Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (94 journals)
    - GEOPHYSICS (33 journals)
    - HYDROLOGY (29 journals)
    - OCEANOGRAPHY (88 journals)

EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

Showing 401 - 371 of 371 Journals sorted alphabetically
Physical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Physical Science International Journal     Open Access  
Physics in Medicine & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Physics of Life Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics of Metals and Metallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Physics of Plasmas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Physics of the Solid State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Physics of Wave Phenomena     Hybrid Journal  
Physics World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Physik in unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Pirineos     Open Access  
Planet     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Plasma Physics Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Polar Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Positioning     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pramana     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Preview     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Earth and Planetary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Pure and Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Quaternary     Open Access  
Quaternary Australasia     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Quaternary International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Quaternary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Quaternary Science Advances     Open Access  
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Radiocarbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Remote Sensing in Earth Systems Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Remote Sensing Science     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Rendiconti Lincei     Hybrid Journal  
Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Space Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Resource Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resources, Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Results in Geochemistry     Open Access  
Results in Geophysical Sciences     Open Access  
Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews of Modern Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Revista Cerrados     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Exatas Aplicadas e Tecnológicas da Universidade de Passo Fundo : CIATEC-UPF     Open Access  
Revista de Ingenieria Sismica     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones en Energía, Medio Ambiente y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales     Open Access  
Revista de Teledetección     Open Access  
Revista Geológica de Chile     Open Access  
Revue Française de Géotechnique     Hybrid Journal  
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Rocks & Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Geology and Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Journal of Pacific Geology     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Physics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science China Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Science News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Science of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Scientific Annals of Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava. Geography Series     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Earth Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 85)
Sedimentary Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Sedimentology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Seismic Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Seismological Research Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Soil Security     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Solid Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Solid Earth Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Solid Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Geomatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Standort - Zeitschrift für angewandte Geographie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica     Open Access  
Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai, Geologia     Open Access  
Survey Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Surveys in Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Swiss Journal of Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Tectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Tectonophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Terra Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Terra Nova     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Compass : Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon     Open Access  
The Holocene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
The Leading Edge     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access  
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
Unconventional Resources     Open Access  
Underwater Technology: The International Journal of the Society for Underwater     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Universal Journal of Geoscience     Open Access  
Unoesc & Ciência - ACET     Open Access  
Vadose Zone Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Volcanica     Open Access  
Water     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Water Resources Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 94)
Watershed Ecology and the Environment     Open Access  
Weather, Climate, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews - Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Yugra State University Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Zitteliana     Open Access  
Землеустрій, кадастр і моніторинг земель     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3     

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The Holocene
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.202
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0959-6836 - ISSN (Online) 1477-0911
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Marine shellfish exploitation as a means of reducing vulnerability to
           resource uncertainty in southern coastal Peru (200 BCE–150 CE)

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      Authors: Camille Weinberg, Jo Osborn, Richard Espino Huaman
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      The effects of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are notoriously hazardous for human populations of the hyperarid Peruvian coast. Yet, ENSO climate fluctuations are fundamental to the ecology of desert plant and animal resources that have been incorporated into human subsistence economies for millennia. We examine marine shellfish exploitation among early complex societies in southern coastal Peru at the end of the first millenium BCE to better understand the subsistence vulnerability of communities in arid environments with variable resource availability and productivity. We analyze new shellfish data from Jahuay, a shoreline fishing settlement in the Topará Quebrada occupied amidst new regional social hierarchies and intensifying inner-valley agriculture. We compare mollusk taxonomic diversity and taxa rank order with published assemblages from four near-contemporaneous sites to assess local and regional trends in resource exploitation. At Jahuay, a unique focus on foraging plentiful Donax obesulus clams resistant to ENSO effects may reflect a local buffering strategy to ensure a resource supply through interannual and decadal climate oscillations. Our comparative results suggest regional reliance on intertidal resource patches, especially rocky habitats, for consumable shellfish. The relative convenience of gathering sessile intertidal taxa that form dense settlements may partly explain their regional popularity. The potential to dry and exchange mollusk meat as a protein source likely enhanced diet diversification while supporting economic and social relationships between communities. Overall, our findings imply that mollusks and intertidal foraging landscapes were important within a broad-spectrum subsistence strategy suited to maintaining and coordinating food availability in a dynamic environment.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-09-24T06:38:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221122633
       
  • Building resilient landscapes in a semi-arid watershed: Anthropogenic and
           natural burning histories in Late Holocene Tesuque Creek, northern New
           Mexico

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      Authors: Alison Damick, Samantha Krause, Arlene Rosen
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      As mega-fires have swept the North American West in recent decades, studies of past fire events have gained academic interest. Deep-time perspectives are necessary to better understand the periodicity of fire events and to identify basic drivers of frequent fire episodes through time, including potential anthropogenic fire use. Our study contributes to the growing field of archeological fire ecology in the Southwest with an examination of a high-resolution geobotanical dataset for Holocene fire regimes as indicated within sediments from an alluvial section from Tesuque Creek in northern New Mexico. Using phytolith, geochemical, and sedimentological data, we reconstruct indices for burn cycle seasonality and destabilization of riparian vegetation communities that suggest potential anthropogenic land use and possible patterns distinguishing human burning from lightning ignitions. Through this study, we consider the potential role of hunter-gatherer behavior in producing fire landscapes as part of their strategies for managing risks in the fragile environments of the Middle-Late Holocene in northern New Mexico. We suggest that combining geo and botanical datasets from alluvial sections with archeological evidence will allow researchers to fine-tune the resolution of local climate sequences and their environmental impacts on small landscape scales. When such small-scale studies can be aggregated, they may further contribute to testing models of regional patch-burning, either natural or anthropogenic. We further posit that human relationships with fire in the past should be considered as collaborative efforts with lightning-ignited burns, to manage the risks associated with both too much and too little fire in fragile dryland ecosystems.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-09-19T09:41:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221121771
       
  • Archival insights into vulnerability and risk management during the early
           Spanish colonial period (1598–1680 AD) in New Mexico

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      Authors: Emily Dawson, Heather Trigg
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Risk and vulnerability are especially acute for colonizing populations due to their limited knowledge of the environment in newly settled areas and constrained social networks. Focusing on the initial settlement of the New Mexico colony, this paper examines the social response of Spanish colonists to vulnerability and risk during the early colonial period (AD 1598–1680). We use historical documents and modern weather records to assess the strategies implemented by 17th-century colonists to mitigate their vulnerability to the effects of unfamiliar, arid environmental conditions. The Spanish Crown had developed risk-reducing practices that encouraged successful establishment of colonies, including technological methods such as irrigation ditches and social methods such as tithing. However, these strategies made certain social and ethnic groups more vulnerable than others, ultimately contributing to the destruction of the New Mexico colony during the Pueblo Revolt in 1680. We argue that vulnerability buffering mechanisms are unevenly distributed across society. Systems of power must be considered when evaluating the effectiveness of social responses to risk.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T09:38:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221122632
       
  • Leaving home: Technological and landscape knowledge as resilience at
           pre-Holocene Kharaneh IV, Azraq Basin, Jordan

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      Authors: Danielle A Macdonald, Lisa A Maher
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Humanity’s relationship with the environment during the Holocene, and into the Anthropocene, is structured around our dependance on agricultural production, which has resulted in risk mitigation strategies that include intensive landscape modifications, among other tactics. However, to understand broader patterns of human resilience and the shifts in human/environment relationships, we need to look further back in time. Through this paper, we explore cultural strategies of risk management and resilience in pre-Holocene communities and how these practices allowed hunter-gatherer communities to adapt to a changing environment. For over 1000 years, the Epipalaeolithic site of Kharaneh IV was a focal point on the landscape for hunter-gatherer groups, acting as an aggregation site for Early and Middle Epipalaeolithic peoples. Located in the eastern desert of Jordan, at the time of occupation the site was a lush wetland surrounded by a rich grassland environment, providing abundant food and other resources for the site’s occupants. However, over time the wetland began to dry up and by 18,600 cal BP Kharaneh IV was abandoned. In this paper, we discuss the final occupation of Kharaneh IV, linking the site’s abandonment to the increasing aridification of eastern Jordan. Environmental change led to the eventual abandonment of Kharaneh IV and other nearby sites, as people relocated within the Azraq Basin in search of new water resources during the Holocene. Flexible technological strategies and knowledge of the landscape created resilient cultural practices that allowed these communities to use population movement as a risk management strategy.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T11:43:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221121784
       
  • Relict canals of the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico: A Middle- to Late-Holocene
           dryland socio-hydrological system

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      Authors: James A Neely, Michael J Aiuvalasit, Barbara M Winsborough
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      The travertine-lined irrigation canal networks of the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico allowed pre-Hispanic indigenous communities to overcome risks of crop failures in an arid setting. Segments of these systems are still in use today, therefore understanding when and how these irrigation networks functioned allows us to identify which attributes of a coupled socio-hydrological system are important for maintaining the long-term resilience of irrigation systems in drylands. This paper summarizes the results of an interdisciplinary study of this prehispanic irrigation network involving mapping, radiometric dating, and diatom analyses of materials extracted from the travertine lined canals. All of the canal networks were functioning by ca. 2000 BC, at the transition from the Late Archaic to the Formative period, which is before archeological evidence for widespread community-level aggregation. Provocatively, some canals are potentially as old as 6000–4000 BC, which would mean that hunter-gatherers initiated irrigation coevally with the introduction of semi-domesticated maize, a tropical species which would require supplemental water in this arid context. The canals both facilitated agricultural intensification and enhanced the distribution of aquatic ecosystems. The resilience of these systems to their unique spring dependent context demanded frequent maintenance and the integration of multiple canal networks to mitigate geohydrological vulnerabilities of reduced discharge. These conditions set up a long-term reciprocal dynamic between people and water in the Tehuacán Valley. The results demonstrate that rigidities inherent to tightly coupled socio-hydrological systems in dryland settings were overcome by institutional arrangements first developed by indigenous communities deep in prehistory.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T11:40:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221121774
       
  • Living with risk in drylands: Archaeological perspectives

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      Authors: Graeme Barker
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      This paper reflects on the themes illustrated in the 11 case studies on the archaeology of drylands. The papers emphasise the diversity of dryland forms, and of the landscapes within them, the implications of this diversity for the societies living in them, and the need to integrate palaeoenvironmental and archaeological approaches in their study. These studies recognise that how past dryland societies recognised risks and opportunities in drylands, including at times of ecological change (whether climatic and/or anthropogenic) may have been very different from our own notions of post-Enlightenment rationality. They provide examples of very different responses to aridification including: abandoning places and lifeways; specialising in alternative rhythms of life and resources; diversifying and broadening the subsistence base to spread risk; and applying new technological and social solutions to make drylands easier to live in. Whilst emphasising the challenges in both theoretical frameworks and methodologies if we are to better understand the interplay between ecological and social drivers of dryland histories, importantly they demonstrates the capacity of dryland peoples to take both wise and foolish decisions in relation to their own survival and to the sustainability of the natural resource, often with implications for their neighbours. These are lessons that resonate with the pressures on drylands and dryland peoples today.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T07:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221122630
       
  • Building resilience from risk: Interactions across ENSO, local
           environment, and farming systems on the desert north coast of Peru
           (1100BC–AD1460)

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      Authors: Ari Caramanica
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      The arid desert coast of northern Peru has traditionally been viewed either as existing in stasis, or as experiencing punctuated change from sudden flood events, followed by a return to system equilibrium. Despite these environmental extremes, the region was home to agriculture-based societies for millennia, and the success of these farming systems is considered an early example of irrigation technology transforming marginal landscapes. However, a closer examination of the long-term human-environment history of the Chicama Valley, one of the largest valleys in the coastal region, demonstrates that this landscape is the product of protracted interactions across at least three systems: the local environment, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and farming. Here, El Niño floods, typically considered high-risk events, are fundamental to local biodiversity and renewal, resulting in a desert ecosystem that is both robust and elastic. The prehispanic farmland known as the Pampa de Mocan (1100BC–AD1460), is presented as a case study to observe the co-evolution of agricultural technology and an ENSO-hyper-arid environment. This ancient farming system developed the capacity to toggle between sudden floodwater inputs and periods of water scarcity. Alongside water and soil conservation practices, prehispanic agriculturalists implemented technologies that were designed to mitigate El Niño flooding and incorporate its byproducts to supplement available resources. The convergence of these interacting systems on the Pampa de Mocan offers new insights into the role of risk in building resilience.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T06:06:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221121772
       
  • Silvopastoralism and the shaping of forest patches in the Atacama Desert
           during the Formative Period (ca. 3000–1500 years BP)

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      Authors: Virginia McRostie, Pilar Babot, Elisa Calás, Eugenia Gayó, Francisco Gallardo, Carolina Godoy-Aguirre, Rafael Labarca, Claudio Latorre, Lautaro Núñez, Karla Ojeda, Calogero M Santoro, Daniela Valenzuela
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      During the Formative period by the Late-Holocene (ca. 3000–1500 BP), semi-sedentary and sedentary human occupations had emerged in the oases, salares, and riverine systems in the central depression (2400–1000 masl) of the Atacama Desert, northern Chile (19–25°S). This hyperarid core was marginally occupied during the post-Pleistocene and middle Holocene droughts. Settlement on these lower belts was accompanied by a rise in humidity, the introduction of Andean crops, flourishment of Prosopis spp. (algarrobo) forests, and increasing integration of domestic camelid caravans. Here, we explore lowland husbandry within risk-spreading strategies, focusing on silvopastoralism and endozoochory between camelids and algarrobos. Analysis of camelid coprolites from seven archeological sites located in the Pampa del Tamarugal, Loa River, and Salar de Atacama found intense grinding from camelid chewing and indicated a ruminal digestive system. Abundant macro and microremains in the form of tissues, phytoliths, crystals, cell structures, and others, were identified as Prosopis, Atriplex, Schoenoplectus, Distichlis, and Phragmites. We conclude that camelids were foraging for Prosopis, although the rather low number of entire seeds preserved in the coprolites leads us to think that these herbivores might not have been the main vectors for the spread and germination of algarrobos. More samples and interdisciplinary studies are needed to comprehend the complex socioecological web in the shaping of these forests and the management of the Atacama Desert landscapes.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T06:28:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221122636
       
  • Holocene desertification, traditional ecological knowledge, and human
           resilience in the eastern Gobi Desert, Mongolia

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      Authors: Arlene M Rosen, Lisa Janz, Bukhchuluun Dashzeveg, Davaakhuu Odsuren
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Dryland regions are particularly challenging for human survival over the course of deep time. This is true for institutionally complex communities as well as small-scale societies that have existed in semi-arid regions throughout the Holocene. This paper examines some of the successful strategies employed by small-scale mobile communities which enhanced their ability to thrive in drylands over the course of thousands of years. Small-scale societies living in drylands must rely on the transmission of Traditional Ecological Knowledge across generations. Some of this knowledge relates to the availability and use of wetlands and other more ephemeral water sources, the exploitation of a diverse range of resources, and the potential for natural storage of food resources as a buffer against regularly occurring drought years in these regions. We compare this understanding with our environmental archeological findings at the Mid-Holocene site of Zaraa Uul in the eastern Gobi Desert of Mongolia. At the site of Zaraa Uul, we show how hunter-gatherer groups returned to a campsite near the edge of a wetland environment over the course of at least two phases during the Mid-Holocene. Here they took advantage of a greater diversity of animal species and plants, including small-grained-grasses and sedges, which could enhance their caloric intake and increase the potential for storable commodities which could be collected as needed from their natural habitat.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T06:24:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221121777
       
  • Expanded agroecological niches and redistributed risks in northern
           Peru’s Chicama Valley during late-Holocene ENSO climate changes

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      Authors: Benjamin R Vining, Aubrey Hillman, Daniel A Contreras, Ernesto Tejedor
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      South American arid lands present unique constellations of climatic risk to their human inhabitants, due to volatile events that can create markedly different hydroclimate conditions over interannual–centennial scales. However, a main driver of such volatility – the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) – occurs with semiregular periodicity. Paleoclimatic and archeological evidence indicate not only that the strength and periodicity of ENSO patterns have changed over the late-Holocene, but their impacts were likely recognized, adapted to, and perhaps capitalized upon by agriculturalists employing adaptive risk strategies. We examine relationships over the last 1.3 kyr between ENSO periodicity, ecological transitions, and archeological settlement in Peru’s Chicama Valley through a coupled paleohydroclimate and agroecology model. We reconstruct periods when ENSO-like conditions dominated past hydroclimates and present a quantitative, spatially-explicit analysis of ecological productivity during modern ENSO-positive hydroclimate conditions. We show that archeological settlement patterns are sensitive to these transformations and reflect efforts to capitalize on expanded agroecological niches. Such expanded niches potentially offset the adverse impacts and risks associated with abrupt ENSO climate events. These results suggest archeological communities were aware of ENSO risk and managed productive strategies accordingly, highlighting the importance of a risk calculus that considers the net ecological effects of climate events.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T06:20:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221121761
       
  • Risky business: Comparative approaches to risk and resilience in arid
           environments of the Holocene – An introduction to the special issue

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      Authors: Emily Dawson, Camille Weinberg, Alison Damick
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Drylands are diverse and dynamic ecosystems that have been occupied by humans throughout the Holocene. Nonetheless, drylands are often conceived of as marginal, rare, and inimical to human livelihoods. This Special Issue interrogates the interactions between humans and arid and aridifying environments to investigate how drylands offer unique risks and opportunities to their resilient inhabitants. This article introduces the 11 environmental archeology papers and 1 discussion paper in this Special Issue, the proceedings of a 2021 virtual workshop on the topics of risk and resilience. Each contribution explores a different geographic and chronological context around the globe. We also introduce three subthemes of this Special Issue: “Multi-Scalar Analysis,” “Abundance and Diversity,” and “Cascading Risks.” Collectively, a key strength of the case studies in this volume is the range of environmental archeology methods and datasets that they showcase. These authors draw out details within a multi-scalar understanding of risk and risk perception in the particular contexts in which they work. As we face compounding contemporary risks associated with the global impacts of a changing climate, it is more important than ever to recognize the range of human relationships with aridification, and the dynamic, localized socio-environmental histories of drylands.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-09-03T04:58:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221121763
       
  • Long-term shoreline evolution (Late-Holocene – 2018) of the Channel 15
           coast (Samborombón bay, NE – Buenos Aires province, Argentina)

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      Authors: Gabriela D’Amico, Mariel Samanta Luengo, Enrique Fucks, Isabel Vilanova
      First page: 1121
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Here we present an investigation with the aim of reconstructing the shoreline evolution and geomorphological changes in the central zone of Samborombón bay (Channel 15, Buenos Aires province, Argentina) during the period 2700 cal yr BP to recent times. Palynological, geomorphological and historical imagery and proxy-data analyses were combined to reconstruct the shoreline evolution and paleo-environmental changes. Palynological material (pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs -NPP-) was recovered from a continuous 117 cm long sedimentary profile extracted from an outcrop at the northern margin of Channel 15. Relict landforms, including paleo- shorelines, were reconstructed by applying enhancing filters to a Spot 6 image from 2015. Historical shorelines were identified in high-definition images (aerial and satellite imagery) between 1968 and 2018, but also by using the marsh vegetation edge as a shoreline proxy. Shoreline change was quantified using the Net Shoreline Movement and Weighted Linear Regression algorithms in ArcMap 10.1. Results based on the palynological analysis for the period 2700–2740 BP, show the passage from subtidal-intertidal to supratidal environment with influence of brackish to fresh-waters, where paleo-shorelines imprint was recognized developing over a tidal plain that was grading to marshes. Results based on aerial and satellite imagery for the period 1968–2018 show shoreline retrocession only immediately at the north of the channel mouth, while the rest of the coast prograded toward the estuary. These processes indicate that new marshes – and, therefore, wetlands – are constantly developing at the edge of Samborombón bay.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-08-06T09:26:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221114277
       
  • Potential impact of Holocene climate changes on camel breeding practices
           of Neolithic pastoralists in the Central Asian drylands: A preliminary
           assessment

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      Authors: Małgorzata Suska-Malawska, Małgorzata Kot, Anna Gręzak, Monika Mętrak, Mukhiddin Khudjanazarov, Karol Szymczak
      First page: 1132
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Archaeological findings from the Neolithic open-air location Ayakagytma ‘The Site’, situated in the south-eastern part of the Kyzyl-kum Desert in Uzbekistan, can potentially shed new light on the camel domestication process in the Central Asian drylands and help to connect it to regional changes of paleoclimate. Detailed analyses of composition and 13C isotopic ratios of fatty acids performed on potsherds from an archaeological horizon of a Keltaminar culture dated at 3000–4000 cal BC combined with analogical analyses of modern camel and horse milk samples from Uzbekistan indicated a plausible possibility that camels were kept and milked by stockbreeders of Ayakagytma during this time period. The observed herding practices based almost exclusively on camel husbandry, as opposed to earlier more balanced herds of cattle, horses and camels, were probably an adaptation to climate transition from relatively humid to relatively dry, and the following changes in vegetation. Such climatic shift did not correspond with the general trend of Holocene moisture changes over the Westerlies-dominated Central Asia. However, it was in accordance with wet-to-dry climate transitions recorded in sediments of several lakes in the same region at around 4000 cal BP. The observed changes in Neolithic stockbreeding practices, as other inconsistencies in Holocene moisture evolution over a massive area of arid Central Asia, may have resulted from local manifestations of globally-forced climate changes and/or from local hydrographic alterations unrelated to paleoclimate.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-07-28T12:32:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221114289
       
  • Paleogenetic and microscopic studies of Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa:
           Eimeriidae) as a tool to reveal the zoological origin of coprolites: The
           case of study of artiodactyl coprolites from an archeological site from
           Patagonia, Argentina

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      Authors: María Ornela Beltrame, Eleonor Tietze, Victoria Cañal, Ramiro Barberena, Silvina Quintana
      First page: 1144
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Coprolites are one of the sources of evidence most commonly used in paleoparasitological studies. However, the zoological origin identification is not always possible. Parasites of the genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) are obligate protozoan which have evolved to exhibit a great diversity of host range, and present strict host specificity. Usually, the identification of Eimeria spp. can be done by morphological characteristics such as size and shape of the oocysts. Moreover, molecular diagnostic methods such as PCR have proven to be very useful methodologies for an accurate taxonomic identification. In recent years, molecular techniques have started to be applied in paleoparasitological studies. Here, we provide the first integrative approach that combine light microscopic studies and ancient DNA (aDNA) in order to detect and identify Eimeria spp. on artiodactyl coprolites recovered from an archeological context from northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. The main objective is to discuss the advantages of complementing these two approaches as a promising tool to identify the zoological origin of coprolites. Furthermore, we provide paleoparasitological data about the presence of Eimeria spp. in coprolites of South American ungulates. Light microscopic studies allowed the identification of oocysts attributed to Eimeria spp. in 13 of the 40 coprolites. Amplification and sequencing of the aDNA ITS1 detected the presence of Eimeria spp. in 5 of the 10 samples, and allowed the taxonomic identification of these sequences as belonging to Eimeria arloingi. Furthermore, the results obtained from cytochrome b gene (Cytb) analysis confirmed the identity of the host as Capra hircus. Results displayed the presence of coccidiosis in goats from historical times. This study highlights that both techniques are complementary and promotes the use of the identification of Eimeria spp. in ancient samples in order to identify the zoological origin.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T10:47:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221114287
       
  • Holocene upland and wetland dynamics in the Chihuahuan Desert,
           Cuatrociénegas Mexico

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      Authors: Thomas A Minckley, Sally P Horn, Matthew J Valente
      First page: 1151
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      The Cuatrociénegas Basin, Coahuila MX, has the highest rate of endemism in North America and has been the source of a rich aridlands, paleoenvironmental history in the Chihuahuan Desert of North America. Understanding the recent past of the Cuatrociénegas Basin contextualizes how aridland terrestrial and wetland systems may respond to ongoing climate warming and the potential aridification in already water-limited regions. A 12.3 m long sediment core dated to ~13,500 cal yr BP was collected from Poza Cortador and examined for pollen to reconstruct the Holocene terrestrial and wetland history of the Basin. The terrestrial record indicates a transition from woodland to desert environments by ~7500 cal yr BP. This transition is characterized more by the decrease in conifer and oak pollen abundances relative to desert taxa rather than a sudden appearance of new pollen types. Wetlands appear more stable than the terrestrial record, possibly because of groundwater buffering of the wetland surface. Alternatively, there might be less obvious changes because of the overall pollen diversity of identified wetland pollen types selected in this study. Significant aridity in both the terrestrial and wetland environments is inferred between 5000 and 3000 cal yr BP based on poor pollen preservation. The record of the last 3000 cal yrs reflects the resilience of both the terrestrial and wetland systems to prolonged drought and provides hope that this unique system may have resiliency to some aspects of future climate change if the hydrologic connectivity can remain intact.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-08-02T10:13:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221114295
       
  • Following the herds' A new distribution of hunting kites in Southwest
           Asia

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      Authors: Michael Fradley, Francesca Simi, Maria Guagnin
      First page: 1160
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Remote-sensing analysis of open-source satellite imagery has identified a major, new distribution of undocumented hunting kite structures in northern Arabia. This new data has important implications on the environmental viability of hunting and on possible settlement patterns during the early and middle Holocene. Running across the eastern side of the Nafud Desert in Saudi Arabia, this research has identified star-shaped kites in a distribution that continues on to southern Iraq. From a broader perspective, this new distribution appears to represent a continuation of the well-known arc of kites recorded running principally through southern Syria and eastern Jordan. As well as representing an important archaeological identification in its own right, this new distribution also has important implications in terms of the paleoenvironment of the region, faunal dispersals and human cultural connections.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-08-12T07:08:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221114290
       
  • The mid-Holocene sea-level change in the Arabian Gulf

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      Authors: Barbara Mauz, Zhixiong Shen, Mohammad Alsuwaidi, Daniele Mellini, Giorgio Spada, Sam J Purkis
      First page: 1173
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      The mid-Holocene sea-level highstand is a well-known phenomenon in sea-level science, yet the knowledge on the highstand’s spatial and temporal distribution remains incomplete. Here we study the southwest coast of the Arabian-Persian Gulf where a mid-Holocene sea-level highstand and subsequent sea-level fall may have occurred due to the Earth crustal response to meltwater load. Sea-level indicators were established using standard facies analysis and error calculations, then constrained through glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) modelling and though procedures based on Gaussian Process and exponential decay analysis. This work allowed to identify the highstand at 1.6 ± 0.4 m occurring 6.7–6.0 ka, in excellent agreement with GIA model results. The subsequent shoreline migration followed the geophysical constraint by prograding in line with the sea-level fall until around 3 ka. Then, the strength of the external control weakened and internal processes, in particular sediment binding through microbial activity, started controlling the geometry of the accommodation space.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-07-27T05:59:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221114291
       
  • Toward a novel multi-century archive of tree mast using pollen from lake
           sediments

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      Authors: Joseph G Prebble, Gavin Dunbar, Valerie van den Bos, Xun Li, Marcus Vandergoes, Sarah Richardson, Huw Horgan, Katherine A Holt, Jamie Howarth, Richard Levy
      First page: 1184
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Mast seeding – the pronounced inter-annual variability and synchrony in seed production – can have profound local ecological impacts. We explore the potential for generating long (centuries to millennia) proxy records of tree mast seeding, from pollen deposited in lake sediments. This proxy record uses pollen recovered from annually-banded (varved) sediments from a core collected from Lake Ohau, South Island, New Zealand to reconstruct masting events for two genera of Southern Beech, Fuscospora spp. and Lophozonia spp. We find average mast frequencies inferred from Fuscospora pollen from a 43-year sediment core collected from Lake Ohau comparable to seed fall expected for the catchment using a differential-temperature (ΔT) statistical model for the period 1974–2016. In contrast, Lophozonia pollen mast frequency in the 1974–2016 timeseries was consistently lower than that predicted by the ΔT model, although the patterns of variability were broadly similar. We explore this approach in a second 32-year pollen timeseries from Lake Ohau, spanning the pre-instrumental period 1833–1864. During this interval, average air temperature was ~1°C cooler than the late 20th century, and interannual variability of air temperature was subdued, such that mast frequency predicted by the ΔT model is the lowest in 200 years. We find mast frequency in our pollen records reflects this pattern for Fuscospora, with a minima of mast frequency from 1850, compared to the 1974–2016 record, but not for Lophozonia. This paper demonstrates that a centuries-long pollen record from the Lake Ohau sedimentary sequence has the potential to form a valuable proxy for Fuscospora masting that would supplement existing seedfall records. Long records of this type could significantly enhance our understanding of the environmental drivers of mast seeding.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T12:30:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221114292
       
  • Agricultural practices in India during the Holocene: A pollen view point
           and a critical appraisal

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      Authors: Mohammad Firoze Quamar, Ratan Kar
      First page: 1340
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Pollen assemblages provide valuable insights into the beginning of cereal-based agricultural practices and the transition from a hunting and gathering to a sedentary and food-producing way of life. Anthropogenic pollen indicators (APIs) and their precise identification, with respect to taxonomic resolution, can help to document the history of agricultural development, pastoral activities and human-induced land-use changes, particularly for the Holocene Epoch. Moreover, careful selection of pollen types, and/or indices, established for a particular region, are useful for obtaining meaningful reconstructions of anthropogenic activities through time. Specific pollen-markers have been used to deduce the inception of agriculture and the impact of anthropogenic activities on the landscape, from the different regions of the world. For India, Cerealia, and other cultural plant pollen taxa, such as Amaranthaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Brassicaceae, Polygonaceae, Artemisia, Cannabis sativa, Alternanthera, Urtica, Rumex and Borreria have been used as marker pollen types for indicating agricultural practices and other anthropogenic activities. In this communication, we have made an attempt to trace the advent and intensification of agricultural practices in the varied physiographic regions of the Indian sub-continent, on the basis of the available palynological records. We have further critically analysed the plausibility of agricultural practices and other human activities during the Late Pleistocene/Pre and Early Holocene with respect to the Indian scenario.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T09:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221114286
       
  • Holocene book review

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      Authors: Samuel Turvey
      First page: 1363
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T01:06:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221103139
       
 
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