Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (94 journals)
    - GEOPHYSICS (33 journals)
    - HYDROLOGY (29 journals)
    - OCEANOGRAPHY (88 journals)

EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

Showing 201 - 371 of 371 Journals sorted alphabetically
Hydrological Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 150)
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Indian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Indonesian Journal on Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inland Waters     Hybrid Journal  
Innovative Infrastructure Solutions     Hybrid Journal  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Geology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Advanced Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Remote Sensing and GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Earthquake and Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Energetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Geographical Information Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
International Journal of Geomechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144)
International Journal of Remote Sensing Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
International Journal of Soil, Sediment and Water     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Iraqi National Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access  
iScience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Island Arc     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Italian Journal of Geosciences     Open Access  
Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Jahresberichte und Mitteilungen des Oberrheinischen Geologischen Vereins     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
JETP Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of African Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Analytical and Numerical Methods in Mining Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Applied Volcanology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Arid Land     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences : X     Open Access  
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Coastal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Coastal Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Contemporary Physics (Armenian Academy of Sciences)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Contemporary Water Resource & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Earth Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Earth System Science     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Environment and Earth Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geodesy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Geodesy and Geoinformation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International     Open Access  
Journal of Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Geomorphology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Atmospheres     Partially Free   (Followers: 134)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Biogeosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Earth Surface     Partially Free   (Followers: 59)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Planets     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 115)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Solid Earth     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Space Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 135)
Journal of Geophysics and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geoscience Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Geospatial Applications in Natural Resources     Open Access  
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Geotechnical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Great Lakes Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Journal of International Maritime Safety, Environmental Affairs, and Shipping     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Life and Earth Science     Open Access  
Journal of Marine Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Marine Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Marine Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Metamorphic Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Mining Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mountain Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Natural Gas Geoscience     Open Access  
Journal of Ocean and Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Population and Sustainability     Open Access  
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sea Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sedimentary Environments     Open Access  
Journal of Seismology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Spatial Information Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Structural Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Journal of the Geological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Journal on Geoinformatics, Nepal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmiah Perikanan dan Kelautan / Scientific Journal of Fisheries and Marine     Open Access  
Kartografija i geoinformacije (Cartography and Geoinformation)     Open Access  
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Landslides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Latin American Journal of Sedimentology and Basin Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lethaia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Limnologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Lithology and Mineral Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Lithos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Malaysian Journal of Geosciences     Open Access  
Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Marine and Petroleum Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Marine Biology Research: New for 2005     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Marine Economics and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Marine Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Marine Geodesy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Marine Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Marine Geophysical Researches     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Marine Georesources & Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Marine Mammal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Marine Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Mathematical Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mathematical Physics, Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mediterranean Geoscience Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Meteoritics & Planetary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Mineralium Deposita     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mineralogia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mineria y Geologia     Open Access  
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration     Hybrid Journal  
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Mongolian Geoscientist     Open Access  
Moscow University Geology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Moscow University Physics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Natural Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discssions     Open Access  
Natural Hazards Research     Open Access  
Natural Hazards Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Natural Resources & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Natural Resources Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nature Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 161)
Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Newsletters on Stratigraphy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (NPG)     Open Access  
Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics Discussions     Open Access  
Ocean & Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Ocean Development & International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ocean Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ocean Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ocean Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ocean Science (OS)     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ocean Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Open Geospatial Data, Software and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Earthquake Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ore and Energy Resource Geology     Open Access  
Ore Geology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Organic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Paläontologische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Papers in Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal  
Permafrost and Periglacial Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Perspectives of Earth and Space Scientists i     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Petroleum Geoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Petroleum Science     Open Access  
Petrology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
PFG : Journal of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Photogrammetrie - Fernerkundung - Geoinformation     Full-text available via subscription  
Physical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Physical Science International Journal     Open Access  
Physics of Life Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics of Metals and Metallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Physics of Plasmas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Physics of the Solid State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)

  First | 1 2 3     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Ocean Science Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.262
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1738-5261 - ISSN (Online) 2005-7172
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Evolution and Sedimentation Mechanisms of Estuarine Beach in the Nakdong
           River Estuary, Korea: Natural and Human Impact

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      Abstract: Dadae Beach located in the Nakdong River estuary has been continuously evolving as the result of natural and anthropogenetic activities. Due to the geographic characteristics of an estuarine beach, in which the estuary, ocean, and human activities converge, it is very difficult to identify the factors shaping changes in the sedimentary environment and present quantitative results. Nevertheless, this study presents a survey of hydrological characteristics that reveals major depositional mechanisms and the factors impacting the sedimentary environment by analyzing morphological variations over the last five decades. We found that Dadae Beach has transformed from a marine system to an estuarine system through three major stages of evolution over the last five decades and has now reached a quasi-equilibrium state. The depositional mechanism contributing to the deposition of Dadae Beach is mainly driven by rainfall during the wet season. In addition, the strengthening of ocean energy during the dry season causes erosion. By proposing a new evolutionary history of Dadae Beach which had previously been considered a byproduct of the barrier island generation process of the Nakdong River, we suggest a novel conceptual model for estuarine beach evolution.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
       
  • Application of a Length-Based Stock Assessment Model for the Chub Mackerel
           (Scomber japonicus) in Korean Waters

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      Abstract: We modified Quinn’s size-based model for the assessment of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) stock in Korean waters, using annual data about body lengths (fork lengths), fishery catches, and catch-per-unit-effort. One of the strengths of Quinn’s size-based model is the construction of an imaginary age structure for a fish population, allowing the estimation of year- and age-based population sizes. Our modification was twofold. First, we applied a likelihood theory for numerical optimization, instead of the least squares method that Quinn et al. (1998) used. Second, we not only made point estimates of parameters, but also measured their uncertainties, using ADMB (automatic differentiation model builder) software. Estimates of annual biomass from 2001 to 2017 ranged from 1.01 × 106 to 2.15 × 106 MT, and estimates of annual fishing mortality from 1996 to 2017 ranged from 0.11 to 0.32 per year. Using a sensitivity analysis, we obtained the natural mortality of the stock, which was 0.1 per year.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • Effect of Different pCO2 Concentrations in Seawater on Meiofauna:
           Abundance of Communities in Sediment and Survival Rate of Harpacticoid
           Copepods

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      Abstract: The amount of CO2 dissolved in the ocean has been increasing continuously, and the results using climate change models show that the CO2 concentration of the ocean will increase by over 1000 ppm by 2100. Ocean acidification is expected to have a considerable impact on marine ecosystems. To find out about the impacts of ocean acidification on meiofaunal communities and copepod groups, we analyzed the differences in the abundance of meiofauna communities in sediment and the survival rate of harpacticoid copepod assemblages separated from the sediment, between 400 and 1000 ppm pCO2 for a short period of 5 days. In experiments with communities in sediments exposed to different pCO2 concentrations, there was no significant difference in the abundance of total meiofauna and nematodes. However, the abundance of the harpacticoid copepod community was significantly lower at 1000 ppm than that at 400 ppm pCO2. On the other hand, in experiments with assemblages of harpacticoid copepods directly exposed to seawater, there was no significant difference in their survival rates between the two concentrations. Our findings suggest that a CO2 concentration of 1000 ppm in seawater can cause changes in the abundance of specific taxa such as harpacticoid copepods among the meiofauna communities in sediments.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
       
  • Optimized Metavirome Analysis of Marine DNA Virus Communities for
           Taxonomic Profiling

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      Abstract: Recent advances in metavirome technology have provided new insights into viral diversity and function. The bioinformatic process of metavirome study is generally divided into two (or three) steps: assembly and taxonomic profiling including nucleotide alignment. Moreover, k-mer size and contig length are known to considerably affect the results of the assembly and consequently those of taxonomic profiling; however, the optimal k-mer size and contig length have not been established. In the present study, we analyzed marine virus DNA datasets with three different k-mer sizes using different assemblers: 1 k-mer (20) in the CLC Genomics Workbench, and 4 (21, 33, 55, and 77) and 5 (21, 33, 55, 77, and 99) k-mers in metaSPAdes. The use of large k-mers had the advantage of resolving more repeat regions, with higher N50 values and average contig lengths. The contig length helps reduce the error of continuous sequences and determine the number of viral operational taxonomic units. Our analysis suggested that 300 bp may be an appropriate minimum contig length, depending on the characteristics of viral samples. Based on the assembly result using metaSPAdes, we analyzed the DNA virus community using three taxonomic profiling tools: MG-RAST online server, the taxonomic profiling tools function in the CLC microbial module, and customized taxonomic assignment coding (CUTAXAC) using RStudio based on the BLASTn analysis. CUTAXAC showed the most diverse viral composition at the family and species levels along with the highest Shannon diversity index and fastest analysis time.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
       
  • Decadal Variability of Satellite-Derived Air–Sea CO2 Flux in
           Southwestern Part of the Bay of Bengal

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      Abstract: Abstract Understanding the relationship between atmospheric and oceanic carbon cycles necessitates measuring geographical and temporal variations of surface water partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). The seasonal pCO2 maps have been developed using MODIS-derived SST and chlorophyll for four different seasons to calculate air–sea flux of CO2 at basin scale. Summer in 2017 had the lowest pCO2 value (263 µatm), whereas monsoon season in 2016 had the highest (553 µatm). From 2010 to 2019, atmospheric pCO2 level fluctuated from 371 to 396 µatm with progressive growth of atmospheric pCO2 at 2.5 μatm year−1. The inter-annual CO2 flux ranged between − 3.58 and 3.64 mmol C m−2 day−1. Significant negative CO2 flux (− 3.58 mmol C m−2 day−1) was observed in 2015 premonsoon, indicating that the Bay of Bengal was a net sink for atmospheric CO2, while served as a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere in 2013 monsoon season with a significant positive flux of CO2 (3.64 mmol C m−2 day−1) to the atmosphere. The annual CO2 sink was active in 2015 (− 1.17 mmol C m−2 day−1) which showed increased trend from 2014 to 2018 with a range of − 1.17 to − 0.26 mmol C m−2 day−1. The Bay of Bengal was found to be a substantial CO2 contributor to the atmosphere in 2013 (3.64 mmol C m−2 day−1) and 2012 (3.27 mmol C m−2 day−1). In this context, the southwest Bay of Bengal serves as a net sink of atmospheric pCO2 during summer season on an annual scale, and a weak sink during postmonsoon and premonsoon seasons, while served as a strong source of CO2 to the atmosphere during monsoon season from 2010 to 2019 with super saturation of CO2.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
       
  • Microstructure of Antarctic Krill (Euphausia suberba) Cuticle

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, the microstructure of Antarctic krill cuticle was deeply investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The krill cuticles were treated with clean water, dilute hydrochloric acid solution and dilute sodium hydroxide solution to remove the adhesive substances, inorganic salts and protein, respectively. The organic substances were removed by sintering the cuticle in a muffle furnace to obtain the inorganic salts. The resulting cuticle of Antarctic krill was then observed under SEM and it was found that the cuticle has a hierarchical structure in which the α-crystal chitin fibers, with chitin spheres, extended from the pore canals, thus shaping layers; multiple stacked layers formed the three-dimensional structure; the inorganic salts were sparsely distributed in the cuticle; protein was wrapped around the surfaces of the chitin fiber bundles and the crystals of inorganic salts. These structural investigations revealed the interrelation among the main components of Antarctic krill cuticle. This study and following studies will be helpful in understanding the relationship between the forms of fluorine in Antarctic krill cuticle and its structural changes during postmortem storage.
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
       
  • Temporal Variations in the Antifouling Activity of Extract of the Soft
           Coral Sarcophyton trocheliophorum Collected from the Red Sea

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      Abstract: Abstract Soft corals are considered as a prospective resource for the isolation of natural product antifoulants. In this study, the temporal variations in the antifouling activity of the crude extract of the soft coral Sarcophyton trocheliophorum samples collected from the Jeddah coast of Saudi Arabia during summer (June–August 2018) and winter seasons (December 2018–February 2019) were assessed using laboratory tests. The crude extract was tested against biofilm-forming bacteria and barnacle larvae in the laboratory. The results indicated significant variations (P < 0.001) in the antifouling activity of the extracts between the samples collected during the summer and winter seasons. The extract of the soft coral samples collected during the summer season showed higher inhibitory activity against the fouling bacteria and barnacle larva. In addition, the surface-associated bacteria abundance on the soft corals were analysed and the results showed higher abundance on winter season samples. Further, GC–MS analysis indicated differences in the metabolite composition with the abundance of compounds such as cis-z-a-Bisabolene epoxide and caryophyllene oxide being high in summer samples and Isoaromadendrene epoxide and β-cembrenediol showing a higher peak area percentage in winter samples. Overall, this study revealed temporal variations in the antifouling activity and metabolite composition of the Red Sea soft corals.
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
       
  • Calibration of the XRF-Estimated CaCO3 Content in the Western Tropical
           Pacific Deep-Sea Sediments

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      Abstract: Abstract X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning, which can be used for the rapid, high-resolution measurement of elements in marine sediments, is advantageous because multiple elements can be simultaneously analysed. However, the use of XRF scan data as quantitative data has limitations. The XRF scanning measures element intensities (cps) of sediments instead of element contents (wt%). In addition, the element intensities are influenced by physical properties, such as water content and lithification. The objective of this study is to establish a calibration method for quantifying the CaCO3 content from XRF Ca data based on comparisons between XRF Ca and inorganic carbon measured CaCO3 contents.
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
       
  • Evaluation of Sea Surface Temperature-Dependent Whitecap Coverage
           Parameterizations Using In Situ Data

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aims to evaluate previous parameterizations of whitecap coverage (W) based on in-situ observational datasets. Ten-meter wind speed measurements over the sea surface (U10) have been the most traditional and effective method of estimating W. A secondary variable—sea surface temperature (Tw)—is considered for better parameterization of W. A non-monotonic relationship is found between the W and Tw because all the coefficients and exponent in the W-U10 power-law fit are Tw-dependent. Therefore, replacing the fixed slope variable of the power-law fit with the positively or negatively Tw-dependent function does not result in significant improvements. When the Tw-dependent coefficients and exponent are embedded in the W parameterization, a better estimation of W is obtained. Tw related parameter of wind-sea Reynolds number contains wavefield information, which is also related to Tw, making wind-sea Reynolds number an optional parameter for estimating W. We suggest that further improvement of W (U10, Tw) parameterization requires consideration of more wavefield information.
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
       
  • Bioaccumulation of Trace Metals in Sabellaria alveolata (Annelida:
           Polychaeta) and Their Controlling Factors Along the Essaouira Protected
           Coastal Area (Atlantic Coast of Morocco)

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      Abstract: Abstract This study assessed, for the first time, the bioaccumulation of trace metals in the tissues of Sabellaria alveolata (Annelida: Polychaeta) collected from the Essaouira protected coastal area (Atlantic coast of Morocco), and examined the relationships between metal contents and some physico-chemical parameters of seawater. The biogenic reefs of S. alveolata were seasonally collected from April 2017 to February 2018, and physico-chemical parameters of seawater were measured. In the laboratory, dried and mineralized samples of S. alveolata were analysed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The physico-chemical parameters of seawater are within acceptable limits for survival, growth and metabolic activity of aquatic organisms, and metal concentrations in the tissues of S. alveolata showed decreasing levels in the order Fe > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Cr > Pb > Ag. Concentrations were lower than levels reported in other species of polychaetes in other Moroccan and world regions except for Al and Fe. Spatial and seasonal variations of metals were highly significant, with two essential periods of high concentrations: winter and summer. Cluster analysis showed that the studied sites, urbanized and non-urbanized, were similar except for one site (SK) that differs slightly from the others, probably due to the absence of real industrial activity coupled with the dilution of metals under the influence of hydrodynamic factors in this area. The analysis also showed that Al and Fe are derived from the same source, most likely related to continental inputs, and that Cd, Cr and Cu are derived from another source which is more urban than continental while Zn maintains a dual origin, both continental and urban. Assessment of the pollution gradient, via calculation of metal contamination index (IcSx), revealed that the Essaouira protected coastal area is less polluted compared with other coastal areas of Morocco.
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
       
  • Enhancement of Sea Surface Chlorophyll a Concentration by Interaction of
           Winds and Currents in a Cyclonic Eddy in the Japan/East Sea

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      Abstract: Abstract Chlorophyll a concentration (Chl-a), wind, and water temperature were measured at a buoy moored near Dok-Do in the Japan/East Sea (JES). Short-term (1–3 day) enhancements of Chl-a associated with the surface layer cooling observed in spring (May–June) and autumn (Oct-Nov) were found to be correlated with the Ekman pumping induced by the interaction of the eddy current and wind, separable into components due to the wind stress and the lateral gradient in vertical vorticity. In the spring, surface Chl-a increases in conjunction with upwelling due to the lateral gradient in vorticity and the curl of the wind stress. However, in fall, positive Chl-a anomalies are only correlated with upwelling due to the curl of relative wind stress, which arises from the difference between the wind and the ocean surface current. The observed response time of the upwelling induced by wind-current interaction was very short (less than a day) compared to most theoretical studies which are driven by steady winds of more than 3 days. Our analysis suggests that as the mixed layer deepens, Chl-a at the surface is enhanced by the turbulent mixing of the underlying mixed layer water with high Chl-a and nutrients. However, the upwelling is a necessary condition for it to occur.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
       
  • Centrifuge Tube Trap: A Direct-Sampling Mini Plankton Light Trap for Under
           3USD

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      Abstract: Abstract Of the light plankton traps, tube traps are the simplest and easiest to construct. However, they have a serious limitation—the need to process the sample postharvest. This usually involves the time-consuming transfer of samples from the trap to a separate storage vessel. To eliminate this problem, a tube trap was constructed using a centrifuge tube that acts as both the trap and also the final storage vessel. The light source was an ordinary pen-style flashlight inserted in another centrifuge tube to waterproof it, which is then used to illuminate the sampling centrifuge tube. Post sampling, the centrifuge tube is capped and directly removed for storage with no concentration stage required. Field trials indicated that this centrifuge tube trap is effective in trapping phototactic organism, in particular the calanoid copepods.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
       
  • Potential of a Tintinnid Species, Tintinnidium primitivum, as a Biological
           Indicator in the Yellow Sea Bottom Cold Water

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      Abstract: Abstract Tintinnid ciliates, having distributional sensitivity to hydrological changes, have been applied as a useful tool to track the movements of water masses. The Yellow Sea Bottom Cold Water (YSBCW) is one of the most prominent summer oceanographic phenomena in the Yellow Sea. To examine the potential of tintinnid species as a biological indicator of the bottom cold water, the spatial distributions of the ciliates were investigated in the southeastern Yellow Sea during the summers of 2010 and 2020. A dominant species, Tintinnidium primitivum, was found in the bottom cold waters in both years. The temperature and salinity (T–S) diagram for the dominant species distribution was plotted against the T–S range for the YSBCW at low temperatures between 6 and 12 ℃ and salinity between 32 and 33. A positive relationship was shown between T. primitivum and Gammaproteobacteria distribution and negative relationships with photosynthetic pico- and nano-plankton. Further studies on prey and predator relationships between microbial organisms and T. primitivum are required to understand the unique structure and function of microbial food webs in the YSBCW.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
       
  • Seaweed Community and Succession on a Trapezoidal-Shaped Artificial Reef

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      Abstract: Abstract This study conducted a community and succession analysis of an artificial reef and natural rock mass near the eastern coast of Guryongpo-eup, Pohang-si, from November 2016 to August 2018. A total of 130 species of macroalgae were identified during the study period, which included 85 species in artificial reefs and 110 species in natural rock masses (~ 1 km apart). The average biomass of macroalgae on the two locations was 1,110.89 g/m2, ranging from 312.63 to 1,909.72 g/m2, depending on the survey period. Upon analyzing the ecological indices for each station at different survey periods, our findings indicated that the species richness, evenness, diversity, and dominance indices for the artificial reefs ranged from 2.13 to 8.14, 0.17 to 0.48, 0.62 to 1.63, and 0.24 to 0.70, respectively, whereas those for natural rock masses ranged from 1.61 to 10.44, 0.07 to 0.58, 0.19 to 1.90, and 0.21 to 0.92. The analysis of the succession of macroalgal communities for 2 years after the initial installation of the artificial reef indicated that the second survey showed the highest species composition, and the third survey showed a marked decline. Species-level biomass analysis during the survey period revealed that the biomass of the artificial reef steadily increased over the 2-year survey due to the succession from a dominant community of Colpomenia sinuosa, an opportunistic species (6 months after the reef installation): a dominant community of Gelidium elegans, perennial red alga (9–18 months later) and a dominant community of Ecklonia cava, a perennial brown algae (continued after 21 months). These results indicate that the macroalgae community of the artificial reef showed a species composition and a community structure similar to that of natural rock masses. Therefore, our results highlight the importance of characterizing the dominant species and life cycle of macroalgae in a target region prior to the establishment of artificial reef, as it provides critical insights into their attachment behavior, species composition, and succession patterns.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12601-021-00053-9
       
  • Indicator Framework for Monitoring Ecosystem Integrity of Coral Reefs in
           the Western Caribbean

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      Abstract: Abstract Ecosystem monitoring is a key priority for evaluating ecosystem conditions, but high costs, especially with regard to marine ecosystems, hamper its large-scale implementation. Despite a wide range of monitoring programs for tropical coral reefs, it has not been possible to establish a minimum set of the most relevant metrics. This leads to heterogeneous methods, the collection of different metrics that are difficult to compare and lengthy, time- and money-consuming surveys. In the present study, we use ecosystem integrity as an underlying conceptual framework to establish a minimum set of metrics for evaluating the ecosystem condition of Caribbean coral reefs. We reviewed ten existing monitoring protocols for their conceptual framework, metrics used, their reference ranges and sampling methods and documented the ecological relevance of indicators, as reported in the literature. Of the 64 in situ metrics, 15 with high ecological relevance were selected as a minimum set, covering aspects of composition (Hill numbers for corals and fish), structure (coral, red algae, macroalgae and filamentous algae cover, topographic complexity, and habitat extent) and function (recruit density, disease and bleaching incidence, fish biomass, and filamentous and macroalgae height) of coral reefs across a range of ecological scales. Besides the lack of underlying conceptual frameworks and reference levels for specific regions in existing monitoring protocols, landscape scale and connectivity metrics are also missing, producing negative impacts on indicator interpretation. The presented indicator framework constitutes a valuable guideline, as it documents the most relevant metrics for ecosystem condition, considering composition, structure, and function.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12601-022-00055-1
       
  • Estimation of Seagrass Biomass by In Situ Measurement and Remote Sensing
           Technology on Small Islands, Indonesia

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      Abstract: Abstract As one of the major blue carbon ecosystems, studying, conserving, and monitoring seagrass meadows, especially on small populated islands, has become very important due to their vulnerability to anthropogenic and global environmental factors. In this study, we used satellite image analysis and biological data to map seagrass percent cover (SPC), above-ground biomass (AGB), and below-ground biomass (BGB) on the three most populated islands of the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia, i.e., Kodingareng Lompo, Barrang Lompo, and Barrang Caddi. Reflectance and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values of Sentinel-2 (S2) imagery were used to classify and calculate SPC and AGB. In situ biological data measurements were carried out from 3 to 14 of June, 2020, on the three islands to measure AGB and BGB. The result from image classification shows a total area of 126.37 Ha of seagrass, which was divided into three SPC categories: medium (30–59.9%) with a total area of 78.38 Ha; low (0–29.9%) with a total area of 13.1 Ha; and high (60–100%) with a total area of 34.89 Ha. The highest SPC area was observed on Kodingareng Lompo Island with 61.07Ha, followed by Barrang Lompo Island with 53.18Ha, and Barrangcaddi Island with 12.12Ha. The total AGB on Barrang Lompo, Kodingareng Lompo, and Barrangcaddi in tons of dry weight/ha were 1.83, 1.05, and 2.38, respectively. The highest BGB was reported on Barrangcaddi Island with 8.61 tons of dry weight/ha, followed by Barrang Lompo Island with 6.78 tons of dry weight/ha, and Kodingareng Lompo Island with 2.78 tons of dry weight/ha. Regression analysis showed a linear correlation between NDVI value and in situ SPC with R2 = 0.8255. The framework of this study can be applied to monitor temporal changes of seagrass meadows distribution on small islands to promote a more sustainable ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12601-022-00054-2
       
  • Spatiotemporal Response of Currents and Mixing to the Interaction of Tides
           and River Runoff in a Mesotidal Estuary

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      Abstract: Abstract Tidal river management requires consideration of the influence of both tides and freshwater on hydrodynamic patterns. Most previous studies have focused on large and high discharge estuaries, whereas tide and river runoff interactions in small, shallow, and low discharge estuaries have received limited attention. Understanding these interactions remains a challenge due to the impacts of disturbances and changes in processes, which may differ from those of large estuaries. In this study, we investigated the influences of tides and river runoff on circulation and mixing processes in a small estuary with an area of less than 50 km2 and a discharge range of 20–130 m3. In this study, we applied mixing evaluation and wavelet analysis to the salinity, temperature, density, and three records of acoustic Doppler current profilers that were placed along a tidal floodway (the Ota River diversion channel, Japan). Our findings revealed that mixing was controlled by neap–spring tidal oscillation, with high discharges significantly influencing mixing during the neap tide. Moreover, the results of the wavelet transform indicated that during the spring, tidal straining increased and induced intense mixing, while during the neap, river discharge had a greater influence on circulation. The interactions between tides and river runoff influence the appearance of a convergence zone and estuarine turbidity maxima that are located approximately 4.8 km from the river mouth.
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12601-022-00056-0
       
  • Osmotic Regulation Strategy in Three Marine, Estuarial and Freshwater Crab
           Species (Portunus armatus, Macrophthalmus dentipes and Eriocheir hupensis)
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Crabs can actively uptake or extract ions to adapt to their diverse habitats. The gills are the main osmoregulatory organ in crabs, and Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) pump is one of the main enzymes involved in the osmoregulatory process. Three crab species from three different habitats, including Portunus armatus (marine spicies), Macrophthalmus dentipes (estuarial species) and Eriocheir hepuensis (freshwater species) were used in the present study. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution and activity of NKA pump in the posterior gill of these species. In this regard, the tissue structure of the posterior gill, Immunolocalization and activity of the NKA pump in the posterior gill were assessed in three selected species. The levels of electrolytes (including Na+, Cl−, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) in the posterior gill, hemolymph and water of different habitats were also measured. In addition, the osmolality of crab species compared to the water of their habitats was investigated. Based on the results, the gill tissue structure was similar in the studied species. However, the highest and lowest intensity of immunofluorescence staining and the activity of NKA pump were recorded in estuarial and freshwater species, respectively. The osmolality of hemolymph in P. armatus was isosmotic with seawater, whereas, the hemolymph of M. dentipes and E. hepuensis was in hyperosmotic state with ambient water. It can be concluded that, Na+/K+-ATPase plays a more important role in the estuary and seawater adaptation of crabs. On the other hand, Freshwater species are not highly dependent on this enzyme for osmoregulation.
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12601-021-00051-x
       
  • A Comprehensive Study on Fish Species Composition, Diversity, Migration,
           Threatened Status, Economic Value and Endemism in the Co Chien River, Ben
           Tre Province (Mekong Delta), Vietnam

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      Abstract: Abstract The Mekong River Delta is a hotspot of aquaculture and fish biodiversity. In this study, fish community structure, migration, threatened status and economic value were investigated in the Co Chien River (COR) from August 2017 to July 2019. A total of 3640 fish specimens were collected from 11 sampling stations in the COR. These belong to 133 species of 107 genera of 58 families of 17 orders. The Perch-like order (Perciformes) is the most diverse group, with 65 species accounting for 48.87% of total species collected. The catfish order (Siluriformes) is the second-most diverse group with 15 species (11.28%) and the carps (Cypriniformes) with 14 species (10.53%) is the third. The remaining major groups in the order of diversity are the Herring (Clupeiformes) consisting of 9 species (6.77%) and the Flounder (Pleuronectiformes) consisting of 7 species (5.26%). The remaining orders have number of species varying from 1 to 3 (0.75–2.26%). Among the 133 species recorded, 6 species were considered as Vulnerable category based on the Vietnam Red Data Book (2007). According to the IUCN Red list (2021), 1 species (Coilia mystus) is Endangered (0.75%), 2 species (Maculabatis gerrardi and Pangasius krempfi) are Vulnerable (1.50%), 4 species are Near Threatened (3.01%), 6 species are Data deficient (4.51%), and 76 species are considered as Least concern (57.14%). The results shown that 79 species were migratory fishes (20 species migrated from the upstream and 59 species migrated from the sea), 41 species are endemic species for the MR (30.83% of the total species collected and 23.70% of total endemic species of the MR) and 36 fish species are considered as of local economic value (27.07%). The diversity of fish species was found to be more diverse in the dry season than the wet season, which indicates the influence of river water salinity changes on fish diversity in the region.
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12601-021-00047-7
       
  • Variation in Fish Abundance in Different Habitats of a Tropical Lagoon
           with an Attempt to Model the Effects of Physico-Chemical Parameters on
           Their Abundance

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      Abstract: Abstract This study assesses the abundance of fish in different habitats of Negombo Lagoon, a human-influenced, highly productive tropical lagoon in Sri Lanka, and the effects of physico-chemical parameters on their abundance. Six different habitats, i.e., three mangrove habitats, seagrass bed associated habitat, brushpile, and mud and sand flat were selected as sampling sites representing three major areas, Kadolkele, Dungalpitiya, and Kepungoda. Fish were sampled using a drag net with a stretch mesh size of 50 mm and salinity, Surface Water Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, pH, Nitrate–N and Orthophosphate were measured in each habitat from January to December 2018 by making monthly field visit. A total of 45 fish species belonging to 30 families were identified. The highest species abundance was reported in seagrass associated habitat, while the lowest was in Kadolkele mangrove habitat (p < 0.05; ANOVA) due to its low level of DO (1.92 mg dm−3) and high Orthophosphate (1.02 mg dm−3) content. Different life stages of fish shared different habitats and small juveniles were abundant in association with seagrass bed (67.09%) while mature ones were dominant (42.12%) in brushpile area. This study proves that the abundance of fish varies with different physico-chemical parameters and, according to the generalized additive model, the highest abundance of fish is in association with > DO of 4 mg dm−3, low level of Orthophosphate (0.5–0.75 mg dm−3), 0.5–1.5 mg dm−3 of Nitrate–N, and 20–30 ppt salinity. The findings of this study are important to understand the spatial and seasonal patterns of fish abundance in a tropical lagoon and how physico-chemical parameters affect their abundance.
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s12601-021-00048-6
       
 
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