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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 112 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Climate Change Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access  
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate Summary of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 66)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Developments in Atmospheric Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access  
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mathematics of Climate and Weather Forecasting     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 134)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Nīvār     Open Access  
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access  
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal  
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Cryosphere Discussions (TCD)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weather     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access  
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.8
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 21  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-0662 - ISSN (Online) 0167-7764
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2656 journals]
  • Study of seasonal variation of PM 2.5 concentration associated with
           meteorological parameters at residential sites in Delhi, India
    • Abstract: Abstract The seasonal variation of particulate matter and its relationship with meteorological parameters were measured at five different residential sites in Delhi. Sampling was carried out for one year including all three seasons (summer, monsoon, and winter). The yearly average concentration of particulate matter (PM2.5) was 135.16 ± 41.34 µg/m3. The highest average values were observed in winter (208.44 ± 43.67 µg/m3) and the lowest during monsoon season (80.29 ± 39.47 µg/m3). The annual average concentration of PM2.5 was found to be the highest at the Mukherjee Nagar site (242.16 µg/m3 ) during the winter and lowest at (Jawaharlal Nehru University) JNU (35.65 µg/m3) during the monsoon season. The strongest correlation between PM mass and a meteorological parameter was a strong negative correlation with temperature (R2=0.55). All other parameters were weakly correlated (R2<0.2) with PM mass.
      PubDate: 2021-04-21
  • Source identification and exposure assessment to PM 10 in the Eastern
           Carpathians, Romania
    • Abstract: Abstract Observations of particulate matter less than 10 µm (PM10) were conducted from January to December in 2015 in the Ciuc basin, Eastern Carpathians, Romania. Daily concentrations of PM10 ranged from 10.90 to 167.70 µg/m3, with an annual mean concentration of 46.31 µg/m3, which is higher than the European Union limit of 40 µg/m3. Samples were analyzed for a total of 21 elements. O, C and Si were the most abundant elements accounting for about 85% of the PM10 mass. Source identification showed that the elemental composition of PM10 is represented by post volcanic activity, crustal origin, and anthropogenic sources, caused by the resuspension of crustal material, sea salt and soil dust. The average PM10 composition was 72.10% soil, 20.92% smoke K, 13.84% salt, 1.53% sulfate and 1.02% organic matter. The back-trajectory analysis showed that the majority of PM10 pollution comes from the West, Southwest and South.
      PubDate: 2021-04-14
  • Trace gases and PM 2.5 -bound metal abundance over a tropical urban
           environment, South India
    • Abstract: Abstract Pre and Post-Monsoon levels of ambient SO2, NO2, PM2.5 and the trace metals Fe, Cu, etc. were measured at industrial and residential regions of the Kochi urban area in South India for a period of two years. The mean PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 concentrations across all sites were 38.98 ± 1.38 µg/m3, 2.78 ± 0.85 µg/m3 and 11.90 ± 4.68 µg/m3 respectively, which is lower than many other Indian cities. There was little difference in any on the measured species between the seasons. A few sites exceeded the NAAQS (define acronym and state standard) and most of the sites exceeded WHO (define acronym and state standard) standard for PM2.5. The average trace metal concentrations (ng/m3) were found to be Fe (32.58) > Zn (31.93) > Ni (10.13) > Cr (5.48) > Pb (5.37) > Cu (3.24). The maximum concentration of trace metals except Pb were reported in industrial areas. The enrichment factor, of metals relative to crustal material, indicated anthropogenic dominance over natural sources for the trace metal concentration in Kochi’s atmosphere. This work demonstrates the importance of air quality monitoring in this area.
      PubDate: 2021-04-08
  • Source apportionment and health risks assessment of black carbon Aerosols
           in an urban atmosphere in East India
    • Abstract: Abstract Black carbon (BC) along with PM2.5 (fine particular matters) plays an important role in the assessment health effect of human beings. Winter season campaign measurements carried out for BC concentrations by using 7 different wavelengths such as 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm, handy aethalometer (AE-33, Magee Scientific, USA), at two different locations i.e., National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur (NIT J) and Sakchi, Jamshedpur (SAK J), in eastern India. During the study period, the mass concentration of BC varies from 4.19 µgm−3 to 15.36 µgm−3, with an average mean of 8.88 ± 2.40 µgm−3 in NIT J and SAK J, the mass concentration of BC varies from 6.3 µgm−3 to 13.48 µgm−3, with an average mean of 10.29 ± 1.58 µgm−3. However, the concentration of PM2.5 varies from 102.98 µgm−3to 198.21 µgm−3, with an average mean of 155.82 ± 29.98 µgm−3 in NIT J and SAK J, the concentration of PM2.5 varies from 110.83 µgm−3 to 207.65 µgm−3, with an average mean of 169.14 ± 22.40 µgm−3. It was reported that SAK J has a higher BC concentration compared to NIT J. This was due to heavy traffic load and dense population in SAK J. Backward Trajectories were seen that the airborne particulate matter came from differerajeshnt directions. According to the diagnostic ratio analysis of BC, it was observed that most of the BC mass concentrations come from fossil-fuel (69.70%) followed by wood-burning (30.30%) in a particular place. The overall health risk assessment of BC concentration observed during the study period was 26.70, 13.95, 24.95 and 51.32 at NIT J as well as 32.07, 16.72, 29.95 and 61.87 at SAK J, the passive cigarettes comparable concerning the risk of CVM, LC, LBW, and PLEDSC, respectively.
      PubDate: 2021-04-05
  • Ambient air characteristics of biogenic volatile organic compounds at a
           tropical evergreen forest site in Central Western Ghats of India
    • Abstract: Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) play key roles in local and regional atmospheric chemistry as precursors for the production of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Ambient air C2-C5 NMVOCs were measured at a tropical forest site in the central Western Ghats and urban site of Udaipur in India during the late monsoon period of 2016–17 and 2015, respectively. In the Western Ghats, air samples were collected from the protected Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary. Ethene, propene, and isoprene were the dominant biogenic compounds with mean concentrations of 4.8 ± 2, 1.6 ± 0.66 and 1.05 ± 0.43 ppb, respectively. The concentrations of anthropogenic compounds such as propane and pentane were significantly lower than those of light alkenes. The contributions of ethene and propene among different NMVOCs were ~ 44 and 14%, respectively. However, the contributions of isoprene were highly variable of 3–22%. The tight correlation (r2 = 0.90) between the mixing ratios of ethene and propene and their ratio indicates their common formation and emission mechanisms. The molar emission ratio of ethene/propene (2.9 ± 0.17 ppb ppb−1) was comparable to those measured at other biogenic sites of Asia while higher than those reported for mid-latitude sites. The concentrations of light alkenes and isoprene at the Western Ghats were 4–5 times higher than those measured in an urban environment in the same season. The higher ozone formation potentials and Propylene-Equivalent concentrations of alkenes and isoprene than those of other NMVOCs indicate important implications of biogenic emissions on ozone photochemistry in the forest regions of India. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2021-01-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10874-021-09415-y
  • Wet deposition ethanol concentration at US atmospheric integrated research
           monitoring network (AIRMoN) sites
    • Abstract: Abstract Ethanol concentrations measured in 178 event-based wet deposition samples collected at five Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network (AIRMoN) sites in the Eastern US between February 2018 to January 2019 ranged from below the detection limit of 19 nM to 4160 nM. The volume weighted average ethanol concentration at each site ranged from 237 nM to 1375 nM. No significant correlation was observed between ethanol and any analytes (NH4+, Cl−, SO42−, NO3−, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, K+, PO43− and H+) at all sites in the study, likely due to differences in atmospheric residence time and emission sources. Significant seasonal variations of ethanol were not observed for any sites, however notably higher concentrations in the winter vs. summer and growing vs. nongrowing seasons suggest photochemical dynamics play a substantial role in seasonal atmospheric concentrations. The AIRMoN concentrations were combined with previous measured ethanol wet deposition data to produce an updated empirical-based global wet deposition ethanol flux of 3.7 ± 1.8 Tg/yr (n = 1051). The carbon isotopic composition of a subset of samples ranged from −25.8 to −15.7‰ with an average of (−20.4 ± 4.0‰, n = 6). Isotope mixing model results indicate an approximately equivalent contribution of biogenic (55.2 ± 14.4%) and anthropogenic (44.8 ± 14.4%) sources of ethanol to the atmosphere over all collections sites. Results provide atmospheric scientists, environmental chemists and policy makers with baseline U.S. atmospheric ethanol concentrations in order to help determine the impact of future ethanol fuel production and to help quantify the wet deposition ethanol sink.
      PubDate: 2021-01-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10874-020-09414-5
  • Composition dependent density of ternary aqueous solutions of ionic
           surfactants and salts
    • Abstract: Abstract Surfactants exist in atmospheric aerosols mixed with inorganic salts and can significantly influence the formation of cloud droplets due to bulk–surface partitioning and surface tension depression. To model these processes, we need continuous parametrizations of the concentration dependent properties of aqueous surfactant–salt solutions for the full composition range from pure water to pure surfactant or salt. We have developed density functions based on the pseudo-separation method and Young’s mixing rule for apparent partial molal volumes for solutions that mimic atmospheric droplets of marine environments. The developed framework requires only model parameters from binary water–salt and water–surfactant systems and includes the effect of salinity on micellization with composition-dependent functions for the critical micelle concentration (CMC). We evaluate different models and data available in the literature to find the most suitable representations of the apparent partial molal volume of sodium chloride (NaCl) in aqueous solutions and the CMC of selected atmospheric and model surfactants in pure water and aqueous NaCl solutions. We compare model results to experimental density data, available in the literature and obtained from additional measurements, for aqueous solutions containing one of the ionic surfactants sodium octanoate, sodium decanoate, sodium dodecanoate or sodium dodecylsulfate mixed with NaCl in different relative ratios. Our model follows the experimental trends of increasing densities with increasing surfactant concentrations or increasing surfactant–salt mixing ratios both, below and above the CMC, capturing the effect of the inorganic salt on the surfactant micellization.
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10874-020-09411-8
  • Inorganic Ionic Composition of Rainwater at a High Altitude Station over
           the Western Ghats in Peninsular India
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigates chemical composition of rainwater (RW) and its contribution from different sources collected over the period of two years (2016 and 2017) at a high altitude location (1380 m above mean sea level) located at Mahabaleshwar situated in the Western Ghats in Peninsular India. The volume weighted mean pH of RW was found to vary between 4.57 and 7.51 (average 5.95) indicating overall alkaline nature of the RW. Prominent ionic species in the RW were Ca2+ (25%), Na+ (19%), Cl−(23%), SO42− (10%), and Mg2+ (9%) with NH4+, NO3− and K+ together forming about 8% of ionic composition. Moreover, ample presence of dust source (Ca2+) was found that acted as a major neutraliser to the acidic ions. The order of Neutralisation Factor of ions was Ca2+ > Mg2+ > NH4+. In addition, a strong correlation between Na+ and Cl− (r ≈ 0.99) further suggested substantial supplement of marine (NaCl) component to the RW. The impact of local anthropogenic activities such as fossil fuel/biomass burning was observed apart from some contribution from the long-range transport. The high contribution of non-sea salt fractions to Ca2+, SO42−, Mg2+ and K+ showed a substantial effect of crustal and continental air masses. Results of source apportionment for the RW composition by using the Positive Matrix Factorization technique indicated four factors i.e. Marine and long range transport (Na+, Cl−), crustal (Ca2+, Mg2+), emissions from the fossil fuel and biomass burning (NO3−, SO42−) and the agriculture/farming activities (NH4+).
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10874-021-09416-x
  • Chemical composition and source attribution of PM 2.5 and PM 10 in
           Delhi-National Capital Region (NCR) of India: results from an extensive
           seasonal campaign
    • Abstract: Abstract Ambient particulate matter concentrations in Delhi and its peripheral towns has been a matter of serious concern in the last decade. Understanding the changing nature of the chemical composition of particulates, their spatial and seasonal variability can be utilized for identifying probable sources. This study presents an extensive dataset of the chemical composition of PM2.5 and PM10 collected using speciation samplers, from 19 locations representing different activities and spread across Delhi–NCR during summer and winter seasons in the year 2016–17. Identification of contributing sources using chemical ratios as source indicators is attempted. A distinct seasonal variability in both PM2.5 and PM10 was observed, with winter maxima and summer minima. The fine fraction i.e. PM2.5 was dominated by organic matter (OM) with mean concentrations of 40.96±25.74 μg/m3 followed by Sulfate-Nitrate-Ammonium (SNA) ions (31.44±20.69 μg/m3) and Elemental Carbon (EC) (19.56±12.57 μg/m3); while the coarse fraction i.e. PM10 was dominated by OM (73.03±40.55 μg/m3) and SNA (47.25±30.56 μg/m3) along with significant contributions from crustal materials (40.85±18.89 μg/m3). The chemical ratios suggested mixed sources of PM with major contributions from vehicular emissions, re-suspended and/or construction dust, and fossil fuel combustion along with intermittent contributions from biomass and open waste burning. This analysis provides useful insights into the sources and processes affecting the particulate formation and underlines the need to control primary emissions as well as secondary precursors for air quality improvements in the region. The data generated under this campaign can also serve as an essential input for further evaluation using receptor modeling.
      PubDate: 2021-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10874-020-09412-7
  • Emission estimates of trace gases (VOCs and NO x ) and their reactivity
           during biomass burning period (2003–2017) over Northeast India
    • Abstract: Abstract The study analysed spatio-temporal distribution of fire radiative power (FRP) and estimates of trace gases [volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)] along with their reactivity during biomass burning period of March (2003–2017) over the northeast region (NER), India. Reanalysis data of FRP along with emission rates of trace gases have been retrieved from Global Fire Assimilation System. Results showed that average FRP was estimated to be 0.37 Wm−2 with the highest value in Mizoram (0.16 Wm−2) among 7-states of the study region. Temporally, relatively higher FRP occurred during the year of 2006 and 2010 while lowest in 2017. FRP-based VOCs and NOx emission estimates were 431 and 69.5 mg/m2/day, respectively which are consistent with observed FRP. Among different groups of VOCs, oxygenated species were the largest group (~56%) estimated followed by alkenes, alkanes, aromatics, and biogenic. Photochemical reactivities of VOCs were estimated using propylene-equivalent and maximum incremental reactivity methods which showed oxygenated species had the highest contributions in chemical reactivity. Based on the MIR scale, the top ten leading contributor species for ozone (O3) formation were in descending order of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethene, propene, toluene, butane, isoprene, methanol, pentene, and hexane which accounted for approximately 97% of total ozone formation. We also examined the ozone formation regime using VOCs/NOx ratios which indicated that O3 formation was likely to be VOC-sensitive over NER. Our results could be used for the understanding of FRP-based trace gas emissions during biomass burning and to establish effective preventive measures for reduction in O3 pollution.
      PubDate: 2021-01-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10874-020-09413-6
  • Characterization of Rome’s rainwater in the early of 2018 aiming to find
           correlations between chemical-physical parameters and sources of
           pollution: a statistical study
    • Abstract: Analysis of rainwater in historical cities plays a key role to save ancient monuments from atmospheric agents. In this study we sampled the Rome’s rainwater from February to July of 2018 and we analysed them to determine their chemical and physical parameters: pH, redox potential, conductivity, temperature, and the concentration of the main inorganic ions (Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++, F−, Cl−, NO3−, SO4−−). The volume of the daily fallen rainwater, the speed and direction of the wind in the sampling site were also collected. In order to find a correlation between all the above data we used the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Results evidenced that there aren’t authentic “acid rains” as the minimum pH value that we found is 5.2. In some cases high concentrations of nitrates and sulphates were found with maximum values of 12.4 ppm and 18.7 ppm respectively. We also found no correlation between the rainwater’s composition and the seasonal period; on the contrary, the speed and direction of the wind, especially when coming from the sea or industrial country near Rome, play a noticeable role on the rainwater composition. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2020-11-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10874-020-09409-2
  • Model for estimating activity coefficients in binary and ternary ionic
           surfactant solutions
    • Abstract: Abstract We introduce the CMC based Ionic Surfactant Activity model (CISA) to calculate activity coefficients in ternary aqueous solutions of an ionic surfactant and an inorganic salt. The surfactant can be either anionic or cationic and in the present development, the surfactant and inorganic salts share a common counterion. CISA incorporates micellization into the Pitzer–Debye–Hückel (PDH) framework for activities of mixed electrolyte solutions. To reduce computing requirements, a parametrization of the critical micelle concentration (CMC) is used to estimate the degree of micellization instead of explicit equilibrium calculations. For both binary and ternary systems, CISA only requires binary experimentally-based parameters to describe water–ion interactions and temperature–composition dependency of the CMC. The CISA model is intended in particular for atmospheric applications, where higher-order solution interaction parameters are typically not constrained by experiments and the description must be reliable across a wide range of compositions. We evaluate the model against experimental activity data for binary aqueous solutions of ionic surfactants sodium octanoate and sodium decanoate, as common components of atmospheric aerosols, and sodium dodecylsulfate, the most commonly used model compound for atmospheric surfactants. Capabilities of the CISA model to describe ternary systems are tested for the water–sodium decanoate–sodium chloride system, a common surrogate for marine background cloud condensation nuclei and to our knowledge the only atmospherically relevant system for which ternary activity data is available. For these systems, CISA is able to provide continuous predictions of activity coefficients both below and above CMC and in all cases gives an improved description of the water activity above the CMC, compared to the alternative model of Burchfield and Wolley [J. Phys. Chem., 88(10), 2149–2155 (1984)]. The water activity is a key parameter governing the formation and equilibrium growth of cloud droplets. The CISA model can be extended from the current form to include the effect of other inorganic salts with the existing database of binary PDH parameters and using appropriate mixing rules to account for ion specificity in the micellization process.
      PubDate: 2020-11-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10874-020-09407-4
  • Comparison of chemical characteristics of PM 2.5 during two winters in
           Xiangtan City in south central China
    • Abstract: Abstract To assess the efficacy of the “Implementation Details of Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan”, the chemical composition of PM2.5 and other pollutants was determined during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2016–2017 at two urban sites in Xiangtan City, Hunan. The concentrations of PM2.5, SO2, and NO2 decreased from 146.0 to 94.5 μg/m3, 75.9 to 33.5 μg/m3, and 80.6 to 55.8 μg/m3, respectively, from winter 2013–2014 to winter 2016–2017. The concentrations of almost all the major chemical components of PM2.5 decreased as well, particularly secondary inorganic aerosols (SIAs). These results indicate that the implementation of the air quality control plan was very effective in improving air quality. Analysis of the data also suggests that SIA formation is likely responsible for high winter PM2.5 pollution and that high relative humidity levels and low wind speed can promote the formation of SIA. A 72-h back trajectory analysis shows that both regional transport and the accumulation of local pollutants under stagnant meteorological conditions promote the occurrence of episodes of high wintertime pollution levels.
      PubDate: 2020-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10874-020-09410-9
  • Vertical distributions of the microscopic morphological characteristics
           and elemental composition of aerosols over India
    • Abstract: Abstract Particle morphology and elemental compositions are among the crucial parameters of aerosols required for accurate understanding of the climatic effect of aerosols in the earth-atmosphere system; yet their vertical distributions and region specific properties are poorly characterised due to sparse in-situ measurements. This is the first study to classify and quantify the vertical distributions of the morphological characteristics and elemental composition of aerosols based on single particle as well as bulk chemical analysis over seven geographically diverse regions of northern and central parts of India during spring (April–May, 2013), carried out as a part of Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment (RAWEX). Significant regional distinctiveness in shapes (non-sphericity), sizes and elemental compositions of the airborne particles were conspicuous, having dominance of highly irregular granular aggregates over the north Indian sites. The non-spherical coarse mode particles dominated the lower free tropospheric regions (> 2 km) of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). These particles could be responsible for enhanced spring time aerosol absorption in the elevated region of the atmosphere. Elemental compositions of the single particle analysis indicate that the free tropospheric layer over the IGP and central India is enriched with Na and Ca compounds mixed with Fe or Al (soil particles), indicating long range transport of crustal aerosols. This finding is very well supported by the bulk particle analysis indicating abundance of Ca2+ in the free troposphere with low contribution of ssNa+. Particles with irregular rough surfaces having dominance of SiO2 were observed over all the study sites. The percentage share of spherical (either smooth or rough) particles to the total morphological characteristics of the particles was found to be highly subdued (< 10%). The present study thus critically assesses the relevant knowledge pertaining to the morphological features of aerosols over the IGP during spring for the accurate estimation of aerosol radiative properties. More such efforts are required in future to study the connections and dependencies between morphological and radiative properties of aerosols in different seasons.
      PubDate: 2020-08-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10874-020-09406-5
  • Long term trends of wet deposition and atmospheric concentrations of
           nitrogen and sulfur compounds at EMEP site in Armenia
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the trends of gaseous nitric acid, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia and nitrate, ammonium, sulfate ions in atmospheric air, and nitrate, ammonium and sulfate ions in wet deposition over 2008–2018 in Armenia. Atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur concentrations were monitored by data obtained from filter pack samplers and glass sinter filters at background monitoring station of Armenia (Amberd), which is designated as EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) station. Laboratory analyses were performed by ion chromatography system and UV spectrophotometer. MAKESENS programme was used for detecting and estimating trends in the time series of annual average values of atmospheric concentrations. Long term trends of atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur compounds at the Amberd air quality monitoring station were calculated and discussed for the investigated decade. The trends significance levels for all parameters are calculated. It is identified that there are no significant trends for all explored paramenters, except reduced sulfur in aerosols. Possible emission and deposition changes of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in Armenia were explored in order to identify possible transboundary air pollution and its main sources. Deposition data was estimated by EMEP MSC-W model calculations. Investigation of transboundary fluxes of nitrogen and sulfur compounds displays main receptor areas and contributors. Analysis of seasonality in atmospheric pollutants shows strong seasonal behaviour of the measured parameters in wet deposition - higher concentrations during summertime compared with the wintertime. Atmospheric concentrations of nitrate and ammonium ions are lower during summertime compared with the wintertime, while ammonia has low concentrations during wintertime. Atmospheric nitric acid, sulfate ion, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide revel no significant seasonality.
      PubDate: 2020-07-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10874-020-09408-3
  • Sources of HULIS-C and its relationships with trace metals, ionic species
           in PM 2.5 in suburban Shanghai during haze and non-haze days
    • Abstract: Abstract Humic-like substances (HULIS), the most ubiquitous class of water-soluble organic compounds in the atmosphere could enhance the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and play a significant role in impacting aerosol chemistry and health effects. In this study, twenty-three PM2.5 samples were collected in the atmosphere of suburban Shanghai from November 29 to December 17, 2015, and March 17 to April 30, 2016, during haze and non-haze days. The mean concentrations of HULIS in spring both in haze and non-haze days (2.34 ± 0.70 µg/m3 and 1.94 ± 0.88 µg/m3) were relatively higher than in that of winter (1.93 ± 0.95 µg/m3 and 1.31 ± 0.28 µg/m3). The ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate are the dominant ionic species in both winter and spring during haze days in suburban Shanghai. Correlation results revealed that HULIS formation was highly associated with the biomass burning (K) and secondary aerosols formation (SIA: NH4+, SO42−, NO3−) and also well-correlated with F− and ca.2+ ions, crustal elements (Al and Fe) and anthropogenic pollution metals (As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Pb), suggesting that HULIS-C formation might be from biomass burning and secondary aerosol processes and also mixed formation (marine, crustal and industrial emissions) sources. From the coinciding results of the clustering analysis and weighted-CWT model, the principal potential source regions were the short transports from the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) regions, local regions, marine areas (the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea) and also the long-range transports from northwestern in those seasons.
      PubDate: 2020-06-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10874-020-09404-7
  • Chemical characteristics of particulate matters and their emission sources
           over Varanasi during winter season
    • Abstract: Abstract The chemical composition of particulate matter impacts both human health and climate. In this study, the chemical characteristics of particulate matter was measured for four months (November 2016–February 2017) at Varanasi, which is located in the middle of the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB). The daily observed mean values of PM10 and PM2.5 are 134 ± 48 and 213 ± 80 μg/m3, respectively, which exceeds both national and international standards. The average value of PM2.5/PM10 ratio is 0.64 ± 0.16 which indicates a relatively higher fraction of fine particles that are attributed to anthropogenic emission sources (biomass/post-harvest burning) as corroborated by MODIS fire counts and back trajectory analysis. Ion chromatographic measurements showed that SO42−, Cl−, K+, NO3−, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ are the major ionic species present in the aerosol. Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM–EDX) analysis shows the prevalence of carbon-rich particles at Varanasi which is likely due to biomass burning and other anthropogenic sources.
      PubDate: 2020-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10874-020-09405-6
  • Variation of carbonaceous species and trace elements in PM 10 at a
           mountain site in the central Himalayan region of India
    • Abstract: Abstract Observations of carbonaceous species [organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), carbonaceous aerosols (CAs) and secondary organic carbon (SOC) ] and trace elements (As, Cr, Ni, Zn, Na, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Mn) in PM10 are made over a high altitude site (ARIES, Nainital, 29.4° N, 79.5° E, ~1958 m amsl) in the central Himalayan region during October 2018−February 2019 to explore their possible sources. The average concentrations of PM10, OC, EC, WSOC, CA and SOC were recorded as 44±13 µg m-3, 3.66±1.26 µg m-3, 1.29±0.61 µg m-3, 2.28±0.76 µg m-3, 7.15±1.96 µg m-3 and 1.45±0.73 µg m-3, respectively during the study period. The concentrations of PM10, OC, EC, WSOC, CAs and SOC were significantly varied during autumn (October-November) and winter (December-February) seasons. During both the seasons, significant positive linear trend between OC & EC and OC & WSOC have been observed which is indicative of their common sources of carbonaceous aerosols at the study site. WSOC/OC ratio was estimated as 0.56 and 0.67 during autumn and winter, respectively suggested that the biomass burning could be one of the major sources of carbonaceous aerosols at Nainital. The significant positive correlation of PM10 with crustal elements (Al, Fe, Ca, Mg and Ti) as well as correlation of Al with other crustal elements (Fe, Ca, Mg and Ti) indicates the abundance of mineral dust at the sampling site. The observed Fe/Al ratio (1.07) also indicates mineral dust as a source at the sampling site, similarly, Ca/Al ratio (1.36) indicates that aerosols over this region is rich in Ca mineral as compared to average continental crust. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified the contribution of crustal/soil dust, biomass burning and industrial emissions to the PM10 over the central Himalayan region of India. Five days back trajectory analysis indicates that the air mass impacting the sampling site is from local surrounding area in Uttrakhand as well from Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Ingo Gangetic Plain (IGP) region, Pakistan, Afghanistan region and Thar Desert.
      PubDate: 2020-05-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10874-020-09402-9
  • Physico-chemical characterization and sink mechanism of atmospheric
           aerosols over South-west India
    • Abstract: Abstract The properties of the atmospheric aerosols depend on the source region and on the modifications that occur during their transport in the air. We have studied physical and chemical properties of aerosols along with their sink mechanism over two locations in southwest India, an urban site (Pune) and well-established climate observatory at Sinhagad (SINH), which represents rural and high altitude site. The ground-based measurements of aerosols, together with their radiative properties in this study have provided means to understand the observed variability and the impact on the aerosol radiative properties effectively over this region. The annual mean elemental carbon concentration (3.4 µg m− 3) at Pune was observed about three times higher compared to SINH (1.3 µg m− 3), indicating strong emissions of carbon-rich aerosols at the urban location. Aerosol optical properties were derived using the OPAC model which were used to compute the Aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) over both stations calculated using SBDART (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) model shows pronounced seasonal variations due to changes in aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo at both locations. The year-round ARF was 4–5 times higher over Pune (31.4 ± 3.5 Wm− 2) compared to SINH (7.2 ± 1.1 Wm− 2). The atmospheric heating rate due to aerosols shows a similar pattern as ARF for these locations. The heating was higher in the wintertime, ~ 0.9–1.6 K day− 1 at Pune, and ~ 0.3–0.6 K day− 1 at SINH. The estimated scavenging ratio was found high for NO3− and Ca.2+. The wet deposition fluxes of Cl−, SO42−, Na+, Mg2+ were observed higher for SINH as compared to Pune, due to the high amount of rain received at SINH.
      PubDate: 2020-03-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10874-020-09400-x
  • Spatio-temporal distribution and chemical composition of PM 2.5 in
           Changsha, China
    • Abstract: Abstract The rapid economic development and significant expansion of urban agglomerations in China have resulted in issues associated with haze and photochemical smog. Central China, a transitional zone connecting the eastern coast and western interior, suffers from increasing atmospheric pollution. This study performed a spatio-temporal analysis of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution in Changsha, a provincial capital located in central China. Samples of PM2.5 were collected at five different functional areas from September 2013 to August 2014. The PM2.5 concentration at the five sampling sites was the highest in winter and the lowest in summer, with an average annual PM2.5 concentration of 105.2 ± 11.0 μg/m3. On average, residential sites had the highest concentrations of PM2.5 while suburban sites had the lowest. We found that inorganic ionic species were dominant (~48%), organic species occupied approximately 25%, whereas EC (~3.7%) contributed insignificantly to the total PM2.5 mass. Ion balance calculations show that the PM2.5 samples at all sites were acidic, with increased acidity in spring and summer compared with autumn and winter. Air quality in Changsha is controlled by four major air masses: (1) Wuhan and the surrounding urban clusters, (2) the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration and the surrounding cities, and (3) southern and (4) eastern directions. The north–south transport channel is the most significant air mass trajectory in Changsha and has a significant impact on PM2.5 pollution.
      PubDate: 2019-12-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10874-019-09397-y
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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