Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)
    - GEOLOGY (94 journals)
    - GEOPHYSICS (33 journals)
    - HYDROLOGY (29 journals)
    - OCEANOGRAPHY (88 journals)

EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

Showing 401 - 371 of 371 Journals sorted alphabetically
Physical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Physical Science International Journal     Open Access  
Physics in Medicine & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Physics of Life Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics of Metals and Metallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Physics of Plasmas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Physics of the Solid State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Physics of Wave Phenomena     Hybrid Journal  
Physics World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Physik in unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Pirineos     Open Access  
Planet     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Plasma Physics Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Polar Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Positioning     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pramana     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Preview     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Earth and Planetary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Pure and Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Quaternary     Open Access  
Quaternary Australasia     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Quaternary International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Quaternary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Quaternary Science Advances     Open Access  
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Radiocarbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Remote Sensing in Earth Systems Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Remote Sensing Science     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Rendiconti Lincei     Hybrid Journal  
Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Space Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Resource Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resources, Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Results in Geochemistry     Open Access  
Results in Geophysical Sciences     Open Access  
Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews of Modern Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Revista Cerrados     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Exatas Aplicadas e Tecnológicas da Universidade de Passo Fundo : CIATEC-UPF     Open Access  
Revista de Ingenieria Sismica     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones en Energía, Medio Ambiente y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales     Open Access  
Revista de Teledetección     Open Access  
Revista Geológica de Chile     Open Access  
Revue Française de Géotechnique     Hybrid Journal  
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Rocks & Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Geology and Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Journal of Pacific Geology     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Physics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science China Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Science News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Science of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Scientific Annals of Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava. Geography Series     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Earth Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 85)
Sedimentary Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Sedimentology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Seismic Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Seismological Research Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Soil Security     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Solid Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Solid Earth Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Solid Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Geomatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Standort - Zeitschrift für angewandte Geographie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica     Open Access  
Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai, Geologia     Open Access  
Survey Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Surveys in Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Swiss Journal of Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Tectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Tectonophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Terra Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Terra Nova     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Compass : Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon     Open Access  
The Holocene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
The Leading Edge     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access  
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
Unconventional Resources     Open Access  
Underwater Technology: The International Journal of the Society for Underwater     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Universal Journal of Geoscience     Open Access  
Unoesc & Ciência - ACET     Open Access  
Vadose Zone Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Volcanica     Open Access  
Water     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Water Resources Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 94)
Watershed Ecology and the Environment     Open Access  
Weather, Climate, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews - Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Yugra State University Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Zitteliana     Open Access  
Землеустрій, кадастр і моніторинг земель     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Pure and Applied Geophysics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.809
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 12  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0033-4553 - ISSN (Online) 1420-9136
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • The 2022 Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai Volcano Air-Wave Generated
           Tsunami

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      Abstract: Abstract The tsunami that occurred after the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai volcano eruption on 15 January 2022 was unusually fast and large, particularly at large distances from the source. Here we use an observation-calibrated air-wave model to generate ocean waves using a tsunami model. We used pressure data observed at 94 stations in Niue, the Cook Islands, and New Zealand’s main and outer islands to obtain a simple air-wave model. The modelled air-wave travels at an approximated constant speed of 317 m/s with an amplitude that decays with distance from the volcano. We then simulated the generation and propagation of tsunami due to the propagating air-wave in the atmosphere above the ocean. The leading sea surface displacement excited by the pressure disturbances travels at the same speed as the air-wave. This leading wave is then followed by subsequent water waves that travel in the same direction as the leading wave but at the conventional tsunami propagation speed. In the model, the air-wave was more effective at generating a tsunami when it travelled over a deep bathymetric feature like the Kermadec-Tonga Trench. The tsunami amplitudes observed at gauges do not decay as rapidly with distance from the volcano as would be expected for a localized tsunami source. This is due to the continuous excitation of the tsunami as the air-wave propagates across the ocean. In shallow water, the leading water surface displacement can often be much smaller than the later waves that were most likely to have been generated in the deep ocean. A better understanding of the complexity of tsunami generation and propagation of this kind is important to help improve future tsunami disaster mitigation from such sources.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
       
  • Evaluation of a Stand-Alone WRF-Hydro Modeling System Using Different
           Rainfall Forcing Data: Case Study Over the Godavari River Basin, India

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      Abstract: Abstract Among all the variables that relate to the water cycle, precipitation is considered the most important variable for streamflow modeling and forecasting. Uncertainty in the precipitation measurement is one of the chief limitations in the hydrological modeling where the hydrology model is run in a stand-alone mode. In this study, the WRF-Hydro model is used for modeling streamflow over Godavari basin. This study explores the effect of uncertainty in the precipitation forcing in simulating the streamflow by the uncoupled WRF-Hydro model. For the present study, satellite-based [Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR)] precipitation products are used. Furthermore, the present study also utilized gauge-based [Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) gridded] and reanalysis-based [Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)] precipitation products. The uncertainty in the satellite-based and reanalysis-based precipitation is evaluated quantitatively by using the gauge-based IMD gridded dataset as the reference dataset. The results indicate that the IMD gridded rainfall forced model output streamflow is in agreement with the observed streamflow at four stations having positive Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NSCE) values. The results indicate the importance of utilizing precipitation datasets (satellite/reanalysis) having similar spatial and temporal variability of precipitation as the observed rainfall for accurate simulation of streamflow using hydrological models.
      PubDate: 2022-09-24
       
  • Changes in the Hydraulic Characteristics in Chongqing Related to the
           Wenchuan Earthquake

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      Abstract: Abstract Seismic stress may cause changes in the hydraulic characteristics of aquifers and corresponding changes in the movement state of the groundwater flow. In this study, based on the theoretical relationship between the tidal response of the well water level and an aquifer’s hydraulic characteristics, the hydraulic parameters of an observed aquifer in the Chongqing area are estimated through the tidal response of the well water level, and the influence of the Wenchuan earthquake on the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer and the movement of the groundwater is discussed. The results showed that the groundwater near well DZ was mainly controlled by horizontal flow accompanied by extremely weak vertical leakage, and the hydraulic conductivity of the target aquifer calculated using the tidal radial flow model was basically consistent with the results of previous pumping tests. Vertical and horizontal flow coexist in the aquifer system near wells BB and BN, and the specific leakage can be obtained using the mixed aquifer model. The intense tectonic static stress caused by the Wenchuan earthquake resulted in obvious tensile deformation of the aquifers near these three wells, which became the main reason for the changes in the well water level and the enhanced vertical leakage. In addition, the rise in the water level in well BN may have been related to its artesian characteristics and hydrogeological conditions. This article deepens our understanding of the influence of seismic stress loading on groundwater flow in regional aquifers.
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
       
  • Predicting the Timing of Catastrophic Failure During Triaxial Compression:
           Insights from Discrete Element Method Simulations

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      Abstract: Abstract Examining the deformation of rocks during triaxial compression may provide insights into the precursory phase that leads to large earthquakes by revealing the components of the deformation field that evolve with predictable, systematic behavior preceding catastrophic failure. Here, we build three-dimensional discrete element method simulations of the triaxial compression of rock cores that include a variety of fault geometries in order to identify the components of the deformation field, including the velocity and strain components, that enable machine learning models to predict the timing of macroscopic failure. The results suggest that the velocity field provides more valuable information about the timing of macroscopic failure than the strain field, and in particular, the velocity component parallel to the maximum compression direction. The models also strongly depend on the second invariant of the strain deviator tensor, \({J}_{2}\) , indicative of the shear strain. The importance of \({J}_{2}\) on the model predictions increases with confining stress, consistent with laboratory observations that show a transition from tensile- to shear-dominated deformation with increasing confining stress. In contrast to expectations from previous machine learning analyses, none of the models strongly depend on components of the strain tensor indicative of dilation, such as the first invariant of the strain tensor. This difference may arise because the simulations host less dilative strain than the experimental rocks.
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
       
  • Large-Scale Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data Using Regularized
           Gauss–Newton Method in the Data Space

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper develops a regularized method of 3D inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) data using the Gauss–Newton algorithm in the data space. This approach significantly reduces the size of the corresponding Hessian matrix. The developed algorithm also considers the distortion effects of near-surface geoelectrical inhomogeneities. This is achieved by simultaneously inverting the full MT impedance tensor and tipper for 3D conductivity distribution and a distortion matrix. The method was applied to a large-scale 3D inversion of MT data collected over the Western Superior region of the Canadian shield in the frameworks of Lithoprobe and EarthScope projects. The results of MT impedance tensor and tipper data inversion helped to identify several conductive anomalies in the Earth's crust and upper mantle. The recovered relatively thin quasi-vertical conductive anomalies may represent the zones of partially melted material rising through the upper mantle.
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
       
  • Detection of Dynamic Phenomena Associated with Underground Nuclear
           Explosion Using Multiple Seismic Surveys and Machine Learning

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      Abstract: Abstract The application of an active seismic method for detecting the source location of an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) is an ongoing field of research. The objective of active seismic in On-Site Inspection (OSI) is to detect the static signatures such as the cavity created by the UNE. Along with characteristic static signatures, UNEs produce dynamic phenomena such as groundwater mounding, which gradually revert to pre-test conditions. These dynamic phenomena are observable for an extended period, even up to several decades. The magnitude of these phenomena is prominent near the source origin and results from the redistribution of residual energy, such as pressure, temperature, and saturation. These dynamic changes in sub-surface rock and fluid properties will affect the seismic property of the rock, resulting in changes of P-wave velocity. These changes can be detected by using an active seismic survey. This study highlights the potential of using time-lapse seismic to identify ground zero by monitoring post-explosion variation in the seismic signature. Time-lapse seismic, also known as 4D seismic, is a well-known technology, used in the oil and gas industry for several decades for petroleum production monitoring and management. It involves taking more than one 2D/3D survey at different calendar times over the same reservoir and studying the difference in seismic attributes. This study investigates the characteristic dynamic phenomena associated with the UNE and their impact on the emplacement rock’s seismic property. Groundwater mounding (GWM) is one of the phenomena with a high gradient of dissipation during the initial days immediately after the explosion. We look at the impact of GWM variation on seismic P-wave velocity and discuss the potential of using time-lapse seismic for its detection. The challenges of implementing time-lapse seismic, such as non-repeatability, seasonal variations and time constraints, are discussed. A frequent seismic monitoring survey method (time-lapse seismic) is proposed to monitor rock and fluid properties changes due to the post-UNE dynamic phenomena. Due to the time constraint for the OSI activity, conventional time-lapse seismic processing would not be suitable. Therefore, a machine learning-based 4D detection workflow is presented. The near-real-time 4D detection workflow using machine learning can be implemented during the OSI to identify the source location or ground zero.
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
       
  • A Workflow to Integrate Numerical Simulation, Machine Learning Regression
           and Bayesian Inversion for Induced Seismicity Study: Principles and a Case
           Study

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      Abstract: Abstract The main objective of this work is to develop a new workflow integrating numerical simulations of fluid flow and dynamic rupture propagation, machine learning regression techniques and Bayesian inversions of subsurface model parameters. We present the theory behind each step as well as practical application of the proposed methodology on the May 2012, Mw4.8 Timpson, TX, earthquake. Numerical simulations show that the triggering of the earthquake is related to the wastewater disposal with the dominant role of poroelastic stress changes. Dynamic rupture simulations allow us to reproduce the size of the earthquake. Using the results from a set of simulations, we form a training dataset and compare the performance of different regression algorithms. Random Forest, Bagging and K-Neighbors regression algorithms are the most promising and we use them in the inversion procedure to replace numerical simulations. We test multiple inversion scenarios and cross-validate them with the results of numerical simulations to constrain stress state and fault frictional parameters by matching the observations (the moment magnitude of the real event). We also discuss the limitations of the current methodology and propose further extensions in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
       
  • Trends in Chlorophyll-a Concentration Along the Krishna–Godavari Basin
           as Observed From MODIS Archives

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      Abstract: Abstract The Krishna–Godavari basin (KG), located along the southeast coast of India, is a proven rich source of gas hydrates exploration zone. An understanding of surface water conditions in this region is necessary to study the coastal dynamics, and the implications of pollutants to the marine ecological environment. Here, we report the long-term trends and spatio-temporal variability in chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in the KG basin, and discuss the dynamics of Chl-a patterns from 2002 to 2021. Monthly Chl-a averages from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were used for the analysis of trends and seasonal distributions by linear regression fitting. Our results revealed a downward trend in Chl-a concentrations, with a value of −0.000003 mg/m3 per month. A noticeable decreasing trend in the sediment load was also observed from the major rivers drained into the KG basin. The monthly runoff, precipitation, and wind fields were analysed to understand the Chl-a distribution patterns during the study period. We observed that runoff, precipitation, and wind forcing are the primary drivers controlling Chl-a distributions and dispersion patterns in the study area. The findings of this study contribute to a better understanding of the potential impacts of Chl-a to marine ecosystem, and provides new tools for assessing long-term trends in satellite-derived Chl-a concentrations in the prospective of climate change scenarios.
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
       
  • Evaluating the Use of Multisite Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis: A
           Case of Sarpol-e Zahab City, Iran

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper evaluates the use of multisite (MS) probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), which estimates the annual exceedance rate of a given level of ground motion in at least one of several sites as one of several possible results. For this purpose, (1) MS-PSHA is implemented through the Monte Carlo approach, taking into account various area sizes and correlation distances (CDs), and then (2) two proposals are represented as applications of MS-PSHA outcomes, both with reference to Sarpol-e Zahab City, a seismically active region located in the west of Iran. The first proposal attempts to determine the current code design probability of exceedance in at least one site, and the second one defines collapse prevention levels based on different probabilities of exceedance in at least one site. The efficiency of the results is discussed mainly by comparing them to recorded peak ground accelerations (PGAs) of three earthquakes, including the 2017 Sarpol-e Zahab 7.3 Mw event that largely exceeded the code design spectrum. MS-PSHA results demonstrate reasonable performance both in determining design ground motions and evaluating current design code when the exact seismic parameters of the study area are used in the analysis. Moreover, developed code-type design spectra based on MS-PSHA provided safety against collapse compared to a recently occurring low-probability event. MS estimates for various CDs and probabilities of exceedance in at least one site can also provide flexible design strategies regarding the importance of a structure and expected damage on a regional scale.
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
       
  • On the Applicability of CMEMS Reanalysis Data for Investigation of the
           Cold Intermediate Layer in the South-Eastern Part of the Baltic Sea

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      Abstract: Abstract Vertical thermohaline structure in the southeast part of the Baltic Sea is complicated: The salinity field has two layers due to the general estuarine circulation, while the water temperature stratification changes seasonally from two-layered to three-layered. Simulation of the re-stratification processes in such a basin is still a challenging problem, even for the most advanced models. In this study, using a comparison with the independent field data, we have examined how well the structure of the Baltic Sea Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) is reproduced by the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) reanalysis data. It was found that the water salinity within the CIL and the halocline is overestimated, and the upper CIL boundary (the thermocline) in the reanalysis data is considerably shallower than that in the field data. These conclusions are similar to other studies comparing model and field data in the Baltic Sea for various applications. The reanalysis data demonstrate certain deviations in the water temperature, salinity, and depth values at the CIL upper and lower boundaries. However, the general structure of the CIL is reproduced well, including its salinity-homogeneous and salinity-gradient sublayers. Moreover, the T-S diagrams indicate that the salinity-gradient sublayer in the south-eastern and central basins in summer contains waters similar to those observed within the upper mixed layer in spring in the south-western sea basins. This confirms the applicability of the CMEMS reanalysis (with certain caution regarding the temperature/salinity/depth values) for the investigation of such a complicated process as the formation of the Baltic CIL in spring when the seasonal vertical mixing ceases and denser waters from the eastern part of the sea are expected to renew the lower part of the CIL in the Baltic Proper.
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
       
  • Remote Hydroacoustic Detection of an Airplane Crash

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      Abstract: Abstract On 9 April 2019, an F-35A fighter jet of the Japan Air Self-Defense Force was lost offshore northern Honshu, Japan. Underwater sound phases deemed to be associated with the crash of the aircraft were recorded by a nearby seafloor observatory and the International Monitoring System hydrophone station at Wake Island. A location and origin time estimate is derived by combining the two datasets and distinctly matches the last known position of the aircraft.
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
       
  • Characterizing the Spatial Patterns of Vertical Crustal Deformations Over
           the South American Continent Based on GNSS Imaging

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      Abstract: Abstract Aiming to characterize the spatial patterns of vertical crustal motions over the South American continent, the position time series of 601 GNSS sites located in this region are analyzed. Firstly, we model the time-series through a combination of long-period linear trends, periodic seasonal variations, co- and post-seismic effects, obtaining an estimate of the vertical velocity. Then, we image the vertical velocities and annual signals implementing a Median Spatial Filtering (MSF) procedure with an empirical Spatial Structure Function (SSF) to reveal the spatial patterns of vertical crustal motions in the South American continent. Meanwhile, in order to better explore the vertical crustal motions, we also estimate the surface mass changes over this region based on Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). For the image of annual signals, the large values are focused on the Amazon basin, and the region with larger amplitudes is located near the Amazon River. Compared with the image of annual signals, the spatial patterns of the image of vertical velocities over the South American continent are relatively complex. The result indicates that large-scale subsidence occurs at two regions (i.e., Amazon basin and Pampas steppe), and three regions (i.e., southern Brazilian Plateau, Chile, and Gran Chaco Plain) exhibit large-scale uplift. By combining the GNSS-derived velocity field with the surface mass changes determined by GRACE, we speculate the large-scale subsidence with rates ranging from 1 to 3.3 mm/yr can be attributed to the long-term gain of surface mass. Meanwhile, the subduction of Nazca plate is the dominant factor of the significant crustal uplift in most regions of Chile. As for the southern Chile, the small-scale anomalous uplift is mainly due to the serious surface mass loss induced by the glaciers melting in the Patagonian Icefield.
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
       
  • Development of a Beta-Gamma Radioxenon Detector with Improved Beta
           Resolution

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      Abstract: Abstract The International Monitoring System includes a network of radionuclide detectors operated around the world monitoring for nuclear explosions. A key aspect of the International Monitoring System is the detection of radioxenon with a network of stations and laboratories. Beta-gamma detectors are utilized extensively for the detection of radioxenon, and the beta detection is primarily performed with a plastic scintillator cell. Two areas of improvement for plastic scintillator are the sample carry-over (“memory effect”) and energy resolution. While the scintillator can be coated to remove the memory effect, the energy resolution must be improved with a different detector material. Silicon is the current leading candidate for the future beta cell material due to the much-improved energy resolution compared to plastic scintillators (factor of ~ 3x). PNNL is developing a silicon beta cell for use as a potential modular replacement within Xenon International (a next generation radioxenon detection system currently undergoing acceptance testing for potential inclusion in the International Monitoring System). The beta cell utilizes four different silicon detectors to create an active volume for the radioxenon within an outer gas cell. Since there are four separate beta signals (compared to one for plastic scintillators), data acquisition modifications are required. In this paper, we detail the design, efficiency measurements, and long-term testing of the silicon beta cell and potential improvements in isotopic discrimination.
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
       
  • Pay No Attention to the Model Behind the Curtain

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      Abstract: Abstract Many widely used models amount to an elaborate means of making up numbers—but once a number has been produced, it tends to be taken seriously and its source (the model) is rarely examined carefully. Many widely used models have little connection to the real-world phenomena they purport to explain. Common steps in modeling to support policy decisions, such as putting disparate things on the same scale, may conflict with reality. Not all costs and benefits can be put on the same scale, not all uncertainties can be expressed as probabilities, and not all model parameters measure what they purport to measure. These ideas are illustrated with examples from seismology, wind-turbine bird deaths, soccer penalty cards, gender bias in academia, and climate policy.
      PubDate: 2022-09-12
       
  • Spatiotemporal Assessment of the NASA POWER Satellite Precipitation
           Product over Different Regions of Iran

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      Abstract: Abstract Satellite products are recognized as important resources providing significant and high-resolution information on various timescales. In the present study, the precipitation data acquired from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) POWER satellite at 0.5° resolution were investigated from 1987 to 2017 in different regions of Iran. The accuracy of satellite products was studied based on 70 meteorological synoptic stations on three timescales (daily, monthly, and annual) and four precipitation classes. The results indicate that the NASA POWER precipitation product provided acceptable performance on all three timescales. The correlation coefficient (CC) obtained for the whole country on daily, monthly, and annual scales was 0.56, 0.68, and 0.69, respectively. These values were 5.27, 3.86, and 1.03 for the fraction root mean square error (FRMSE) and 0.31, 0.41, and 0.36 for the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE), respectively. The highest performance of the product in the whole country was verified on the monthly scale, and the daily period was found to have the lowest performance. Results indicated that the NASA product offered high accuracy on the west, northwest, and the coasts of the Persian Gulf. However, its accuracy was lowest in arid and semiarid regions, desert areas, and the Caspian Sea coast. It also demonstrated the best detection, above 90%, for rainfall less than 1 mm. The accuracy of the model decreased with increasing rainfall depth. At precipitation above 20 mm, the model detection rate was less than 18%. The results revealed that the NASA product performed very well from April to August.
      PubDate: 2022-09-05
       
  • The Intense 2020–2021 Earthquake Swarm in Corinth Gulf: Cluster Analysis
           and Seismotectonic Implications from High Resolution Microseismicity

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      Abstract: Abstract The intense 2020–2021 seismic crisis in Corinth gulf, Greece, comprising several hundreds of small earthquakes (maximum magnitude Mw = 5.4 on 17 February 2021) is investigated. The spatial and temporal evolution of the seismicity implied the activation of multiple secondary fault segments. To decipher the geometry of the activated structures, we engaged relocation techniques and obtained the precise locations for 3398 earthquakes and 26 moment tensor solutions. The highly accurate seismicity locations and focal mechanisms illustrate the fine scale faulting geometry of a ~ 10–km–long activated area, almost east west striking and north dipping, and extensional kinematics. We grouped events into clusters using nearest–neighbor distances between them and a temporal stochastic point process, the Markovian Arrival Process (MAP). We identified clusters that evidence seismicity migration and organization in both space and time, deciphering the interaction of even tiny fault segments in a fault network. The exhaustive analysis of the swarm spatiotemporal evolution revealed several either distinct or contiguous activated minor fault segments that evolved in multiple structures, participating in the local fracture mesh. Faulting geometry and kinematics of these structures agree with the ~ N–S extension of the rift and north dipping fault planes.
      PubDate: 2022-09-04
       
  • Observed and Simulated Characteristics of 2015 Chennai Heavy Rain Event:
           Impact of Land-Use Change, SST, and High-Resolution Global Analyses

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      Abstract: Abstract The southern Indian city of Chennai received more than 1200 mm of rainfall between 5 November and 10 December 2015. The record-breaking rain exceeded the previous 24-h precipitation record (290 mm) on 1 and 2 December and resulted in severe urban flooding. Meteorological analysis from observational and reanalysis data sets shows that this rainfall event was the culmination of three synoptic-scale systems with oceanic moisture trajectories. The city has also witnessed dramatic urban sprawl in recent decades, and the feedback of urban heating on regional convection is postulated to be another critical factor in modulating the mesoscale environment and heavy rains. Accordingly, the study seeks to assess whether the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) modeling system typically used for heavy rain prediction can better simulate this event by considering enhanced meteorological setup and urban feedback. Simulations were conducted using the WRF modeling system with different model configurations for 40 days (00 UTC 1 November until 00 UTC 11 December 2015), with a triple-nested domain and the finest grid spacing of 1.2 km centered over Chennai. The results indicate that the WRF modeling system broadly agrees with the observations, such as from the GPM-IMERG rainfall products. Model experiments also reveal the impact of increased urban built-up area on the rainfall distribution and the improvement in the model results using high-resolution atmospheric and SST initialization. The findings indicate that even for this synoptic-driven event, representing realistic urban land cover can aid the simulation of the heavy urban rainfall.
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
       
  • Structure of the Northern Altar Pull-Apart Basin Revealed by a 2D
           Reflection Seismic Survey: Evolution of the Gulf of California Shear Zone
           in Northwest Mexico

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      Abstract: Abstract The northern Gulf of California and Salton Trough contain segmented marginal basins abandoned during the oblique rift system’s evolution during Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. The Altar basin, in northwestern Sonora, Mexico, contains a > 5 km-thick sedimentary record representing the first marine incursion (Late Miocene) of the Gulf of California seaway followed by the first deltaic deposits of the Colorado River. 2D reflection seismic lines were processed and interpreted to characterize tectonostratigraphic features of the transtensional Pacific-North America plate boundary in the northern Altar basin (deep structure, faults controlling the subsidence and accumulation of deltaic deposits). The results show the acoustic basement becoming increasingly shallow toward the northeast, new NW-trending faults, and three major seismic reflectors defining the base of three units: A (oldest), B, and C (youngest). Through similarities in sequence stratigraphy and fauna, we correlate Unit A with the Bouse Formation (SW Arizona and SE California), implying its presence in northwest Mexico. The Altar fault strikes ~ N45°W and aligns with the Dunas fault (SE California), suggesting that these faults are the same continuous structure. Seismic horizons above horizon C are less affected by faults. In contrast, horizons A, B and C are cut by faults, have steeper dips, and are laterally discontinuous. We propose the deposition of unfaulted strata occurred after the latest Pliocene abandonment of the Altar basin. Cessation of major transtensional activity in the Altar basin is coincident with a regional westward shift of transtensional plate boundary deformation, preserving a record of the evolving Gulf of California shear zone in northwest Mexico.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Fuzzy Logic Methods in the Analysis of Tsunami Wave Dynamics Based on Sea
           Level Data

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      Abstract: Abstract This article presents an algorithm for registering the arrival of tsunami waves based on the operational data of sea level measurements. The algorithm was developed using the fuzzy mathematics approach and implies an expert assessment while the procedure of adjustment and tuning. Its adaptive capabilities allow to function in accordance with the current preceding the arrival of a tsunami wave. The presented algorithm tends to be a universal tool that can be used for detecting the restructuring of processes according to measurements of their characteristics in time.
      PubDate: 2022-08-28
       
  • Impact of Environmental Backgrounds on Atmospheric Monitoring of Nuclear
           Explosions

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      Abstract: Abstract Radionuclide monitoring for nuclear explosions includes measuring radioactive aerosol and noble gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty has made such measurements for decades, revealing much about how atmospheric radioactivity impacts the sensitivity of the network. For example, civilian emissions of radioiodine make a substantial regional impact, but a minor global impact, while civilian radioxenon emissions create major regional and complex global impacts. The impacts are strongly influenced by the minimum releases anticipated to be interesting. The original design of the IMS anticipated relatively large releases, and the current IMS network substantially meets or exceeds the sensitivity needed to detect those levels. Much lower signal levels can be motivated from historical tests. Using a release that corresponds roughly to a one-ton equivalent of fission in the atmosphere rather than the design level of one-kiloton equivalent, the network detection probabilities for 140Ba and 131I are quite good (~ 75%) and for 133Xe is still considerable (~ 45%). Using measured and simulated background concentrations, various possible desired signal levels, and an innovative anomaly threshold, maps of sensitivity and a station ranking are developed for IMS radionuclide stations. These provide a strong motivation for additional experimentation to learn about sources and the potential plusses of new technology.
      PubDate: 2022-08-27
       
 
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