Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
 Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically Acta Meteorologica Sinica       (Followers: 4) Advances in Atmospheric Sciences       (Followers: 43) Advances in Climate Change Research       (Followers: 59) Advances in Meteorology       (Followers: 23) Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography       (Followers: 11) Aeolian Research       (Followers: 7) Agricultural and Forest Meteorology       (Followers: 20) American Journal of Climate Change       (Followers: 41) Atmósfera       (Followers: 2) Atmosphere       (Followers: 33) Atmosphere-Ocean       (Followers: 15) Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters       (Followers: 10) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)       (Followers: 43) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)       (Followers: 14) Atmospheric Environment       (Followers: 72) Atmospheric Environment : X       (Followers: 3) Atmospheric Research       (Followers: 72) Atmospheric Science Letters       (Followers: 40) Boundary-Layer Meteorology       (Followers: 29) Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology       (Followers: 6) Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society       (Followers: 62) Carbon Balance and Management       (Followers: 6) Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima       (Followers: 1) Climate       (Followers: 6) Climate and Energy       (Followers: 7) Climate Change Economics       (Followers: 50) Climate Change Responses       (Followers: 27) Climate Dynamics       (Followers: 44) Climate Law       (Followers: 6) Climate of the Past (CP)       (Followers: 7) Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)       (Followers: 1) Climate Policy       (Followers: 56) Climate Research       (Followers: 8) Climate Resilience and Sustainability       (Followers: 29) Climate Risk Management       (Followers: 12) Climate Services       (Followers: 4) Climatic Change       (Followers: 71) Current Climate Change Reports       (Followers: 22) Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System       (Followers: 6) Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans       (Followers: 18) Earth Perspectives - 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Similar Journals
 Meteorologische ZeitschriftJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.605 Citation Impact (citeScore): 1Number of Followers: 4      Subscription journal ISSN (Print) 0941-2948 - ISSN (Online) 1610-1227 Published by Schweizerbart Science Publishers  [23 journals]
• The Karlsruhe temperature time series since 1779

Abstract: The Karlsruhe temperature time series since 1779Kunz, Michael; Kottmeier, Christoph; Lähne, Wolfgang; Bertram, Ingo; Ehmann, Christian
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 175 - 202Abstract This paper presents the long-term Karlsruhe temperature series re-digitized and reconstructed from handwritten manuscripts from 1779 to 1875 archived in various libraries. Despite great efforts, data from some periods remained missing in the manuscript departments so that the main Karlsruhe series remained partially fragmented. Combined with historic climate records available in the archive of German Weather Service (DWD), the entire series until 2008, when the official Karlsruhe station was relocated to Rheinstetten, is one of the longest climate series available for Germany. The series includes various observational parameters on a daily or even sub-daily basis converted into SI units or contemporary units. The focus of this paper is on the temperature series and presents some first statistical analyses to demonstrate the additional benefit of possessing unique long-term instrumental climate data on a sub-daily basis. The entire temperature series was homogenized with respect to consistent observation times and to a location on the city's periphery. It is shown that the width of the distribution function quantified from constructed daily maximum and minimum temperature has substantially broadened in the summer months, but not during winter or the entire year. The number of summer and hot days has substantially increased in the last 30–50 years, while the number of frost and ice days has decreased. Summer or hot days as well as heat waves were very rare before 1920, being unrepresentative of a period mainly unaffected by climate change. Singularities of the climate system, such as the (cold) Schafskälte in June or the (warm) Hundstage in July/August, are clearly shown in most periods. The (cold) Ice Saints in May, however, have a high frequency only in the coldest period between 1870 and 1960; they are hardly detectable in most of the preceding years. Temperature statistics show that the severity of late spring frosts has gradually increased during the entire record mainly as a result of later frost occurrences.
PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000

• Climate services in support of climate change impact analyses for the
German inland transportation system

Abstract: Climate services in support of climate change impact analyses for the German inland transportation systemHänsel, Stephanie; Brendel, Christoph; Haller, Michael; Krähenmann, Stefan; Razafimaharo, Christène S.; Stanley, Kelly; Brienen, Susanne; Deutschländer, Thomas; Rauthe, Monika; Walter, Andreas
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 203 - 226Abstract Climate change and extreme weather events are an increasing challenge for society and the economy, including the transport sector. A sustainable and resilient transportation system therefore requires information on the temporal and spatial pattern of risks induced by climate change and the assessment of resulting vulnerabilities. Such analyses in the past were usually made separately for each mode of transport based on different observational and climate model datasets and using different methodological approaches to analyse climatic changes and their impacts on the transport infrastructure. Within the research network “BMDV Network of Experts” an intermodal perspective is taken on transportation. Common observational and climate model datasets as well as a standardized analysis framework were coordinated and agreed upon to form the basis for comparable climate impact assessments for roads, railways and inland waterways. This manuscript introduces the climatological datasets and methodological approaches for the climate change and climate impact analysis used for the transportation sector and beyond. Selected results on the projected increases of extreme temperature and heavy precipitation are exemplarily presented in order to illustrate the need for developing climate change adaptation measures for the German inland transport system.
PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000

• Eddy covariance observations and FAO Penman-Monteith modelling of
evapotranspiration over a heterogeneous farmland area

Abstract: Eddy covariance observations and FAO Penman-Monteith modelling of evapotranspiration over a heterogeneous farmland areaSiedlecki, Mariusz; Pawlak, Włodzimierz; Fortuniak, Krzysztof
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 227 - 242Abstract This work presents the characteristics of actual evapotranspiration obtained using the eddy covariance method and a comparison with the results of crop reference evapotranspiration determined based on the FAO‑56 Penman-Monteith formula. The results of measurements performed under conditions typical of Central and Southern Poland's agricultural landscape cover the years 2012–2019. The characteristics of latent heat flux ( Q e $Q_e$ ), as compared to other components of the heat balance, show its rapid growth in spring well above the value of sensible heat ( Q h $Q_h$ ). The Q e $Q_e$  values in the noon hours account for over 50 % of the available solar energy. In the summer season, the ripening of cereals and their harvesting result in quite a significant decrease in the value of Q e $Q_e$ , which entails an increase in the value of Q h $Q_h$ and an increasing value of the Bowen ratio (exceeding 1 in August). A comparison of the results of the covariance measurements with the results obtained on the basis of the FAO‑56 methodology shows that they are fairly consistent, especially in May and June, i.e. the period of high precipitation and fully developed vegetation. The average monthly values of the crop coefficient Kc, determined as the ratio of actual and reference evapotranspiration, takes values close to 1. In July, August and September, on the other hand, reference evapotranspiration is much higher than the values obtained from measurements. The determined values of Kc range between 0.7 and 0.8.
PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000

• An empirical study of near-surface air temperature time lags and delay
function during the longest total solar eclipse of the 21st century at
Tianhuangping (Zhejiang), China, under cloudy conditions

Abstract: An empirical study of near-surface air temperature time lags and delay function during the longest total solar eclipse of the 21st century at Tianhuangping (Zhejiang), China, under cloudy conditionsPeñaloza-Murillo, Marcos A.; Roman, Michael T.; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Elmhamdi, Abouazza
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 243 - 261Abstract Among the different ways that the solar heating of the Earth's surface can be interrupted, the most impressive is by a solar eclipse. While the solar radiation drops rapidly, the near-surface air temperature responds more gradually, typically reaching a minimum several minutes after the total phase of the eclipse; therefore, the response of the terrestrial temperature is not instantaneous: there is a lag. Sometimes, when clouds are present, this lag disappears leading to an unexpected reverse effect to be studied in this paper, as occurred during the cloudy and longest total solar eclipse of this century in China. Although during a solar eclipse, changes in near-surface air temperature typically lags behind changes in solar radiation, observations sometimes show that under cloudy skies we note the extent of cooling during the final partial phases prior to totality, which we will call a pre-minimum effect. That was the case found during the longest total solar eclipse of the 21st century, which we observed from Tianhuangping (Zhejiang) on 22 July 2009. We attempt to analyze mathematically this opposite lag through a (tentative) “delay function”, derived using our own measurements from this eclipse at three different heights above the ground. We describe how this lag changes with time. We use two methods: (1) the solar radiation-instantaneous temperature method takes the solar radiation model and the obscuration function into account; (2) the geometrical occultation function method, which only uses the occultation function used by others. Results show that under cloudy skies the first performs better than the second. The delay function has been applied to derive the delayed empirical near-surface air temperature profile that would have been the case in a hypothetical clear sky. Results also show that the fall in air temperature would have instrumentally been imperceptible or undetectable over heights of 15 m above the ground approximately.
PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000

• Reconstruction of annual mean wind speed statistics at 100 m height of
FINO1 and FINO2 masts with reanalyses and the geostrophic wind

Abstract: Reconstruction of annual mean wind speed statistics at 100 m height of FINO1 and FINO2 masts with reanalyses and the geostrophic windPodein, Philine; Tinz, Birger; Blender, Richard; Detels, Tobias
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 89 - 100AbstractThis study deals with the reconstruction of wind speed from reanalyses and the geostrophic wind in the German Bight (FINO1) and the Western Baltic Sea (FINO2). The reconstruction is done with the help of a linear regression based on correlations between measurements and reanalyses. The data are the datasets of the FINO1 and FINO2 stations at 100 m height from the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, BSH) as well as the reanalyses COSMO REA6, ERA5 and Twentieth Century Reanalysis version 3 (20CRv3). Furthermore, surface pressure data from the archives of the German Meteorological Service (DWD) at six stations, from which the geostrophic wind is calculated at the FINO1 and FINO2 stations, are used. The geostrophic wind in the German Bight and the Western Baltic Sea is calculated by triangular interpolations using pressure and stratification at three neighboring stations. To determine the relation between the datasets, the hourly measurements of all datasets are used, except for the analysis with 20CRv3, which uses the three-hourly values. The analyses are carried out for the period 2004–2009 for FINO1 and 2008–2014 for FINO2. The results show that the regression analyses are suitable for the reconstruction of wind speed data and more consistent than those of the geostrophic wind, which may serve as a first approximation.
PubDate: Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000

• Impact of higher-resolved satellite-based land cover classification on
near surface wind speed forecasts

Abstract: Impact of higher-resolved satellite-based land cover classification on near surface wind speed forecastsBaier, Frank; Metz-Marconcini, Annekatrin; Esch, Thomas; Schroedter-Homscheidt, Marion
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 101 - 116AbstractWithin the project “LandCover4Wind”, we investigate the potential for improving 24 h mesoscale wind speed forecasts at altitudes of interest for wind energy applications by using different high-resolution satellite-based land cover maps such as the Global Land Cover Characterization (GLCC) from the US Geological Survey (USGS), MODIS collection 5 dataset (MODIS LCC), and the European CORINE Land Cover (CLC). The Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.9 was run at three different grid resolutions covering a wide range of weather conditions during July and November 2015. We evaluate results by tower measurements at 10, 40 and 98 m altitude for the rural station Falkenberg in the eastern part of Germany characterized by flat and open terrain. We test different configurations for model domain horizontal resolution, land cover classification (LCC) data, and land surface and boundary layer physics. We discuss the need of transforming native LCC spatial resolution to lower WRF domain grid resolutions and transforming different thematic resolutions in LCC datasets into the less-resolving WRF classes. In general, comparisons show better forecast performance for the stormy November period compared to hot-summer July conditions. Especially, correlations are significantly higher in November. All experiments show a positive wind speed bias which changes with altitude, time of day and model configuration. With respect to LCC, CLC shows the smallest wind speed errors while GLCC performs worst. Two different land surface models NOAH LSM and 5-layer thermal diffusion scheme (5LD) are tested in combination with Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) and Yonsei University (YSU) boundary layer modules. In general NOAH–MYJ performs best with CLC for November conditions, while it gives worst results with MODIS LCC for July conditions. For any given LCC, results depend significantly on the WRF land surface and boundary layer physics configuration and the performance on a daily base varies considerably depending on the test metric and model configuration. Results show only a weak dependency on domain resolution with increasing biases with increasing resolution. In summary, using a high resolution LCC dataset as the CLC proves to be valuable for wind speed forecasts.
PubDate: Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000

• A wind atlas for Germany and the effect of remodeling

Abstract: A wind atlas for Germany and the effect of remodelingSchneider, Martin; Glücksmann, André; Grötzner, Anselm; Mengelkamp, Heinz-Theo
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 117 - 130AbstractMinimizing and quantifying the uncertainty of wind simulations are essential for the wind energy industry during the planning phase of wind farm projects and for financial considerations. Measurements at 118 sites onshore and offshore in Germany are analyzed and used for the verification of wind simulations with the mesoscale model WRF. In order to minimize the difference between simulations and observations a correction of the annual cycle is applied and a remodeling approach is developed which allows for a correction of the simulated wind speed time series. The remodeling methodology is based on a linear regression analysis of simulated and observed wind speed time series accounting for sub‑grid variations of orography and roughness. Averaging the regression parameter for 26 measurement sites results in an overall global parameter set which is applied to the wind atlas data. While the “raw” data (without optimization) before any correction showed differences of up to 30 % with respect to the annual mean wind speed the remodeling process reduced the bias to below 5 % for the majority of measurements. When being compared with data from the NEWA wind atlas and the EMD‑WRF Europe+ data set an overall bias between 0.6 m/s and 0.8 m/s is found for the NEWA, EMD‑WRF Europe+ and anemos “raw” data. This bias is reduced to zero with a small standard deviation when the remodeling process and the site-specific adaptation are applied.
PubDate: Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000

• Intercomparison and combination of low-cost urban air temperature
measurement approaches

Abstract: Intercomparison and combination of low-cost urban air temperature measurement approachesMeyer, Lukas; Gubler, Moritz; Meier, Fred; Brönnimann, Stefan
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 131 - 148AbstractMeasurements of urban air temperatures (Tair$T_{\text{air}}$) are vital to successful adaptation and mitigation policies to increasing urban heat stress. However, in-situ measurements in cities are often scarce and costly, and therefore low-cost approaches are increasingly used to study urban Tair$T_{\text{air}}$. This allows for inexpensive, yet still highly spatially and temporally resolved observations of urban Tair$T_{\text{air}}$. Despite their merits, a common issue of such low-cost approaches is lacking data quality and potential measurement errors. In this case study, we compare three low-cost measurement approaches regarding their ability to capture intra-urban variability of Tair$T_{\text{air}}$ over a period of 24 hours in Bern, Switzerland: a) A network of 79 low-cost measurement devices (LCD), b) bicycle mounted mobile measurements (BCY), and c) 581 Netatmo citizen weather stations (CWS). As the BCY sensor is actively ventilated, it is used as the reference for intercomparisons with LCD and CWS. Compared to the BCY, the median difference of Tair$T_{\text{air}}$ for LCD is found to be slightly negative over the entire study period (−0.08 K) as well as during night-time (−0.10 K), and positive during daytime (0.05 K). As the LCD are known to exhibit a positive bias during the daytime, the good agreement of BCY and LCD is speculated to indicate a positive daytime bias in BCY as well. The CWS show a positive median difference of 0.67 K over the entire study period, 0.98 K during night-time, and a negative difference of −0.23 K during daytime. It is hypothesized that these biases result from incorrect siting of the CWS by their owners installing CWS to close to buildings or walls. At night, these emit thermal radiation which could lead to the positive bias whilst the negative bias during daytime might result from buildings shading the CWS. BCY and LCD both show a distinct pattern of nocturnal intra-urban Tair$T_{\text{air}}$ variability, which is less pronounced in the CWS measurements. Furthermore, the intercomparison of the three approaches across local climate zones reveals that CWS do not well represent forested areas. Whilst the bias sources of the individual approaches require in-depth investigation in future studies (e.g., external heat sources and measurement height for BCY, daytime short-wave radiation errors for LCD, and nocturnal thermal heating by nearby buildings for CWS), we conclude that combining the three measurement approaches can allow to reduce the shortcomings of each approach regarding spatial and temporal resolution or correct biases inherent to one approach.
PubDate: Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000

• Observing the pre-convective environment and convection initiation with
Doppler Lidar and cloud radar in the Al Hajar Mountains of the United
Arab Emirates

Abstract: Observing the pre-convective environment and convection initiation with Doppler Lidar and cloud radar in the Al Hajar Mountains of the United Arab EmiratesBranch, Oliver; Behrendt, Andreas; Alnayef, Osama; Späth, Florian; Schwitalla, Thomas; Temimi, Marouane; Weston, Michael; Farrah, Sufian; Al Yazeedi, Omar; Tampi, Siddharth; de Waal, Karel; Wulfmeyer, Volker
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 149 - 170AbstractIn this study, we present multi-season measurements from a remote mountain peak observatory in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). During the campaign, Doppler lidar and cloud radar were employed using coordinated scan patterns, to study seedable convective clouds, and identify pre-convection initiation clear-air signatures. The instruments were employed for approximately two years in an extreme environment with a high vantage point for observing valley wind flows and convective cells. The instruments were configured to run synchronized plan position indicator (PPI) scans at 0°, 5°, and 45° elevation angles and vertical cross-section range height indicator (RHI) scans at 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, and 150° azimuth angles. Using this output imagery, along with local C‑band radar and satellite data, we were able to identify and analyse several convective cases. To illustrate this synergy of measurements, we present two cases in unstable conditions – the 5 and 6 September 2018. In both cases, we observed areas of convergence/divergence to the south-west of the observatory, associated with wind flow around a peak 2 km to the south-west. The extension of these deformations were visible in the atmosphere as high as 3 km above sea level. Subsequently, we observed convective cells developing in the same directions – apparently connected with these phenomena. The cloud radar Doppler images provided detailed observations of cloud hydrometeor dynamics. In both convective cases, pre-convective signatures were apparent before CI, in the form of convergence, wind shear structures, and updrafts. These results demonstrate the potential of these synergetic observations for understanding convection initiation processes and in the future, to provide cloud seeding guidance via early detection of CI events.
PubDate: Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000

• Corrigendum to Behr,H.D., C.Jung, J.Trentmann, D.Schindler: Using
satellite data for assessing spatiotemporal variability and
complementarity of solarresources – a case study from Germany.
Meteorol.Z. 30/6, 515–532

Abstract: Corrigendum to Behr,H.D., C.Jung, J.Trentmann, D.Schindler: Using satellite data for assessing spatiotemporal variability and complementarity of solarresources – a case study from Germany. Meteorol.Z. 30/6, 515–532Behr, Hein Dieter
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, (2022), p. 171 - 171
PubDate: Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000

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