Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (94 journals)
    - GEOPHYSICS (33 journals)
    - HYDROLOGY (29 journals)
    - OCEANOGRAPHY (88 journals)

EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 371 Journals sorted by number of followers
Nature Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 171)
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156)
International Journal of Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151)
Earth and Planetary Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Ocean & Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Marine Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
International Journal of Geographical Information Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Natural Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Journal of Earth System Science     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Hydrological Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Geophysical Journal International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Groundwater     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Geomorphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Marine Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Marine Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Geology Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Reviews of Modern Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
GPS Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Landslides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Structural Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Environmental Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Tectonophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Geocarto International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Coral Reefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Bulletin of Volcanology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Marine and Petroleum Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Hydrobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Hydrogeology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Marine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Sedimentary Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Earthquake Spectra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Geological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Quaternary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Global and Planetary Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Physics of Metals and Metallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Geological Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
The Holocene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Natural Hazards Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Metamorphic Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Sedimentology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Quaternary International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Ocean Development & International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Applied Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Continental Shelf Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Pramana     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ocean Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Pure and Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
European Journal of Mineralogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Frontiers of Earth Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ore Geology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of African Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
CATENA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Gondwana Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Marine Mammal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Physics of Plasmas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cretaceous Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Marine Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Earth Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences: An International Geoscience Journal of the Geological Society of Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Lithos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Seismology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Physik in unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Geophysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Contemporary Physics (Armenian Academy of Sciences)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Geotectonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Facies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Comptes Rendus : Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Geodesy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Natural Resources Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Geophysical Prospecting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Geomechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Physics of the Solid State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Plasma Physics Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Ocean Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Coastal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Geodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ocean Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Petrology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sea Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geochemistry : Exploration, Environment, Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ocean Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Geographical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geo-Marine Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resource Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Terra Nova     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Permafrost and Periglacial Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Marine Geophysical Researches     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Island Arc     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Energy Exploration & Exploitation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Organic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Marine Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Limnologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Marine Geodesy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mineralium Deposita     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematical Physics, Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
JETP Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Lithology and Mineral Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Surveys in Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Geology and Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Fundamental and Applied Limnology / Archiv für Hydrobiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Geomagnetism and Aeronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mining Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geophysics and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Helgoland Marine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Rocks & Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Newsletters on Stratigraphy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Polar Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
The Leading Edge     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Russian Physics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics of Life Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Russian Journal of Pacific Geology     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Physics of Wave Phenomena     Hybrid Journal  
Moscow University Physics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Moscow University Geology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Marine Georesources & Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Mountain Science     Hybrid Journal  
Grassland Science     Hybrid Journal  
Glass Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
The Holocene
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.202
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0959-6836 - ISSN (Online) 1477-0911
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • New evidence supports the continuous development of rice cultivation and
           early formation of mixed farming in the Middle Han River Valley, China

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      Authors: Xiujia Huan, Zhenhua Deng, Jinhui Xiang, Houyuan Lu
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Located in the transitional region between northern and southern China, the middle Han River valley is of pivotal significance for current debates on rice domestication and the formation of mixed farming in early China. Based on phytoliths and macro-plant remains from 10 sites, along with radiocarbon dating, this study has narrowed the 2000-year gap in early rice utilization by 700 years in the middle Han River valley, and demonstrated the continuous development of rice agriculture in this region. This new evidence also reveals that as early as 7000 cal. BP, mixed farming emerged in this region and facilitated the further southward dispersal of foxtail millet and broomcorn millet into southern China and beyond. In addition, a sample-by-sample comparison of our results with phytoliths and macro-plant remains highlighted the potential biases inherent in these methods. This work emphasized the importance of multi-index archaeobotanical analysis to reconstruct ancient crop assemblages.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T05:43:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221101253
       
  • Changes in the vegetation and water cycle of the Ecuadorian páramo during
           the last 5000 years

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      Authors: Marie-Pierre Ledru, Olga Aquino-Alfonso, Walter Finsinger, Pablo Samaniego, Silvana Hidalgo
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      We analyzed changes in the long-term vegetation cover and in fire activity over the past 5000 years in the Ecuadorian páramo using a sediment core from Papallacta (Ecuador). The chronology is constrained by three tephra layers and 32 AMS 14C ages, and 168 samples yielded a high-resolution record of environmental changes. We estimated the upslope wind convectivity as the ratio between pollen transported from the Andean cloud forest and Poaceae pollen to distinguish changes in atmospheric moisture from changes in soil moisture. The record showed that the two sources of moisture, either from year-round adiabatic cloud dripping linked to SASM activity or to ENSO variability at decadal-scale, influenced vegetation-cover changes. Between 5000 and 2450 cal yr BP, both soil moisture and biomass burning were higher than after 2450 cal yr BP. The shift between the two states matches the zonal increase in summer insolation that drove the ITCZ to its southernmost position. Our results underline resilience to volcanic activity, the importance of the upslope convective dripping with the lowest convective index observed at ~4500 cal yr BP, the anomalous last century with the highest convective activity and the driest soil conditions recorded in the last 5000 years, the recent increase in fire activity and the link between soil moisture and the position of the ITCZ.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T10:18:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221101251
       
  • Historical biogeographic range shifts and the influence of climate change
           on ocean quahogs (Arctica islandica) on the Mid-Atlantic Bight

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      Authors: Alyssa M LeClaire, Eric N Powell, Roger Mann, Kathleen M Hemeon, Sara M Pace, Jill R Sower, Theresa E Redmond
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      The Holocene, starting approximately 11.7 cal ka, is characterized by distinct periods of warming and cooling. Despite these known climate events, few temperature proxy data exist in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. One potential record of past water temperatures is preserved in the marine fossil record. Shell growth of ocean quahogs (Arctica islandica), a long-lived bivalve, can provide records of past environmental conditions. Arctica islandica habitat includes the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB), an area rapidly warming as a consequence of climate change. The Cold Pool, a bottom-trapped water mass on the outer continental shelf within the MAB, rarely rises above 15°C. Ocean quahogs inhabiting the MAB are confined to the Cold Pool as a consequence of an upper thermal limit for the species of ~15–16°C. Recently, dead A. islandica shells were discovered outside of the species’ present-day range, suggesting that the Cold Pool once extended further inshore than now observed. Shells collected off the Delmarva Peninsula were radiocarbon-dated to identify the timing of habitation and biogeographic range shifts. Dead shell ages range from 4400 to 60 cal BP, including ages representing four major Holocene cold events. Nearly absent from this record are shells from the intermittent warm periods. Radiocarbon ages indicate that ocean quahogs, contemporaneous with the present MAB populations, were living inshore of their present-day distribution during the past 200 years. This overlap suggests the initiation of a recent biogeographic range shift that occurred as a result of a regression of the Cold Pool following the Little Ice Age.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T01:15:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221101275
       
  • New radiocarbon dates reveal pan-Holocene deposition of rodents at Trouing
           Jérémie #5, a sinkhole in the western Tiburon Peninsula, Haiti

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      Authors: Siobhán Bríghid Cooke, Brooke Erin Crowley
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      We present eight new radiocarbon dates for endemic and invasive rodents from Trouing Jérémie #5, a paleontologically-rich sink hole on the Tiburon Peninsula, Haiti. This includes new dates for two species that have been previously directly dated (Isolobodon portoricensis and Brotomys voratus) as well as three endemic rodents which have no previous direct radiometric dates (Plagiodontia velozi, Hexolobodon phenax, and Rhizoplagiodontia lemkei). The radiocarbon date for P. velozi, the largest of these species, is from the very early Holocene (10,995 ± 190 calendar years before present; Cal BP). Specimens of medium-bodied species, H. phenax and R. lemkei date to the mid-Holocene, while specimens of smaller-bodied I. portoricencis and B. voratus have dates falling in the Late-Holocene. These dates confirm that several of the extinct rodent species coexisted with the first humans, who arrived on the island ca. 6000 years ago. In contrast, murid Rattus specimens date to the last few centuries. Rats arrived with Europeans in the late 15th or early 16th Century and a radiocarbon date of ca. 500 Cal BP for one individual suggests that they likely spread quickly across the island. Collectively, these dates establish that vertebrate accumulations at Trouing Jérémie #5 span the Holocene. Remains from this site may provide a useful time sequence for future work examining ecological change across the Holocene as well as regional extirpation patterns.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T01:11:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221101279
       
  • Biodiversity and ecology of plants and arthropods on the last preserved
           glacier of the Apennines mountain chain (Italy)

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      Authors: Barbara Valle, Michele di Musciano, Mauro Gobbi, Marco Bonelli, Enzo Colonnelli, Giulio Gardini, Massimo Migliorini, Paolo Pantini, Adriano Zanetti, Emanuele Berrilli, Anna Rita Frattaroli, Davide Fugazza, Anna Invernizzi, Marco Caccianiga
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      In the current global warming phase, relict glacial areas are one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world. They are “cold-spots” of biodiversity and of great interest both from the ecological and conservation point of view. We investigated the biological communities (plants and arthropods) hosted by one of the southernmost European glaciers: Calderone Glacier, the last preserved glacier of the Apennines mountain chain (Italy). We analyzed supraglacial debris and the nearby moraine and we found a rather diverse and peculiar biodiversity, which includes also new species. Some arthropods, such as the springtail Desoria calderonis, are particularly sensitive to the presence of ice at microtopographic level. Among plants, only Arabis alpina caucasica is able to grow on the supraglacial debris, perhaps because of factors related to the seed germination and seedling survival on this habitat type. Calderone glacier, with its particular biogeographic location, is probably currently acting as one of the last refugia for rare and endemic cryophilic species within the Mediterranean Region during the ongoing warm period.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T01:09:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221096292
       
  • Holocene book review

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      Authors: Samuel Turvey
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T01:06:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221103139
       
  • Sources of coal remains from the Jartai Pass Site in Nilka County,
           Xinjiang, China

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      Authors: Shan Li, Yongqiang Wang, Shuquan Zhu, Qiurong Ruan, Cai Tie, Xiulong Gao, Xuanhe Zhao, Handong Liang
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      The Jartai Pass site is a Late Bronze Age (3600–3000cal. a B.P.) settlement site in Nilka County, Xinjiang, China, containing the world’s earliest coal-burning remains including coal and ash. To investigate possible sources of coal used at the Jartai Pass site, extractable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the coal remains and coals around the site were analyzed. The concentrations of total PAHs (∑PAHs), 16 US Environmental Protection Agency prioritized PAHs (∑16PAHs), and alkylated PAHs (∑aPAHs) in 14 coal remains samples ranged from 1680–8579, 1090–4193, and 180–4066 ng/g, respectively. Four samples had higher PAH concentrations than the other 10 samples and were dominated by parent 4–6-ring PAHs and alkylated 2–3-ring PAHs. The other 10 samples were dominated by parent 2–3-ring PAHs, indicating different sources for the coal remains at the site. Total PAH concentrations in six coal samples around the site ranged from 2858–21582 ng/g. Three raw coal samples from mines were dominated by parent 2–3-ring PAHs, and the other three outcrop coals were dominated by parent 4–6-ring PAHs and alkylated 2–3-ring PAHs, revealing a significant difference in the PAH composition between raw coal and weathered outcrop coal. Based on the regional coalfield geology and development history of coal utilization in China, we suggest that the coals used at Jartai Pass site were from outcrop coal seams. The four high-PAH coal remains might have been from the coal line on the bank of the Kashgar River. Considering the amount used at the site over a long period, we speculate that the remaining coal may have been from the subsurface layer of the outcrop coal seam, indicating variation in mining depth. This study provides a basis for understanding coal remains unearthed at an archeological site in northwestern China and early coal utilization by humans.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T10:35:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221101270
       
  • Alaskan palaeosols in modern times: Deciphering unique microbial diversity
           within the late-Holocene

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      Authors: Robyn A Barbato, Robert M Jones, Thomas A Douglas, Julie Esdale, Karen Foley, Edward J Perkins, Shelby Rosten, Natàlia Garcia-Reyero
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      The Holocene Epoch (11,700 years ago to the present) marks the development of the present-day boreal ecosystems in interior Alaska. The composition and genetics of soil microbes have the potential to alter how nutrient cycling and vegetation respond to warming and cooling events, but very little is known about how boreal soils have varied over time. Here, we use DNA sequencing on both modern soils and well-preserved paleosols developed during several episodes of the Holocene to extract information on soil bacteria, archaea, and fungi present in interior Alaska during the past 8000 years (8 ka). Community composition of bacteria and fungi in the ancient paleosols was different from modern soils, with a higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Verrucomicrobia in the modern soils. The most dramatic shift in interior Alaska’s soil microbiome occurred ca. 7 ka, when species diversity was lowered and functional diversity became higher after 7 ka. This suggests that function was truly low, the early Holocene ecosystems were functionally redundant, and/or that true functional diversity was not captured due to a lack of genetic resolution in existing sequence databases. The cause of this observed shift cannot be directly answered in this work; however, these data suggest that ca. 7 ka was a critical period when microbial taxa and function shifted dramatically. This is important for understanding how the soil microbiome responds to climate changes and impacts the succession of vegetation.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T10:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221101249
       
  • Disentangling the Medieval Climatic Anomaly in Patagonia and its impact on
           human societies

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      Authors: Ivana L Ozán, María E de Porras, Marcelo Morales, Ramiro Barberena
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      This paper revises paleoenvironmental data from Patagonia (southern South America) to discuss the occurrence, characteristics, and human impact of the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA). The analysis of continuous paleoenvironmental archives with multidecadal-to-centennial resolution is based on a quality assessment regarding data interpretation, chronological control, and time range adequacy within the MCA lapse. After applying this three-stepped quality filters on the total dataset (N = 48), 18 cases can accurately be ascribed to the MCA. Except for two sites indicating wetter conditions, these records show dry and/or warm conditions between ca. 750 and 1350 CE (core period at ca. 800–1200 CE). Even though MCA records come mostly from forests and forest-steppe ecotones, all previous archeological hypotheses about the MCA effects on past hunter-gatherers were proposed for the steppes, particularly in southern sectors, thus requiring an assessment of the source of the signal, their synchronicity and causality between human-environmental processes. In the southern steppe, paleoenvironmental records partially overlapping with the MCA time window actually show a predominance of wet conditions between 47° and 50° S, whereas a generalized aridity is recorded in southern tip of the continental Patagonia between 51° and 52° S. Thus, a complex scenario of landscape fragmentation can be supported in the southern steppes during the MCA, produced not only by enhanced aridity in dry environments, but also because of the presence of wet and more resilient areas. This landscape heterogeneity must be considered to deepen the understanding of behavioral changes contemporaneous to the MCA. However, a scenario of demographic growth suggested around 1000 CE for the entire Patagonia could have promoted human changes similar to those expected for the MCA. Finally, no-archeological discussions linked to the MCA were developed for forest regions, despite their robust paleoenvironmental records, implying that changes in proxy data might not have necessarily involved important environmental changes.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T10:29:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221095993
       
  • Climate and human exploitation have regulated Atlantic salmon populations
           in the River Spey, Scotland, over the last 2000 years

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      Authors: David Sear, Pete Langdon, Melanie Leng, Mary Edwards, Tim Heaton, Catherine Langdon, Julian Leyland
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Historical salmon catch records suggest that climatic variability, and more recently human exploitation, control patterns of abundance in Atlantic salmon populations. We present the first long-term (2000-year) reconstruction of Atlantic Salmon population variations based on a Marine Derived Nutrient (MDN) lake sediment record. Our record is constructed from nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) measured from a lake sediment core, which we compare with an escapement index (EI) derived from historic net catch data on major Scottish salmon rivers. We used an isotope mixing model to demonstrate that the N isotope values are likely enriched with MDN and demonstrate that Loch Insh sediments are enriched compared with a control site (Loch Vaa) that has never had exposure to salmon. We demonstrate that current adult spawner returns are around half that of historic values prior to major human exploitation. Before the onset of widespread human exploitation and habitat degradation, large fluctuations in salmon abundance are attributed to variations in North Atlantic sea surface temperature. While our data support published reconstructions of declining Atlantic salmon stocks in Northwest European rivers over the last 1000 years, rather than point to a solely human cause, the human impact appears to be overprinted on larger-scale changes in marine habitat occurring at the transition from the warmer Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA) to the cooler Little Ice Age (LIA).
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T10:25:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221095983
       
  • Climate-driven Holocene ecohydrological and carbon dynamics from maritime
           peatlands of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, eastern Canada

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      Authors: Léonie Perrier, Michelle Garneau, Steve Pratte, Nicole K Sanderson
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Anticosti Island, located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (GSL; Quebec, Canada) is covered by ~25% peatland ecosystems, and conditions supporting their development remain poorly documented. We present the first reconstructions of the ecohydrological conditions (vegetation successions and water table variations) and related carbon accumulation of two maritime peatlands (Pluvier; PLU and Pointe de l’Est; PTE) located on the eastern part of Anticosti Island. These ombrotrophic peatlands developed under the influence of the GSL sea-surface conditions in interaction with atmospheric circulation during the Holocene. Long-term apparent Rate of Carbon Accumulation (LORCA, g C m−2 a−1) at PLU (13.3) and PTE (16.8) are lower than the mean global value for northern peatlands (22.9), likely due to high wind exposure. Results show that despite the earlier peat inception at PLU (9440 cal a BP) before PTE (6250 cal a BP), the fen-bog transition of both peatlands occurred almost synchronously (4540 and 5070 cal a BP respectively), suggesting favourable hydroclimatic conditions for peat growth. A slowdown in peat accumulation combined with dry and variable hydrological conditions after ca. 3300 cal a BP in the two studied peatlands coincided with the transition from the mid-Holocene to the Neoglacial cooling. At ca. 800 cal a BP, the shift from wet Sphagnum to dry ligneous peat corresponds to the transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age. Cooling periods, characterized by a decrease in incident solar radiation and the incursion of cold and dry Arctic air masses into the GSL, are marked by a decrease in peat accumulation, especially at PLU, due to its higher wind exposure, which influenced reduced snow cover thickness as well as frost penetration and duration through the peat.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T10:22:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221095978
       
  • Variation in humidity and the forcing mechanism in Asian
           monsoon-influenced regions indicated by hematite/goethite from Baxian
           Lake, southern China, since AD 800

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      Authors: Shengtan Shang, Xiaoqiang Yang, Enlou Zhang, Ruomei Wei, Tingwei Zhang, Qixian Zhou
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Understanding the potential mechanisms driving the precipitation pattern in the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) area is significant to reconstructing the environmental and hydrological conditions over the past 2000 years. However, robust and consistent conclusions have been hampered by the complex processes controlling the dynamics and diverse interconnected linkage of the Asian monsoon. Here, we present a reconstruction of variations in humidity since AD 800, based on the ratio of hematite to goethite (Hem/Goe) and other magnetic parameters in the sediments of Baxian Lake, southern China. The record indicates that a dramatic transition from dry to humid climate occurred during AD 800–950 and then returned to extreme drought during the second half of the Medieval Warm Period. The fluctuations between a relatively wet climate and weak drought were also demonstrated during the Little Ice Age (AD 1450–1800). Climate-influenced vegetation coverage may influence the flux of weathered detrital magnetic minerals in sediments, as it hinders the input of coarser detritus into Baxian Lake. The magnetic minerals in the sediments were not significantly altered during the post-depositional processes. Additionally, the Hem/Goe record indicates that an opposite precipitation pattern occurred in southern China when compared with precipitation records in northern China and India. We ascribe this result to the superimposition of land-ocean-atmosphere dynamics on the traditional model of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) movement forced by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. This is significant for enhancing our understanding of the relationship among the continent-ocean thermal gradient, ASM variation, ITCZ movement, El Niño Southern Oscillation-like events, and extreme climates in areas influenced by the ASM.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T10:04:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221101250
       
  • Lowstand lake conditions in NW Anatolia during the Little Ice Age:
           Multi-proxy evidence from Lake Sünnet

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      Authors: Faruk Ocakoğlu, Aydın Akbulut, Emel Oybak Dönmez, Alaettin Tuncer, Cemal Tunoğlu, Sanem Açıkalın, Celal Erayık
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Despite global and local evidence of significant precipitation changes since the Little Ice Age (LIA), their impact upon lake hydrology and surrounding vegetation has yet to be investigated in NW Anatolia. Moreover, the LIA, as a trigger to the social/political recession of the Ottoman Empire in the 17th century is expected to have these impacts. To address this important gap, we studied three cores from Lake Sünnet, a landslide-dammed high altitude lake with extreme sedimentation rates, by using a wide range of proxies including lithology, stable isotopes of O and C, diatoms, pollen, and ostracods. The LIA timespan of AD 1510–1750 is represented by poorly preserved diatom flora and scarce ostracod fauna that collectively suggest very shallow aquatic conditions. The period AD 1640–1710 within the LIA is standing out with higher Abies and total herb pollen percentages that denotes considerably cooler conditions. During and soon after this cold and dry period precisely overlapping the Maunder Minimum, the currently deep Lake Sülüklü in close vicinity was a dry lowland where tall trees were growing. Progressive warming/lake level rise in Lake Sünnet after the AD 1750s is suggested based on a continuous diatom record with increasing planktonic share, increase in diverse and warm demanding arboreal cover, and a positive shift in δ18O of the lake muds. Following the relatively dry/cold period of AD 1800–1850 (Dalton Minimum) when the lake level was stationary and Artemisia cover became the most expanded of the whole record, a relatively warmer climate has dominated the area until the end of the 20th century.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T10:01:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221101252
       
  • A southern refugium for temperate tree species in the Mediterranean
           mountains of El Port massif (NE Iberia): Charcoal analysis at Cova Del
           Vidre

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      Authors: Marta Alcolea, Lucie Chabal, Josep Bosch-Arguilagós, Raquel Piqué
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      This study focuses on the analysis of wood charcoal from Cova del Vidre (Roquetes, Tarragona, Spain). This cave, located at an altitude of 1000 m a.s.l., is a key site for understanding the transition from hunting and gathering to farming in a mountainous region of north-eastern Iberia so far unexplored by archaeobotany. The anthracological study is based on four archaeological levels from the Epipalaeolithic to the Early Neolithic dated between 12.9 and 6.8 kyr cal BP, that is, from the Late Glacial period to the Middle Holocene. During the Younger Dryas, the record is dominated by a little varied spectrum of cryophilous pines (Pinus tp. sylvestris) and thorny shrubs revealing an open landscape where Prunus may prefigure the spread of temperate taxa. In the Early Holocene, a significant change in temperature and precipitation is evidenced, which promoted successional changes in plant communities, with a decline of pine and the sudden rise of temperate/Mediterranean taxa, such as Prunus and Quercus coccifera/ilex. During the Middle Holocene, other temperate taxa appear, such as Quercus deciduous, Buxus sempervirens and Taxus baccata, with yew finally dominating the anthracological record. The appearance and early development of temperate or Mediterranean species as early as the Younger Dryas and the Early Holocene periods, in a mountain context that had long been favourable for Scots pine, allows us to argue the local existence of a glacial refugium. Differences with the nearby sites in the lowlands demonstrate that altitudinal differences in vegetation were already established in the Holocene. Furthermore, the site helps to define the palaeodistribution of Taxus baccata, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica in southern Europe.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-06-04T10:03:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221095992
       
  • From hunter-gatherer subsistence strategies to the Agricultural
           Revolution: Disentangling Energy Regimes as a complement to cultural
           phases in Northern Spain

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      Authors: Martinez Alexandre, Kluiving Sjoerd, Muñoz-Rojas José, Borja Barrera César, Fraile Jurado Pablo
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      The Holocene is defined by the impact of agricultural societies on their natural environments and resources, a paradigmatic shift triggered by the Agricultural Revolution. In Cantabrian Spain, the adoption of a sedentary economy (ca. 7000 cal yr BP) remains misunderstood, with contemporary Mesolithic and Neolithic sites apparently random dispersed. Energy Regimes, a time-independent and functional analysis of past societies, considers two cultures that cohabit and/or cooperate, based on their differential pattern of use of energy and resources, as well as on the variation in land-use strategies. We test and implement the framework of Energy Regimes through a targeted review, to examine the hunter-gatherer subsistence strategies in Cantabrian Spain. Archeological proxies such as demography, mobility, complexity of society, economy, and overexploitation of resources identified in 95 articles and books, allow us to apply Energy Regimes to reexamine transitions in hunter-gatherer societies. Neolithization in Cantabrian Spain is the result of a long process that started with the Solutrean cultural phase ca. 24,000 cal yr BP, during the Last Glacial Maximum. Hunter-gatherers developed onward novel subsistence strategies with subtle changes in energy use until the transition toward a sedentary economy. Energy Regimes provide new insights for other regional contexts where time-bounded analyses conceal the complexity of energy transition processes in Europe and beyond.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-06-04T09:58:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221095990
       
  • Modern pollen–vegetation relationships along an altitudinal transect in
           the Western Higher Himalaya, India: Palaeoclimatic and anthropogenic
           implications

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      Authors: Amit Kumar Mishra, Ruchika Bajpai Mohanty, Ruby Ghosh, Kriti Mishra, Uma Kant Shukla, Ratan Kar
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Palynology is one of the most reliable tools for the reconstruction of past vegetation and climate and modern pollen analogues are important for the calibration of fossil pollen assemblages. The present study analyses the pollen–vegetation relationships along a steep altitudinal gradient (2700–3680 m), in the western Higher Himalayan region. On the basis of altitude, three vegetation zones were demarcated: Zone I (2700–3100 m) is composed of mixed-temperate forest vegetation, dominated by Quercus semecarpifolia and Rhododendron arboreum; Zone II (3100–3250 m) is marked by sub-alpine forest vegetation, characterised by R. campanulatum and R. barbatum, along with Abies spectabilis and Q. semecarpifolia; Zone III (3250–3680 m) is above the tree-line (3250 m) and represented by alpine-scrub and meadows. Thirty-five surface soil samples (twenty, seven and eight from each zone, respectively) were analysed along the altitudinal transect to decode the representation of the extant vegetation in the pollen-rain. The pollen–vegetation relationship is non-linear due to the over-representation of extra-local Pinus pollen in each zone. Nonetheless, the modern pollen assemblages show a general correlation with the local broad-leaved taxa and the herbaceous elements; with the exception of Rhododendron pollen, which is under-represented. Among the non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs), the presence of coprophilous fungal spores is compatible with the grazing activities in the area. Multivariate statistical analyses performed on the surface pollen data indicate that the dataset can efficiently distinguish the different vegetation zones across the altitudinal gradient. This work provides the modern analogues for pollen-based palaeoclimatic reconstructions for the Western-Higher Himalayan region, and would also help to decipher the inception and intensification of anthropogenic activities in the region.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T11:52:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221096006
       
  • Habitat conditions of molluscs in the valleys of the Talaya and Bartat
           Rivers (Krasnoyarsk forest steppe, Russia) in the middle and late-Holocene
           

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      Authors: Galina Yu Yamskikh, Darya E Makarchuk, Natalya Yu Zharinova
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Here we have analysed the Holocene mollusc successions in the valleys of the Talaya and Bartat rivers (Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe), which, based on three radiocarbon dates, cover at least the last 6000 years. By studying more than 8700 mollusc shells, we aimed to reconstruct the development of alluvial conditions. Existing palynological data from the nearby Eleneva Cave provide deeper insights into the reconstruction of habitat conditions. A total of 13 freshwater and 18 terrestrial mollusc species were identified. Some of the land snail species are the first records for the region, with the finding of Vertigo substriata pushing its distribution limit eastward. The Talaya sequence consisted of five successional stages recognised based on Coniss analysis. The major successional pathway in the mollusc record reflects an increase in temperature and fluctuations in precipitation during the Middle Holocene. Over time, an abundant assemblage of freshwater molluscs was gradually replaced by the dominance of open-country and wetland terrestrial snails. In contrast, cooling at the beginning of the Late-Holocene resulted in a reduction in terrestrial snail species diversity at the expense of aquatic molluscs, again indicating increased moisture in riparian habitats. Although the Bartat River succession covered only the last 600 years, it showed a fairly stable mollusc community composition with some terrestrialization observed in the most recent part of the succession.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T10:17:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221095987
       
  • Aboriginal earth mounds of the Calperum Floodplain (Murray Darling Basin,
           South Australia): New radiocarbon dates, sediment analyses and syntheses,
           and implications for behavioural change

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      Authors: Robert Jones, Amy Roberts, Craig Westell, Ian Moffat, Geraldine Jacobsen, Rachel Rudd
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents the results of an archaeological investigation into anthropogenic earth (oven) mounds located on the Murray River floodplain at Calperum Station in the Renmark region of South Australia. Six mounds were excavated and their contents examined. Sediment analyses were also conducted to assess magnetic susceptibility, grain size and loss on ignition. Radiocarbon age estimates were obtained on shell and charcoal. Mound contents primarily included anthropogenically burnt clay (heat retainers), charcoal, fragments of mussel shell as well as very minor quantities of other faunal material and stone artefacts (which were consistent with previous lithic assessments for the region). The radiocarbon age determinations from 15 samples indicate that mounds were formed by Aboriginal people on the Calperum floodplain from at least 3981–3723 cal BP and utilised up to the time of European invasion. The very minimal amount of faunal remains (other than mussel shell), artefacts and a general lack of other material evidence apart from clay heat retainers, confirms that these features were single purpose and not used as living areas. Sediment analyses and radiocarbon dates indicate a high degree of homogeneity within mounds but provide insights into an economic transition on the Calperum floodplain, at around 4000 cal BP involving a food-production procurement strategy based on heat retainer technology and the exploitation of emergent macrophytes.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T07:14:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221095981
       
  • High-resolution record of geochemical, vegetational and molluscan shifts
           in a Central European spring-fed fen: implications for regional
           paleoclimate during the early and mid-Holocene Liene Auninad and Mariusz
           Gałka

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      Authors: Karina Apolinarska, Rafał Kiełczewski, Krzysztof Pleskot, Magdalena Marzec, Liene Aunina, Mariusz Gałka
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the increasing interest in spring-fed fens’ sediments as a palaeoenvironmental archive, their potential as high-precision climatic records is rarely used to its full extent. Here, we present a detailed early to mid-Holocene record of environmental changes in the Turtul hanging spring-fed fen, northeastern Poland, to test whether the well preserved and accurately subsampled alternating peat and tufa sediments allow us to recognise short-duration local and regional climatic changes. Our reconstructions are based on a loss-on-ignition analysis of the sediment, carbon and oxygen stable isotope values of tufa, and biotic proxies: plant macrofossil and malacological analyses. A detailed environmental reconstruction was possible due to the combination of detailed sampling (1 cm intervals) and high sediment accumulation rates. The two sediment sequences collected from the fen revealed the congruent palaeoenvironmental history; however, the temporal shift associated with the distance of the coring site from the water outflow was also apparent, stressing the need for careful selection of the coring site in palaeoenvironmental research. Peat deposition at Turtul started at 10,300 cal yr BP; however, tufa precipitation did not begin before 9250 cal yr BP. During the most active tufa deposition, from 7850 to 6100 cal yr BP, a high sedimentation rate was observed (0.11–0.25 cm yr−1). We found several abrupt and short-duration declines in carbonate deposition corresponding to climatic fluctuations recorded in geological archives from the southeastern Baltic region. The carbonate drops at 8200–8130, 7900–7850, 7400–7300, 6600–6500, 5980–5870 and 5400 cal yr BP were associated with climate cooling or drying, whereas those at 10,200–9250, 8450–8340 and 6160–6100 cal yr BP can be attributed to drying with no cooling. We conclude that the evident sensitivity of the Turtul fen to climatic shifts that emerge from our high-resolution (one sample every 17 years on average) reconstruction complements the still rare high-resolution palaeoenvironmental records in the area.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T07:12:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221095975
       
  • Holocene book review

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      Authors: Rhian Meara
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T05:14:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221099719
       
  • Holocene book review

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      Authors: Alice Milner
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T09:28:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221094698
       
  • Holocene book review

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      Authors: Nicholas J Felstead
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T10:42:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221093457
       
  • The origin of alkaline fen in the Mosbeek Valley in the Netherlands is due
           to human impact rather than a natural development

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      Authors: Harm Smeenge, Annemieke Kooijman, Otto Brinkkemper, Hans de Mars, Dmitri Mauquoy, Bas van Geel
      First page: 613
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Alkaline fens are important Natura 2000 habitats, which harbor many endangered plant species. Alkaline fens are formed in areas with groundwater discharge and usually developed in a natural way in the early Holocene. We radiocarbon dated the base of three peat deposits from spring fens along the flanks of the ice-pushed ridge near the village of Ootmarsum to find out when and why peat-forming vegetation started to grow. We cored a sequence in the Mosbeek Valley for detailed paleoecological analyses of micro- and macrofossils. To our surprise, we found strong evidence for human impact during the 13th and 14th centuries AD as the triggering factor for starting organic colluvial accumulation and peat growth at sites where natural springs are present. This shows that this fen is not a relic, but results from changes in land use. Human actions were: (1) deforestation causing increased run-off and reduced evaporation on the plateaus by the vegetation, resulting in increased seepage in the valleys, (2) intensification of agriculture, trade routes, and paired erosion, which formed colluvial deposits and sediment fans that hampered fast run-off water, (3) increased back and groundwater levels after the foundation of watermills; four lowering water levels due to intensification and reorganization of water use by new watermills, and (4) head cut erosion and spring erosion after privatization and cultivation of common pastures after the mid 19th century. This means that cultural-historical changes in the landscape were much more important for alkaline fens than expected.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T06:05:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221088230
       
  • The glacier advance at the onset of the Little Ice Age in the Alps: New
           evidence from Mont Miné and Morteratsch glaciers

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      Authors: Kurt Nicolussi, Melaine Le Roy, Christian Schlüchter, Markus Stoffel, Lukas Wacker
      First page: 624
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      The term ‘Little Ice Age’ (LIA) is classically used to define a period of repeated and extensive glacier advances during the last millennium. In the meanwhile, this term is also used to address the period of relatively low temperatures between the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), or Medieval Warm Period, and present-day warming. The end of the LIA is generally set to the mid or late 1800s CE, however, the published onset dates of the LIA are more variable from the mid 1200s to the late 1500s. At Mont Miné and Morteratsch glaciers, Swiss Alps, we sampled and subsequently analysed detrital as well as in situ tree remnants from the early LIA period. At both glaciers, trees with lifespans of up to about 400 years were buried at various lateral moraine sites. The corresponding advance of both glaciers can be traced from the 1280s until the 1310s. At Morteratsch glacier, this early LIA advance phase culminated likely around 1375 CE. Evidence collected at both glaciers indicates that the ice surfaces were at least c. 12–15 m from the lateral moraine crests deposited during the maximum extent of the LIA. This suggests a similar (though very slightly weaker) magnitude than later LIA advances at our sites. The advances of Mont Miné and Morteratsch glaciers coincide with relatively cool summer temperatures from the late 1200s to the late 1300s. Taken together, the onset of the Little Ice Age in the Alps can be considered to be c. 1260 CE. The Little Ice Age was not a uniform period, but had several phases as can be derived from the records of Alpine glaciers and summer temperatures. We propose a subdivision of the LIA in the European Alps into an early (1260–1380 CE), an intermediate (1380–1575 CE) and a main (1575–1860 CE) phase.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T06:04:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221088247
       
  • Development of lacustrine primary productivity in the Amazon Basin during
           the Holocene

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      Authors: Juliano HF Soares, Luciane S Moreira, Bruno Turcq, Patricia Moreira-Turcq, Abdel Sifeddine, Nayara Dornellas, Heitor Evangelista, Juliana Nogueira, Keila Aniceto, Gabriel S Martins, Milena S Kury, Nilva Brandini, Júlia M Contrera, Renato C Cordeiro
      First page: 639
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      The Amazon Basin is one of the most productive regions in the world and an important carbon sink. However, lake productivity has varied throughout the Holocene, as preserved in lacustrine sedimentary records. Concentrations of chlorophyll pigmented derivatives that are mainly derived from phytoplankton and macrophyte populations can be used to infer lake production levels. Here we use the chlorophyll derivatives concentrations analyzed by spectrophotometer in sediment cores from nine lakes distributed throughout the Brazilian Amazon Basin to document the continental-scale changes in lake production during the Holocene. Chlorophyll derivatives have varied with changes in precipitation rate throughout the last 10,000 years, similar to other climate records in tropical South America, including Ti concentration from the Cariaco Basin, δ13C from Lake Titicaca, and refractory black carbon in Nevado Illimani. Increasing precipitation is responsible for increasing the nutrient supply into the lake, which stimulates primary production. Our analysis was compared to climate-related parameters, suggesting an increasing trend of lake production rates during the wetter Late and Early Holocene, while lower production rates characterized the dry phase of the Middle Holocene. Therefore, the chlorophyll derivatives concentrations generally follow precipitation changes in the Amazon Basin during the Holocene.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T09:16:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221088233
       
  • Forest ecosystem development in European nemoreal-boreal forest (NE
           Poland) over the last 2200 years: Impact of human activity and climate
           change

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      Authors: Mariusz Gałka, Milena Obremska, Angelica Feurdean
      First page: 650
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Long-term ecological studies can provide useful information on forest ecosystem resilience against past climatic change and human caused disturbances. Here, we present a high-resolution 2200-year-long record of forest development in north-eastern Poland, Suwalki region, using paleobotanical proxies (pollen, plant macrofossils, and charcoal). We show that the pollen abundance of deciduous trees was higher than that of coniferous trees, indicating a near pristine state until 900 AD and a semi-natural forest state until 1500 AD. After 1500 AD, the proportion of coniferous tree taxa surpassed that of deciduous trees and have since remained the dominant forest component. The 17th century experienced massive deforestation coupled with a new phase of human colonization in the area that led to the continued and significant decline of deciduous tree cover, for example, Carpinus, Quercus, and Tilia. Cooling associated with the Little Ice Age may have played a role in Picea’s expansion in this area after 1450 AD. Despite significant climatic shifts associated with the warmer Roman Period or Medieval Climate Anomaly and colder Migration Period, as well as a more sustained human impact, Quercus remained a stable forest component until 1500 AD. The stability of Quercus is an important aspect for forest management strategies as future projections suggest warmer conditions and increased frequency of climate extremes will impact forest composition and structure. Our long-term data suggest that forests in the Suwałki region should contain more abundant deciduous tree species, that is, Quercus, whereas conifer cover should be reduced. We also show clear regional differences in the forest development in the Suwałki region, highlighting the importance of local hydrology, geomorphology, and degrees of human activity on the forest composition.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T09:25:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221088249
       
  • Holocene ice-free strait followed by dynamic Neoglacial fluctuations:
           Hornsund, Svalbard

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      Authors: Aleksandra Osika, Jacek Jania, Joanna Ewa Szafraniec
      First page: 664
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      The recession of the Hornbreen-Hambergbreen glaciers (Hornsund, Svalbard) will lead to the formation of a strait between the Greenland and Barents Seas within a few decades. We provide evidence for the earlier existence of this strait, in the Early–Middle Holocene and presumably since 1.3 ka cal. BP until glacier advance 0.7 ± 0.3 ka or earlier. Radiocarbon dating of mollusc shells from the ground moraines in the Hornbreen forefield indicate the existence of the marine environment at the contemporary glacierized head of Hornsund since 10.9 ka cal. BP or earlier due to glacier retreat. The gap in the radiocarbon dates between 3.9 and 1.3 ka cal. BP and the published results of 10Be exposure dating on Treskelen suggest the strait’s closure after glacier advance in the Neoglacial. Subsequent re-opening occurred around 1.3 ka cal. BP, but according to 10Be dates from Treskelen, the strait has again been closed since ca. 0.7 ± 0.3 ka or earlier. The oldest known surge of Hornbreen occurred around 1900. Analysis of Landsat satellite images, morphometric indicators characterizing the glacier frontal zones and previous studies indicate one surge of Hambergbreen (1957–1968) and five re-advances of Hornbreen in the 20th century (after 1936, between 1958 and 1962, in 1986–1990, 1998–1999, 2011). While the warmer Holocene intervals might be a benchmark for the effects of future climate change, glacier dynamics in post-Little Ice Age climate warming seems to be an analogue of glacier retreats and re-advances in the earlier periods of the Holocene.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T12:13:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221088232
       
  • Did agriculture beget agriculture during the past several millennia'

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      Authors: Stephen J Vavrus, Christopher J Kucharik, Feng He, John E Kutzbach, William F Ruddiman
      First page: 680
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      The Early Anthropogenic Hypothesis posits that carbon emissions from ancient farming caused global warming by raising greenhouse gas concentrations (GHG) during the late-Holocene, in contrast to declining GHG during prior interglacials. Here, we explore whether this hypothesized pre-industrial anthropogenic climate change also fostered agriculture by creating more favorable growing conditions. We investigate this question using transient GCM experiments and the Cultivation Suitability Index, CSI, which quantifies farming potential based on climatic and soil factors. The Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulated the climate of the last 6000 years under two alternative forcing scenarios: (1) ACTUAL: orbital variations, historical land cover change, and observed GHG increase; and (2) NATURAL: orbital variations, fixed (natural) land cover, and expected natural GHG decline. The CSI was computed using CESM model output and observed soil properties. Ancient land clearance affected the simulated climate both biogeochemically (via carbon emissions) and biogeophysically (altered surface albedo and land-atmosphere energy fluxes). Biogeochemical effects generally dominated, as evidenced by a warmer (and slightly wetter) global climate in ACTUAL versus NATURAL by year 1850. But a few regions were cooler in ACTUAL, especially interior Eurasia during winter-spring, due to a higher surface albedo from cropland. The expansion of agriculture generally mitigated the orbitally induced decline in cultivation potential in boreal extratropics but worsened it in low latitudes. Our results suggest that ancient farming may have thus promoted a “push-pull” migration during the late-Holocene by inducing climate changes that encouraged a northward spread of agriculture.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-05-01T02:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221088231
       
  • Human-vegetation dynamics in Holocene south-eastern Norway based on
           radiocarbon dated charcoal from archaeological excavations

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      Authors: Axel Mjærum, Kjetil Loftsgarden, Steinar Solheim
      First page: 690
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Charcoal from archaeological contexts differs from off-site pollen samples as it is mainly a product of intentional human action. As such, analysis of charcoal from excavations is a valuable addition to studies of past vegetation and the interaction between humans and the environment. In this paper, we use a dataset consisting of 6186 dated tree species samples from 1239 archaeological sites as a proxy to explore parts of the Holocene forest development and human-vegetation dynamics in South-Eastern Norway. From the middle of the Late Neolithic (from c. 2000 BC) throughout the Early Iron Age (to c. AD 550) the region’s agriculture is characterized by fields, pastures and fallow. Based on our data, we argue that these practices, combined with forest management, clearly altered the natural distribution of trees and favoured some species of broadleaved trees. The past distribution of hazel (Corylus avellana) is an example of human impact on the vegetation. Today, hazel is not even among the 15 most common tree species, while it is one of the most prevalent species in the archaeological record before AD 550. The data indicate that this species was favoured already by the region’s Mesolithic hunter-fisher-gatherers, and that it was among the species that thrived extremely well in the early farming landscape. Secondly, our analysis also indicates that spruce (Picea abies) first formed large stands in the south-eastern parts of Norway c. 500 BC, centuries earlier than previously assumed. It is argued that this event, and a further westward expansion of spruce, was partly a consequence of a specific historical event – the first millennium BC farming expansion.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T07:15:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221088242
       
  • Responses of a shallow temperate lake ecosystem to major late-Holocene
           terrestrial vegetation shifts

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      Authors: Krzysztof Pleskot, Magdalena Suchora, Karina Apolinarska, Piotr Kołaczek
      First page: 703
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      Major terrestrial vegetation shifts (MTVSs) resulting from either human activities or natural processes can exert substantial pressure on lakes mainly through impacts on catchment biogeochemical cycles and groundwater circulation. To better understand the links between terrestrial vegetation dynamics and lake ecosystem structure and functions over long temporal scales, in this study, we reconstructed the responses of shallow Lake Spore (N Poland) to major late-Holocene vegetation shifts. We combined newly acquired data from pollen and spores, Cladocera, TOC/N, δ13C, and δ15N analyses of bulk organic matter with the already published results from sediment dating and analyses of several biotic and geochemical proxies. Statistical analysis of the abundance data for all the major terrestrial pollen taxa and reconstruction of vegetation openness derived from the REVEALS model indicated five MTVSs, each followed by a change in the lake environment. Changes in Lake Spore trophic status at MTVS1 (~2.82 kyr BP) and MTVS2 (~2.17 kyr BP) were attributed to the reorganization of the catchment’s nutrient cycling associated with a decline (MTVS1) and subsequent regeneration (MTVS2) of deciduous tree stands in the area. A distinct drop in the CaCO3 content of the lake sediments that started at MTVS4 (~0.57 kyr BP) likely occurred due to the substantial depletion of the water calcium pool following an abrupt transition from a tree-dominated to an herb-dominated landscape. Our record also suggested slight lake acidification following a spread of Pinus sylvestris at MTVS1 (~2.82 kyr BP) and MTVS3 (~1.10 kyr BP) and a lake level rise concurrent with the sharp increase in landscape openness at MTVS4 (~0.57 kyr BP).
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T06:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221088228
       
  • Modern analogs for understanding pollen-vegetation dynamics in a
           Mediterranean mosaic landscape (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean)

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      Authors: Gabriel Servera-Vives, Maurici Mus Amezquita, Grant Snitker, Assunta Florenzano, Paola Torri, Joan Estrany Bertos, Anna Maria Mercuri
      First page: 716
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents the study of modern pollen analogs from the Balearic Islands. While similar studies have been largely applied to mainland areas, research focused on modern vegetation dynamics on Mediterranean islands remains very rare. In this research, we combine vegetation surveys, pollen analysis and multivariate statistics to understand landscape composition. The main objectives of are: (1) to examine pollen-vegetation relationships in relation to environmental and land-use variables; (2) to understand modern pollen representation in a mosaic landscape structure; and (3) to propose pollen indicators that characterize the primary vegetation types from the Balearic Islands to better interpret past pollen records in Mediterranean island environments. Pollen results and Redundancy Analysis (RDA) distinguish three major groups: (a) Holm oak and box formations; (b) maquis and garrigues; and (c) anthropogenic and open habitats. Landscape form, mean decadal rainfall, mean decadal temperature, fire activity, trampling, slope percentage, wet/flooded soil, saline soil, distance to agropastoral cells, gHM index, domestic herbivory presence, agropastoral use, and soil type are the major variables explaining modern pollen assemblage variation in our research. Poaceae undiff., Plantago sp., Apiaceae undiff., Cerealia-t, and Cichorieae are highly correlated to human activities but should be interpreted cautiously when occurring in low values. Quercus ilex-t, Hypericum, and Buxus are correlated to humid locations while Pistacia, Pinus, Juniperus-t, and Olea to high mean decadal temperatures. Our study indicates how pollen analysis and multivariate analysis are powerful tools for characterizing the mosaic landscape, with special focus on the main vegetation types of the Balearic Islands.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T05:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221088229
       
  • A comparison of late-Holocene hydrologic variability in California:
           Regionality of multi-decadal to centennial-scale droughts

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      Authors: Steve Lund, Larry Benson, Ellen Platzman
      First page: 735
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.
      This study compares the paleohydrologic variability in two California regions over the last 2000 years – Sierra Nevada region and southern California region. Both regions show significant and reproducible proxy evidence for multi-decadal wet/dry intervals that are synchronous between the two regions. The overall durations of individual cycles (wet-wet or dry-dry) average ~130 years, but the cycles are closer to 90–100 year duration for the last 500 years and more than 200 years in duration 1500–2000 years ago. This pattern of varying cyclicity is ongoing today and appears to be related to the intrinsic regional climate variability of the Pacific/California margin.
      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T09:20:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221088234
       
  • Holocene book review

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      Authors: Peter Coxon
      First page: 745
      Abstract: The Holocene, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: The Holocene
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T05:13:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09596836221081977
       
 
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