Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
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 Meteorologische ZeitschriftJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.605 Citation Impact (citeScore): 1Number of Followers: 5      Subscription journal ISSN (Print) 0941-2948 - ISSN (Online) 1610-1227 Published by Schweizerbart Science Publishers  [23 journals]
• Temporal trends of daily extreme temperature indices in North-Central
Mexico

Abstract: Temporal trends of daily extreme temperature indices in North-Central MexicoRuiz-Alvarez, Osias; Corrales-Suastegui, Arturo; Štěpánek, Petr; Farda, Ales; Ontiveros Capurata, Ronald Ernesto; Reyes-González, Arturo; Reynoso-Santos, Roberto; Ochoa-Rivero, Jesus Manuel; Singh, Vijay P.
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 265 - 288Abstract A temporal trend analysis of weather variables is needed for developing mitigation and adaptation strategies to climate change. The objective of this work was to study temporal trends of 17 extreme temperature indices in North-Central Mexico (NCM). We used daily observations of maximum and minimum temperatures from 127 weather stations for 34 years (1980–2013). The extreme temperature indices were calculated with the RClimDex v1.9 package. Analysis of trend indices was carried out with the Mann–Kendall technique and the rate of change with the Theil–Sen estimator. Except for the growing season length, all-temperature indices showed statistically significant positive trends (SSPT) ( p ≤ 0 . 0 5 $p\leq\nobreak 0.05$ ) between 1 and 62; except for the cold spell duration indicator, all indices showed statistically significant negative trends (SSNT) between 3 and 62. The SSPT of all indices varied between 0.246 °C decade−1 (TMINMEAN) and 48 days decade−1 (SU25), while the SSNT varied between −55.238 days decade−1 (SU25) and −0.181 °C decade−1 (TMINMEAN). In NCM, the increase in some indices could be causing an increase in crop water requirements and poorly meeting some crop's chilling requirements. In crops, such as grapevine, peach, and apple, an excellent short-term strategy to adapt to the decrease in cold winter and to compensate for the satisfaction of poor chilling hours using biostimulant of sprouting should be considered. New varieties/hybrids of corn and beans for dealing with the increase in warm days (TX90p), summer days (SU25), warm nights (TN90p), and tropical nights must be available; also, these new varieties should have shorter cycle and should be cold resistant. The results of this work constitute a reliable tool for generating answers for measures of adaptation to the onslaught of climate change in NCM.
PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +000

• Coastal impacts on offshore wind farms – a review focussing on
the German Bight area

Abstract: Coastal impacts on offshore wind farms – a review focussing on the German Bight areaSchulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Emeis, Stefan; Dörenkämper, Martin; Bange, Jens; Cañadillas, Beatriz; Neumann, Thomas; Schneemann, Jörge; Weber, Ines; zum Berge, Kjell; Platis, Andreas; Djath, Bughsin'; Gottschall, Julia; Vollmer, Lukas; Rausch, Thomas; Barekzai, Mares; Hammel, Johannes; Steinfeld, Gerald; Lampert, Astrid
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 289 - 315Abstract The atmospheric boundary layer experiences multiple changes in coastal regions, especially with wind directions from land towards the sea, where the wind speed usually increases due to the smaller roughness of the ocean surface. These effects are of particular relevance for offshore wind energy utilization; they are summarized under the term coastal effects. This paper provides an overview of coastal effects and their potential impact on the operating conditions of offshore wind farms with a focus on the German Bight. Common numerical and experimental tools to study coastal effects and developing internal boundary layers (IBL) are introduced, and a review on the current state of research is given. The German Bight is an interesting example to illustrate impacts of coastal effects on offshore wind energy, because of the large number of wind turbines with a coastal distance of 100 km or less. Phenomena related to the stability of the boundary layer, like low level jets, are discussed. Spatial variations of vertical heat fluxes in the coastal zone related to variable water depths or Wadden Sea areas are analysed. The study illustrates that due to the increasing size of offshore wind farms, horizontal wind speed gradients caused by coastal effects can lead to significant wind variations within a single farm. Research topics which still need further attention are discussed in the framework of the rapidly developing wind energy sector with increasing wind turbine hub heights and rotor diameters as well as growing wind farm sizes. One example is the interaction of coastal effects with offshore wind farm wakes. The necessity to consider a large spectrum of spatial and temporal scales to understand and describe coastal effects is highlighted. We summarize modelling and observation tools, which are suitable for the investigation and prediction of the boundary layer dynamics in coastal areas. Existing applications and results are described based on several examples with collocated observation and model results obtained in the X‑Wakes project. The study puts particular focus on the large potential provided by the combination of different measurements and modelling techniques and gives recommendations for future developments of integrated approaches including the formulation of priorities.
PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +000

• Simulation of building-induced airflow disturbances in complex terrain
using meteorological-CFD coupled model

Abstract: Simulation of building-induced airflow disturbances in complex terrain using meteorological-CFD coupled modelLo, K.W.; Hon, K.K.; Chan, P.W.; Li, L.; Li, Q.S.
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 317 - 330Abstract Tiny anticyclonic vortices have been observed at the arrival runway corridor to the east of the central runway of the Hong Kong International Airport many times. However, it is not sure about the cause of such vortices. In this paper, a meteorological model is coupled with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model in high spatial resolution in an attempt to simulate such vortices. The performance of this coupled model is first checked by comparing with the observed building wakes. This model is found to successfully capture the wakes and jets. It is then used to simulate the situation of anticyclonic vortex at the said region, with and without the presence of a key building called AsiaWorld-Expo. It is found that, with the presence of the building only, the anticyclonic vortex can be simulated. This adds more confidence that such vortex is a result of the interaction between the background southwesterly flow with the AsiaWorld-Expo.
PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +000

• An Autarkic Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Atmospheric CO2
Concentrations

Abstract: An Autarkic Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Atmospheric CO2 ConcentrationsBüchau, Yann Georg; van Kesteren, Bram; Platis, Andreas; Bange, Jens
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 331 - 345Abstract In this study an autarkic low-cost wireless network infrastructure suitable for areas spanning a couple of hectares is introduced. Open source hard- and software components make up the infrastructure's core, rendering it very scalable in terms of cost and deployment density. The network is designed to operate continuously throughout the year in a wide range of weather conditions.Four different embedded, low-cost Sensirion SCD30 non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) CO2 sensors are evaluated under laboratory conditions and tested for cross-sensitivity on water vapour and linear characteristics, of which the Sensirion SCD30 sensor exhibits the best overall performance. An in-field comparison of eleven Sensirion sensors with an eddy-covariance station verifies its outdoor applicability. The network's suitability to monitor natural CO2 emissions was tested at a site in the upper Neckar Valley in southwestern Germany. A station with a single Sensirion sensor observed a strong diurnal cycle of the near-surface CO2 concentration over the course of several months. While only slightly elevated CO2 levels above 400 ppm prevailed during the day, concentrations reached the sensor's output limit of 40 000 ppm during the night when wind speeds are low.
PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +000

• The Karlsruhe temperature time series since 1779

Abstract: The Karlsruhe temperature time series since 1779Kunz, Michael; Kottmeier, Christoph; Lähne, Wolfgang; Bertram, Ingo; Ehmann, Christian
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 175 - 202Abstract This paper presents the long-term Karlsruhe temperature series re-digitized and reconstructed from handwritten manuscripts from 1779 to 1875 archived in various libraries. Despite great efforts, data from some periods remained missing in the manuscript departments so that the main Karlsruhe series remained partially fragmented. Combined with historic climate records available in the archive of German Weather Service (DWD), the entire series until 2008, when the official Karlsruhe station was relocated to Rheinstetten, is one of the longest climate series available for Germany. The series includes various observational parameters on a daily or even sub-daily basis converted into SI units or contemporary units. The focus of this paper is on the temperature series and presents some first statistical analyses to demonstrate the additional benefit of possessing unique long-term instrumental climate data on a sub-daily basis. The entire temperature series was homogenized with respect to consistent observation times and to a location on the city's periphery. It is shown that the width of the distribution function quantified from constructed daily maximum and minimum temperature has substantially broadened in the summer months, but not during winter or the entire year. The number of summer and hot days has substantially increased in the last 30–50 years, while the number of frost and ice days has decreased. Summer or hot days as well as heat waves were very rare before 1920, being unrepresentative of a period mainly unaffected by climate change. Singularities of the climate system, such as the (cold) Schafskälte in June or the (warm) Hundstage in July/August, are clearly shown in most periods. The (cold) Ice Saints in May, however, have a high frequency only in the coldest period between 1870 and 1960; they are hardly detectable in most of the preceding years. Temperature statistics show that the severity of late spring frosts has gradually increased during the entire record mainly as a result of later frost occurrences.
PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000

• Climate services in support of climate change impact analyses for the
German inland transportation system

Abstract: Climate services in support of climate change impact analyses for the German inland transportation systemHänsel, Stephanie; Brendel, Christoph; Haller, Michael; Krähenmann, Stefan; Razafimaharo, Christène S.; Stanley, Kelly; Brienen, Susanne; Deutschländer, Thomas; Rauthe, Monika; Walter, Andreas
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 203 - 226Abstract Climate change and extreme weather events are an increasing challenge for society and the economy, including the transport sector. A sustainable and resilient transportation system therefore requires information on the temporal and spatial pattern of risks induced by climate change and the assessment of resulting vulnerabilities. Such analyses in the past were usually made separately for each mode of transport based on different observational and climate model datasets and using different methodological approaches to analyse climatic changes and their impacts on the transport infrastructure. Within the research network “BMDV Network of Experts” an intermodal perspective is taken on transportation. Common observational and climate model datasets as well as a standardized analysis framework were coordinated and agreed upon to form the basis for comparable climate impact assessments for roads, railways and inland waterways. This manuscript introduces the climatological datasets and methodological approaches for the climate change and climate impact analysis used for the transportation sector and beyond. Selected results on the projected increases of extreme temperature and heavy precipitation are exemplarily presented in order to illustrate the need for developing climate change adaptation measures for the German inland transport system.
PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000

• Eddy covariance observations and FAO Penman-Monteith modelling of
evapotranspiration over a heterogeneous farmland area

Abstract: Eddy covariance observations and FAO Penman-Monteith modelling of evapotranspiration over a heterogeneous farmland areaSiedlecki, Mariusz; Pawlak, Włodzimierz; Fortuniak, Krzysztof
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 227 - 242Abstract This work presents the characteristics of actual evapotranspiration obtained using the eddy covariance method and a comparison with the results of crop reference evapotranspiration determined based on the FAO‑56 Penman-Monteith formula. The results of measurements performed under conditions typical of Central and Southern Poland's agricultural landscape cover the years 2012–2019. The characteristics of latent heat flux ( Q e $Q_e$ ), as compared to other components of the heat balance, show its rapid growth in spring well above the value of sensible heat ( Q h $Q_h$ ). The Q e $Q_e$  values in the noon hours account for over 50 % of the available solar energy. In the summer season, the ripening of cereals and their harvesting result in quite a significant decrease in the value of Q e $Q_e$ , which entails an increase in the value of Q h $Q_h$ and an increasing value of the Bowen ratio (exceeding 1 in August). A comparison of the results of the covariance measurements with the results obtained on the basis of the FAO‑56 methodology shows that they are fairly consistent, especially in May and June, i.e. the period of high precipitation and fully developed vegetation. The average monthly values of the crop coefficient Kc, determined as the ratio of actual and reference evapotranspiration, takes values close to 1. In July, August and September, on the other hand, reference evapotranspiration is much higher than the values obtained from measurements. The determined values of Kc range between 0.7 and 0.8.
PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000

• An empirical study of near-surface air temperature time lags and delay
function during the longest total solar eclipse of the 21st century at
Tianhuangping (Zhejiang), China, under cloudy conditions

Abstract: An empirical study of near-surface air temperature time lags and delay function during the longest total solar eclipse of the 21st century at Tianhuangping (Zhejiang), China, under cloudy conditionsPeñaloza-Murillo, Marcos A.; Roman, Michael T.; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Elmhamdi, Abouazza
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 243 - 261Abstract Among the different ways that the solar heating of the Earth's surface can be interrupted, the most impressive is by a solar eclipse. While the solar radiation drops rapidly, the near-surface air temperature responds more gradually, typically reaching a minimum several minutes after the total phase of the eclipse; therefore, the response of the terrestrial temperature is not instantaneous: there is a lag. Sometimes, when clouds are present, this lag disappears leading to an unexpected reverse effect to be studied in this paper, as occurred during the cloudy and longest total solar eclipse of this century in China. Although during a solar eclipse, changes in near-surface air temperature typically lags behind changes in solar radiation, observations sometimes show that under cloudy skies we note the extent of cooling during the final partial phases prior to totality, which we will call a pre-minimum effect. That was the case found during the longest total solar eclipse of the 21st century, which we observed from Tianhuangping (Zhejiang) on 22 July 2009. We attempt to analyze mathematically this opposite lag through a (tentative) “delay function”, derived using our own measurements from this eclipse at three different heights above the ground. We describe how this lag changes with time. We use two methods: (1) the solar radiation-instantaneous temperature method takes the solar radiation model and the obscuration function into account; (2) the geometrical occultation function method, which only uses the occultation function used by others. Results show that under cloudy skies the first performs better than the second. The delay function has been applied to derive the delayed empirical near-surface air temperature profile that would have been the case in a hypothetical clear sky. Results also show that the fall in air temperature would have instrumentally been imperceptible or undetectable over heights of 15 m above the ground approximately.
PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000

• Reconstruction of annual mean wind speed statistics at 100 m height of
FINO1 and FINO2 masts with reanalyses and the geostrophic wind

Abstract: Reconstruction of annual mean wind speed statistics at 100 m height of FINO1 and FINO2 masts with reanalyses and the geostrophic windPodein, Philine; Tinz, Birger; Blender, Richard; Detels, Tobias
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 89 - 100AbstractThis study deals with the reconstruction of wind speed from reanalyses and the geostrophic wind in the German Bight (FINO1) and the Western Baltic Sea (FINO2). The reconstruction is done with the help of a linear regression based on correlations between measurements and reanalyses. The data are the datasets of the FINO1 and FINO2 stations at 100 m height from the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, BSH) as well as the reanalyses COSMO REA6, ERA5 and Twentieth Century Reanalysis version 3 (20CRv3). Furthermore, surface pressure data from the archives of the German Meteorological Service (DWD) at six stations, from which the geostrophic wind is calculated at the FINO1 and FINO2 stations, are used. The geostrophic wind in the German Bight and the Western Baltic Sea is calculated by triangular interpolations using pressure and stratification at three neighboring stations. To determine the relation between the datasets, the hourly measurements of all datasets are used, except for the analysis with 20CRv3, which uses the three-hourly values. The analyses are carried out for the period 2004–2009 for FINO1 and 2008–2014 for FINO2. The results show that the regression analyses are suitable for the reconstruction of wind speed data and more consistent than those of the geostrophic wind, which may serve as a first approximation.
PubDate: Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000

• Impact of higher-resolved satellite-based land cover classification on
near surface wind speed forecasts

Abstract: Impact of higher-resolved satellite-based land cover classification on near surface wind speed forecastsBaier, Frank; Metz-Marconcini, Annekatrin; Esch, Thomas; Schroedter-Homscheidt, Marion
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 101 - 116AbstractWithin the project “LandCover4Wind”, we investigate the potential for improving 24 h mesoscale wind speed forecasts at altitudes of interest for wind energy applications by using different high-resolution satellite-based land cover maps such as the Global Land Cover Characterization (GLCC) from the US Geological Survey (USGS), MODIS collection 5 dataset (MODIS LCC), and the European CORINE Land Cover (CLC). The Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.9 was run at three different grid resolutions covering a wide range of weather conditions during July and November 2015. We evaluate results by tower measurements at 10, 40 and 98 m altitude for the rural station Falkenberg in the eastern part of Germany characterized by flat and open terrain. We test different configurations for model domain horizontal resolution, land cover classification (LCC) data, and land surface and boundary layer physics. We discuss the need of transforming native LCC spatial resolution to lower WRF domain grid resolutions and transforming different thematic resolutions in LCC datasets into the less-resolving WRF classes. In general, comparisons show better forecast performance for the stormy November period compared to hot-summer July conditions. Especially, correlations are significantly higher in November. All experiments show a positive wind speed bias which changes with altitude, time of day and model configuration. With respect to LCC, CLC shows the smallest wind speed errors while GLCC performs worst. Two different land surface models NOAH LSM and 5-layer thermal diffusion scheme (5LD) are tested in combination with Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) and Yonsei University (YSU) boundary layer modules. In general NOAH–MYJ performs best with CLC for November conditions, while it gives worst results with MODIS LCC for July conditions. For any given LCC, results depend significantly on the WRF land surface and boundary layer physics configuration and the performance on a daily base varies considerably depending on the test metric and model configuration. Results show only a weak dependency on domain resolution with increasing biases with increasing resolution. In summary, using a high resolution LCC dataset as the CLC proves to be valuable for wind speed forecasts.
PubDate: Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000

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