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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Climate Change and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 153)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Nīvār     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Oxford Open Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.543
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 28  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1436-5065 - ISSN (Online) 0177-7971
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Successive probable maximum precipitation (SPMP) methodology and
           applications

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      Abstract: Abstract PMP has two different estimation methods, namely statistical and hydro-meteorological approaches. The statistical method is based on the calculation of frequency factor (FF) by taking into account the arithmetic mean and standard deviation parameters. The classical probable maximum precipitation (PMP) is based on the (FF) calculated from the annual daily maximum precipitation (ADMP) time series records, which excludes the maximum recording. The classical method returns an FF value without any uncertainty. This paper suggests a successive FF (SFF) method that leads to a series of SFFs, starting with the first three records, and then scanning the entire time series. The probabilistic operation of the SFF sequence presents the uncertainty components in FF based on a set of preset exceedence probability levels and their corresponding return periods. The application of the methodology is presented for three ADMP records from Turkey, Algeria and Arabian Peninsula, which represent humid, semi-arid and arid regions, respectively. The arithmetic mean of the SSF values for the meteorology stations in each country was calculated as 3.07, 2.75 and 3.45, respectively. However, predetermined exceedence probability amounts are presented in the form of tables and graphics. It was concluded that the classical FF calculation provides a single value without any exceedence probability assessment, whereas the SFF method provides FF values with a range of exceedence probability levels.
      PubDate: 2022-10-02
       
  • Lightning over Tibetan Plateau and its relation with winds associated with
           CAPE

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      Abstract: Abstract Association of lightning with winds over Tibetan Plateau (TP) is examined by analyzing lightning data during the period 1999–2013. The study reveals that nearly 92% lightning activity occurred during April to September is associated with the wind circulation, especially cyclonic circulation. Nearly 58% of lightning is found to happen during May (18.6%), June (19.29%), and July (19.56%). Less vertical wind shear (less than 10 m/s) and high CAPE (more than 400 J/kg) are found to be associated with lightning. Analysis shows that negative correlation exists between wind shear and lightning. Results reveal that high wind shear tends to restrict the growth of convection, resulting in lightning. On annual scale, there exist negative correlation between lightning and wind shear and insignificant correlation between lightning and CAPE for April-September. However, a new relationship is established when CAPE and shear are taken together, and a strong positive correlation is found between lightning and CAPE per shear (CAPE/shear). Hence, we propose that for better understanding on lightning over Tibetan Plateau, it would be much more useful to consider CAPE/shear rather than CAPE or wind shear alone.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
       
  • Probabilistic prediction of SPI categories in Iran using sea surface
           temperature climate indices

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      Abstract: Abstract This study examines probabilistic prediction of the standardized precipitation index (SPI) categories (i.e., dry, normal and wet conditions) in Iran regressed onto the combination of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and several sea surface temperature (SST) indices including Niño4, Niño3.4, Niño3, Niño1 + 2, western Pacific (WP; 0º–15ºN, 130º–160ºE), the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EM; 30º–38ºN, 20º–35ºE) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). The ordinal regression models (ORM) based on the logistic function are applied to determine the best predictor variables. Seasonal precipitation during the two wet seasons of October-December (OND) and January-March (JFM) for 50 synoptic stations across Iran for the period 1967–2017 are used in this research. 3 month SPI at the end of December and March, which provides SPI values over OND and JFM, is constructed based on the Gamma probability distribution. The SPI categories for OND and JFM precipitation averaged over Iran are considered as the predictand variables in the ORM. The linear trend analysis of JFM SPI values indicates that the risk of drought has been enhanced in this season. Among all individual predictors, the SST anomalies over the central Pacific Ocean has the strongest teleconnection with OND SPI categories. Based on the minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC), the combination of Niño3.4 and WP gives the best model for probabilistic prediction of wet and dry events in OND. Unlike the OND, the SST anomalies over different parts of the Pacific Ocean are not strongly related to the SPI values of the JFM season in Iran. Among all indices, only the SST anomaly variations over the eastern Mediterranean Sea are statistically teleconnected to JFM SPI categories and can be used to predict dry and wet events probability in Iran.
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
       
  • Structure and development of the atmospheric boundary layer over a small
           island (Mahé Island, Seychelles) in the equatorial Indian Ocean

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      Abstract: Abstract The island of Mahé, Seychelles (4.68oS, 55.53oE) is located close to the region responsible for the initiation and eastward propagation of the Madden Julian Oscillation in addition to being part of the Seychelles dome (an oceanic thermal dome) and the Seychelles–Chagos Thermocline Ridge each of which influences the atmosphere at multiple time scales. The representativeness of the island of the oceanic region surrounding it is limited by its atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). This tiny island (of area ~ 150 km−2) can be considered as a large ship permanently anchored at the equatorial Indian Ocean capable of making long-term atmospheric observations representing its surroundings provided its ABL structure and development is known. This study presents, for the first time, in situ observations of day-night variability of ABL over Mahé, Seychelles using high vertical resolution radiosonde ascents from November 2011 to January 2012. The ABL height (ABLH) was observed to vary in a range of 200–1300 m in the course of a day with a daytime mean of 855 ± 300 m and a nighttime mean of 165 ± 85 m. For an unstable boundary layer, a statistically significant positive (negative) correlation was observed between ABLH and near-surface temperature (near-surface relative humidity) with correlation coefficient R = 0.77 (R = − 0.45) indicating that a warmer island produces a deeper boundary layer subject to limits imposed by the marine influence. It also indicates the significant contribution of sensible heat flux to ABLH at the site. Observations indicate near-surface wind speeds greater than 5 m/s either disrupt stable air by mechanical wind shear or advect them out of the island.
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
       
  • Future projection for climate extremes in the North China plain using
           multi-model ensemble of CMIP5

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      Abstract: Abstract Extreme climate event (ECE) had exerted great impacts on human life, and the study of extreme climate can reduce the risks caused by ECEs for social and economic development. In the study, we evaluated the spatiotemporal change characteristics of 26 extreme climate indices (ECIs) during 1971–2100 in the North China Plain (NCP) based on observed climate data and 33 Global Climate Models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The independence weighted mean (IWM) and arithmetic mean (AM) were used to compare with the performance of individual GCM. The projected ECIs from IWM had smaller normalized root-mean-square error (nRMSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) with observations compared to that from the individual GCM and AM, which can better reproduce the temporal trends of ECIs in the historical period (1971–2005). Across the NCP, the extreme low-temperature indices showed significant decreasing trends during 2031–2100 under both of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP8.5. However, the extreme high-temperature indices showed significant increasing trends and the change amplitude was larger than that of the extreme low-temperature indices. Most extreme precipitation events (except drought events) will increase across the NCP. Moreover, the change magnitude under RCP8.5 was much higher than that under RCP4.5. Overall, the results indicated that there was great application potential in multi-model ensemble for IWM. Meanwhile, there would be more heat stress and intense precipitation across the NCP in the coming decades of the twenty-first century.
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
       
  • Probabilistic modeling and identifying fluctuations in annual extreme
           heatwave regimes of Karachi

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      Abstract: Abstract Climatic warming in the global mean has significantly increased the probability of occurrence of heat extremes on time scales ranging from months to seasons. As extreme heat events are most likely to become intense and frequent over the next decades, it is important to examine these events to mitigate its negative impacts on public health and society. This study focuses on Karachi heat extremes over the last 23 years. The power spectral analyses of Karachi heat extremes records have been carried out by two indices: heat index (HI) and effective temperature index (TEE), which are also found to be significantly correlated. The result indicates a regular cyclic pattern of 4.5 years which is estimated to face a heat index of more than 73.63 °C, associated with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Other peaks are observed at 2.8 and 2.2 years with the expected value of the Karachi heat index of 70.53 and 68.71 °C, respectively. The probabilistic approach is also used to predict the future heatwave events of Karachi. Generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution is found to be the best-fitted probability distribution for the extreme heatwave events on the basis of goodness-of-fit test. Furthermore, the estimation of the return period of the heatwave event reveals that Karachi will be facing a maximum heat index of 84.37 °C or more in the coming 33 years, which suggests an urgent need for mitigation strategies in Karachi to overcome the effects of extreme heatwave events.
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
       
  • Characterization of meteorological parameters over Dokriani Glacier
           catchment, Central Himalaya: implications for regional perspectives

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      Abstract: Abstract The Himalayan meteorology is important for understanding cryospheric-hydrological processes and climate change forecasts. The meteorological observations in the Indian Himalayan region (IHR), notably in glacierized catchments, are scarce. Therefore, the present study aims to demonstrate a comprehensive investigation of meteorological parameters (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed and direction, radiation fluxes, albedo, and pressures) over the Dokriani Glacier catchment (DGC) using time-series data (2011–2016) obtained from a network of three automatic weather stations (AWSs). The study also provides new insights into characteristics of meteorological variables at inter- and intra-seasonal scales (winter: December–February, Pre-monsoon: March–May, Monsoon: June–September, and Post-monsoon: October–November). The results show that the albedo and outflux radiation decreases rapidly with the onset of monsoon season, while there is an increase of relative humidity (RH) and positive degree-days (PDDs). The positive temperature (> 2℃) at higher elevations (> 5500 m) raise serious concerns about the summer accumulation characteristics of the Dokriani glacier. The DGC has an average near-surface temperature lapse rate (NSTLR) of 6.0°C km−1, higher in the pre-monsoon and lower during the monsoon. The wind speed and albedo are more sensitive during winter and pre-monsoon seasons. The air temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity exhibit significant seasonal fluctuation, whereas other meteorological variables have a nearly comparable seasonal pattern. The Indian summer monsoon (ISM) significantly influences all climatic factors. This may be utilized to examine the Dokriani glacier's mass budget and melt rate with other dependent factors, such as glacier hypsometry, orientation, surface velocity, and the extent of debris-cover. Furthermore, the dataset of this study may be correlated with hydro-meteorological observations in various regions of the Himalaya and deciphered using a regional climate dataset; for example, the Kedarnath tragedy-2013 and the most recent flash flood that occurred in Raunthi valley, Tapovan on February 07, 2021.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
       
  • Analysis of precipitation temporal pattern of sub-daily ECMWF forecasts

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      Abstract: Abstract Temporal distribution of precipitation has various applications in flood studies. In particular, accurate estimates of temporal variation of precipitations are quite valuable in real-time flood warning. In this study, the performance of the ECMWF model in forecasting daily precipitation occurrence and sub-daily temporal distribution pattern was evaluated during the 2006–2021 period in eight regions in Iran. The forecasts were downscaled into the selected stations by using the inverse distance weighting method and further evaluated in three aspects. First, precipitation characteristics including start time, end time, and duration of 22,098 precipitation events in 49 stations were evaluated. Based on statistical analysis, 40.34%, 32.9%, and 14.4% of the events were correctly forecasted in start, end, and duration, respectively, where the best performance was associated with regions with high precipitation. Second, the dimensionless temporal pattern of both observed and forecasted 24-h precipitation events with 6-h time step were drawn and inter-compared in different precipitation regimes. The best-fitted pattern was identified in highland regions and the worst was associated with arid and semi-arid parts of Iran. In the third step, the quality of forecasts in each precipitation quartile were assessed via deterministic evaluation criteria. It was found that among all quartiles, the ECMWF forecasts in the second quartile scored highest (MP = 0.68), whereas the third quartile of precipitation events were poorly forecasted (MP = 0.36). In conclusion, the forecasts in regions with higher precipitation were of better quality in comparison with those of low precipitation regions although ground data of shorter time steps is needed for further evaluation. Also, in terms of synoptic analysis, forecasts associated with Mediterranean low-pressure systems yielded higher accuracy compared to those of other systems over Iran. The results might be utilized by flood experts to estimate and forecast floods more precisely and reduce disaster risk.
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
       
  • A study of rapid intensification of tropical cyclone Ockhi using C-band
           polarimetric radar

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      Abstract: Abstract Tropical cyclone Ockhi (2017) had a very unusual track with unprecedented rapid intensification (RI) and dynamical evolution. During its early phases, a C-band polarimetric Doppler Weather Radar (DWR), installed in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, continuously monitored it. The present study focuses on the observations and analysis of the extremely tall precipitation features overshooting Troposphere, called hot towers, prior to and during the RI stages of Ockhi. The maximum height of such features within the inner core exceeded 20 km, with the maximum observed areal coverage over 800 km2. The peak convective burst (CB) activity was seen 9–12 h prior to the onset of RI of Ockhi. The differences among the Maximum Sustained Wind speed (MSW) and Mean Sea Level Pressure (MSLP) obtained from various best track data sets were in the range 5–25 knots and 1–28 hPa, respectively, with the maximum difference seen during the CB phase. Ockhi also exhibited differential reflectivity enhancements, often collocated with the hot towers. Further, we investigated upper ocean Tropical Cyclone Heat Potential (TCHP), derived from the Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) profiles. During the peak CB activity, the TCHP was around 121 kJ cm−2, almost 50 kJ cm−2 higher than the climatological mean of that area. Significant drop in TCHP was observed in the next 24 h concurrent with the RI. The radar-based observations of the hot towers in conjunction with the TCHP and other relevant ocean parameters could prove to be valuable indicators in predicting the RI phase of the storms and gaining a better insight for estimating the damage potential of the cyclones.
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
       
  • Improved quality gridded surface wind speed datasets for Australia

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      Abstract: Abstract Gridded near-surface (2 and 10 m) daily average wind datasets for Australia have been constructed by interpolating observational data collected by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM). The new datasets span Australia at 0.05 × 0.05° resolution with a daily time step. They are available for the period 1 January 1975 to present with daily updates. The datasets were constructed by blending observational data collected at various heights using local surface roughness information. Error detection techniques were used to identify and remove suspect data. Statistical performances of the spatial interpolations were evaluated using a cross-validation procedure, by sequentially applying interpolations after removing the observed weather station data. The accuracy of the new blended 10 m wind datasets were estimated through comparison with the Reanalysis ERA5-Land 10 m wind datasets. Overall, the blended 10 m wind speed patterns are similar to the ERA5-Land 10 m wind. The new blended 10 m wind datasets outperformed ERA5-Land 10 m wind in terms of spatial correlations and mean absolute errors through validations with BoM 10 m wind weather station data for the period from 1981 to 2020. Average correlation (R2) for blended 10 m wind is 0.68, which is 0.45 for ERA5-Land 10 m wind. The average of the mean absolute error is 1.15 m/s for blended 10 m wind, which is lower than that for ERA5-Land 10 m wind (1.61 m/s). The blending technique substantially improves the spatial correlations for blended 2 m wind speed.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Impact of DWR radial wind on simulation of western disturbances using
           NCUM-R modeling system

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      Abstract: Abstract The present study evaluates the impact of use of radar observations in data assimilation system by simulating the evolution, propagation and intensity of three western disturbances (WDs). Two numerical experiments were conducted viz. CTL and RAD (assimilation of radar radial velocity plus other observations utilized in the CTL) in this study. The initial conditions generated, after assimilation of radial velocity observations in RAD experiment can simulate evolution, characteristics, structure and associated precipitation with WDs properly compared to CTL. The south-westerly wind bias is seen in CTL analyses over the western Himalayan region due to the scarcity of surface and upper air observations in all cases. But the feature clearly improved in the RAD. The northward transport of moisture fluxes from Arabian Sea and spatial distribution of moisture convergence zone around the WDs are well manifested in RAD analyses which closely matched with ERA5 reanalyses in all cases. But strong magnitude of moisture fluxes is noticed in CTL analyses on many occasions. The magnitude, time and spatial pattern of the high vorticity at the mid-troposphere are adequately simulated by the RAD and are well matched with the corresponding ERA5 reanalyses in all cases. The magnitude, evolution and propagation of various kinetic energy budget terms and precipitation are relatively well simulated in the RAD than the CTL in comparison with ERA5 in all cases. Overall, the assimilation of radial velocity into the high-resolution assimilation-forecast system beneficially impacted the rainfall forecasts, which is validated with various statistical skill scores.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
       
  • Role of deep convection in regulating the Indian summer monsoon dynamics:
           a regional scale modelling study

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      Abstract: Abstract The deep convection and associated moist processes have a major role in regulating the circulation and precipitation characteristics of the Indian summer monsoon. This aspect is examined by conducting sensitivity experiments with the Weather Research and Forecast model. Three active monsoon cases during the periods 16–25 June 2015, 20–29 July 2010 and 1–9 August 2007 are selected for the study. Control simulations using reanalysis data as initial and lateral boundary conditions reveal that the model could simulate mean features of the precipitation and circulation pattern during those active monsoon periods. In sensitivity experiments, microphysical latent heat release in the model is switched off and all other conditions are kept same as that of control simulations. The removal of latent heat release in the model suppresses development of deep convection over the monsoon domain and causes substantial reduction in precipitation. A large-scale descending motion appears in the mid-troposphere and vertical growth of clouds is hampered. As a result, thick cloud bands form in the lower atmosphere, which reduces the short-wave radiation reaching the surface and leading to a reduction in land surface temperature over the Indian region. The cessation of deep convection also affects the strength and position of monsoon low-level circulation. The lack of convective heating shifts the low-level jet core over the Arabian Sea towards north. Consequently, the low-level jet gets strengthened over the north-west India and weakens over the peninsular India. The present study unambiguously established the fact that organized deep convection and concomitant vertical heating over the monsoon domain have a prominent role in regulating monsoon dynamics.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
       
  • An environmental and polarimetric study of the 19 November 2015 supercell
           and multiple-vortex tornado in Marechal Cândido Rondon, southern Brazil

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      Abstract: Abstract In the mid-afternoon of 19 November 2015, a large multiple-vortex tornado struck the city of Marechal Cândido Rondon (MCR) situated in southern Brazil, injuring tens of people and inflicting considerable damage to urban and rural areas of the municipality. Characteristics of the complex tornado circulation that were captured in video are described in this study, including a structure resembling a multiple-vortex mesocyclone. The tornado-producing left-moving supercell evolved within 70 km range from a dual-polarization S-band Doppler radar that allowed, for the first time in South America, to document polarimetric signatures in a supercell storm during the stage in which it contained a large visually confirmed tornado. The polarimetric signatures identified with this convective cell include the ZDR arc, the KDP foot, ZDR and KDP columns, ZDR and ρhv rings, and the tornadic debris signature, in addition to other more traditional radar signatures like the hook echo, inflow notch, cyclonic velocity couplet, and bounded weak echo region. The general synoptic- and mesoscale atmospheric conditions in which the severe storm developed displayed a nearly uncapped moist subtropical environment with high CAPE, low LCL, and intense mid- and low-level wind shear, but under weak synoptic forcing and exhibiting unimpressive lapse rates. In combination with previous studies, this synoptic–mesoscale configuration describes a typical environment for tornadic supercells in southern and southeastern Brazil.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
       
  • Seasonal effects of atmospheric waves over tropical tropopause using
           radiosonde observations at Hyderabad, India

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      Abstract: Abstract Atmospheric waves show profound effects on Earth’s energy budget by transferring momentum and energy into upper layers. These waves have strong responses on the modulation of tropopause temperature including their altitudes. More observational studies are needed to understand the effects of these waves over tropopause. 160 radiosondes are launched during 2012–2013 in 2 different campaigns to investigate the effects of equatorial waves and Inertia Gravity Wave (IGW) over tropopause in different seasons at a tropical station Hyderabad (17.4°N, 78.5°E). Clear seasonal variations are observed in tropopause temperature (TPT), and their corresponding heights (TPH), tropopause zonal (TPZ) and meridional (TPM) winds. FFT analyses of TPT, TPH, TPZ and TPM show strong equatorial waves ranging periods between 3.5 and 8.3 d. Equatorial Kelvin waves with period 8.3 d show strong effects on the modulation of tropopause temperature and its altitudes during summer and winter seasons. Rossby Gravity waves with periods ranging between 3.5 and 6.25 d are also observed to have significant effects on tropopause layer in different seasons. IGW activity is observed to be very weak at UTLS region suggesting the wave breaking near tropopause and possible transferring of momentum and energy near UTLS. Squared coherence spectra for TPT vs TPZ, TPT vs Integrated Humidity (IH) and TPZ vs IH show strong evidences of the effects of these observed atmospheric waves on tropopause temperature and their altitudes in all the seasons.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
       
  • Rainfall and sea-level variability in the face of changing El Niño:
           evidence from the U.S.-affiliated Pacific islands

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      Abstract: Abstract The prime concerns for future disruptions in the El Niño-Southern oscillation (ENSO)-sensitive U.S.-affiliated Pacific islands (USAPIs) are centered on the consequences of increasing frequency of ENSO and related drought and flooding activities. Recent observations also revealed that island-specific rainfall and sea-level patterns appear to be different during the three types of El Niño events (eastern, mixed, and central Pacific). The primary motivation of the study is to identify the impacts of three different types of El Niño on rainfall and sea-level variability in USAPIs. Results reveal that different types of El Niño can lead to different variations in rainfall and sea level in the USAPIs. While the eastern Pacific and mixed El Niño events are associated with lower than normal rainfall in all USAPIs, the central Pacific El Niño events are found to be associated with enhanced rainfall in many USAPIs. Similarly, while all the USAPIs displayed lower than normal sea level during eastern Pacific and mixed El Niño events, some of the USAPIs displayed higher than normal sea level during central Pacific events. Information related to island-specific rainfall and sea-level response to different El Niño events is critical to support the short-to-mid-term planning and management in climate-sensitive sectors in the USAPIs.
      PubDate: 2022-08-22
       
  • Features of upper tropospheric temperature fluctuations during drought
           years of Indian summer monsoon: results inferred from COSMIC GPS RO
           observations

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      Abstract: Abstract Prolonged breaks during the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) season can cause a massive deficit in all-India rainfall, leading to drought conditions. The availability of long-term observations from radio occultation (RO) data, with a finer vertical resolution, provides a unique opportunity to explore the thermal anomalies in the upper troposphere (UT) during ISM season. The present work focuses on drought years during the period 2007–2016 using this RO data. Results show significant cold (warm) anomalies in the UT, extending from west-central Asia (20°E) to east-central Asia (160°E) during drought (near-excess) years of ISM with strongest fluctuations near the eastern and western side of the Caspian Sea. Result suggests that these anomalies modulate the north–south thermal contrast over the ISM region on a seasonal scale, impacting the monsoon performance. In 2009, before the occurrence of three break conditions over the ISM domain, three major blocking highs were formed in the UT (~ 10 km) over south-east Asia (30°–40°N, 100°–120°E). During the first dry spell of monsoon in 2009, an extremely cold anomaly (~ 12 K) appeared in the UT near the Caspian Sea, which brought cold dry air to north-west India leading to delayed northward advance of the monsoon. When compared to near-excess years, drought years exhibit substantial intraseasonal temperature fluctuations in the UT over the core monsoon zone, with the strongest variations during the severe drought year 2009. The prolonged second dry spell of 2009 during 26 July–10 August is a manifestation of two subsequent events characterized by upper tropospheric subsidence and warm anomalies advected from the east.
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
       
  • Trends and variabilities of precipitation and temperature extremes over
           Southeast Asia during 1981–2017

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      Abstract: Abstract As one of the most populated agricultural habitats in the world, Southeast Asia has been highly exposed to extremes of weather and climate, posing great importance to figure out the trend and variability characteristics of extremes over there. The annual extreme precipitation and temperature over Southeast Asia during 1981–2017 are analyzed in this study using datasets based on daily observations derived from thousands of meteorological stations. Results show that the wet extremes decrease over the areas surrounding the South China Sea and increase over the south of the Philippines and Indonesia with the most significant trends detected over the east of Indochina and New Guinea. Extreme high temperatures decrease significantly over the middle of New Guinea and increase over Indochina, Sumatra, Java, and Kalimantan. Moreover, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analyses show that the first principal components for most precipitation extremes are characterized by significant decadal changes relevant to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the second principal components exhibit significant interannual variability associated with oceanic systems such as El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). As for temperature extremes, the leading EOF modes show non-significant trends or decadal variations, but significant interannual variations related to ENSO and the Indian Ocean Dipole are detected.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
       
  • Extreme rainfall events in the Rio de Janeiro city (Brazil): description
           and a numerical sensitivity case study

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      Abstract: Abstract Forecasting extreme rainfall events with high reliability has become increasingly important over the last decades, given their expressive impacts on society and properties. This study initially described the spatiotemporal patterns of rainfall climatology, identified extreme rainfall events, and categorized the meteorological systems related to the precipitation regimes in Rio de Janeiro city. Secondly, we evaluated the extreme rainfall event on 08–09 April 2019 over the Rio de Janeiro city and made a numerical sensitivity case study using the Weather, Research and Forecasting (WRF). For the numerical sensitivity study, we considered the combination of eight microphysics and eight cumulus schemes (totalizing 64 simulations) and four horizontal one-way grid nesting domains (27 km, 09 km, 03 km, and 01 km). The results showed that The New Tiedtke cumulus scheme might have presented the best performance from the quantitative and qualitative evaluation. We verified from the cloud microphysics schemes that the WRF single-moment 5-class and WRF single-moment 6-class schemes also presented better spatial characterization and intensity of rainfall. Lastly, this work sought to characterize the challenges faced by operational forecasters related to the extreme rainfall and natural hazards imminence warnings. It is also worth mentioning that the physical results and discussion made could present some intrinsic bias due to the only one extreme event analyzed. Thus, as future work, the simulations of other extreme rainfall events are expected to guarantee the reliability of the possible outcomes and their use by operational forecasters.
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00703-022-00909-2
       
  • Distinct urban land cover response to meteorology in WRF simulated
           pre-monsoon thunderstorms over the tropical city of Kolkata

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      Abstract: Abstract The Kolkata metropolitan region, located in eastern India, is one of the most densely urbanized areas, with significant thunderstorms reported during the pre-monsoon season. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to investigate the influence of urban-induced land use and land cover (LULC) change over Kolkata during the pre-monsoon thunderstorms. Multiple thunderstorm events reported during 2014–2017 are simulated using a high (Hurb) and low (Lurb) urban LULC scenario. The presence of higher urban pixels in Hurb case favors the enhancement in precipitation mainly over central and northern parts of the city in the downwind direction. Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect is more evident during the nighttime, with a temperature difference of up to 0.5 °C. However, the UHI impacts the vertical structure of the boundary layer (BL) more during the daytime due to prevailing higher temperatures and dominant surface heating. The analysis reveals positive contributions of the ground and sensible heat fluxes to the near-surface UHI intensity. The surfaces over the urban patch and surrounding areas experience a relatively drier atmosphere than their rural counterparts. Over the identified urban patches, a significant impact on meteorological variables is seen near the surface and within the BL in the case of Hurb compared to Lurb LULC scenario. The urbanization over Kolkata stimulates the BL and the local meteorology encouraging nighttime UHI, afternoon or evening moist convection, and consequent occurrence of thunderstorms to result in enhanced and distinctly distributed rainfall over the city and its neighborhood during pre-monsoon months.
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00703-022-00916-3
       
  • Analyzing the structural characteristics of the Sichuan basin vortex based
           on CloudSat satellite data

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      Abstract: Abstract Using the CloudSat data for the Sichuan Basin vortices (SBVs) from June to August (2007–2016) and dividing the data based on whether the SBVs moved eastward, the cloud, precipitation, and thermal structural characteristics of the SVBs were comprehensively analyzed to cultivate a deeper understanding of these vortices. The results show that a direct correlation between vortex structure and precipitation intensity. The variations in radar reflectivity are completely opposite vertical distribution above and below a height of 5 km. The proportion of deep convective clouds is more than 30% of the total vortex depth, and the distribution differences are reflected by the middle and lower clouds. This occurs because stratiform precipitation commonly takes place in the Sichuan Basin. When an SBV moves eastward, the proportion of convective precipitation increases with increasing vortex enhancement. The distribution differences of ice particle parameters embody the effective precipitation mechanisms of sowing and supplying. The locations of intense vortices are indicative of the locations of rainfall centers. The instantaneous precipitation rate increases as the vortex center moves southward. There is a warm central region with a temperature of over 0 °C within 200 km of the vortex center for both type I and type III in the radial direction. The wet region appears below the warm region, and the vertical scope of the wet center is less than 4 km. The ranges and intensities of both the warm and wet centers increase gradually with the eastward development of the SBV.
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00703-022-00905-6
       
 
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