Caroline Plate during the Oligocene to Early Miocene was mainly controlled by two fulcrums. The west fulcrum at Palau Island remained fixed during 29–25 Ma as the Ayu Trough rifted and produced the abyssal hills parallel to its boundaries, and the Pacific Plate and part of the Caroline Plate subducted to the north. At the northeast corner of the Caroline Plate, the east fulcrum is surrounded by a series of arc seamount chains. These chains resulted from the convergence between the Caroline Plate and the Pacific Plate and crustal softening of the northeastern Caroline Plate induced by the Caroline Hotspot at ∼25 Ma. This softening of the crust also led to the dysfunction of the east fulcrum, and the west fulcrum migrated south, which caused dextral motion along the Ayu Rift and the development of an en echelon structure. The Yap Trench was a part of the spreading center in the Parece-Vela Rift at ∼29 Ma. However, sinistral motion along the Parece-Vela Rift at around 20–15 Ma led to the exposure of the subducted Yap Trench and left a triangular region with distinctive geophysical characteristics in the surrounding area.
      PubDate: 2022-07-12
       
  • Neoarchean granitic rocks from the Jiamiao area of the Dabie orogen:
           Implications on the formation and early evolution of the Yangtze Craton

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      Abstract: Abstract Archean rock exposures in the Yangtze Craton of South China are scarce and have been only studied in small-scale outcrops for understanding its early crustal evolution. Geological investigations have been carried out for three Neoarchean gneissic granitic plutons from the Dabie orogen in the northeastern margin of the Yangtze Craton. Zircon U-Pb geochronology constrains the emplacement of high-K monzogranite at 2645±30 Ma, high-K syenogranite at 2630±37 Ma and Na-rich granodiorite at 2497±29 Ma. These findings provide direct evidence for the existence of ∼2.7–2.5 Ga rocks in the Dabie orogen, which significantly contribute to the distribution and evolution of Neoarchean basement rocks in the Yangtze Craton. Zircon crystals from the three granite samples give εHf(t) values of −0.9 to 3.7, −4.2 to −0.4 and −4.7 to 0.1, respectively, corresponding to TDM2 ages of 3186–2909, 3372–3141 and 3297–3005 Ma. The magmatic zircons have δ18O values of 5.06±0.27‰ to 5.79 ±0.30‰ (average 5.59‰), 6.14±0.24 to 7.35±0.26‰ (average 6.87‰) and 5.95±0.17‰ to 7.09±0.17‰ (average 6.55‰), respectively. Considering the possible decrease of δ18O value due to the lead loss during post-crystallization alteration, the primary δ18O values might be substantially higher than those of the normal mantle zircon value (δ18O=5.3±0.6‰). These isotopic data indicate that the Jiamiao Neoarchean granites were largely generated through reworking of Paleo-Mesoarchean basement rocks with a minor contribution of supracrustal material. Integrating our findings with previous results, we infer that the Archean-Paleoproterozoic complexes/terranes of the Yangtze Craton have distinct petrogenesis and the timings of the transition from Na-rich to high-K granites, crustal growth, and tectonothermal evolution before ∼2.0 Ga. However, all of them underwent metamorphism at about 2.0 Ga. These observations also reveal that the Yangtze Craton might comprise several microcontinents that evolved individually and collided to form a unified craton at ∼2.0 Ga, synchronous with the assembly of the Columbia supercontinent. However, the lack of relevant data from the southeastern Yangtze Craton may have a critical influence on this conclusion and should be solved in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-07-12
       
  • Fault-controlled regional magmatism and mineral deposition in central
           Cathaysia—Evidence from ambient noise tomography

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      Abstract: Abstract Guangdong Province in the central Cathaysian Block has two world-class metallogenic belts, namely, the Nanling and Southeastern Coastal Metallogenic Belts (NLMB and SCMB), which are spatially coincide with the major regional Ganjiang and Zhenghe-Dapu Fault Zones (GJFZ and ZDFZ). However, what roles the faults played in mineral deposition and magmatism is unclear. Using ambient noise tomography, we obtain a 3-D whole-crust shear wave velocity model. By combining available regional geophysical models, we characterize the architecture of the regional shallow lithosphere and infer its possible tectonic connection to magmatic sources, pathways and surface deposition. The results show that the study area is loosely divided by the two major faults, the GJFZ and ZDFZ, into distinct velocity domains. In the north high Vs and low Vp/Vs crust in the NLMB imply crustal remelting, which leads to the general felsic composition. In the coastal area, the lower crustal high Vs anomaly is attributed to upwelling melts associated with Cretaceous magmatic activity. Between mineral belts, a swath of crustal low-velocity zones extend into the uppermost mantle, manifesting partial melting related to upwelling magmas that may hint at a deep origin of magma from subcrustal lithosphere and likely feed surface mineral deposits through major faults. Secondary NW-trending faults coincide with low velocities and facilitated magmatic migration. A correlation between coastward extension of low velocities and younging of the Jurassic and Cretaceous magmatism is suggestive of a combined effect of slab rollback and a change in the direction of the Paleo-Pacific subduction system. We speculate a regional fault-control model in the central Cathaysian Block for the spatial-temporal evolution of regional deformation and magmatism during the middle Mesozoic.
      PubDate: 2022-07-12
       
  • Overlooked contribution of the biological pump to the Pacific Arctic
           nitrogen deficit

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      Abstract: Abstract The nutrient-rich Pacific Ocean seawater that flows through the Bering Strait into the Chukchi Sea is generally considered to be the most important source of nutrients to the Arctic euphotic zone. The inflow is characterized by nitrogen deficit and low nitrate/phosphate (N/P) ratios; this is ascribed to sedimentary denitrification on the Chukchi shelf by preoccupant opinions. However, the Chukchi Sea also has high primary production, which raises the question of whether the biological pump may also significantly modulate nutrient properties of the throughflow. Here, we show that nitrate concentrations of the Pacific inflow gradually decrease northward in association with notable biological utilization. The phytoplankton N/P uptake ratio was 8.8±2.27, higher than the N/P ratio of Pacific inflow water (5–6). This uptake ratio, in combination with efficient vertical nitrogen export, serves to preferentially remove nitrogen (relative to phosphorus) from upper waters, thereby further intensifying the Arctic nitrogen deficit. Accordingly, as large as about 111.7×109 mol N yr−1 of nitrate was extra consumed, according to the real N/P uptake ratio rather than the ratio of the Pacific inflow, which may be as great as half the nitrogen loss ascribed to sedimentary denitrification. Our findings suggest that besides sedimentary denitrification, biological disproportionate utilization of nutrients in the Chukchi Sea upper water is another important contributor to the nitrogen limitation and excess phosphorus in the upper Arctic Ocean. In the rapid Arctic change era, the predicted reinforced biological carbon pump could further impact the nutrient dynamics and biogeochemical process of the Arctic Ocean.
      PubDate: 2022-07-06
       
 
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