Subjects -> EARTH SCIENCES (Total: 771 journals)
    - EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)
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EARTH SCIENCES (527 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

Showing 401 - 371 of 371 Journals sorted alphabetically
Physical Science International Journal     Open Access  
Physics in Medicine & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Physics of Life Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics of Metals and Metallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Physics of Plasmas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Physics of the Solid State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Physics of Wave Phenomena     Hybrid Journal  
Physics World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Physik in unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Pirineos     Open Access  
Planet     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Plasma Physics Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Polar Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Positioning     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pramana     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Preview     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Earth and Planetary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Pure and Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Quaternary     Open Access  
Quaternary Australasia     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Quaternary International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Quaternary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Quaternary Science Advances     Open Access  
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Radiocarbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Remote Sensing in Earth Systems Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Remote Sensing Science     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Rendiconti Lincei     Hybrid Journal  
Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Space Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Resource Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resources, Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Results in Geochemistry     Open Access  
Results in Geophysical Sciences     Open Access  
Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews of Modern Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Revista Cerrados     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Exatas Aplicadas e Tecnológicas da Universidade de Passo Fundo : CIATEC-UPF     Open Access  
Revista de Ingenieria Sismica     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones en Energía, Medio Ambiente y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales     Open Access  
Revista de Teledetección     Open Access  
Revista Geológica de Chile     Open Access  
Revue Française de Géotechnique     Hybrid Journal  
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Rocks & Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Geology and Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Journal of Pacific Geology     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Physics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science China Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Science News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Science of Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Scientific Annals of Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava. Geography Series     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Earth Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 85)
Sedimentary Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Sedimentology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Seismic Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Seismological Research Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Soil Security     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Solid Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Solid Earth Discussions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Solid Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Geomatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Standort - Zeitschrift für angewandte Geographie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica     Open Access  
Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai, Geologia     Open Access  
Survey Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Surveys in Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Swiss Journal of Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Tectonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Tectonophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Terra Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Terra Nova     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Compass : Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon     Open Access  
The Holocene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
The Leading Edge     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access  
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
Unconventional Resources     Open Access  
Underwater Technology: The International Journal of the Society for Underwater     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Universal Journal of Geoscience     Open Access  
Unoesc & Ciência - ACET     Open Access  
Vadose Zone Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Volcanica     Open Access  
Water     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Water Resources Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 94)
Watershed Ecology and the Environment     Open Access  
Weather, Climate, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews - Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Yugra State University Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Zitteliana     Open Access  
Землеустрій, кадастр і моніторинг земель     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3     

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Plasma Physics Reports
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.436
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1562-6938 - ISSN (Online) 1063-780X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Use of Condensed Deuterium and Cryogenic Monodisperse Targets as Loads for
           Studying Megaampere Z-Pinches

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      Abstract: Based on the analysis of the results of experiments on deuterated fibers, frozen deuterium fibers, and heterogeneous low-density targets, it can be concluded that low-density monodisperse cryogenic targets with a complex microheterogeneous structure are most suitable for the further investigation of emitting Z‑pinches of multiterawatt power. These studies have shown that using the available equipment it is possible to obtain cryogenic targets of hydrogen or its isotopes of the following types: cylindrical “thick” fibers up to 10 cm long and 40 to 300 µm in diameter; “thin” fibers with a length of 5 to 10 cm with a diameter of 30 to 40 µm, and monodisperse cryogenic targets. In general, cryogenic monodisperse targets are a flow of solid monodisperse granules of hydrogen or its isotopes with a diameter of 10 to 100 μm, a velocity of up to 100 m/s, and a frequency of occurrence in the discharge region from 0.01 Hz to 500 kHz. Using outlet nozzles with a large number of outlet holes, it is possible to obtain monodisperse cryogenic targets with a complex microheterogeneous structure, consisting of tens and hundreds of granules. In addition, the flow of granules can be controlled, e.g., by focusing it on the desired spatial point. The relative spread of targets in velocity and size does not exceed 0.1%. The use of cryogenic deuterium targets with a complex microheterogeneous structure makes it possible to increase the deuterium concentration in the target several times compared to other types of targets. A high initial concentration of deuterium and effective ionization of the target material can lead to a significant increase in the neutron yield due to the power-law dependence of the yield on concentration (Y ~ n2). Additional factors that can significantly increase the neutron yield are: the power dependence of the neutron yield on the discharge current and the transition from a deuterium target to a target made from a deuterium–tritium mixture.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Profile of an Ion–Acoustic Solitary Wave in Plasma with Negative
           Ions

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      Abstract: A method for numerical calculation of the profile of an ion–acoustic solitary wave in plasma with negative ions and, as a particular case, in electron–ion plasma is presented. New expressions analytically describing the profile of a low-amplitude compression solitary wave and that of a low-amplitude rarefaction solitary wave are derived. Profiles of solitary waves calculated using well-known expressions and expressions proposed in the present work are compared with each other and with corresponding profiles obtained by solving a complete system of equations describing the plasma. In a majority of cases, profiles calculated using the proposed expressions have the smallest deviation from the solution to the complete system of equations.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • On the Plasma Quasineutrality under Oscillatory Confinement Based on a
           Nanosecond Vacuum Discharge

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      Abstract: One of the main problems for inertial electrostatic confinement devices with electron injection is the space charge neutralization. This work is devoted to the analysis of the problem of plasma quasineutrality in the scheme of plasma oscillatory confinement based on nanosecond vacuum discharge (NVD). Electrodynamics modeling of the processes of aneutronic fusion of proton–boron showed that the plasma in the NVD, and especially on the discharge axis, really corresponds to a quasineutral regime, which is rather different from the well-known scheme of periodically oscillating plasma spheres (POPS). In this case, small oscillations in the NVD are a mechanism of resonant ion heating, unlike coherent compressions in the original POPS model. The scaling of the fusion power turns out to be close to the fusion scheme with POPS, but differs significantly in the values of the parameter of quasineutrality and the compression ratio.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Effect of Nonadiabaticity of Dust Charge Variation: Shock Formation in
           Magnetized Plasma under the Influence of Polarization Force

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      Abstract: The impact of polarisation force, angle of obliqueness under the influence of nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation on shock waves formation in magnetorotating plasma were analyzed. The present plasma model is consisting of negatively charged dust grains, Maxwellian electrons, superthermal ions. The dissipation is introduced in the system via nonadiabaticity, a new mechanism for the formation of shock waves. Using standard reductive perturbation method, nonlinear equation namely Korteweg–de Vries–Burgers (KdVB) equation is derived and solution is obtained using the Tanh method. It is shown that dust charge fluctuations is the main source of dissipation. We have studied the various parametric influences on such shock structure and also showed how the gradual variations of these parameter affect the generation and structure of the shocks in their respective domain. Many experiments on dusty plasma with nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuations will benefit from this parametric study.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • On the Role of Magnetic Fields in the Plasma of Dusty Lunar Exosphere

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      Abstract: The possible effect is studied of the magnetic field of Earth’s magnetotail and the magnetic field in the regions of magnetic anomalies of the Moon on the processes of formation of dusty plasma above the Moon. It is shown that due to the action of the magnetic field in Earth’s magnetotail, transfer of charged dust is possible over long distances above Moon’s surface. Accordingly, the dusty plasma above the surface of the Moon illuminated by the solar radiation can exist in the entire range of lunar latitudes. The transfer of dust grains over long distances due to the uncompensated magnetic component of Lorenz force is a new qualitative effect that is absent in the absence of magnetic field. The magnetic component of Lorenz force acting on the dust grain from the fields of magnetic anomalies is either lower or comparable to the similar force calculated for the magnetic fields of Earth’s magnetotail. However, due to the substantial localization of magnetic anomalies, their effect on the dynamics of charged dust grains above the Moon’s surface does not lead to new qualitative effects.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Distinctive Features of the Structure of Current Sheets Formed in Plasma
           in Three-Dimensional Magnetic Configurations with an X line (a Review)

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      Abstract: A review is presented of experimental results of the studies of the distinctive features of the structure and evolution of plasma current sheets that are formed in three-dimensional (3D) magnetic configurations with an X line in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field component (guide field) directed along the X line. It is shown that, during the development of the current sheet, the longitudinal component of the guide field increases within the sheet. The excess guide field is sustained by the plasma currents that flow in the transverse plane with respect to the main current in the sheet, and as a result, the current structure becomes three-dimensional. When the guide field increases, the degree of compression into the sheet decreases, both of the electric current and the plasma, which is caused by the change in the balance of pressures in the sheet with the appearance of excess guide field. The deformation of plasma current sheets, and in particular, the appearance of asymmetrical and tilted current sheets in 3D magnetic configurations results from the excitation of Hall currents and their interaction with the guide field. It is shown that the formation of current sheets in 3D magnetic configurations with an X line is possible in a relatively wide but limited range of initial conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Dynamics of Charged Dust Grains in Limited-Size Cluster Systems

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      Abstract: The results are presented from numerical studies of the dynamics of limited-size ensembles of charged dust grains in the potential field of electrostatic trap. The simulations were performed for the cluster systems with a number of grains of up to one thousand with the Coulomb interaction in a wide range of parameters close to the conditions of laboratory experiments in gas-discharge plasma. The processes of particle diffusion in the extended and limited-size systems are compared.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Differential Expansion of the Elastic Collision Integral of Electrons with
           Neutral Particles

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      Abstract: The differential expansion of the integral of elastic collisions of electrons with heavy neutral particles is derived under the assumption that the electron distribution function is symmetric with respect to the vector of the external electric field.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Distinctive Features of Lower Hybrid Current Drive in Plasma of the FT-2
           Tokamak

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      Abstract: Experiments on the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) were performed in plasma of the FT-2 tokamak at the microwave pulse duration of ΔtRF ≤ 20 ms covering the entire quasi-stationary stage of the plasma current Ipl(t) = 35 kA. At the relatively low plasma densities 〈ne〉 ~ (0.3–0.6) × 1019 m−3, the regimes were observed and analyzed corresponding to the full replacement of the plasma ohmic current by the non-inductive current generated using LHCD. During the LHCD in the denser plasmas, the formation of the Improved Core Confinement (ICC) regime was observed near the axis of the plasma column. New data was obtained on the threshold of transition to the ICC regime and its dependence on the input microwave power. The details of the transition to the ICC regime were analyzed for deuterium and hydrogen plasmas. It was ascertained that the highest LHCD efficiency was obtained in deuterium plasma at the densities of 〈ne〉 ~ (1.3–1.4) × 1019 m–3.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Study of Plasma Parameters and Deposition Rate of Titanium Thin Film in a
           DC Magnetron Sputtering Method

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      Abstract: The plasma parameters like electron temperature (Te) and electron density (ne) on the deposition rate in turn thickness of titanium thin film at different axial and radial positions were studied quantitatively in a DC magnetron sputtering unit. The electron flux (EF) and the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) methods were used to calculate Te and ne using the data collected from multi Langmuir probe setup. The electron density distribution was obtained through the particle-in-cell–Monte Carlo collisions (PI-C‒MCC) simulation method and from IV graph using a Langmuir probe. It was observed that both Te and ne decreased with the increase in axial and radial distances from the cathode centre. The deposition rate of titanium thin films was found to follow the same pattern as Te and ne. The influence of the magnetic field configuration and change of the plasma parameters on the deposition rate were analyzed in the light of simulated and experimental results obtained.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Impact of Generalized Sheath Boundary Conditions on Dynamics of Plasma
           Filaments at the Tokamak Edge

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      Abstract: The impact of generalized sheath boundary conditions, taking into account the sheath perturbations driven by the Alfvén waves, on the propagation of plasma filaments at the tokamak edge is considered. A model describing the filament dynamics and containing new boundary conditions is developed. Estimates of the model control parameter—the sheath impedance—on the plasma transport are obtained. Simulations of the filament dynamics under the conditions characteristic of edge plasmas in NSTX and Alcator C‑Mod tokamaks are performed. It is shown that the sheath impedance leads to an increase in the mean values of the electrostatic potential and advection velocities of filaments, in agreement with experimental observations, requiring, at the same time, a more detailed description of the Alfvén wave reflection from the conducting surfaces of the installations.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Interaction of Inward and Outward Cylindrical and Spherical Solitary Rings
           in Quantum Electron Ion Dust Plasmas

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      Abstract: Wave–wave interaction, specifically solitary ring interaction in nonplanar geometry is an important source of information to study the nature and the characteristics of cylindrical and spherical solitary waves structures. A theoretical investigation by an all-inclusive adaptation of the Poincare–Lighthill–Kuo (PLK) technique is carried out to study the inward and outward interaction between two cylindrical and spherical dust–ion–acoustic cylindrical and spherical solitary rings in electron–ion dust quantum plasma. The interactions and collisions between two cylindrical and spherical geometries at different times are depicted. Also, the combined effects of the quantum diffraction parameters He, Hi, and the geometric configuration have been studied in detail on the phase shifts raised due to collision. The crucial role of quantum diffraction parameters He, Hi, and the geometric configuration parameter \(v\) upon the derived phase shift have been studied. It has been observed that the properties of the interaction of dust–ion–acoustic solitary rings in cylindrical and spherical geometry are distinct.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Wave Studies Using Triple Langmuir Probe in Transient Plasma

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      Abstract: Magnetosonic waves that grow into shocks were detected in high-density pulsed plasma plume by using a Triple Langmuir Probe (TLP). The frequency of these waves lies in the vicinity of the ion cyclotron frequency. It is believed that the interaction of ions with the intrinsic magnetic field is responsible for the formation of these waves. The existence of harmonics in the probe data confirms the growth of these magnetosonic waves into laminar shock waves via perturbations in the original wave. The understanding and processing of the TLP data, which is both low cost and handy, is reported in this work that opens up the scope for studying such waves in plasma.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Ignition Conditions for a Self-Pulsing Microhollow Cathode Discharge in
           Air

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      Abstract: This work is devoted to the study of the electrical characteristics of a microhollow cathode discharge in air at atmospheric pressure. It was found experimentally that the microhollow cathode discharge develops in a self-pulsing mode with an average current of hundreds of microamperes to units of milliampere. From to the experimental data, it is concluded that the self-pulsing frequency linearly depends on the consumed current. The values of the ignition voltage of the self-pulsing microhollow cathode discharge at different hole diameters (200–500 μm) were obtained.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1063780X22040109
       
  • Time-Resolved Optical Diagnostics of the Microwave Discharge in Liquid
           Hydrocarbons with Argon Bubbling

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      Abstract: — The methods of emission spectroscopy, shadow photography, and integral radiation of a discharge with time resolution are used to study the initial stages of the development of a microwave discharge in liquid hydrocarbons when argon is supplied to the discharge region. As a representative of a wide range of hydrocarbons, the petroleum solvent Nefras C2 80/120 is used. With the help of shadow photographs, the change in the structure of the discharge with time was studied, and the sizes and growth rates of the gas bubble with plasma are determined. The emission spectra of the discharge, obtained at an exposure time of 1 ms, shows that, in addition to the usual Swan and CH bands, the spectrum contains atomic emission lines of Hα and of a carbon ion. The presence of these lines is associated with the big role of electron impact in the kinetics of processes in plasma at short times.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1063780X22040043
       
  • Increasing the Specific Energy Concentration of High-Current Z-Pinch
           Plasma by Using Transient Compression Modes

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      Abstract: The results of experiments on increasing the specific energy density of high-current Z-pinch plasma by using various compression modes are presented. The experiments were carried out with cascade wire cylindrical loads at the Angara-5-1 facility with a current in the load of up to 4 MA. The experiments used loads both with a reduced inductance at the final stage of pinch compression and loads that make it possible to implement a transient compression mode from a cascade scheme to a composite Z-pinch scheme. When cascade arrays, which have a reduced inductance at the final stage of compression, are compressed, the specific power of soft X-ray emission is higher than 5 TW/cm, which corresponds to the radiation power with a pinch of a standard length of 1.6 cm at the level of 8–9 TW. The specific total X-ray emission yield is about 150 kJ/cm for a total emission yield at a level of 90–95 kJ. The compression dynamics of such a load indicates a significant role of the magnetic field of the current flowing through the inner cascade in the interaction of the cascades. It is shown that in the transient compression mode from a cascade array to a composite Z‑pinch, the outer array of a material with a relatively low atomic number (Al) provides a high kinetic energy flux density, while the inner array of a small diameter made from a material with a high atomic number (W) allows one to increase the radiation power three times.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1063780X22040146
       
  • Modified Kadomtsev–Petviashvili Equation for Description of Nonlinear
           Perturbations in Plasma of Dusty Lunar Exosphere

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      Abstract: Abstract—Modified Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equation describing nonlinear dynamics of nearly one-dimensional wave structures in dusty plasma above illuminated part of the Moon in the situation in which localization along magnetic-field vector is much stronger than along other directions is derived. The equation differs from the ordinary Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equation by the nonlinear term being non-analytical. Modified Kadomtsev–Petviashvili differs from generalizations of the Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equation in which nonlinearity retains the same form as in the ordinary Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equation but higher-order corrections for dispersion are taken into account. An analytical expression governing one-dimensional soliton solution to the modified Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equation is obtained. The solution differs from the well-known one-dimensional soliton solutions to the Korteweg–De Vries and ordinary Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equations. Stability analysis of the one-dimensional soliton solution showed that it is stable. Possible applications of the discussed solitons from the point of view of description of the so-called transient lunar phenomena representing short-lived light, changes in color or appearance on the surface of the Moon are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1063780X22040079
       
  • Interaction between GAMs and Mean Flow Shear During SMBI Injection into
           HL-2A Tokamak

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      Abstract: The interactions among geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs), mean flow, and mean flow shear were investigated using Langmuir probe arrays under periodic supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) during L-mode discharges in HL-2A tokamak. Results of the SMBI fueling process can be described as follows. In Phase I, immediately following beam injection, the electric field (Er) and temperature (Te) were found to be the most sensitive plasma parameters and decreased abruptly with an increase in the intensity of the turbulence. In Phase II, Er increased significantly, and the frequency of the GAMs also increased. In Phase III, Er gradually increased until the next SMBI pulse commenced, whereas the intensity of the GAMs decreased.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1063780X22040158
       
  • Microwave Discharge in Gas above Regolith Surface

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      Abstract: — A layer of regolith with a 1.35% Al content was irradiated from the side of the reactor supporting plate with a microwave pulse with an intensity of 10–15 kW cm–2 (the wavelength is 4 mm) and a duration of 1.5 ms and 3.5 ms. An air rarefaction of ~76 Torr was created in the reactor. A gas discharge occurred when the ratio E0 /N0 = 1.03 × 10–15 V cm2 was exceeded (E0 is the electric field at the reactor axis, N0 is the concentration of molecules in air). The discharge above the regolith surface occurred only after microwave breakdown of the air with a delay of more than 200 μs. In this case, evaporation of regolith particles and their ejection into the reactor volume took place. It was found that an increase in the microwave pulse duration to 3.5 ms leads to long-term sparking of regolith particles. This can be explained by the energy release during the reaction 2Al + 3FeO → Al2O3 + 3Fe initiated by the evaporation of iron oxide under the combined action of microwave radiation and UV radiation from the gas discharge.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1063780X22040031
       
  • On the Generation of Plasma Jets in the Kilojoule Plasma Focus Device

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      Abstract: — Laser–optic methods were used to study the properties of plasma jets generated in the KJ Plasma Focus device. Measurements of the plasma jet velocity were conducted immediately after its appearance. During the first 10 ns, the average velocity is about 5 × 107 cm/s, which corresponds to energy of 18 keV for the ions of nitrogen, which was the working gas of the PF setup. The jet density and velocity decrease manifold over distance of 2–3 cm from its generation point. The experiments confirm that the main reason of jet generation is the necking of the pinch. It was found that after the pinch decay, a new plasma column appears, which propagates in the axial direction.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1134/S1063780X22040110
       
 
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