Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)     - EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)    - GEOLOGY (94 journals)    - GEOPHYSICS (33 journals)    - HYDROLOGY (29 journals)    - OCEANOGRAPHY (88 journals) EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)            First | 1 2 3
 Showing 401 - 371 of 371 Journals sorted alphabetically Physical Geography       (Followers: 8) Physical Science International Journal Physics in Medicine & Biology       (Followers: 15) Physics of Life Reviews       (Followers: 1) Physics of Metals and Metallography       (Followers: 18) Physics of Plasmas       (Followers: 10) Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors       (Followers: 34) Physics of the Solid State       (Followers: 4) Physics of Wave Phenomena Physics World       (Followers: 18) Physik in unserer Zeit       (Followers: 9) Pirineos Planet       (Followers: 4) Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion       (Followers: 6) Plasma Physics Reports       (Followers: 7) Polar Record       (Followers: 2) Positioning       (Followers: 4) Pramana       (Followers: 13) Precambrian Research       (Followers: 7) Preview Proceedings of the Geologists' Association       (Followers: 6) Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales       (Followers: 2) Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society       (Followers: 1) Progress in Earth and Planetary Science       (Followers: 15) Pure and Applied Geophysics       (Followers: 12) Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology       (Followers: 4) Quaternary Quaternary Australasia Quaternary Geochronology       (Followers: 8) Quaternary International       (Followers: 14) Quaternary Research       (Followers: 19) Quaternary Science Advances Quaternary Science Reviews       (Followers: 26) Radiocarbon       (Followers: 12) Remote Sensing       (Followers: 57) Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment       (Followers: 9) Remote Sensing in Earth Systems Sciences       (Followers: 5) Remote Sensing Letters       (Followers: 45) Remote Sensing Science       (Followers: 29) Rendiconti Lincei Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics       (Followers: 8) Reports on Mathematical Physics       (Followers: 2) Research & Reviews : Journal of Space Science & Technology       (Followers: 18) Resource Geology       (Followers: 6) Resources, Environment and Sustainability       (Followers: 1) Results in Geochemistry Results in Geophysical Sciences Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry       (Followers: 4) Reviews of Modern Physics       (Followers: 31) Revista Cerrados Revista de Ciências Exatas Aplicadas e Tecnológicas da Universidade de Passo Fundo : CIATEC-UPF Revista de Ingenieria Sismica Revista de Investigaciones en Energía, Medio Ambiente y Tecnología Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales Revista de Teledetección Revista Geológica de Chile Revue Française de Géotechnique Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering       (Followers: 7) Rocks & Minerals       (Followers: 3) Russian Geology and Geophysics       (Followers: 2) Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics Russian Journal of Pacific Geology Russian Physics Journal       (Followers: 1) Science China Earth Sciences       (Followers: 3) Science News       (Followers: 11) Science of Remote Sensing       (Followers: 7) Scientific Annals of Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava. 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Similar Journals
 Rendiconti LinceiNumber of Followers: 0      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 2037-4631 - ISSN (Online) 1720-0776 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2469 journals]
• Fermented food/beverage and health: current perspectives

Abstract: Fermented products have been gaining a notable importance in recent years due to the health benefits that they can provide in relation to the initial unfermented food matrix, i.e. in the enhancement of nutrients, effect on glucose metabolism and bioactivity, the presence of probiotics in some foods. The paper gives a current analysis of the fermented food/beverage and health relationship studies present in the literature and it is based on a literature quantitative analysis approach. VOSviewer software was utilized to extract and elaborate bibliometric data. 1504 publications ranged from the year 1970 to 2022 were retrieved by literature search and were collectively cited in 25,868 documents. The subject areas mainly covered are: “Agricultural and Biological Sciences”, “Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology”, “Immunology and Microbiology” and “Medicine”. 1148 terms, in total, are identified and the top recurring terms on the fermented food/beverage and health research are: metabolism, lactobacillus, food microbiology, lactic acid, animals. The functionality of fermented foods are here explored. Innovation is represented towards obtaining specific fermented foods (i.e. yogurts), by changing the fermentation conditions, or by adding or removing compounds that alter the fermentation, and thus, with the improvement of technologies like nanotechnology, targeted nutrition and others, it is expected that fermented food will consolidate their position in the food market.
PubDate: 2022-09-29

• Physiological, morphological, and growth effects of microplastics on
freshwater alga Chlorella vulgaris

Abstract: It is doubted that large numbers of microplastics (MPs) are present in aquatic environment and their concentrations are expected to rise in the foreseeable future. Interactions, uptake, excretion rates, and the effects of microplastics on biota remain largely unrevealed. This study investigated how microplastics impact algal growth, physiological response, and the antioxidant system (superoxide dismutase “SOD”, peroxidase “POD”, catalase “CA” and glutathione reductase “GR” enzymes) using the green freshwater alga Chlorella vulgaris as the test species. MPs significantly (P < 0.05) reduced chlorophyll content, photosynthetic efficiency, photosynthetic rates, and the activities of POD, and GR. Moreover, SOD activity was significantly (P < 0.05) induced in MP-treated algae, indicating that oxidative stress was induced after exposure to MPs. Algal growth decreased with the increase in MPs, which showed that algal growth inhibition was found to be MPs’ concentration-dependent. C. vulgaris could be used as a bioindicator or a natural biomarker of contaminations in aquatic environments as it showed a range of physiological responses under MPs’ stress. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2022-09-23

• Optimizing monitoring of an endemic terrestrial salamander (Speleomantes
ambrosii): comparing cost-effectiveness of different methods for abundance
estimation

Abstract: In order to correctly plan conservation and management of animal populations, it is fundamental to obtain reliable information on population abundance using cost-effective monitoring methods. In the case of small terrestrial vertebrates, capture–mark–recapture, removal sampling and counts of unmarked individuals have proven to be reliable techniques to estimate population abundance. In the present study, we applied a multinomial N-mixture modelling approach, performed through a double-observer sampling protocol, to estimate population size of the endemic terrestrial salamander Speleomantes ambrosii. We aimed at comparing cost-effectiveness of this protocol with those of other estimation methods (i.e., capture–mark–recapture and removal sampling), with particular attention to management and monitoring guidelines. The double-observer multinomial N-mixture protocol was the most cost-effective among the different methods: given its ease of application and cost-effectiveness, we encourage its employment for long-term monitoring and conservation plans of the near-threatened plethodontid salamander Speleomantes ambrosii.
PubDate: 2022-09-15

• Growth, carcass, digestive enzymes, intestinal microbiota and economics in
growing Egyptian geese as affected by dietary fiber and fat levels

Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary crude fiber and fat levels on growth, carcass, digestive enzymes, intestinal microbiota and economics in growing Egyptian geese. A total number of 150 Egyptian goslings, 4 weeks old, with nearly the same body weights were randomly distributed in to six groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement included. Three levels of fiber (8, 10, and 12%) and two levels of fat (5 and 6%) were used. Results showed that the highest (p = 0.029) body weight (BW) value was found in the experimental group fed 8% fiber diet compared to the other groups. The same trend was observed with increasing the dietary fat level from 5 to 6%. The best feed conversion ratio was associated with feeding geese on the lowest fat level (5%) comparing with the highest one (6%). The highest values (p ˂ 0.05 or 0.01) of the cecal length and weight were recorded in birds fed the high-fiber diet (12%) compared to the other levels. Increasing the level of dietary fat positively affected the concentrations of lipase enzymes. Feeding geese on the high-fiber diet (12%) accompanied with the highest (p ˂ 0.01) counts of beneficial lactic acid bacteria and the lowest (p ˂ 0.01) counts of E. coli and Salmonella compared to the other fiber levels. From an economic point of view, the diet contained 12% crude fiber and 5% crude fat was more suitable for the geese kept from 4 to 12 wks of age without any adverse effects on growth performance.
PubDate: 2022-09-08

• DNA barcoding to assess species identification in museum samples of
Amphiliidae and natural samples of Cichlidae from Southern Mozambique

Abstract: The biodiversity protection and monitorning is one of main goals of natural history musems worldwide. Conservation issues are particularly important for freshwater fish which are one of the most threatened taxa for the consequences of climate change and human activies. In Mozambique freshwater rivers are poorly explored and the impact of aquaculture and human activities on local biodiversity in almost unknown. Here we propose the barcoding analysis of cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochrondrial DNA of 41 frehswater fishes catched in four rivers of southern Mozambique and 53 from a museum collection. As evidence of previous knowledge gaps, barcoding results revealed twenty new haplotypes described for the first time in the taxa Cichlidae and Amphilidae. From a methodological point of view, the barcoding approach demonstrated a critical point connected to the requested 650 bp length of amplified sequences. In fact, high weight genomic DNA is unattainable from museum samples and also in wildlife samples collected in pristine rivers. For this reason we furtherly tested the efficiency of DNA mini-barcoding analysis for 53 fish from a museum collection. The Mini-barcode method retrieved 56.6% of sequences successfully analyzed versus 3% of barcoding. The high performance of this thecniques is discussed in relation to biodiversity monitoring and to fill the taxonomy gaps in museum collections.
PubDate: 2022-09-06

• Temporal increase in the extent of Sardinian pine formations

Abstract: Temporal changes in the distribution range of plant communities and habitats should be considered for optimal conservation. However, this information is often lacking. In this research, we investigated the changes in the spatial distribution pattern of the plant communities characterised by the presence of three Mediterranean pines considered native or putative native to Sardinia (Italy), namely Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster, and P. pinea. We analysed historical and current aerial photographs to prepare maps of the past and current distribution of natural pine formations, complemented with the aid of pine-related toponymy maps and interviews with local people. We calculated how the surface of natural pine formations varied across time, and found a high rate of recovery during the last decades. This rate is doubled when compared to the average extent of other Sardinian woody formations in the same period. Among the three pine species, the area of P. halepensis and P. pinaster formations increased the most. We also found that about 90% of pine formations fall within protected areas. More than 128 ha of natural pine formations are included in the priority habitat 2270, while those included in habitat 9540 cover 1100 ha. Our study provides a complete survey of the distribution of natural Sardinian pine formations, along with the quantification of their increase in the last decades, thus highlighting the importance of diachronic analyses for monitoring spatial changes in plant communities. We suggest considering the trends in the extent of vegetation formations and habitats for conservation purposes.
PubDate: 2022-09-05

• Study of antibacterial performance of biosynthesized pure and Ag-doped ZnO
nanoparticles

Abstract: In the present paper, pure and silver-doped zinc oxide (Ag-doped ZnO) nanoparticles were prepared using a green route and employing Salvadora persica leaf extract. Antibacterial performance of synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) survey on gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria through disk diffusion and micro-dilution technics was also studied. The synthesized NPs were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses. XRD and EDX results presented that the silver was well doped into the structure of ZnO. In addition, spherical shape of this product, as well as the average size of 25–40 nm, were observed in the results of FESEM and TEM images. The results of disk diffusion and microdilution of synthesized nanoparticles showed that Ag-doped ZnO nanoparticles, have more antibacterial performance than pure zinc oxide nanoparticles on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. So, synthesized NPs can be proposed as a choice in clinical and laboratory applications.
PubDate: 2022-09-01

• Sugarcane bagasse acts as a metal absorber in the rhizosphere in
mitigating arsenic toxicity in wheat

Abstract: Arsenic (As) is a hazardous element causing environmental pollution and yield loss in wheat. Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) is known to have metal detoxification efficiency in wastewater. However, the role of SCB in As elimination in plants was never investigated. This work examines the role, if any, of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) to alleviate As toxicity in wheat. The addition of SCB under As (V) stress showed significant improvement in shoot biomass, chlorophyll synthesis, membrane stability, total protein, and sugar concentration judged against As-stressed plants, suggesting that SCB is effective in As detoxification. Interestingly, the As-induced damage in the quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and photosynthesis performance index (Pi_ABS) significantly improved due to SCB treatment on As-stressed wheat. This further suggests that the antagonism of essential elements with As might be linked to the nutrient balance responsible for morpho-physiological improvement. Analysis of As in plant tissues and nutrient medium reveals that the adsorption efficiency of SCB is inversely proportioned to As translocation rate resulting in a significant decline of As in roots and shoot. It supports the physiological findings and suggests that the adsorption capacity of SCB leads to less available As in the nutrient medium for the wheat plants under As supplementation. Alongside this, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation significantly decreased subjected to SCB treatment under As. It is correlated with the increased antioxidant (CAT and SOD) activities of SCB in response to As toxicity. This study explores the novel and eco-friendly strategy through the potential application of SCB for the detoxification of crops and soil.
PubDate: 2022-09-01

• Parasitological and molecular identification of Trypanosoma species
circulating in cattle and tsetse flies in Matutuine District, Maputo
Province, Mozambique

Abstract: Tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) are haematophagous insects of medical and veterinary importance due to their role in the transmission of trypanosomes. Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis is one of the major constraints to agriculture and livestock development in sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, the importance of the assessment of the distribution of both disease and vector in areas where cattle are kept, as is the case of Matutuíne district, where the last longitudinal study was conducted in 2000. From March 2009 to December 2012, 2427 bovine blood samples were collected in five administrative areas of Matutine district (Bela Vista, Zitundo, Catuane, Catembe and Machangulo). For each animal, the packed cell volume (PCV) was determined and blood examined for the presence of motile trypanosomes using microscopy. At the same time, tsetse flies were also captured. Additionally, DNA was extracted from both cattle blood and tsetse flies. The samples were further analysed using the 18S PCR–RFLP. Trypanosome infections in bovines were detected in all Matutuíne´s administrative areas. The overall prevalence of trypanosome infections was 15.62% by buffy coat and 47.34% by molecular testing. A total of 1379 tsetse flies (1379 Glossina brevipalpis and 150 G. austeni) were captured. From this, 408 were analysed by 18S PCR for the presence of trypanosomes. The results showed a percentage of infection of 12.74% and 3.19% for G. brevipalpis and G. austeni, respectively. With these results, it is concluded that tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis is a major threat to cattle in Matutuine and control actions need to be implemented.
PubDate: 2022-09-01

• Mercury pollution assessment and metallothionein gene expression in
tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus): a case study of Revuè River in Manica,
Mozambique

Abstract: Revuè River has been considered as one of the most threatened systems in Mozambique due to increased anthropogenic activities such as artisanal and industrial gold mining using mercury (Hg), a heavy metal known for its diverse effects including, bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the environment. The present study aims to determine the metallothionein (MT) expressions in the hepatic tissue of Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia) exposed to Hg in the laboratory and tilapia collected in Chicamba reservoir. Tilapia juveniles were exposed to different concentrations of Hg (0.037 and 0.37 mg/L) in the laboratory. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected to quantify Total Hg (THg). Furthermore, liver samples in tilapia exposed to Hg and tilapia samples from Chicamba reservoir were collected to analyze the gene expression levels of MT using a quantitative PCR. Results from the study showed a low contamination of the waters and sediment from Revuè River, demonstrated by the Hg concentration in the sediment and water. Slightly high concentrations of Hg were detected in fish from Chicamba reservoir, confirmed by the overexpression of MT observed in liver samples from tilapia and were higher than those expressed in tilapia from the laboratory experiment. There is a correlation between Hg exposure and the MT expression in tilapia, suggesting that MT can be used as a biomarker to assess Hg pollution in the Revuè River.
PubDate: 2022-08-29

• Plants and water in a changing world: a physiological and ecological
perspective

Abstract: The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission by replacing fossil energy stocks with carbon–neutral fuels is a major topic of the political and scientific debate on environmental sustainability. Such shift in energy sources is expected to curtail the accumulation rate of atmospheric CO2, which is a strong infrared absorber and thus contributes to the global warming effect. Although such change would produce desirable outputs, the consequences of a drastic decrease in atmospheric CO2 (the substrate of photosynthesis) should be carefully considered in the light of its potential impact on ecosystems stability and agricultural productivity. Indeed, plants regulate CO2 uptake and water loss through the same anatomical structure: the leaf stomata. A reduced CO2 availability is thus expected to enhance transpiration rate in plants decreasing their water use efficiency and imposing an increased water demand for both agricultural and wild ecosystems. We suggest that this largely underestimated issue should be duly considered when implementing policies that aim at the mitigation of global environmental changes and, at the same time, promote sustainable agricultural practices, include the preservation of biodiversity. Also, we underlie the important role(s) that modern biotechnology could play to tackle these global challenges by introducing new traits aimed at creating crop varieties with enhanced CO2 capture and water- and light-use efficiency.
PubDate: 2022-08-13

• Syntaxonomy and vegetation–environment relationships in Mount
Akdağ (Amasya/Türkiye)

Abstract: In this study, vegetation–environment relationships, species, and syntaxonomic diversity in Akdağ, located in the transition zone to the Euxin of the Central Iran–Turanian floristic region, were investigated using classical Braun-Blanquet and multivariate methods. A total of thirteen plant associations and two sub-associations were identified and classified in the study area. Three new plant associations and two new sub-associations belonging to the forest were described and classified. Seven new mountain steppe and one new coniferous cushion scrub associations were also identified and classified. Relationships between vegetation and environmental factors were evaluated using canonical correspondence analysis. Raunkiaer life form ratios, Shannon–Wiener index values, and the chorological spectrum of syntaxa were calculated and interpreted. EUNIS habitat codes and names for the described syntaxa were proposed.
PubDate: 2022-08-12

• Statistical dynamics of bimolecular recombination of alkali and halide
ions

Abstract: By means of quasiclassical trajectory simulation on semiempirical diabatic potential energy surfaces proposed earlier, we have studied the dynamics of the bimolecular recombination reactions RCs+  + X– → CsX + R for X– = F–, I– and R = Ar, Xe. The results obtained include the excitation functions of the reactions in the range of collision energies $$E_{{{\text{col}}}}$$ from 0.1 to 2.5 eV as well as the distributions of the energy of the flying apart of the products, the opacity functions, and the distributions of the vibrational and rotational energies of the CsX molecule at $$E_{{{\text{col}}}} = 0.1$$ , 0.2, and 0.3 eV. For each of the four systems considered, the cross section of bimolecular recombination drops as the collision energy grows. In all the cases, the distributions of the vibrational energy of the product molecule are strongly non-equilibrium, whereas the distributions of the rotational energy are relatively close to equilibrium ones. On the whole, the behavior of the statistical dynamical characteristics of bimolecular recombination turns out to depend on the halide ion X– to a much greater extent than on the neutral atom R. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2022-08-10

• Global network mapping research landscape and trends of the endogenous
retroviruses: a look through bibliometric analysis

Abstract: Endogenous retrovirus (ERV) research amalgamates host-retroviral coevolutionary, phylogenomic, infection, immunity, and cellular studies in various hosts ranging from fish to humans. Henceforth, a bibliometric analysis of these publications may aid in the identification of trends in ERV research. It was the foremost bibliographic study, with the key aim to conduct the bibliometric network analysis (e.g. co-authorship, co-occurrence, citation, bibliographic coupling, and co-citation analysis) to find the most prolific authors, organizations, and countries in ERV research, based on the mapping of bibliographic data. Second, the mapping based on text data comprised to chalk out the research trend over the time. The global literature about endogenous retroviruses published between 1985 and Sep 2021 was searched in the Web of Science (Core Collection) database using the “ENDOGENOUS RETROVIRUS” keyword. The bibliometric analysis of this dataset was carried out using VOSviewer version 1.6.17. According to findings, English was the de facto language of these publications, and 2157 were original articles. Among 2939 published documents, “endogenous retrovirus” was the most frequent keyword. Moreover, it revealed the United States as a core contributor to studies on the ERV. The Journal of Virology published a substantial amount of manuscripts in ERV. Robert Koch Institute and Harvard University were leading organizations for research in this field. The application of ERV research from China could be the research hotspot to follow in the coming years. Current bibliometric analysis provides a comprehensive picture of ERV research progress and has highlighted the contribution of different stakeholders.
PubDate: 2022-08-09

• Biofilm as an adaptation strategy to extreme conditions

Abstract: Biofilm is the most successful and widely distributed form of life on earth, it is not simply structured collections of cells attached to surfaces but is a dynamic complex biological system able to respond to environmental changes. The biofilm characteristics make it unique and central to microbial evolution and adaptation. The ability to establish biofilms is a key trait for microorganisms growing in extreme environments like extreme temperature, high radiation, acidic or alkaline pH values, heavy metal pollution, and high salinity. In this article, we report the main features of biofilm and how these characteristics make biofilms a successful survival strategy in extreme conditions. All aspects examined in this article help to explain why biofilms are a successful survival strategy in extreme conditions and why the ability to establish biofilms is a key trait for microorganisms growing in extreme environments.
PubDate: 2022-08-09

• Biomediated nanosized ZnS using Ulva fasciata and Citrus japonica: A new
bio-photocatalyst for textile wastewater treatment

Abstract: The aquatic ecosystems face excessive stress and depletion due to many pollutants impacting water quality. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) using the green route represents a cost-effectively and eco-friendly approach, with significant applicability in various fields. In this regard, ZnS-NPs with improved photocatalytic and antimicrobial activities were biosynthesized for the first time from Ulva fasciata and Citrus japonica aqueous extracts. Biosynthesized ZnS-NPs were characterized and compared with chemically synthesized ones using UV–Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, TEM, XRD, and EDAX. TEM micrographs and XRD confirmed the formation of polygonal and spherical-shaped ZnS blend sphalerite nanocrystals with an average diameter between 7 and 31 nm. The optical properties of the produced ZnS-NPs showed higher band-gap energy of 5.63 eV and 4.76 eV for chemically and biosynthesized ZnS-NPs, respectively, as compared to ZnS macromolecules (3.77 eV). Biosynthesized ZnS-NPs showed excellent photocatalytic activity toward textile wastewater and two organic dyes (crystal violet and safranin), with significant degradation efficiency of 82–96.8, 82.5–98.12, and 84–95.9%, respectively. Biosynthesized ZnS-NPs showed high stability up to three subsequent cycles of photodegradation and exhibited promising antimicrobial activity against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans. Biosynthesized ZnS-NPs have a less cytotoxic effect (IC50 > 300 μg/mL) than chemically synthesized ZnS-NPs (IC50 88 μg/mL) on human skin fibroblast normal cell lines. The photocatalytic efficiency of the biosynthesized ZnS-NPs has some advantages, such as non-toxic products, cost-effectiveness, and antimicrobial activity, which give them superiority to be used as a safe bio-photocatalyst for water treatment. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2022-07-28

• Assessment of surface water quality in a drinking water supply reservoir
in Vietnam: a combination of different indicators

Abstract: Eutrophication and water pollution have become serious aquatic environmental problems worldwide. In this study, four different water quality indexing methods, the Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI), the revised Comprehensive Pollution Index (CPI), the Eutrophication Index (EI), and the Trophic State Index (TSI), were used to investigate water quality and trophic status in the Tri An Reservoir (TAR), Vietnam. Nineteen water variables were monitored bimonthly between February 2018 and December 2019 to calculate these four indices. Although different input data sets were used, all the indices showed similar results in terms of water quality and eutrophic state. The CCME WQI ranged from 32 to 68 (median 36–48), which indicated that the water quality was classified between poor and marginal and was insufficient for domestic purposes. Similarly, the water quality was ranked between slightly polluted and medium polluted based on the revised CPI index, with the median values ranging from 0.72 to 0.94. In the CCME WQI and the CPI, the major parameters that contributed to water pollution in the TAR were turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), total suspended solids (TSS), chemical and biological oxygen demand (BOD5), ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2−), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and coliforms. Regarding the trophic status of water, the EI ranged from 10 to 464, indicating that the reservoir was eutrophic, and the TSI values ranged from 53 to 89, indicating that the water quality was classified between light-eutrophic and hypereutrophic conditions. A temporal variation in water quality was found, with the highest levels of pollution recorded in June during the study period. Our results show that the combination of different water quality indices provides a comprehensive assessment of water quality in the TAR.
PubDate: 2022-07-23
DOI: 10.1007/s12210-022-01086-5

• Characterization and biodegradation of ibuprofen by Bacillus siamensis
strain DSI-1 isolated from wastewater

Abstract: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the emerging class of xenobiotics that were detected in various environmental sources. The monocyclic compound Ibuprofen acts as an emerging micro-pollutant and this has been widely used in the form a pain reliever drug. Microbes have the potential to use this compound as bon and nitrogen source. Hence, this study was conducted in the batch culture with the relevant concentration of Ibuprofen. The active microbial culture was collected from wastewater and this was used to isolate the true degrader of IBU by the addition of IBU during the enrichment process. Therefore, the enrichment culture technique was performed to isolate true Ibuprofen degrading bacterial strain. Haldane’s growth kinetics model was used in order to study the kinetic behaviour of strain. The isolate DSI-1 has been characterized by microscopy, biochemical tests and molecular analysis by using 16S rRNA sequencing. Based on these characterization methods, the isolate DSI-1 was reported as Bacillus siamensis strain DSI-1 (with GenBank accession number MT039503). This strain has degraded the Ibuprofen (up to concentration of 15 mg/L) which was added to wastewater in scale-up bioreactor (5L) study conducted in the present work. Through the batch culture study, it was observed that 20 mg/L of IBU was degraded in 24 h and the maximum specific growth rate (μmax) observed was 0.21/h. The saturation constant (Ks) and inhibition constant (Ki) observed for ibuprofen degradation were 17 ± 5%, and 315 ± 5% mg/L, respectively, with correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9827. The mathematical modelling was used with the help of Design-Expert® software for the optimization of various physical parameters by experimental design. The correlation coefficient (R2) observed for IBU degradation was 0.8897, Adj R2 (0.7794), and predicted R2 (0.4736). The optimum conditions reported of IBU degradation were temperature (30 °C), pH (7.0), IBU (3.5 mg/L), and agitation speed (165 rpm). This research exemplifies the involvement of bacteria with efficient removal of the relative concentration of Ibuprofen from wastewater. Therefore, the results of this study have indicated the potential for the isolated IBU degrading Bacillus siamensis strain DSI-1 and this strain can be further deployed for bioremediation program by in-situ degradation.
PubDate: 2022-07-20
DOI: 10.1007/s12210-022-01085-6

• Rediscovery of cold pressed cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.) oil: a good
source of fat-soluble bioactives with functional and health-enhancing
traits

Abstract: Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) fruits or capsules are rich in bioactive phytochemicals with beneficial health impacts. Very few studies reported the chemistry and functionality of Elettaria cardamomum lipids, fixed oil, and cold pressed cardamom oil (CPCO). This work characterized CPCO for its lipid classes, fatty acids, phytosterols, tocols, total phenolics, antiradical potential (toward galvinoxyl and DPPH· radicals), antioxidative effects, and antimicrobial behavior (against foodborne bacteria and dermatophytic fungi). Neutral lipids were detected at the highest amount (ca. 96.6%), followed by glycolipids (ca. 2%) and phospholipids (ca. 1.3%). Oleic (C18:1, 43.7%), palmitic (C16:0, 21.6%), and linoleic (C18:2, 17.6%) were the major fatty acids in CPCO. The levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), saturated fatty acids (SFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were 47%, 32%, and 21%, respectively. CPCO contained large amounts of unsaponifiables (16.4 g/kg). The total content of phytosterols was 222 mg/100 g oil, wherein β-sitosterol was the main compound, followed by sitostanol, campesterol, stigmasterol, Δ5-avenasterol, and citrostadienol. The total content of tocols was 2.38 mg/100 g of oil, and the contents (mg/100 g oil) of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols in CPCO were 1.25, 0.08, 0.58, and 0.28, respectively. Besides, CPCO contained high amounts of total phenolics (3.9 mg GAE/g oil). CPCO exhibited better antiradical traits than extra virgin olive oil. The induction time (IT) recorded for sunflower oil (SFO) and CPCO blend (9:1, v/v) was 405 min, while the IT for blend) 8:2, v/v) was 532 min. Besides, CPCO showed broad antimicrobial effects against foodborne pathogens (Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli) and dermatophytic fungi (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum). It could be concluded that CPCO is a good source of lipid-soluble bioactives, making it a unique raw material for novel food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2022-07-09
DOI: 10.1007/s12210-022-01081-w

• Removal of the pesticides from soil using electrokinetic method

Abstract: This study was designed to test the capability of electrokinetic technology to remediate the soils contaminated with pesticides and metals. A non-polluted soil sample was collected from a forest area, not affected by the human activity. The soil sample was characterized for physical and chemical properties and then spiked with Cu and imidacloprid, two main components of pesticides commonly used in agricultural soils. Soil sample was composed of 9% gravel, 80% sand, 11% silt and clay. The moisture content of soil was 5% and the specific gravity was 2.36. The initial contaminant concentrations were 298 mg/kg of Cu and 3.75 mg/kg of Imidacloprid. A column extraction test was performed to investigate the environmental effects associated with the mobility of the contaminants in the soil. The result of this test showed that copper was partially mobilized by water. No significant mobilization was detected for imidacloprid. The electrokinetic treatment at constant electric gradient (1 DCV/cm) using DI water as processing fluid was able to mobilize and transport the Cu toward the anode and Imidacloprid toward the cathode. However, the net removal of the Cu and Imidacloprid from soil was low. The limited removal efficiency of the contaminants was associated to the short treatment time (1 week) and the premature precipitation and adsorption of the contaminants to the soil particles due to the local physicochemical conditions (mainly pH) in the soil close to the electrodes. This study suggested that electrokinetics can be used for the effective removal of pesticides and metals from soil under controlled physicochemical soil conditions.
PubDate: 2022-07-01
DOI: 10.1007/s12210-022-01080-x

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