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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
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International Journal of Biometeorology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.897
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-1254 - ISSN (Online) 0020-7128
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2468 journals]
  • Correction to: Public perceptions of air pollution and its impacts on
           fertility desire: a nationwide study in China

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      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Analysis of thermal discomfort associated with synoptic conditions in the
           city of Pelotas, southernmost region of Brazil

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      Abstract: Abstract Here, we evaluated the influence of outdoor environmental conditions (synoptic weather conditions) on human thermal discomfort in the five macro-regions of Pelotas city, located in the southernmost region of Brazil. To do this, meteorological sensors (HOBO MX2301A) were installed outside the residences to measure the air temperature, dew point temperature, and relative humidity between 18 January and 20 August 2019. Two well-established simplified biometeorological indices were examined seasonally: (i) humidex for the summer months and (ii) effective temperature as a function of wind for the autumn and winter months. Our findings showed seasonal differences related to human thermal discomfort and outdoor environmental conditions. The thermal discomfort was highest in the afternoons during the summer months and at night during the winter months. The seasonal variation in human thermal discomfort was highly associated with the meteorological conditions. In summer, the presence of the South Atlantic Subtropical Anticyclone (SASA) contributed to heat stress. The SASA combined with the continent’s low humidity contributed to the perceived sensation of thermal discomfort. In the winter, thermal discomfort was associated with the decrease in air humidity caused by high atmospheric pressure systems, which led to a decrease in both air temperature and air moisture content. Our findings suggest that a better understanding of the complex interplay between outdoor environmental factors and human thermal comfort is needed in order to mitigate the negative effects of thermal discomfort.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Snowmaking in a warmer climate: an in-depth analysis of future water
           demands for the ski resort Andermatt-Sedrun-Disentis (Switzerland) in the
           twenty-first century

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      Abstract: Abstract Rising air temperatures threaten the snow reliability of ski resorts. Most resorts rely on technical snowmaking to compensate lacking natural snow. But increased water consumption for snowmaking may cause conflicts with other sectors’ water uses such as hydropower production or the hotel industry. We assessed the future snow reliability (likelihood of a continuous 100-day skiing season and of operable Christmas holidays) of the Swiss resort Andermatt-Sedrun-Disentis throughout the twenty-first century, where 65% of the area is currently equipped for snowmaking. Our projections are based on the most recent climate change scenarios for Switzerland (CH2018) and the model SkiSim 2.0 including a snowmaking module. Unabated greenhouse gas emissions (scenario RCP8.5) will cause a lack of natural snow at areas below 1800–2000 m asl by the mid-twenty-first century. Initially, this can be fully compensated by snowmaking, but by the end of the century, the results become more nuanced. While snowmaking can provide a continuous 100-day season throughout the twenty-first century, the economically important Christmas holidays are increasingly at risk under the high-emission scenario in the late twenty-first century. The overall high snow reliability of the resort comes at the cost of an increased water demand. The total water consumption of the resort will rise by 79% by the end of the century (2070–2099 compared to 1981–2010; scenario RCP8.5), implying that new water sources will have to be exploited. Future water management plans at the catchment level, embracing the stakeholders, could help to solve future claims for water in the region.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Importance of temporary and permanent snow for new second homes

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      Abstract: Abstract This study investigates empirically how natural snow depth and permanent snow affect the number of new second homes in Norway. One out of four Norwegian municipalities is partly covered by glaciers and permanent snow. In the winter seasons of 1983–2020, there is a decline in snow depth from 50 to 35 cm on average (based on 41 popular second-home areas in the mountains). Results of the fixed effects Poisson estimator with spatial elements show that there is a significant and positive relationship between natural snow depth in the municipality and the number of second homes started. There is also a significant and negative relationship between the number of new second homes in the municipality and a scarcity of snow in the surrounding municipalities. However, the magnitude of both effects is small. Estimates also show a strong positive relationship between the proportion of surface covered by permanent snow or glaciers in the municipality and new second homes. This implies that a decline in permanent snow and glaciers may make these areas less attractive for the location of second homes.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Skin transcriptomic analysis reveals candidate genes and pathways
           associated with thermotolerance in hair sheep

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      Abstract: Abstract The skin plays an important role in thermoregulation. Identification of genes on the skin that contribute to increased heat tolerance can be used to select animals with the best performance in warm environments. Our objective was to identify candidate genes associated with the heat stress response in the skin of Santa Ines sheep. A group of 80 sheep assessed for thermotolerance was kept in a climatic chamber for 8 days at a stress level temperature of 36 °C (10 am to 04 pm) and a maintenance temperature of 28 °C (04 pm to 10 am). Two divergent groups, with seven animals each, were formed after ranking them by thermotolerance using rectal temperature. From skin biopsy samples, total RNA was extracted, quantified, and used for RNA-seq analysis. 15,989 genes were expressed in sheep skin samples, of which 4 genes were differentially expressed (DE; FDR < 0.05) and 11 DE (FDR 0.05–0.177) between the two divergent groups. These genes are involved in cellular protection against stress (HSPA1A and HSPA6), ribosome assembly (28S, 18S, and 5S ribosomal RNA), and immune response (IGHG4, GNLY, CXCL1, CAPN14, and SAA-4). The candidate genes and main pathways related to heat tolerance in Santa Ines sheep require further investigation to understand their response to heat stress in different climatic conditions and under solar radiation. It is essential to verify whether these genes and pathways are present in different breeds and to understand the relationship between heat stress and other genes identified in this study.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Relative importance of VECTRI model parameters in the malaria disease
           transmission and prevalence

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, a sensitivity analysis on a VECTRI dynamical model of malaria transmission is investigated to determine the relative importance of model parameters to disease transmission and prevalence. Apart from being most climatic prone, Odisha is a highly endemic state for malaria in India. The lack in sufficient modeling studies severely impacts the malarial process studies which further hinder the possibility of malaria early warning systems and preventive measures to be undertaken beforehand. Therefore, modeling studies and investigating the relationship between malaria transmission process studies and associated climatic factors are the need of the hour. Environmental conditions have pronounced effects on the malaria transmission dynamics and abundance of the poikilothermic vectors, but the exact relationship of sensitivity for these parameters is not well established. Sensitivity analysis is a useful tool for ascertaining model responses to different input variables. Therefore, in order to perform the requisite study, a dynamical model, VECTRI, is utilized. The study period ranges from 2000 to 2013, where several sensitivity tests are performed using different model parameters such as infiltration and evaporation rate loss of ponds, degree-days for parasite development, threshold temperature for parasite development, threshold temperature for egg development in the vector, and maximum and minimum temperature for larvae survival. The experiments suggest that the lower value of minimum temperature for larvae survival (rlarv_tmin), i.e., 16 °C, provides higher vector density and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) values. EIR reaches its maximum, when the threshold temperature for parasite development (rtsporo) is 22 °C and degree-days for parasite development (dsporo) is 8 degree-days. No change is observed in the vector density; even when rtsporo is 30 °C, values of EIR are close to 0. A successive increment of infiltration and evaporation rate loss of ponds (rwaterfrac evap126) values from 130 to 200 mm/day result in approximately 5% consistent decline in vector density and EIR. The study concludes that the most sensitive parameters are dsporo, rlarv_tmin, and rwaterfrac evap126. The VECTRI model is rather insensitive to maximum temperature for larvae survival (rlarv_tmin) for vector density and EIR variables. Further certain modifications and improvements are required in VECTRI to predict out variables like vector density and EIR more accurately in highly endemic region.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Revisiting Masselot et al. (2023): assessing the share of excess mortality
           linked to cold and hot weather in Europe

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      Abstract: Abstract While a considerable focus has been placed on excess fatalities during hot weather, a reanalysis of European data reveals that excess mortality attributed to cold weather is significantly more pronounced, surpassing that linked to hot weather by an order of magnitude. These ratios are noteworthy: 56.32 for the United Kingdom, 43.56 for Northern Europe, 8.49 for Western Europe, 12.41 for Eastern Europe, 5.50 for Southern Europe, and an overall ratio of 10.09 for Europe as a whole. These ratios of cold to hot excess deaths indicate a significant disparity in the number of excess deaths caused by cold weather compared to those caused by hot weather. This significant difference underscores the greater health risks and vulnerabilities associated with cold weather.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Meteorological factors cannot be ignored in machine learning-based methods
           for predicting dengue, a systematic review

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      Abstract: Abstract In recent years, there has been a rapid increase in the application of machine learning methods about predicting the incidence of dengue fever. However, the predictive factors and models employed in different studies vary greatly. Hence, we conducted a systematic review to summarize machine learning methods and predictors in previous studies. We searched PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science databases for articles published up to July 2023. The selected papers included not only the forecast of dengue incidence but also machine learning methods. A total of 23 papers were included in this study. Predictive factors included meteorological factors (22, 95.7%), historical dengue data (14, 60.9%), environmental factors (4, 17.4%), socioeconomic factors (4, 17.4%), vector surveillance data (2, 8.7%), and internet search data (3, 13.0%). Among meteorological factors, temperature (20, 87.0%), rainfall (20, 87.0%), and relative humidity (14, 60.9%) were the most commonly used. We found that Support Vector Machine (SVM) (6, 26.1%), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) (5, 21.7%), Random Forest (RF) (4, 17.4%), Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) (2, 8.7%), ensemble model (2, 8.7%), and other models (4, 17.4%) were identified as the best models based on evaluation metrics used in each article. These results indicate that meteorological factors are important predictors that cannot be ignored and SVM and LSTM algorithms are the most commonly used models in dengue fever prediction with good predictive performance. This review will contribute to the development of more robust early dengue warning systems and promote the application of machine learning methods in predicting climate-related infectious diseases.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Vaginal temperature of lactating cows during heat waves or normal summer
           day and effect of additional daily cooling treatments as heat load
           mitigation strategy

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      Abstract: Abstract The vaginal temperature (VT) of lactating Holstein cows was monitored in not heat wave (NHW) and in heat wave (HW) summer days. Temperature humidity index (THI) was monitored and assigned to four classes of heat load (HL): THI < 68 null; 68 < THI < 74 low; 74 < THI < 80 moderate; and THI > 80 high. Five daily treatments consisting of continuous forced ventilation and sprayed water (1′ on follow by 5′ off) were assumed as control cooling protocol (CC) and compared with two experimental cooling protocols (EC) applied in the feed bunk and based on the CC plus two additional cooling treatments which lasted a total of 90′ (EC90) or 150′ (EC150) in the day. Sixty lactating cows were enrolled in two summer trials carried out in NHW or HW. In each trial, 10 cows were cooled by CC, 10 by EC90 and 10 by EC150. Twenty additional cows were monitored in a fall trail to have reference value of THI and VT under thermoneutral conditions (TN). Each trial lasted 72 h, and measurements of VT were carried out by intra-vaginal data loggers. The 33% of observed THI was within the high class of HL during HW, whereas THI never exceeded the upper threshold of moderate or low class of HL in NHW and TN, respectively. Multiparous and high yielding cows were more sensitive to HL, and the increased daily cooling treatments reduced heat load during hot conditions. However, during heat waves a certain degree of hyperthermia occurred even with intensive cooling management based on seven daily treatments.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Development of summer skiing days in Austrian glacier ski areas in the
           first two decades of the twenty-first century

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      Abstract: Abstract Summer skiing on glaciers is a leisure activity highly dependent on natural factors like weather and glacier conditions. While the literature agrees that climate change is shaping the fate of summer skiing, longer time series covering both the supply and demand side of glacier/summer skiing, and research that combines natural and non-natural factors affecting the summer ski market are missing. To close this research gap, we conducted a detailed supply-side analysis of nine Austrian glacier ski areas focusing on the number of operating days (in the summer half-year, as well as for meteorological and astronomical summer ski definitions), show how these numbers evolve over time, test how they correlate with meteorological and glaciological data using time-series regression models on a yearly and monthly basis, and highlight how managerial decisions come into play when trying to explain the summer ski supply’s decline. Between 2002 and 2019, summer ski operating days in Austrian glacier ski areas declined by 48.3% in the summer half-year, 65.2% in the meteorological, and 62.3% in the astronomical summer parallel to rising mean temperatures and shrinking glaciers. This decrease is strongest in June to September and weakest in May and October but in two glacier ski areas, the operating days in the summer season remain constant or are even on the rise. This is in line with model results indicating that meteorological and glaciological data only explain parts of the variance of the decline trends. Operators’ agency, strategies, and decisions play an important role underlining that global warming is not monocausally determining summer ski operation.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Public perceptions of air pollution and its impacts on fertility desire: a
           nationwide study in China

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      Abstract: Abstract Over the past few years, there has been a significant focus on air pollution due to its various detrimental effects on human health. However, its influence on people’s tendency to have children remains uncertain, as only a few studies have examined the correlation between public perception of air pollution and the desire to start a family. This article introduces a theoretical framework utilizing a two-stage interval iteration model to explore the connection between children’s relative utility and the perception of air pollution. Data for this study were gathered from the “Chinese General Social Survey” (CGSS 2013). The CGSS 2013 project employed a four-stage stratified random sampling technique and conducted household interviews using questionnaires. The sample covered 28 provincial-level cities across China. The hypothesis was tested using a Probit regression model. The findings indicate that individuals considering air pollution a significant issue are 8.62% less likely to have more than one child. The variation in fertility desire sensitivity to air pollution points to heterogeneity among residents, such as registered residents and those living in various residential areas, as well as individuals with different characteristics like education levels. The study concludes that air quality significantly influences human fertility desire, highlighting the urgent necessity to raise awareness of environmental protection issues among both the public and authorities. In particular, there are two key steps to address this issue. Firstly, the government should establish clear air pollution control objectives and refine policies to enhance governance efficiency. Secondly, there is a need to encourage environmentally friendly behaviours among the public, promote more significant involvement in public environmental matters, and ensure effective oversight of the government’s responsibilities in managing air pollution.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Estimating maize evapotranspiration based on hybrid back-propagation
           neural network models and meteorological, soil, and crop data

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      Abstract: Crop evapotranspiration is a key parameter influencing water-saving irrigation and water resources management of agriculture. However, current models for estimating maize evapotranspiration primarily rely on meteorological data and empirical coefficients, and the estimated evapotranspiration contains uncertainties. In this study, the evapotranspiration data of summer maize were collected from typical stations in Northern China (Yucheng Station), and a back-propagation neural network (BP) model for predicting maize evapotranspiration was constructed based on meteorological data, soil data, and crop data. To further improve its accuracy, the maize evapotranspiration model was optimized using three bionic optimization algorithms, namely the sand cat swarm optimization (SCSO) algorithms, hunter–prey optimizer (HPO) algorithm, and golden jackal optimization (GJO) algorithm. The results showed that the fusion of meteorological, soil moisture, and crop data can effectively improve the accuracy of the maize evapotranspiration model. The model showed higher accuracy with the hybrid optimization model SCSO-BP compared to the stand-alone BP neural network model, with improvements of 2.7–4.8%, 17.2–25.5%, 13.9–26.8%, and 3.3–5.6% in terms of R2, RMSE, MAE, and NSE, respectively. Comprehensively compared with existing maize evapotranspiration models, the SCSO-BP model presented the highest accuracy, with R2 = 0.842, RMSE = 0.433 mm/day, MAE = 0.316 mm/day, NSE = 0.840, and overall global evaluation index (GPI) ranking the first. The results have reference value for the calculation of daily evapotranspiration of maize in similar areas of northern China. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Spatial influence on the distribution of downhill skiers in Sweden

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      Abstract: Abstract This study investigates empirically how natural snow depth affects the number of downhill skiers. Data include the number of skier visits for the 32 largest ski resorts in Sweden from the 1998/1999 to the 2018/2019 seasons. Results of spatial dynamic estimations show that an increase in natural snow depth in the ski area has a significant negative impact on the number of skier visits in the short term, although the magnitude is small. This implies that a snow deficit leads to increased demand for downhill skiing both directly and indirectly (in the neighbouring areas). The variable snow depth in the neighbouring ski areas is not significantly different from zero, indicating that no spatial substitution takes place. There is, however, a strong positive relationship between skier visits to neighbouring areas, revealing that ski resorts are complements rather than substitutes. The long-term influence of snow depth is not significant, implying that the ski business is independent of variations in snow depth. Instead, the number of skier visits is mainly determined by past visits, revealing a high degree of persistence.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Thermal characterization and ventilation assessment of a battery-caged
           laying hen housing in the humid tropic climate

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      Abstract: Abstract The indoor climate to which livestock are exposed is a critical factor influencing their performance and productivity. Elevated air temperature and relative humidity could result in heat stress for laying hens. This situation results in severe adverse effects such as weight loss and mortality. Egg fertility and hatchability are also impacted. Consequently, a study was carried out in a naturally ventilated battery-caged laying hen house to measure climatic variables (air temperature, relative humidity and air velocity). The degree of heat stress was assessed using the temperature-humidity index (THI), and the index of temperature and air velocity (ITV) was also evaluated. According to the results obtained, birds reared within the study building would spend most of their productive life under stressful thermal conditions, which could significantly hamper their performance. The air velocity was below 1.0 ms−1 for most of the internal part of the housing, meaning natural air movement at the location was insufficient to provide a suitable environment for the birds. A high THI was recorded for nearly the entire study period. This high THI could indicate high relative humidity about air temperature. The observed ITV values (ITV > 25) suggest that birds throughout the building could be perpetually uncomfortable. The thermal and velocity profile within the structure could further be assessed numerically using computational fluid dynamics. This would enable engineers to make modifications to improve living conditions within the building.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Spatiotemporal variability in human thermal comfort perception in open-air
           spaces: application to the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to propose bioclimatic zoning to classify human thermal comfort and discomfort in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil; both historical and future scenarios are considered. Thus, historical series (1961 to 2017) of the effective temperature index as a function of the wind (ETW) were obtained as a function of the monthly average values of the minimum, mean, and maximum dry-bulb air temperatures (tdb,min, tdb,mean, and tdb,max, respectively), in addition to the mean relative humidity ( \({\text{RH}}\) , %) and mean wind speed ( \({\text{V}}\) , m s −1). The data were obtained from 34 weather stations and subjected to trend analysis by using the nonparametric Mann–Kendall test, thus enabling the simulation of future scenarios (for 2028 and 2038). Then, to define the thermal ranges of the bioclimatic zoning, maps of ETWmin, ETWmean, and ETWmax were created from geostatistical analysis. Overall, the results show warming trends for the upcoming years in Minas Gerais municipalities. All climatic seasons showed an increase in the frequency of new classifications in the upper adjacent classes, which indicates climate warming. Therefore, when considering future scenarios for the autumn and winter seasons, attention should be given to changes in predicted thermal sensation, especially in the Central Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan, South/Southwest Minas, Campo das Vertentes, and Zona da Mata.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Impacts of climate change on dogsledding recreation and tourism in Arctic
           Sweden

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      Abstract: Abstract The range of Arctic tourism supply is continuously increasing with a variety of tourism products on offer. However, climate change is becoming a more prominent issue threatening the operations of tourism businesses and the livelihood of some tourism actors, such as dogsledders. This article aims to fill the descriptive research gap that exists regarding the dependency on the physical environment, climate, and weather for dogsledding activities. This is achieved by studying how climate change may threaten possible climate and weather thresholds for these activities, and how climate change may affect the future opportunities for dogsledding in northern Sweden. The study is based on interviews with dogsledders in Arctic Sweden and climate projections from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). The results demonstrate the following thresholds for dogsledding activities: (1) dogsledding requires 10–20 cm of packed snow and/or solid ice on bodies of water, (2) above 15 °C is too hot for dogs to pull (wheeled) sledges, (3) cold weather thresholds are determined by visitors’ preferences and are not considered a problem for dogsledders or dogs, and (4) rain can cancel tours for all dogsledders, and strong wind can cancel tours for dogsledders located in the mountain regions. Finally, extreme events such as heatwaves, storms, thunderstorms, forest fires, heavy rain, floods, and more rapid weather changes have already affected some dogsledders. These necessary thresholds for dogsledding activities could already be jeopardized for the southern and coastal locations of Arctic Sweden. In addition, the climate projections from SMHI show that warmer days and more precipitation in the form of rain will become more common in the future, especially in the absence of global mitigation measures. However, further research on vulnerability/resilience and adaption strategies for dogsledding activities is necessary to truly understand the impact of climate change.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Effects of parity, seasonal heat stress, and colostrum collection time
           postpartum on colostrum quality of Holstein cattle in an arid region

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      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to determine effects of parity (primiparous vs. multiparous), seasonal heat stress at calving (summer vs. winter), and time postpartum on some parameters associated with colostrum quality in Holstein cows reared in the Sonoran Desert ecosystem. Forty-seven cows (11 primiparous and 36 multiparous) expected to calve during summer, and 46 cows during winter (14 primiparous and 32 multiparous) were randomly selected. Management and feeding before and after parturition were similar for cows in both seasons. After parturition, colostrum from all cows was evaluated for volume, weight, temperature, density, and content of fat, protein, solids non-fat (SNF), and immunoglobulins (IGG). Data were analyzed with a model that included effects of parity status, calving season, and time postpartum, as well as all interactions. Colostrum produced in summer was warmer (P < 0.01) by almost 6 °C than winter colostrum, while colostrum from multiparous was warmer (P = 0.02) by 1.2 °C than that produced by primiparous cows. Colostrum volume and weight were not impacted by parity, calving season or time postpartum. Density, protein, and SNF content in colostrum were higher (P < 0.01) in multiparous vs. primiparous cows, as well as at parturition (0 h postpartum) than at 12 h postpartum (P < 0.01). At calving (0 h), spring colostrum had higher fat content (P < 0.01) and lower (P < 0.01) IGG concentration than that collected in summer, and no difference (P > 0.05) between seasons was observed for these components at 12 h postpartum. Multiparous cows produced colostrum with higher (P < 0.01) IGG concentrations than primiparous cows. In conclusion, only 0-h colostrum and that from multiparous cows was categorized as “Excellent,” meanwhile the colostrum produced under summer heat stress was characterized as “Good” with reduced fat content. While the lacteal secretion collected at 12 post-partum still classified as colostrum, substantially lower contents of IGG, protein, fat, and SNF decreased its classification to “Poor” from the classification of “Excellent” at 0 h postpartum.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) production and quality in response
           to anti-hail nets

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      Abstract: Abstract Anti-hail nets are the best way to mitigate the effects of hailstorms in the orchards. Apple trees covered with nets may exhibit a variety of vegetative and reproductive responses, inclusive of changes in tree vigour, cropping, sugar contents, and fruit colour. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of timing of installation and colour of anti-hail net on cropping and fruit quality in high-density apple orchard for two consecutive seasons (2021 and 2022). White and blue colour nets of size (9 m × 30 m) 80 GSM (square mesh with non-sliding threaded, leno weave, and < 30% shading factor) were installed at three different time intervals (15 days before estimated full bloom, at full bloom, and 15 days after full bloom) on apple cultivar ‘Jeromine’. The installation at different time and colour of anti-hail nets significantly exhibit variability in cropping, fruit quality, and bio-chemical metrics. The significant highest cropping (fruit yield, productivity, and yield efficiency) and fruit biochemical parameters (total soluble solids) were recorded in T3C2 (15 days after full bloom + white colour anti-hail net) followed by T2C2 (installed at full bloom + white colour anti-hail net). Hence, white colour anti-hail nets installed 15 days after full bloom increased fruit production and improved quality in comparison to blue colour anti-hail net in apple under high-density plantations.
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
       
  • Thermal stress and comfort assessment in urban areas using Copernicus
           Climate Change Service Era 5 reanalysis and collected microclimatic data

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      Abstract: Abstract In this initial study of a research project, this paper seeks to understand the thermal conditions in the cities of Lisbon and Munich, specifically focusing on Urban Heat Island intensity and on thermal comfort using the Universal Thermal Climate Index modeling data at the Local Climate Zone scale. Based on these datasets, Munich has exhibited more unfavourable thermal conditions than Lisbon. In terms of UHII, both cities have shown that low, medium, and high rise compact urban areas and bare rock or paved areas have the highest values, while sparsely built areas have the lowest. These results differ from the UTCI, which indicates that in Lisbon and Munich, these sparsely built areas as well as areas with low plants and vegetation are the most uncomfortable. In Munich, the population was exposed to very strong heat stress, while Lisbon experienced strong heat stress conditions. Conversely, low, medium, and high rise compact urban areas and densely wooded areas in Munich, and scattered trees areas and large low-rise urban areas in Lisbon, have demonstrated the lowest monthly mean and average maximum values. These results will be further explored in future studies in the city of Lisbon and cross-checked with data obtained from roving missions. This will enable a more detailed temporal and local analysis.
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
       
  • Effect of short-term exposure to high-altitude hypoxic climate on
           feed-intake, blood glucose level and physiological responses of native and
           non-native goat

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      Abstract: Abstract The exposure to high altitude and cold stress poses challenges in maintaining normal physiological standards and body homeostasis in non-native animals. To enhance our understanding of the physiology of native and non-native goats in high-altitude environments, we conducted a comparative study to examine the impact of natural hypoxic and cold stress conditions on their feed intake (FIT) and associated changes in physiological responses, including plasma glucose concentration (PGC). The study took place at an altitude of 3505.2 m above mean sea level and involved twenty-two healthy females from two different breeds of goats. This study was conducted over a period of 56 days after the arrival of non-native Black Bengal goats (BBN) and compared with native Changthangi (CHAN) goats. Both groups were extensively reared in a natural high-altitude and cold-stress environment in Leh, India, and were subjected to defined housing and management practices. The parameters evaluated included FIT, PGC, respiration rate, heart rate, pulse rate, and rectal temperature. High altitudes had a significant (p < 0.05) impact on FIT, PGC, respiration rate, heart rate, pulse rate, and rectal temperature in BBN, whereas these parameters remained stable in CHAN throughout the study period. Additionally, the detrimental effects of high-altitude stress were more pronounced in non-native goats compared to native goats. These findings suggest that physiological responses in non-native goats tend to stabilize after an initial period of adverse effects in high-altitude environments. Based on the physiological responses and glucose concentration, it is recommended to pay special attention to the nutrition of non-native goats for up to the third week (21 days) after their arrival in high-altitude areas.
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
       
 
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