Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
 Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically Acta Meteorologica Sinica       (Followers: 4) Advances in Atmospheric Sciences       (Followers: 45) Advances in Climate Change Research       (Followers: 52) Advances in Meteorology       (Followers: 27) Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography       (Followers: 11) Aeolian Research       (Followers: 7) Agricultural and Forest Meteorology       (Followers: 20) American Journal of Climate Change       (Followers: 37) Atmósfera       (Followers: 2) Atmosphere       (Followers: 33) Atmosphere-Ocean       (Followers: 16) Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters       (Followers: 13) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)       (Followers: 43) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)       (Followers: 15) Atmospheric Environment       (Followers: 72) Atmospheric Environment : X       (Followers: 3) Atmospheric Research       (Followers: 73) Atmospheric Science Letters       (Followers: 40) Boundary-Layer Meteorology       (Followers: 32) Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology       (Followers: 5) Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society       (Followers: 63) Carbon Balance and Management       (Followers: 6) Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima       (Followers: 1) Climate       (Followers: 8) Climate and Energy       (Followers: 6) Climate Change Economics       (Followers: 44) Climate Change Responses       (Followers: 23) Climate Dynamics       (Followers: 45) Climate Law       (Followers: 6) Climate of the Past (CP)       (Followers: 6) Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)       (Followers: 1) Climate Policy       (Followers: 51) Climate Research       (Followers: 9) Climate Resilience and Sustainability       (Followers: 21) Climate Risk Management       (Followers: 10) Climate Services       (Followers: 4) Climatic Change       (Followers: 69) Current Climate Change Reports       (Followers: 17) Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System       (Followers: 6) Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans       (Followers: 19) Earth Perspectives - 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Similar Journals
 Journal of Atmospheric ChemistryJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.8 Citation Impact (citeScore): 2Number of Followers: 23      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 1573-0662 - ISSN (Online) 0167-7764 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2469 journals]
• Air pollution trends measured from MODIS and TROPOMI: AOD and CO over
Pakistan

Abstract: Abstract The TROPOMI (TROPOspheric monitoring instrument) onboard Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) satellite provides high spatial resolution data of carbon monoxide (CO) while the MAIAC (Multiangle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction) is a newly developed algorithm applied to MODIS collection 6 observations to retrieve AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) at a high spatial resolution of 1 km. The present study utilized the MAIAC AOD from MODIS Terra and Aqua polar-orbiting satellites between March 2000 to December 2021 and CO from Sentinel-5P during the available period July 2018-December 2021 over Pakistan. Moreover, we used three trend techniques (Linear regression, Mann–Kendall (MK), and Theil-Sen’s Slope) to examine the trends of AOD and CO over Pakistan. The results show that both AOD and CO have high values over central Punjab, western Balochistan, central Sindh, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The mean annual high AOD of > 1.2 is observed in eastern Punjab because of an increase in urbanization, industrialization, and economical activities whereas the AOD of ~ 1.0 is observed over Balochistan, Sindh, and a few parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The highest mean annual CO of ˃0.03 mol/m^2 is seen over central Punjab, Sindh, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The results show that seasonal mean MAIAC AOD ranging from 0.7 to > 0.9 was seen over Punjab and Sindh province during the monsoon season whereas the lowest AOD is detected in the winter season over few parts of Balochistan. In contrast, the highest mean seasonal CO ranging from 0.040 to > 0.055 mol/m^2 was seen in the winter season over Punjab. The lowest CO concentration is observed in the winter season over the northern region of Pakistan. Non-parametric analyses (MK and Theil-Sen’s slope) also show an increasing trend of CO over Pakistan from 2018 to 2021. Furthermore, we have also investigated the trends of AOD and CO over selected cities of Pakistan using linear regression, MK test, and Theil-Sen’s slope to reveal long-term air pollution trends.
PubDate: 2022-05-24

• Elemental analysis of PM10 in southwest Mexico City and source
apportionment using positive matrix factorization

Abstract: Abstract The results of a study of the elemental concentrations in PM10 samples collected at a site in southwest Mexico City during 2016 and 2019, are presented. The concentrations of up to 19 elements were measured with X-ray fluorescence (XRF). These analyses were complemented with ion chromatography for eight ionic species (for the samples collected in 2016). The behaviors of the gravimetric mass and elemental concentrations are described for the morning, afternoon, and night-time periods in 2019. The elemental concentrations observed in the PM10 samples did not present significant changes as compared to those published in previous works. It was found that the gravimetric mass concentrations were always below the official standards, except during a contingency period in May 2019. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model was used to identify contaminating sources and their relative contributions to the concentrations of the detected elements. The soil-related factors were the most abundant contributors, with other components associated to traffic, biomass burning, fuel oil, secondary aerosol, and dust resuspension. The occurrence of episodes in 2019 is explained with the aid of PMF and back-trajectories, while the contingency period is due to other chemical species not detected in PM10 with XRF. A comparison with data collected in 2005 in downtown Mexico City is also carried out, as well as with urban areas in other countries.
PubDate: 2022-05-16

• Characteristics of the chemical composition and source apportionment of
PM2.5 for a one-year period in Wuhan, China

Abstract: Abstract In this study, 123 PM2.5 filter samples were collected in Wuhan, Hubei province from December 2014 to November 2015. Water- soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs), elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and inorganic elements were measured. Source apportionment and back trajectory was investigated by the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model and the hybrid single particle lagrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT) model, respectively. The annual PM2.5 concentration was 80.5 ± 38.2 μg/m3, with higher PM2.5 in winter and lower in summer. WSIIs, OC, EC, as well as elements contributed 46.8%, 14.8%, 6.7% and 8% to PM2.5 mass concentration, respectively. SO42−, NO3− and NH4+ were the dominant components, accounting for 40.2% of PM2.5 concentrations. S, K, Cl, Ba, Fe, Ca and I were the main inorganic elements, and accounted for 65.2% of the elemental composition. The ratio of NO3−/SO42− was 0.86 ± 0.72, indicating that stationary sources play dominant role on PM2.5 concentration. The ratio of OC/EC was 2.9 ± 1.4, suggesting the existence of secondary organic carbon (SOC). Five sources were identified using PMF model, which included secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA), coal combustion, industry, vehicle emission, fugitive dust. SIA, coal combustion, as well as industry were the dominant contributors to PM2.5 pollution, accounting for 34.7%, 20.5%, 19.6%, respectively.
PubDate: 2022-03-31

• Study of variation of aerosol optical properties over a high altitude
station in Indian Western Himalayan region, palampur using raman lidar
system

Abstract: Abstract A Raman lidar system was operated along with the Microtops sunphotometer measurements to carry out the study of the variation of the optical properties of aerosols over Palampur (32.11° N and 76.53° E), India from 17th April to 11th May 2019. The lidar system is furnished with Raman (N2) channel and depolarization channel allowing independent measurement of Lidar Ratio (LR) and linear depolarization ratio. The study reveals that the majority of the aerosols approximately were restricted within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and very less loading was present in the free troposphere over the study location. The particle loading over the study period was found to be very less with aerosol backscatter coefficient (at 355 nm) ranging from ∼0.13 Mm−1sr−1 to ∼7.25 Mm−1sr−1 with mean value of 2.67 ± 0.82 Mm−1sr−1 and it is well supplemented by the mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.37 ± 0.13 obtained from Microtops Sunphotometer. The average lidar ratio values for 0-1 km altitude (L1) 72 ± 13sr, for 1-2 km (L2) altitude 55 ± 8sr, for 2-3 km (L3) 54 ± 15sr were observed as suggesting dominance of the biomass burning aerosols and anthropogenic aerosols. The particle depolarization ratio (355 nm) values were found from approximately 4.8 ± 2.7% to 11.5 ± 1.9% with the mean value of 7 ± 1.3% suggesting the presence of non-spherical particles. To trace the sources of the pollution, we derived the HYSPLIT trajectory which shows the majority of the movement was from local sources.
PubDate: 2022-03-21

• Emission of volatile organic compounds by plants on the floor of boreal
and mid-latitude forests

Abstract: Abstract The forests of the boreal and mid-latitude zones of the Northern Hemisphere are the largest source of reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which have an important impact on the processes occurring in the atmospheric boundary layer. However, the composition of biogenic emissions from them remains incompletely characterized, as evidenced by the significant excess OH radical concentrations predicted by models in comparison with those observed under the forest canopy. The missing OH sink in the models may be related to the fact that they do not take into account the emission of highly reactive VOCs by vegetation on the forest floor. In this work, we report the results of laboratory determinations of the composition of VOCs emitted by representatives of different groups of plants that form the living soil cover (LSC) in the forests of the boreal and mid-latitude zones: bryophytes, small shrubs, herbaceous plants, and ferns. In the chromatograms of volatile emissions of all 11 studied plant species, 254 compounds with carbon atoms ranging in number from two to 20 were registered. All plants were characterized by the emission of terpenes, accounting for 112 compounds, and the second largest group (35 substances) was formed by carbonyl compounds. Both groups of compounds are characterized by high reactivity and are easily included in the processes of gas-phase oxidation with the participation of radicals HO, NO3 and ozone. These data indicate the importance of a thorough study of the so far disregarded source of VOCs, that is, the LSC in forests.
PubDate: 2022-03-15

• Estimation of aerosol acidity at a suburban site of Nanjing using machine
learning method

Abstract: Abstract Aerosol acidity is found to exert negative effects on ecosystem diversity and architectural appearance. Current analytical technology is unable to measure in-situ aerosol acidity (i.e., pH value) of ambient fine particle due to the absence of appropriate pH electrodes. Thermodynamic modeling methods including ISORROPIA II and Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model Version IV (E-AIM V) are mostly used in the estimation of in-situ aerosol acidity with the inputs of water soluble ions worldwide. This study proposes a flexible method with the aid of multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network analysis to estimate in-situ aerosol acidity of ambient fine particle (< 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter or PM2.5) with the inputs of water soluble ions (i.e., Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+), gaseous air pollutants (i.e., CO, NO2, SO2) and meteorological parameters (i.e., humidity and temperature). The dataset consists of ambient fine particles collected across four individual sampling periods in the autumn and winter of 2019 and 2020 at a suburban site of Nanjing. The pH values of ambient fine particle were found to be ranging from 2.0 to 4.0 estimated by E-AIM model. Levels of pH estimated by MLP neural network analysis agreed well with pH values estimated by E-AIM model with R2 value of 0.98.
PubDate: 2022-02-26
DOI: 10.1007/s10874-022-09433-4

• Long-range transport of Asian emissions to the West Pacific tropical
tropopause layer

Abstract: Abstract Rapid transport by deep convection is an important mechanism for delivering surface emissions of reactive halocarbons and other trace species to the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), a key region of transport to the stratosphere. Recent model studies have indicated that increased delivery of short-lived halocarbons to the TTL could delay stratospheric ozone recovery. We report here measurements in the TTL over the western Pacific Ocean of short-lived halocarbons and other trace gases that were transported eastward after convective lofting over Asia. Back-trajectories indicate the sampled air primarily originated from the Indian subcontinent. While short-lived organic bromine species show no measurable change over background mixing ratios, short-lived chlorinated organic species were elevated above background mixing ratios (dichloromethane (Δ48.2 ppt), 1,2-dichloroethane (Δ4.21 ppt), and chloroform (Δ4.85 ppt)), as well as longer-lived halogenated species, methyl chloride (Δ82.0 ppt) and methyl bromide (Δ1.91 ppt). This transported air mass thus contributed an excess equivalent effective chlorine burden of 316 ppt, with 119 ppt from short lived chlorinated species, to the TTL. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) were elevated 60 - 400% above background mixing ratios. The NMHC measurements were used to characterize the potential source regions, which are consistent with the convective influence analysis. The measurements indicate a chemical composition heavily impacted by biofuel/biomass burning and industrial emissions. This work shows that convection can loft Asian emissions, including short-lived chlorocarbons, and transport them to the remote TTL.
PubDate: 2022-02-23
DOI: 10.1007/s10874-022-09430-7

• Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10 in
Delhi, India

Abstract: Abstract This study presents the chemical composition (carbonaceous and nitrogenous components) of aerosols (PM2.5 and PM10) along with stable isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N) collected during winter and the summer months of 2015–16 to explore the possible sources of aerosols in megacity Delhi, India. The mean concentrations (mean ± standard deviation at 1σ) of PM2.5 and PM10 were 223 ± 69 µg m−3 and 328 ± 65 µg m−3, respectively during winter season whereas the mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were 147 ± 22 µg m−3 and 236 ± 61 µg m−3, respectively during summer season. The mean value of δ13C (range: − 26.4 to − 23.4‰) and δ15N (range: 3.3 to 14.4‰) of PM2.5 were − 25.3 ± 0.5‰ and 8.9 ± 2.1‰, respectively during winter season whereas the mean value of δ13C (range: − 26.7 to − 25.3‰) and δ15N (range: 2.8 to 11.5‰) of PM2.5 were − 26.1 ± 0.4‰ and 6.4 ± 2.5‰, respectively during the summer season. Comparison of stable C and N isotopic fingerprints of major identical sources suggested that major portion of PM2.5 and PM10 at Delhi were mainly from fossil fuel combustion (FFC), biomass burning (BB) (C-3 and C-4 type vegitation), secondary aerosols (SAs) and road dust (SD). The correlation analysis of δ13C with other C (OC, TC, OC/EC and OC/WSOC) components and δ15N with other N components (TN, NH4+ and NO3−) are also support the source identification of isotopic signatures.
PubDate: 2022-01-23
DOI: 10.1007/s10874-022-09429-0

• Spatio-temporal variation and sensitivity analysis of aerosol particulate
matter during the COVID-19 phase-wise lockdowns in Indian cities

Abstract: Abstract At the pandemic of COVID-19, the movement of business and other non-essential activities were majorly restricted at the end of March 2020 in India and continued in different lockdown phases until June 2020. By categorically, studying sensitivity towards anthropogenic factors with other environmental implications in urban Indian cities during phase-wise lockdown scenarios will pave the way for a refined Clean Air Programme (CAP). In this study, the aerosol particulate matter variations between the lockdown phases in both spatial and temporal scales have been explored along with cities exceeding national ambient air quality (NAAQ) standards covering different geographical regions of India for their air quality level. The results of the spatial pattern of Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring System (CAMS) near-real-time data showed a negative change both in Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) (-0.2 to 0.1) and black carbon AOD (bcAOD) (-0.9 to -0.75). The changes were evident in successive phases of lockdown with an overall AOD reduction of about 70–90%. Southern urban cities showed a significant impact of mobile sources from temporal analysis than other cities. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for effects of pollutants by anthropogenic factors (mobile and point source) and meteorological factors (wind speed, wind direction, solar radiation, relative humidity) revealed the two significant driving factors. PM reduction was about 50–70%, predominantly due to anthropogenic factors. The factor analysis revealed the influence of meteorological factors between the major urban cities (Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Bengaluru, and Hyderabad). Cities that exceed NAAQ standard performed well during phase-wise lockdowns, exceptional to cities in Gangetic plain. This study helps to frame region-specific strategic action plans for the CAP.
PubDate: 2022-01-20
DOI: 10.1007/s10874-021-09428-7

• Kinetics for the photo-chemical degradation of Methyl butyrate in presence
of Cl atoms and OH radicals

Abstract: The Cl/OH initiated temperature dependent photo-oxidative reaction kinetics of methyl butyrate (MB) were examined using a relative rate (RR) technique. Gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection were used to monitor the concentration of the reactants and to identify the products. The temperature dependent kinetics of MB with Cl atoms were measured with respect to the reaction of Cl with C2H 6 and C2H4. The temperature dependent kinetics for the reaction of MB with OH radicals were measured using n- propanol and iso -propanol as references. The obtained rate coefficients for the Cl and OH reactions with MB are, k Cl(Expt) (T) = [(7.76 ± 0.47) × 10 −11] exp [(10.31 ± 0.20)/T] cm3 molecule−1 s−1 and k OH(Expt) (T) = [(4.32 ± 0.21) × 10 −12] exp [-(25.26 ± 0.39)/T] cm3 molecule−1 s−1 respectively. Dual level direct dynamics were used to perform the computational calculations to further elucidate the mechanisms over the studied temperature range. The rate coefficients for H-abstraction reactions were computed using Canonical Variational Transition State Theory with Small Curvature Tunneling (CVT/SCT) with Interpolated Single Point Energies (ISPE) method. The rate coefficients over the studied temperature range yielded the Arrhenius equations: k Cl(Theory) (200–400 K) = [(4.05 ± 0.54) × 10–11] exp [-(2.80 ± 0.11)/T] cm3 molecule−1 s−1 and k OH(Theory) (200–400 K) = [(1.96 ± 0.68) × 10 -11] exp [-(384 ± 38)/T] cm3 molecule −1 s −1. Possible degradation mechanisms for the reactions are proposed based on the observed products. Thermo-chemical parameters, ozone formation potential, branching ratios, and the atmospheric lifetime of MB are calculated to understand the fate of MB in the atmosphere.
PubDate: 2021-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10874-021-09417-w

• Seasonal characteristics and sources of carbonaceous components and
elements of PM10 (2010–2019) in Delhi, India

Abstract: Abstract In this study we present the seasonal chemical characteristics and potential sources of PM10 at an urban location of Delhi, India during 2010˗2019. The concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols [organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and water insoluble organic carbon (WIOC)] and elements (Al, Fe, Ti, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cr, F, Cl, Br, P, S, K, As, Na, Mg, Ca, B, Ni, Mo, V, Sr, Zr and Rb) in PM10 were estimated to explore their possible sources. The annual average concentration (2010–2019) of PM10 was computed as 227 ± 97 µg m−3 with a range of 34˗734 µg m−3. The total carbonaceous aerosols in PM10 was accounted for 22.5% of PM10 mass concentration, whereas elements contribution to PM10 was estimated to be 17% of PM10. The statistical analysis of OC vs. EC and OC vs. WSOC of PM10 reveals their common sources (biomass burning and/or fossil fuel combustion) during all the seasons. Enrichment factors (EFs) of the elements and the relationship of Al with other crustal metals (Fe, Ca, Mg and Ti) of PM10 indicates the abundance of mineral dust over Delhi. Principal component analysis (PCA) extracted the five major sources [industrial emission (IE), biomass burning + fossil fuel combustion (BB + FFC), soil dust, vehicular emissions (VE) and sodium and magnesium salts (SMS)] of PM10 in Delhi, India. Back trajectory and cluster analysis of airmass parcel indicate that the pollutants approaching to Delhi are mainly from Pakistan, IGP region, Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal.
PubDate: 2021-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10874-021-09424-x

• Wet deposition of atmospheric inorganic reactive nitrogen (Nr) across an
urban-industrial-rural transect of Nr emission hotspot (India)

Abstract: Abstract The present study comprehensively reports the simultaneous measurement of wet deposition of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN; which is the sum of the NH4+-N and NO3−-N) at three different sites in Nr emission hotspot of Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) over a year-long temporal scale from October 2017 to September 2018. At rural Meetli (MTL) site, urban Baraut (BRT) site and industrial Loni (LNI) site, the annual wet deposition of NH4+-N was estimated as 21.87, 19.48 and 7.43 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively; the annual wet deposition NO3−-N was estimated as 12.96, 12.17 and 4.44 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively; and the annual wet deposition of TIN was estimated as 34.83, 31.64 and 11.87 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively. NH4+-N was dominantly contributing species in annual, monsoon and non-monsoon-time wet deposition of TIN at all sites. The spatial gradient (variability) in percent contribution of NH4+ to total annual volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of all analyte ions was observed as MTL (43.23%) > BRT (37.90%) > LNI (30%). On the other hand, the spatial gradient in percent contribution of NO3− to total annual VWM concentration of all analyte ions was observed as MTL (7.45%) > BRT (6.89%) > LNI (5.32%). The extremely narrow range of NH4+-N/NO3−-N ratios (ranging from 1.60 at BRT site to 1.69 at LNI site) showed the approximately equal relative abundance of oxidized and reduced nitrogen (N) deposition across all sites. Inferences from enrichment factor analysis, principal component analysis and Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis suggested that across all sites, virtually all NH4+-N and NO3−-N depositions were originated anthropogenically. The annual wet deposition of TIN measured in this study showed ≥ 6865%, ≥ 6228% and ≥ 2274% increment than the natural N deposition rate at MTL, BRT and LNI site, respectively. These empirically measured annual wet depositions of TIN also emanated theoretical transgression of critical N load threshold across all sites therefore signifying probable undermining of long-term elastic stability and resilience of ecosystems against stressor in the study domain.
PubDate: 2021-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10874-021-09425-w

• Carbon isotopic signatures of carbonyls from roadside air observation

Abstract: Abstract In this work, isotopic effects of carbonyls were evaluated during the simulation sampling of gaseous carbonyls by using a carbon isotope method developed, and then variation characteristics of carbon isotopic compositions were investigated for three dominant carbonyls including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone in the roadside air of Nanning for the first time. A small difference in δ13C values (0.04 to 0.50 ‰) were observed between the calculated and measured values of carbonyl-derivatives, indicating that the effect on carbon isotopic fractionation could hardly occurred in the simulation sampling of gaseous carbonyls. The roadside air measurements showed that $${\delta }^{13}$$ C values of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were –36.02 ‰ to –31.18 ‰, –35.35 ‰ to –32.01 ‰ and –30.45 ‰ to –29.09 ‰, respectively. Further correlation of the measured $${\delta }^{13}$$ C values was good for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone (R2 = 0.6275–0.7755), indicating that their similar sources could be the direct vehicular emission or indirect productions from precursors such as hydrocarbons. Particularly, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone in the roadside air were all enriched in the early afternoon by round 0.5–6 ‰ in 13C compared to other sampling durations, which was likely due to the contributions from the positive photo-oxidation productions of hydrocarbons. Finally, it was found that all measured $${\delta }^{13}$$ C values (–36.5 ‰ to –29.0 ‰) agreed with the forecasted $${\delta }^{13}$$ C range (–43.0 ‰ to –26.0 ‰) according to the 13C mass balance of carbonyls and their precursors such as hydrocarbons, indirectly confirming such positive productions in the roadside air.
PubDate: 2021-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10874-021-09423-y

• Size distributions and dry deposition fluxes of water-soluble inorganic
nitrogen in atmospheric aerosols in Xiamen Bay, China

Abstract: Abstract Size-segregated aerosol particles were collected using a high volume MOUDI sampler at a coastal urban site in Xiamen Bay, China, from March 2018 to June 2020 to examine the seasonal characteristics of aerosol and water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) and the dry deposition of nitrogen species. During the study period, the annual average concentrations of PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP were 14.8 ± 5.6, 21.1 ± 9.0, 35.4 ± 14.2 μg m−3, and 45.2 ± 21.3 μg m−3, respectively. The seasonal variations of aerosol concentrations were impacted by the monsoon with the lowest value in summer and the higher values in other seasons. For WSIIs, the annual average concentrations were 6.3 ± 3.3, 2.1 ± 1.2, 3.3 ± 1.5, and 1.6 ± 0.8 μg m−3 in PM1, PM1-2.5, PM2.5–10, and PM>10, respectively. In addition, pronounced seasonal variations of WSIIs in PM1 and PM1-2.5 were observed, with the highest concentration in spring-winter and the lowest in summer. The size distribution showed that SO42−, NH4+ and K+ were consistently present in the submicron particles while Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and Cl− mainly accumulated in the size range of 2.5–10 μm, reflecting their different dominant sources. In spring, fall and winter, a bimodal distribution of NO3− was observed with one peak at 2.5–10 μm and another peak at 0.44–1 μm. In summer, however, the fine mode peak disappeared, likely due to the unfavorable conditions for the formation of NH4NO3. For NH4+ and SO42−, their dominant peak at 0.25–0.44 μm in summer and fall shifted to 0.44–1 μm in spring and winter. Although the concentration of NO3–N was lower than NH4–N, the dry deposition flux of NO3–N (35.77 ± 24.49 μmol N m−2 d−1) was much higher than that of NH4–N (10.95 ± 11.89 μmol N m−2 d−1), mainly due to the larger deposition velocities of NO3–N. The contribution of sea-salt particles to the total particulate inorganic N deposition was estimated to be 23.9—52.8%. Dry deposition of particulate inorganic N accounted for 0.95% of other terrestrial N influxes. The annual total N deposition can create a new productivity of 3.55 mgC m−2 d−1, accounting for 1.3–4.7% of the primary productivity in Xiamen Bay. In light of these results, atmospheric N deposition could have a significant influence on biogeochemistry cycle of nutrients with respect to projected increase of anthropogenic emissions from mobile sources in coastal region.
PubDate: 2021-10-11
DOI: 10.1007/s10874-021-09427-8

• Effects of light intensity on the production of VSLs from the marine
diatom Ditylum brightwellii

Abstract: Abstract Very short-lived substances (VSLs) are known to play an important role in ozone depletion in the troposphere and stratosphere. Environmental factors that influence the production of these compounds by marine phytoplankton, which is known to be the source of these compounds in open oceans, have not yet been well studied. Here we examined the effects of light intensity on the production of VSLs by the marine diatom Ditylum brightwellii. Bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2), dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl), bromoform (CHBr3), chloroform (CHCl3), and dibromomethane (CH2Br2) in cultures incubated under full spectrum daylight intensities of 30, 60, and 120 µmol photons m− 2 s− 1 were measured using purge and trap gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry. Phytoplankton growth was monitored by measuring chlorophyll-a concentration and cell density. Both the chlorophyll-a concentration (the cell density) and the production rates of VSLs increased with increasing light intensity. The maximum production rates of CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl, CHBr3, CHCl3, and CH2Br2 were observed during the exponential or stationary phase, with the exception of CH2Br2 incubated under 30 µmol photons m− 2 s− 1. The chlorophyll a-normalized (or cell-normalized) production rates of VSLs increased with increasing light intensity, e.g., the maximum of chlorophyll a-normalized production rates of CHCl3 under light intensities of 30, 60 and 120 µmol photons m− 2 s− 1 were 0.06, 0.46 and 1.84 µmol (g chlorophyll a) −1 day− 1, respectively. Our results suggest that marine diatoms are one of the significant sources of VSLs and that light intensity is a significant factor in estimating VSLs emissions from the open ocean.
PubDate: 2021-09-17
DOI: 10.1007/s10874-021-09426-9

• Study of seasonal variation of PM2.5 concentration associated with
meteorological parameters at residential sites in Delhi, India

Abstract: Abstract The seasonal variation of particulate matter and its relationship with meteorological parameters were measured at five different residential sites in Delhi. Sampling was carried out for one year including all three seasons (summer, monsoon, and winter). The yearly average concentration of particulate matter (PM2.5) was 135.16 ± 41.34 µg/m3. The highest average values were observed in winter (208.44 ± 43.67 µg/m3) and the lowest during monsoon season (80.29 ± 39.47 µg/m3). The annual average concentration of PM2.5 was found to be the highest at the Mukherjee Nagar site (242.16 µg/m3 ) during the winter and lowest at (Jawaharlal Nehru University) JNU (35.65 µg/m3) during the monsoon season. The strongest correlation between PM mass and a meteorological parameter was a strong negative correlation with temperature (R2=0.55). All other parameters were weakly correlated (R2<0.2) with PM mass.
PubDate: 2021-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10874-021-09419-8

• Aerosol removal coefficients based on 7Be, 210Pb, and 210Po radionuclides
in the urban atmosphere

Abstract: Abstract In this study, the aerosol removal coefficients based on 7Be, 210Pb and 210Po radionuclides in the urban air, in Lodz, Poland, were investigated over 3 years, between May 2014 and December 2017. Results representing the summer/warm and winter/cold seasons were applied to quantity and quality estimates of aerosol removal processes. The values for the removal processes were closely dependent on the meteorological conditions; therefore, a set of nine meteorological parameters was employed in the analysis. The multiple regression method was applied to explain the relationship between the removal coefficients of aerosols and independent factors identified using Principal Component Analysis.
PubDate: 2021-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10874-021-09422-z

• Trace gases and PM2.5-bound metal abundance over a tropical urban
environment, South India

Abstract: Abstract Pre and Post-Monsoon levels of ambient SO2, NO2, PM2.5 and the trace metals Fe, Cu, etc. were measured at industrial and residential regions of the Kochi urban area in South India for a period of two years. The mean PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 concentrations across all sites were 38.98 ± 1.38 µg/m3, 2.78 ± 0.85 µg/m3 and 11.90 ± 4.68 µg/m3 respectively, which is lower than many other Indian cities. There was little difference in any on the measured species between the seasons. A few sites exceeded the NAAQS (define acronym and state standard) and most of the sites exceeded WHO (define acronym and state standard) standard for PM2.5. The average trace metal concentrations (ng/m3) were found to be Fe (32.58) > Zn (31.93) > Ni (10.13) > Cr (5.48) > Pb (5.37) > Cu (3.24). The maximum concentration of trace metals except Pb were reported in industrial areas. The enrichment factor, of metals relative to crustal material, indicated anthropogenic dominance over natural sources for the trace metal concentration in Kochi’s atmosphere. This work demonstrates the importance of air quality monitoring in this area.
PubDate: 2021-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10874-021-09420-1

• Source apportionment and health risks assessment of black carbon Aerosols
in an urban atmosphere in East India

Abstract: Abstract Black carbon (BC) along with PM2.5 (fine particular matters) plays an important role in the assessment health effect of human beings. Winter season campaign measurements carried out for BC concentrations by using 7 different wavelengths such as 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm, handy aethalometer (AE-33, Magee Scientific, USA), at two different locations i.e., National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur (NIT J) and Sakchi, Jamshedpur (SAK J), in eastern India. During the study period, the mass concentration of BC varies from 4.19 µgm−3 to 15.36 µgm−3, with an average mean of 8.88 ± 2.40 µgm−3 in NIT J and SAK J, the mass concentration of BC varies from 6.3 µgm−3 to 13.48 µgm−3, with an average mean of 10.29 ± 1.58 µgm−3. However, the concentration of PM2.5 varies from 102.98 µgm−3to 198.21 µgm−3, with an average mean of 155.82 ± 29.98 µgm−3 in NIT J and SAK J, the concentration of PM2.5 varies from 110.83 µgm−3 to 207.65 µgm−3, with an average mean of 169.14 ± 22.40 µgm−3. It was reported that SAK J has a higher BC concentration compared to NIT J. This was due to heavy traffic load and dense population in SAK J. Backward Trajectories were seen that the airborne particulate matter came from differerajeshnt directions. According to the diagnostic ratio analysis of BC, it was observed that most of the BC mass concentrations come from fossil-fuel (69.70%) followed by wood-burning (30.30%) in a particular place. The overall health risk assessment of BC concentration observed during the study period was 26.70, 13.95, 24.95 and 51.32 at NIT J as well as 32.07, 16.72, 29.95 and 61.87 at SAK J, the passive cigarettes comparable concerning the risk of CVM, LC, LBW, and PLEDSC, respectively.
PubDate: 2021-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10874-021-09418-9

• Source identification and exposure assessment to PM10 in the Eastern
Carpathians, Romania

Abstract: Abstract Observations of particulate matter less than 10 µm (PM10) were conducted from January to December in 2015 in the Ciuc basin, Eastern Carpathians, Romania. Daily concentrations of PM10 ranged from 10.90 to 167.70 µg/m3, with an annual mean concentration of 46.31 µg/m3, which is higher than the European Union limit of 40 µg/m3. Samples were analyzed for a total of 21 elements. O, C and Si were the most abundant elements accounting for about 85% of the PM10 mass. Source identification showed that the elemental composition of PM10 is represented by post volcanic activity, crustal origin, and anthropogenic sources, caused by the resuspension of crustal material, sea salt and soil dust. The average PM10 composition was 72.10% soil, 20.92% smoke K, 13.84% salt, 1.53% sulfate and 1.02% organic matter. The back-trajectory analysis showed that the majority of PM10 pollution comes from the West, Southwest and South.
PubDate: 2021-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10874-021-09421-0

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