Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (94 journals)
    - GEOPHYSICS (33 journals)
    - HYDROLOGY (29 journals)
    - OCEANOGRAPHY (88 journals)

EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 371 Journals sorted by number of followers
Nature Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 161)
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148)
International Journal of Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144)
Earth and Planetary Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Ocean & Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Marine Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
International Journal of Geographical Information Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Natural Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Journal of Earth System Science     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Hydrological Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Geophysical Journal International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Groundwater     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Geomorphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Marine Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Geology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Marine Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Reviews of Modern Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
GPS Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Landslides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Structural Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Tectonophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Geocarto International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Coral Reefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Bulletin of Volcanology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Hydrogeology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Hydrobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Marine and Petroleum Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Earthquake Spectra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Marine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Sedimentary Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Quaternary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Geological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Global and Planetary Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Physics of Metals and Metallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Natural Hazards Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Geological Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
The Holocene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Metamorphic Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Sedimentology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ocean Development & International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Quaternary International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Pramana     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ocean Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
European Journal of Mineralogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Frontiers of Earth Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Continental Shelf Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Pure and Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
CATENA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ore Geology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of African Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Marine Mammal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cretaceous Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Earth Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences: An International Geoscience Journal of the Geological Society of Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Gondwana Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Physics of Plasmas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Seismology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Physik in unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Lithos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Contemporary Physics (Armenian Academy of Sciences)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Marine Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Geotectonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Facies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Comptes Rendus : Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Geodesy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Natural Resources Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geophysical Prospecting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Physics of the Solid State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Plasma Physics Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ocean Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Petrology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sea Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geochemistry : Exploration, Environment, Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geo-Marine Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Coastal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Ocean Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Geographical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Geodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resource Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ocean Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Geomechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Island Arc     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Marine Geophysical Researches     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Permafrost and Periglacial Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Terra Nova     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Energy Exploration & Exploitation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Organic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mineralium Deposita     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Marine Geodesy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Limnologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Surveys in Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Lithology and Mineral Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Geology and Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
JETP Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematical Physics, Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Fundamental and Applied Limnology / Archiv für Hydrobiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Geomagnetism and Aeronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Marine Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Rocks & Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Newsletters on Stratigraphy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Polar Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Helgoland Marine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geophysics and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mining Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
The Leading Edge     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Russian Physics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Glass Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics of Life Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Russian Journal of Pacific Geology     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Physics of Wave Phenomena     Hybrid Journal  
Moscow University Physics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Moscow University Geology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Marine Georesources & Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Mountain Science     Hybrid Journal  
Grassland Science     Hybrid Journal  
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Water Resources
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.324
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 21  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1608-344X - ISSN (Online) 0097-8078
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Application of Fractal Theory to Describe the Morphological Complexity of
           Large Stream Networks in Chile

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Fractal theory has many applications in different areas, particularly in geomorphology where is a very useful tool to describe the geometrical complexity of natural systems such as stream networks. In this report, morphometry and fractal geometrical analysis was applied to estimate the fractal degree of streams networks extracted from big Chilean watersheds inserted into different tectonics and climate environments. Two different approaches were adopted, one based on Horton ratios and the second one, measuring this dimension from a box-counting algorithm. The results show that the measured fractal dimension D falls strictly in the range 1 < D < 2, showing a clear variability from one tectonics environment to another, in contrast to the results obtained from Horton’s based laws. This fractal degree can be grouped in a slope vs. drainage density diagram, revealing that drainage patterns are controlled by tectonics and hydrological erosive sculpting processes.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • An Ensemble of Brownian Particles and a Stochastic Description of a System
           of “Slow” Convective Thermals at Convection Level

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: A system of slow convective thermals is considered in a vicinity of convection level. It is shown that a system of spherical convective thermals of fixed radius can be described by a stochastic equation, which is practically identical to Langevin equation for an ensemble of classical Brownian particles. Under the proposed approach, it was shown that the mean vertical velocity of a system of thermals at the convection level is zero. A kinetic analogue of thermodynamic temperature, corresponding to the second moment of the vertical velocity, was shown to exist for a system of thermals. Moreover, the associated Fokker–Planck equation for the system of slow convective thermals has a stationary solution corresponding to generalized Maxwell distribution over vertical velocities. Numerical and field experiments convincingly show that the generalized Maxwell equations is in agreement with the results of calculations and atmospheric measurements.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Topographic Effect for Rossby Waves on Non-Zonal Shear Flow

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: This work continues a series of studies by the authors, where a comparative analysis of the influence of topography, β-effect, and gradient variability of a background flow on the propagation of barotropic topographic Rossby waves is carried out. The novelty of this study lies in the fact that here we consider a non-zonal shear flow and also non-zonal topographic changes. We establish that the non-zonal shear flow enhances the β-effect from the north side of the main flow and reduces from the south side. Contrary, the influence of the joint effect of the Earth rotation and bottom topography enhances the β-effect in the study area and the joint effect of the shear flow and topography reduces it slightly. We exclude the effect of stratification based on the results already obtained that short waves are not observed practically, and also the effect of stratification for Rossby long waves is insignificant. The transverse variability of the shear plane-parallel flow in the WKB approximation is studied. This allows us to obtain a dispersion relation for the flat barotropic topographic Rossby waves with taking into account the above conditions. The estimates of the dispersion equation terms are obtained for the Kuroshio Extension area, where a flow branch turns to the northeast and makes an angle of 55° with latitude. Applied the exponential approximation for bottom topography we obtain that the First approximation by Rhines for the Rossby waves is true for the study area because the parameter of the relief transverse change l0 equals 780 km (exceeds typical Rossby wavelengths). It allows simplifying the corresponding dispersion relation.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • The Innovative Combination of Time Series Analysis Methods for the
           Forecasting of Groundwater Fluctuations

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Groundwater fluctuations forecasting is a valuable tool for the intelligent management of groundwater resources that prevents additional costs to the system. In this research, time series analysis methods, including Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Holt-Winters Exponential Smoothing (HWES), were used for developing a short-term model and the forecasting of the groundwater fluctuations in six piezometer wells around the Gohar Zamin Iron Ore Mine. To take advantage of all the features of the robustly developed ARIMA and HWES models, the innovative combination of these methods with specific weights was used to predict groundwater levels. The results of Diebold and Mariano’s test were applied for the innovative combination of the developed models in six piezometers, and well no. 2 with a p-value higher than 5% was selected due to stable environmental conditions and was analyzed and interpreted. For this purpose, 250 non-seasonal data of daily groundwater level were used, of which 200 data are for modeling, and 50 data are for water level forecasting. The research results show that among all the forecasting, the least-squares method in the innovation of combining models has the highest accuracy for forecasting the groundwater fluctuations in the short term. All the forecasts in this period time show a decrease in the groundwater level, indicating the effects of pumping wells in the Gohar Zamin Iron Ore Mine area.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Long-Term Variations of Agricultural Drought Parameters in the World

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: The article analyzes the changes over 1976–2016 in the frequencies of agricultural droughts in the world, the coordinates of the centers of drought areas, the dates of the start and end of the droughts, their duration, material (financial) and humanitarian losses due to droughts in the world as a whole and separately for world regions with different levels of economic development. The changes in the number of droughts, the size of the global latitudinal band of droughts, their durations and dates of their ends were found to show a monotonous positive trend. A positive statistically significant trend in the evolution of material/financial losses due to droughts was also revealed and found to be more typical of the group of developing countries. It is hypothesized that changes in the natural characteristics of droughts may be due to global climate changes, while the dynamics of losses due to droughts is also determined by socioeconomic factors.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • On the Existence of a Sublayer of Forced Convection with a Fixed Lower
           Boundary in the Atmospheric Surface Layer

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: A top sublayer with forced convection and a fixed bottom boundary was identified in the convective atmospheric surface layer. “Linear” approximations were shown to be effective for the description of second turbulent moments in this sublayer. These approximations correspond to truncated Taylor expansions with respect to inverse dimensionless height, in which only two terms are retained. The first terms in the expansion do not take wind into account and correspond to the limiting relationships of Monin–Obukhov similarity theory in the regime of free convection. The second terms of the expansion take into account wind and its effect on convection. The existence of the sublayer of forced convection with a fixed boundary leads to the construction of a one-parameter family of analytical approximations of turbulent moments depending on the elevation of the bottom boundary of this sublayer. The proposed approximations of the variances of vertical velocity, fluctuations of temperature, fluctuations of humidity, and fluctuations of carbon dioxide are compared with the available experimental data over both water surface and land surface.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Emission of Rossby Waves by Synoptic Vortices

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: A simplified model was constructed to describe the emission of barotropic Rossby waves by a moving baroclinic vortex. Estimates of energy expenditures for the emission of barotropic waves and baroclinic Rossby waves of different size and intensity were used to derive an expression to evaluate vortex lifetimes. The theoretical estimates of vortex lifetimes made taking into account the emission of barotropic Rossby waves were shown to be close to their observed values.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Ring Structures on Baikal Ice and Local Upwelling Cases in Summer

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Ring structures on Baikal ice were found in satellite images in the period when ice cover thickness decreased (April). Analysis of satellite data on lake surface temperature in summer showed that local zones with lower temperature of water surface can sometimes be seen during the navigation period. According to field studies of ring structures on lake ice, they form and develop under the effect of currents which contribute to a decrease in ice thickness. The available data show that the generation of anticyclonic currents can be caused by a local rise of deep water. Similar phenomena can be seen in summer. Data of satellite temperature measurements show local drops of lake surface temperature in summer caused by upwelling. This is directly related with the rise of cold water from a deep zone. Depending on the temperature stratification (direct or reverse), upwelling contributes to the generation of either cyclonic or anticyclonic currents, respectively. The different directions of currents are due to the difference between temperature stratification in winter and summer. The formation of ring structures on ice and local drops of surface water temperature in summer are due to local water rises (upwelling). The upwelling can be caused by convection. The decrease in the density of the underlying water can be due to (a) temperature increase; (b) a decrease in salinity; (c) an increase in the concentration of methane dissolved in water in bottom zone. In addition, the upward flows can be due to ascending gas hydrates.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Logistic Model of Population Toxicodynamics

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: The effect of pollutant in water on a population of aquatic organisms as a function of exposure time is studied. Natural assumptions are formulated regarding the character of this process, primarily, the linear relationship between the rate of decrease in the population, on the one hand, and the population size and the number of organisms killed by intoxication, on the other hand. The formulated assumptions are used to construct a model of population toxicodynamics, which describes the kinetics of suppression of the population by a logistic function. The results of model calculations are shown to agree with the available experimental data, thus justifying the formulated assumptions regarding the character of the intoxication process. An extension of the model is proposed through the incorporation of the dependence of the result of intoxication on pollutant concentration by the well-known Haber’s formula. The developed model was used to propose an equation of regulated toxicodynamics for organization of water use without violation of the regime of natural functioning of ecosystems. The obtained specification of the notions of the mechanisms of intoxication process is necessary for the substantiation of hygienic standards on the concentration of chemicals in water, forecasts of biodiversity, and the choice of measures for supporting weak components of trophic chains in aquatic ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Coupling Variable Fuzzy Sets and Gini Coefficient to Evaluate the Spatial
           Equilibrium of Water Resources

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: It has been a consensus that water resources are unevenly distributed in space, often resulting in imbalance between water demand and supply. Quantitative characterization of this inequality of water resources in a region can help prioritize water management by identifying marginalized regions with comprehensive considerations. A framework for evaluating spatial equilibrium of water resources has been proposed by coupling variable fuzzy sets and Gini coefficient methods in this study. The framework was then demonstrated by its application to the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YEB) in China to analyze the dynamics of the spatial equilibrium of its water resources from 2009 to 2018 using three indicators, namely, water resources load index, water and soil matching coefficient and water use benefit. The results show that the spatial equilibrium state of water resources in the YEB is stable in a critical state throughout the period of study, with slight fluctuations. The inequality of water resources load is the main disturbance factor, providing the water management priority toward a better balance between water resources utilization and demand.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Present-Day Dynamics of Flood Hazard Characteristics in Rivers in the
           North Caucasus, Russia

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: The present-day dynamics of maximal water levels was evaluated, and space and time variations of level excess during unfavorable and hazardous events in North Caucasian rivers were analyzed. The study was based on data from 59 hydrological gages over period 1961–2017. The mathematical expectation of maximal water levels was found to increase everywhere from 1961–1990 to 1991–2017, and the increase in the variance was also a dominating trend in North Caucasian rivers. In the period under consideration, water levels of unfavorable and hazardous phenomena were exceeded by maximal water levels on the average in 19.3 and 10.6% cases, respectively. At some sections, this characteristic reached 93.2 and 88.6%, respectively. The marks of unfavorable and hazardous phenomena in the Kuban basin and in rivers of the Caucasian Black Sea coast was found to increase between 1961–1990 and 1991–2017. In rivers in the Terek and Kuma basins, the numbers of gages where the marks of unfavorable phenomena increased or decreased were the same; however, from 1961–1990 to 1991–2017, dominating are gages with a tendency toward a decrease in the number of cases with levels above the marks of hazardous phenomena.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Assessing Water Quality Parameters in Burullus Lake Using Sentinel-2
           Satellite Images

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Burullus lake is one of the coastal lakes in northern Egypt. Burullus lake is connected to seven drains through its western, eastern, and southern shores. The discharge of untreated wastewater (domestic, industrial, and agricultural) from these drains caused degradation for the water quality of the lake. Therefore, it is needed to develop a methodology to monitor water quality parameters at a low cost. This study is a trial to estimate water quality parameters from remote sensing data (reflectance data) by developing statistical regression models. Sentinel-2 reflectance data are compared to field measurements. The field measurements include transparency (SDT), chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and salinity. The coefficient of determination (R2) and normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) are calculated to evaluate the goodness of fit between field measurements and reflectance values. The results show that the optimum bands and bands ratios to estimate SDT, Chl-a, TN, TP, and Salinity are B6/B7, B7/B8, B8A, B8/B3, and B3/B8, respectively. The developed regression model is acceptable to be used for detecting water parameters and the produced R2 and NRMSE are within the range from 0.52 to 0.83 and from 0.12 to 0.34, respectively. The distribution maps of water quality parameters were built using the regression equations by writing these equations in the raster calculator as raster calculation expression. The results of this study show that both optical and non-optical water quality parameters are reasonably correlated with Sentinel-2 reflectance data as a low-cost data source.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Transient Seepage of Seawater in the Coastal Zone under Freezing of This
           Zone

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: A physical model was proposed to describe the response of groundwater level in a coastal area to sea level variations. An impermeable interlayer is supposed to exist on the shore slope, simulating a layer of aufeis or frozen soil deepening into water and ending on the sloped bed at some depth under water. This interlayer hampers water exchange between the sea and the aquifer in the coastal zone. The results of this study were compared with those in similar studies with models containing no impermeable layer. New properties were revealed.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • The Problem of Regulation of Toxigenic Blooming in Freshwater Bodies

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: The data of laboratory studies on the effect of low-intensity ultrasound on the toxigenic cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp., the species dominant in the North-West of Russia, cause “blooming” of drinking water sources and pose a danger to the health of the population of cities and rural areas. The study revealed that ultrasonic irradiation is stressful for cyanobacteria. It has been found for the first time that, under stress, they simultaneously trigger two metabolic mechanisms: 1) increasing the thickness of cell walls and mucous membranes (cases) to increase stress resistance; 2) biosynthesis of toxins to combat external influences. Both mechanisms are energy-consuming, and after two to three weeks, a period of depletion of reserves and cell death begins. The results of laboratory and experimental studies on water bodies open up a real possibility of regulating the toxigenic cyanobacterial “blooming” of freshwater water bodies using low-intensity ultrasonic irradiation.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Canyon Vortices: Application of the Theory of Topographic Vortices to the
           Phenomenon of Ice Rings in Baikal

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: A phenomenon of ice rings in Lake Baikal is considered. A hydrodynamic theory is proposed according to which geostrophic vortices form under ice in the area near the ice rings. These vortices are due to bed relief, namely, underwater canyons; therefore, they are referred to as canyon vortices. It is shown that a divergent ring vortex forms under ice in the ring domain at the crossing of a vertical cylindrical Stewartson layer on the lateral surface of the canyon geostrophic vortex and under-ice horizontal Ekman layer in the form of a horizontal vortex torus, and the melting of ice below in the form of a ring is due to the formation of this vortex torus.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Numerical modeling of Saltwater Wedge under Intruding and Receding
           Conditions (Case Study: Kahriz Aquifer, Lake Urmia)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: The complexity of saltwater intrusion issues caused, they cannot be solved analytically, so numerical methods can be useful tools for simulation and prediction of saltwater intrusion. In this study, CTRAN/W as a finite element-based model, and SEAWAT as a finite-difference model were employed to simulate the behavior of the saltwater wedge in three states including steady and transient flow. Results of numerical modeling were compared with observed published data and the precision of the models evaluated using various statistical parameters. Based on the results, both models capable to simulate saltwater intrusion with high precision. Furthermore, Kahriz aquifer located at the northwest of Lake Urmia has been modeled underground water level oscillations. The results of this part showed that just 4 m dropping of groundwater level leads to the intruding of saltwater two times in comparison to the reference level. The finding revealed that the time to reach the steady-state conditions for receding saltwater wedge is 60% of that for intruding saltwater wedge after rapid water level changes.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Theoretical and Laboratory Modeling of Topographic Vortex Bifurcation on
           Vortex Tori over Two-Stage Axisymmetric Elevation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: The first, theoretical part of the study presents a mathematical formulation of the problem of background flow over a two-stage elevation and the derivation of a criterion of bifurcation of a topographic vortex generated by this elevation. The spectral problem of the search for bifurcation points is solved numerically by the inverse iteration method. The second part presents the results of laboratory experiments aimed to simulate topographic vortices. The main attention is focused on the process of bifurcation of a topographic vortex and the formation of secondary toroidal vortices over a two-stage axisymmetric elevation of the bed in the form of two coaxial solid cylinders of different diameters, located one on top of the other. The bottom cylinder has a larger diameter. The input characteristics for the laboratory experiments are data derived from numerical solutions of the appropriate spectral problem.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Hazards and Risks of Recreational Water Use: Vectors of International
           Studies. Effects of Recreation on Ecosystems and Biota

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: English-language publications on the assessment of hazards and risks in recreation water use are reviewed. The main themes and results of foreign studies into the effect of recreation on the ecosystems and biota of water bodies and their coasts are presented. Information is given about the ideology, methods, content, and characteristics of studies of beach management (coastal planning), hazards of recreational extraction of biota, recreation waste, recreation transport, and hazards for biological diversity on recreation beaches. Trends in the development of conventional methods to be used to study coastal recreation are demonstrated. The analysis of studies in foreign countries suggested conclusions regarding promising ideas and directions for application and development in recreation water use studies in Russia.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Studying Transformations of the Hydrogeochemical Conditions of Pliocene
           Aquifer System (Mekong R. Delta, Vietnam) Using Thermodynamic Modeling

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: The results of earlier studies of stable and radioactive isotopes have shown that groundwater of the Middle Pliocene aquifer system form mostly due to the infiltration of meteoric water and its mixing with sedimentation water of marine genesis. Thermodynamic methods of studies were used to identify the main factors governing the formation of the hydrochemical pattern of groundwater and to determine the zones of its widest occurrence. Thermodynamic calculations established the level of geochemical equilibrium between the groundwater and the host rocks; determined the conventional boundary of the occurrence of interaction processes between infiltration water and host rock minerals and the processes of its mixing with sedimentation water; demonstrated the considerable role of host rocks as a source of additional ions of calcium, magnesium, and sulfates in groundwater chemistry; specified the mineral composition (secondary mineral phase) of the host rocks; and identified the minerals (microcline, laumontite, muscovite, as well as gypsum and calcite) that determine the final equilibrium chemistry of the aqueous phase. The obtained equilibrium–kinetic model of the Middle Pliocene aquifer system (including the zones of groundwater recharge and transit flow), along with data of earlier isotope studies, were used for zoning the study area by groundwater formation conditions (in terms of hydrodynamics and hydrochemistry) and established that groundwater chemistry formation reflects the effects of climatic (precipitation chemistry and volume), geological–hydrogeological (occurrence depth, recharge area, groundwater flow velocity) geochemical (host rock composition), and tectonic (the distance from the faults and their directions) conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Comprehensive Analysis of the Distribution of Ecosystem Components in the
           Black Sea Taking into Account Hydrochemical and Hydrometeorological
           Factors

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: The distribution of ecosystem components (phytoplankton, crustacean epiplankton, bathyplankton, and jellyfish plankton) was analyzed taking into account the hydrochemical and hydrometeorological conditions based on the results of comprehensive surveys in the Black Sea. The environmental factors considered in the study include: hydrochemical factors (biogenic elements, i.e., nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, silicon) as limiting factors of phytoplankton biomass growth, and hydrometeorological factors (wind speed and direction, Ekman pumping, upwelling, and density fronts), which affect the distribution and concentrations of biogenic matter. It was found that the spatial distribution of biogenic elements and phytoplankton is in good agreement with seasonal variations of the vertical water rise―Ekman pumping, associated with the heterogeneity of wind field above the sea. Analysis of the year-to-year variations of Ekman pumping over period 1979–2016 showed that in winter, cyclonic vorticity dominates in wind field, accompanied by vertical rise of water, thus creating favorable conditions for enrichment of the top seawater layer by nutrients. In summer season, cyclonic vorticity of wind dominates mostly over the eastern part of the sea, thus contributing to the rise of deep water. The anticyclonic vorticity, which dominates on the average over the western part of the sea in summer, hampers deep water rise.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 3.235.24.113
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-