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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 112 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 133)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Developments in Atmospheric Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Weather     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Climate law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Mathematics of Climate and Weather Forecasting     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The Cryosphere Discussions (TCD)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Climate Summary of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Nīvār     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access  
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access  
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia     Open Access  
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal  

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International Journal of Biometeorology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.897
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-1254 - ISSN (Online) 0020-7128
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2652 journals]
  • Frost controls spring phenology of juvenile Smith fir along elevational
           gradients on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau
    • Abstract: Impacts of climatic means on spring phenology are well documented, whereas the role of climatic variance, such as occurrence of spring frosts, has long been neglected. A large elevational gradient of forests on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau provides an ideal platform to explore correlates of spring phenology and environmental factors. We tested the hypothesis that spring frost was a major factor regulating the timing of bud-leaf phenology by combining 5 years of in situ phenological observations of Abies georgei var. smithii with concurrent air temperature data along two altitudinal gradients. Mean lapse rate for the onset of bud swelling and leaf unfolding was 3.1 ± 0.5 days/100 m and 3.0 ± 0.6 days/100 m, respectively. Random forest analysis and conditional inference trees revealed that the frequency of freezing events was a critical factor in determining the timing of bud swelling, independent of topographic differences, varying accumulation of chilling days, and degree-days. In contrast, the onset of leaf unfolding was primarily controlled by the bud swelling onset. Thus, the timing of bud swelling and leaf unfolding appear to be controlled directly and indirectly, respectively, by spring frost. Using space-for-time substitution, the frequency of spring freezing events decreased by 7.1 days with 1 °C of warming. This study provides evidence for impacts of late spring frosts on spring phenology, which have been underappreciated in research on phenological sensitivity to climate but should be included in phenology models. Fewer spring freezing events with warming have important implications for the upward migration of alpine forests and treelines.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00484-019-01710-4
       
  • Arabica coffee fruits phenology assessed through degree days,
           precipitation, and solar radiation exposure on a daily basis
    • Abstract: Knowledge regarding reproductive cycle duration is important in terms of scheduling harvests and estimating coffee cultivars adaptability. Nine Coffea arabica cultivars were evaluated during two successive reproductive cycles. Dates of occurrence of the major blossoms, and the green and ripe fruits, on 64 branches for each cultivar, were registered during each reproductive cycle. These dates were used to calculate the duration of the fruit development (blossom to green) and ripening (green to ripe) phases, the quantities of degree days, precipitation, and solar radiation accumulated throughout each phase, and also degree days, precipitation, and radiation on a daily basis, all of which are novelties in coffee research. The differences between cultivars and reproductive cycles were tested by ANOVA. Cultivars were grouped in clusters according to the above-cited variables. Principally, the daily quantities of degree days and precipitation determined the differences between reproductive cycles and coffee cultivars during development phases. Early and very early cultivars accumulated high numbers of degree days.day−1, in periods of relatively good water availability, with high exposure to solar radiation. Late cultivars accumulated less degree days.day−1 and were exposed to lower amounts of daily solar radiation and longer periods of water scarcity. Regarding the fruit ripening phase, cultivars were principally distinguished by degree days and solar radiation on a daily basis. Two of the coffee cultivars were classified or confirmed as early and very early and another three as late and very late. One cultivar, Siriema, displayed an interesting conjugation of early and intermediate characteristics.
      PubDate: 2019-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s00484-019-01693-2
       
  • Estimation of thermal comfort felt by human exposed to extreme heat wave
           in a complex urban area using a WRF-MENEX model
    • Abstract: Thermal comfort could indicate human thermal sensation when exposed to a local meteorological condition. Because humans can suffer illness when exposed to heat or even die, it is essential to assess human comfort levels to increased temperature and to provide this information to the public. This study aims to estimate thermal comfort using the human heat balance model combined with a numerical meteorological model in Seoul mega city during the heat wave periods experienced during 2016. The gridded thermal comfort index of physiological subjective temperature (PST) was calculated based on the Man-Environment Heat Exchange (MENEX) model, which used as inputs the meteorological parameters, clothing insulations, and metabolic rates. High-resolution meteorological parameters were obtained by coupling Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with Building Effect Parameterization (BEP) + Building Energy Model (BEM) using detailed urban classification. The modeling results showed that the PST distribution has a clearly heterogeneous spatial distribution during the heat wave period. The high PST values were largely found in the residential area during the day, due to the high temperature and low wind speed associated with high-density buildings, and the daily maximum PST reached a very hot level (44.1–54.0 °C). Our study suggested that the human heat balance model combined with the numerical meteorological model could be used to provide more reliable information about thermal comfort to groups that may be vulnerable to the effects of heat waves in complex urban environments.
      PubDate: 2019-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00484-019-01705-1
       
  • Impact of heat stress on the reproductive performance and physiology of
           ewes: a systematic review and meta-analyses
    • Abstract: High values of ambient temperature and relative humidity negatively affect livestock because they induce heat stress. In heat-stressed ewes, the reproduction is affected, although there apparently is a different effect depending on their physiological status. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses to estimate the effect of heat stress on the reproductive performance and physiology of cycling or pregnant ewes. We included studies in which pregnant or cycling ewes were exposed to heat stress and included a comparison group. We assessed the risk of bias and used meta-analyses that included the period of exposure to calculate pooled estimates. We included 36 studies comprising 20,626 ewes, and the meta-analyses demonstrated that heat stress decreased 7.09 h (95% CI, − 10.75, − 3.43) the duration of estrus in cycling ewes but increased 0.57 days (95% CI, 0.23, 0.92) the length of the cycle, although differentially affecting the expression of sexual behavior. Heat-stressed cycling ewes had greater odds of embryo mortality (OR = 12.36; 95% CI, 7.10, 21.54) and a decreased chance of impregnation (OR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.23, 0.75). In heat-stressed pregnant ewes, placental and fetal weights were reduced, respectively in 183.62 g (95%CI, − 252.25, − 114.99) and 1665.18 g (95% CI, − 2136.82, − 1193.55). Heat stress increased ewes’ body temperature 1.13 °C (95% CI, 0.85, 1.42) and respiratory rate 93.53 breaths/min (95% CI, 63.5, 123.5) without affecting heart rate. In a sub-group analyses, the period of exposure was shown to cause a significant effect. In conclusion, our results revealed a differential effect of heat stress that depends on both the physiological status of ewes and the period of exposure, and identify susceptible reproductive stages during which the severe effects of heat stress can be prevented/ameliorated.
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s00484-019-01707-z
       
  • The variation of vegetation productivity and its relationship to
           temperature and precipitation based on the GLASS-LAI of different African
           ecosystems from 1982 to 2013
    • Abstract: In recent years, many studies have focused on the changes of partial or single African ecosystems and the drivers of those changes. However, focusing only on partial or single ecosystems has limited the understanding of the relationships between the vegetation and climate changes in all of the African ecosystems. In this study, the temporal trends of the satellite-derived annual mean leaf area index (GLASS-LAI) were analyzed, and the inter-annual relationships were developed between the annual mean LAI and the climate variables (precipitation and temperature) for the time period ranging from 1982 to 2013. Additionally, this study applied seasonal curves and step-wise multiple regression methods to investigate the relationships between intra-annual LAI and climate changes. It was found that the GLASS-LAI over half of Africa had shown general significant greening or browning trends during the period from 1982 to 2013. From the results of inter-annual analysis, with mean annual precipitation lower than 600 mm, the greening of the savannas and grasslands in the Sahel was found to highly correspond with the increased precipitation. In contrast, the evergreen broadleaf forests in the Gulf of Guinea and Congo Basin showed strongly positive responses to the annual temperature when the mean annual temperature was below 25 °C. In regard to the intra-annual responses, the precipitation with 1-month lags was found to be helpful for the vegetation growth, with the exception of the evergreen broadleaf. The results of this research study indicated that the different land-covers in Africa had displayed clear differences in their annual trends during the examined 32-year period and had responded differently to the inter- and intra-annual climate drivers. This difference was evident by the characteristics of the vegetation covers and the geographic distributions. Therefore, further examinations of these differences can potentially improve the understanding of the land surface-atmosphere interactions among the different African ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00484-019-01698-x
       
  • Modified version for SPEI to evaluate and modeling the agricultural
           drought severity
    • Abstract: Drought is a climatic phenomenon that can occur in various regions with different climate conditions. Generally, drought has negative impacts on different fields such as environment, rangelands, and water resources. The agricultural section (especially rain-fed agriculture) is one of the parts that is directly affected by different types of drought especially meteorological and agricultural droughts. The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) is one of the newest and most applied indices to assess drought characteristics. In this paper, a modification is suggested for SPEI with the substitution of observed precipitation (OP) with effective precipitation (EP) to evaluate drought, with an emphasis on consideration of drought effects on agricultural section. To calculate EP, Food and Agriculture Organization of the united nation method (FAO), US Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), the Simplified version of Soil Conservation Service of the US Department of Agriculture method (USDA-SCS simplified), and the CROPWAT version of USDA-SCS method (USDA-SCS CROPWAT) were used. To compare the calculated SPEI based on OP (SPEIOP) and EP (SPEIEP) (based on different EP calculation methods), the correlation coefficients (CC) between SPEIOP and SPEIEP in four synoptic stations with at least 30 years of climatic data and annual yield loss (%) in winter wheat (Triticum sativum) (simulated using AquaCrop model) in the suitable reference periods for agricultural drought were used. Results showed, in Fasa, Drodzan, and Zarghan stations, the CC between SPEI based on EP using the USBR method (SPEIUSBR) and annual YL% had the highest values (in 42.11%, 68.42%, and 36.84% of Triticum sativum all reference periods, respectively). In Shiraz station, the CC between SPEI based on EP using the FAO method (SPEIFAO) and annual YL% had the highest values (in 47.37% of all reference periods). In all stations, the SPEIUSBR had the most reference periods with significant CC at 0.05 or 0.01 levels.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00484-019-01704-2
       
  • How ‘hot’ is too hot' Evaluating acceptable outdoor thermal
           comfort ranges in an equatorial urban park
    • Abstract: Urban green spaces offer vital ecosystem services such as regulating elevated temperatures in cities. Less information exists, however, on how urban green spaces influence outdoor thermal comfort (OTC), which is dependent on people’s perceptions of the complex interactions amongst ambient humidity, wind and both air and radiant temperatures. In this study, we analysed an existing OTC dataset compiled within a large Singapore urban park and calibrated OTC thresholds for physiological equivalent temperatures (PET) by analysing PET against thermal perception survey responses from the park visitors (n = 1508). We examined OTC according to (i) neutral, (ii) acceptable and (iii) preferred temperatures, where respondents felt ‘comfortable’ outdoors in the park. We estimated that neutral temperature, when all respondents experience neither heat nor cold stress, is 26.2 °C; acceptable temperatures, when only slight heat or cold stress is experienced, range between 21.6 and 31.6 °C; and preferred (‘ideal’) temperature for all respondents is 24.2 °C. Respondents residing for more than 6 months in Singapore achieved thermal neutrality, suggesting that a greater degree of thermal adaptation likely developed during acclimatisation to local climate through a combination of physiological, behavioural and psychological circumstances. Comparisons with other OTC studies showed differences in synoptic climates are linked to variations in the magnitude and ranges of perceived PET. Lastly, respondents in this study perceived lower neutral and preferred temperatures compared to respondents surveyed over a variety of urban land use categories in another local study. The differences in neutral and preferred temperatures between studies suggest that lower park temperatures and different environmental attitudes influence perceived OTC.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00484-019-01694-1
       
  • Evaluating rumen temperature as an estimate of core body temperature in
           Angus feedlot cattle during summer
    • Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the relationship between rectal temperature (TREC) and rumen temperature (TRUM) and to assess if TRUM could be used as a proxy measure of core body temperature (TCORE) in feedlot cattle. Eighty Angus steers (388.8 ± 2.1 kg) were orally administered with rumen temperature boluses. Rumen temperatures were recorded at 10-min intervals over 128 days from all 80 steers. To define the suitability of TRUM as an estimation of TCORE, TREC were obtained from all steers at 7-day intervals (n = 16). Eight feedlot pens were used where there were 10 steers per pen (162 m2). Shade was available in each pen (1.8 m2/animal; 90% solar block). Climatic data were recorded at 30-min intervals, including ambient temperature (TA; °C); relative humidity (RH; %); wind speed (WS; m/s) and direction; solar radiation (SR; W/m2); and black globe temperature (BGT; °C). Rainfall (mm) was recorded daily at 0900 h. From these data, temperature humidity index (THI), heat load index (HLI) and accumulated heat load (AHL) were calculated. Individual 10-min TRUM data were converted to an individual hourly average. Pooled mean hourly TRUM data from the 128-day data were used to establish the diurnal rhythm of TRUM where the mean minimum (39.19 ± 0.01 °C) and mean maximum (40.04 ± 0.01 °C) were observed at 0800 h and 2000 h respectively. A partial correlation coefficient indicated that there were moderate to strong relationships between TRUM and TREC using both real-time (r = 0.55; P < 0.001) and hourly mean (r = 0.51; P < 0.001) TRUM data. The mean difference between TREC and TRUM was small using both real-time (0.16 ± 0.02 °C) and hourly mean TRUM (0.13 ± 0.02 °C) data. Data from this study supports the hypothesis that TRUM can be used as an estimate of TCORE, suggesting that TRUM can be used to measure and quantify heat load in feedlot cattle.
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00484-019-01706-0
       
  • Impact of ambient temperature on hospital admissions for cardiovascular
           disease in Hefei City, China
    • Abstract: Many studies have quantified the hospitalization risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) caused by temperature, but the results of most studies are not consistent. In this study, we evaluate the effect of temperature on CVD hospitalizations. We use a quasi-Poisson regression with a distributed-lag nonlinear model (DLNM) to evaluate the effect of temperature on CVD hospitalizations between July 1, 2015, and October 31, 2017, in Hefei City, China. We found that the cold effect and heat effect of temperature can impact CVD hospital admissions. Compared with the 25th percentile of temperature (10.3 °C), the cumulative relative risk (RR) of extremely low temperature (first percentile of temperature, 0.075 °C) over lags 0–27 days was 0.616 (95% CI 0.423–0.891), and the cumulative RR of moderate low temperature (10th percentile of temperature, 5.16 °C) was 1.081 (95% CI 1.019–1.147) over lags 0–7 days. Compared with the 75th percentile of temperature (25.6 °C), the cumulative RR of extremely high temperature (99th percentile of temperature, 33.7 °C) was 1.078 (95% CI 0.752–1.547) over lags 0–27 days, and the cumulative RR of moderate-high temperature (90th percentile of temperature, 29.0 °C) was 1.015 (95% CI 0.988–1.043) over lag 0 day. In the subgroup, the < 65-year group and male were more susceptible to low temperature; however, the ≥ 65-year group and female were more vulnerable to high temperature. The high temperature’s impact on CVD hospital admissions was found to be more obvious in female and the ≥ 65-year group compared to male and the < 65-year group. However, the < 65-year group and men are more sensitive to low temperature.
      PubDate: 2019-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00484-019-01687-0
       
  • Excess winter mortality and morbidity before, during, and after the Great
           Recession: the Portuguese case
    • Abstract: Although winter mortality and morbidity are phenomena common to most European countries, their magnitude varies significantly from country to country. The geographical disparities among regions with similar climates are the result of several social, economic, demographic, and biological conditions that influence an individual’s vulnerability to winter conditions. The impact of poor socioeconomic conditions may be of such magnitude that an economic recession may aggravate the seasonal mortality pattern. This paper aims to measure the seasonal winter mortality, morbidity, and their related costs during the Great Recession (2009–2012) in mainland Portugal and its Regional Health Administrations (RHAs) and to compare it with the periods preceding and following it. Monthly mortality and morbidity data were collected and clustered into three periods: Great Recession (2009–2012), Pre-Recession (2005–2008), and Post-Recession (2013–2016). The impact of seasonal winter mortality and morbidity during the Great Recession in Portugal and its Regional Health Administrations was measured through the assessment of age-standardized excess winter (EW) death and hospital admissions rate and index, expected life expectancy gains without EW deaths, EW rate of potential years of life lost, and EW rate of emergency hospital admission costs. Important increases of winter deaths and hospital admissions were identified, resulting in an important number of potential years of life lost (87 years of life lost per 100,000 inhabitants in 2009–2012), life expectancy loss (1 year in 2009–2012), and National Health Service costs with explicit temporal and spatial variations. These human and economic costs have decreased consistently during the analyzed periods, while no significant increase was found during the Great Recession. Despite its reduction, the winter excess morbidity and mortality highlight that Portugal still faces substantial challenges related to a highly vulnerable population, calling for investments in better social and health protection.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00484-019-01700-6
       
  • Hot and bothered' Associations between temperature and crime in
           Australia
    • Abstract: Temperature and crime is one of the most extreme relationships between the atmospheric environment and human behaviour, yet our knowledge about it is primarily based on Northern Hemisphere research. This study used both temporal and spatial models to investigate the relationship between temperature and crime in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, using an 11-year data set. Results suggested that assault and theft counts were significantly higher in summer than winter (17.8 and 3.7%, respectively), while fraud counts were not significantly different. Using linear and quadratic terms for maximum daily temperature, a linear regression model indicated that daily assault counts significantly increased with rising temperature and the rate of increase slowed as temperatures exceeded 30 °C. Theft counts significantly increased with rising temperature then declined as temperatures exceeded 30°C. Again, there was no evidence of a relationship between temperature and frequency of fraud count. Spatial modelling revealed that 96% of local government areas (LGAs) in NSW had a higher summer assault rate than winter. The findings of this study provide an empirical foundation for understanding crime-temperature relationships in Australia.
      PubDate: 2019-03-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00484-019-01689-y
       
  • Correction to: Changes in relative fit of human heat stress indices to
           cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal hospitalizations across five
           Australian urban populations
    • Abstract: The authors of the article would like to bring the following correction/corrigendum to attention: When recently investigating future changes in heat stress indices, we discovered an error in the use of the heatwave indices we compared in Goldie et al. (2017).
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00484-019-01697-y
       
  • Differences in the impact of heat waves according to urban and peri-urban
           factors in Madrid
    • Abstract: Aside from climatic factors, the impact of heat waves on mortality depends on the demographic and socio-economic structure of the population as well as variables relating to local housing. Hence, this study’s main aim was to ascertain whether there might be a differential impact of heat waves on daily mortality by area of residence. The study is a time-series analysis (2000–2009) of daily mortality and minimum and maximum daily temperatures (°C) in five geographical areas of the Madrid region. The impact of such waves on heat-related mortality due to natural causes (ICD-10: A00- R99), circulatory causes (ICD-10: I00-I99) and respiratory causes (ICD-10: J00-J99) was obtained by calculating the relative risk (RR) and attributable risk (AR), using GLM models with the Poisson link and controlling for trend, seasonalities and the autoregressive nature of the series. Furthermore, we also evaluated other external variables, such as the percentage of the population aged over 65 years and the percentage of old housing. No heat-related mortality threshold temperature with statistical significance was detected in the northern and eastern areas. While the threshold temperatures in the central and southern areas were very similar and close to the 90th percentile, the threshold in the western area corresponded to the 97th percentile. Attributable mortality proved to be highest in the central area with 85 heat wave-related deaths per annum. External factors found to influence the impact of heat on mortality in Madrid were the size of the population aged over 65 years and the age of residential housing. Demographic structure and the percentage of old housing play a key role in modulating the impact of heat waves. This study concludes that the areas in which heat acts earliest are those having a higher degree of population ageing.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00484-019-01670-9
       
  • Activity modification in heat: critical assessment of guidelines across
           athletic, occupational, and military settings in the USA
    • Abstract: Exertional heat illness (EHI) risk is a serious concern among athletes, laborers, and warfighters. US Governing organizations have established various activity modification guidelines (AMGs) and other risk mitigation plans to help ensure the health and safety of their workers. The extent of metabolic heat production and heat gain that ensue from their work are the core reasons for EHI in the aforementioned population. Therefore, the major focus of AMGs in all settings is to modulate the work intensity and duration with additional modification in adjustable extrinsic risk factors (e.g., clothing, equipment) and intrinsic risk factors (e.g., heat acclimatization, fitness, hydration status). Future studies should continue to integrate more physiological (e.g., valid body fluid balance, internal body temperature) and biometeorological factors (e.g., cumulative heat stress) to the existing heat risk assessment models to reduce the assumptions and limitations in them. Future interagency collaboration to advance heat mitigation plans among physically active population is desired to maximize the existing resources and data to facilitate advancement in AMGs for environmental heat.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00484-019-01673-6
       
  • Efficacy of balneological outpatient treatment (hydrotherapy and
           peloidotherapy) for the management of chronic low back pain: a
           retrospective study
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of balneological outpatient treatment including hydrotherapy and peloidotherapy on patients with chronic low back pain. In this retrospective observational study, the records (between 2008 and 2016) of patients who have undergone balneological outpatient treatment at the Department of Medical Ecology and Hydroclimatology were analyzed. The patients were examined and assessed by an experienced physician before and after the treatment. Outcome measures were the Pain Visual Analog Scale (VAS), patient’s and physician’s global assessment (VAS), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and the Waddell Disability Index. A total of 139 patients were included in the study. After the treatment, statistically significant improvement in all evaluated outcome measures was found. The detailed analysis showed age, the duration of treatment, and sex did not affect the effectiveness of the treatment. Balneological outpatient treatment may be an effective option for treatment of chronic low back pain patients with the advantages of being integrated into daily routine and not causing any days off by improving pain and increasing the quality of life. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these preliminary results.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00484-018-01668-9
       
  • Climate model for seasonal variation in Bemisia tabaci using CLIMEX in
           tomato crops
    • Abstract: The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is considered one of the most important pests for tomato Solanum lycopersicum. The population density of this pest varies throughout the year in response to seasonal variation. Studies of seasonality are important to understand the ecological dynamics and insect population in crops and help to identify which seasons have the best climatic conditions for the growth and development of this insect species. In this research, we used CLIMEX to estimate the seasonal abundance of a species in relation to climate over time and species geographical distribution. Therefore, this research is designed to infer the mechanisms affecting population processes, rather than simply provide an empirical description of field observations based on matching patterns of meteorological data. In this research, we identified monthly suitability for Bemisia tabaci, with the climate models, for 12 commercial tomato crop locations through CLIMEX (version 4.0). We observed that B. tabaci displays seasonality with increased abundance in tomato crops during March, April, May, June, October and November (first year) and during March, April, May, September and October (second year) in all monitored areas. During this period, our model demonstrated a strong agreement between B. tabaci density and CLIMEX weekly growth index (GIw), which indicates significant reliability of our model results. Our results may be useful to design sampling and control strategies, in periods and locations when there is high suitability for B. tabaci.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00484-018-01661-2
       
  • Infrared thermography measured body surface temperature and its
           relationship with rectal temperature in dairy cows under different
           temperature-humidity indexes
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to better understand the inflection point of RT and BSTs and measure different body surface temperatures (BSTs) under different temperature-humidity index (THI) conditions. A total of 488 Holstein dairy cows were chosen to manually measure rectal temperature (RT) and BSTs including left side of eye, ear, cheek, forehead, flank, rump, fore udder, and rear udder by infrared thermography for 14 times. Those measurements included six times under high THI (THI > 78), three times under moderate THI (72 ≤ THI ≤ 78), and five times under low THI (THI < 72). Results showed that BSTs were affected by THI conditions (P < 0.01). The THI conditions where mean and maximum forehead temperatures started to increase rapidly (71.4 and 66.8) were lower than that where RT started to increase rapidly (74.1). The correlation coefficients of mean and maximum forehead temperatures to THI were 0.808 and 0.740, and were 0.557 and 0.504 to RT, all showing the highest as compared to other region temperatures with THI and RT, respectively. Thus, we conclude that BSTs are more sensitive to thermal environment than RT, suggesting the variability of BST to reflect body core temperature. In addition, the forehead is a relatively reliable region to assess the heat stress reflecting RT compared to the eye, ear, cheek, flank, rump, fore udder, and rear udder regions.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00484-018-01666-x
       
  • The short-term effects of outdoor temperature on blood pressure among
           children and adolescents: finding from a large sample cross-sectional
           study in Suzhou, China
    • Abstract: Although several studies have demonstrated a short-term association between outdoor temperature and blood pressure (BP) among various adult groups, evidence among children and adolescents is lacking. One hundred ninety-four thousand one hundred four participants from 2016 Health Promotion Program for Children and Adolescents (HPPCA) were analyzed through generalized linear mixed-effects models to estimate the short-term effects of two outdoor temperature variables (average and minimum temperature) on participants’ BP. Decreasing outdoor temperature was associated with significant increases in systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and prevalence of hypertension during lag 0 through lag 6. Additionally, daily minimum temperature showed a more apparent association with participants’ BP. The estimated increases (95% confidence interval) in SBP and DBP at lag 0 were 0.82 (0.72, 0.92) mmHg and 2.28 (2.20, 2.35) mmHg for a 1 °C decrease in daily minimum temperature, while those values were 0.11 (0.10, 0.12) mmHg and 0.25 (0.24, 0.26) mmHg for a 1 °C decrease in daily average temperature, respectively. The effects of temperature on BP were stronger among female, as well as those with young age and low body mass index. It demonstrated that short-term decreases in outdoor temperature were significantly associated with rises in BP among children and adolescents. This founding has some implications for clinical management and research of BP. Meanwhile, public health intervention should be designed to reduce the exposure to cold temperature for protecting children and adolescents’ BP.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00484-019-01671-8
       
  • Identifying solar access effects on visitors’ behavior in outdoor
           resting areas in a subtropical location: a case study in Japan Square in
           Curitiba, Brazil
    • Abstract: Changes in microclimate due to urban morphology tend to directly affect outdoor thermal comfort, thereby influencing people’s behavior. In order to investigate that, this study analyzed preferences for specific resting areas within an urban square surrounded by high-rise buildings in a subtropical location. In order to understand behavioral adaptations as regards sunlight availability (direct or reflected) or shaded situations (partly, fully) in resting areas, the analysis was conducted according to an observational method during the four seasons of 2016. Two high-definition cameras with time-lapse function were positioned at vantage points facing distinct benches, shooting at intervals of 1.5 min between scenes. Altogether, 86,561 scenes were analyzed. As a thermal comfort parameter, the outdoor thermal comfort index ‘PET’ (physiological equivalent temperature) was used, by post-processing meteorological data from the local meteorological station. The availability of situations (sun-lit, shaded-partly or fully, reflected sunlight) in each frame and per bench and the preference of visitors for such areas were considered in the analysis. During winter, there was a prevalence of shaded situations, mostly due to adjacent buildings. In summer, the most common condition was partly shaded by trees. The choice for a given resting condition was found to be closely related to PET index values and thermal comfort/stress classes and less so to seasonal changes.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00484-018-01664-z
       
  • Quantifying the effects of a low-ozone event and shallow stratocumulus
           clouds on ultraviolet erythemal radiation exposure
    • Abstract: Meteorological and dosimetric ultraviolet (UV) erythemal radiation (UVER) measurements were performed in Didcot, England, on 6 and 7 April 2017. Both days were characterized by clear-sky conditions in the morning and the afternoon with development of shallow stratocumulus clouds (SSC) around noon. In addition, a low-ozone event occurred on 7 April characterized by a 34 DU (Dobson Unit) drop in total stratospheric ozone content. Compared to 6 April, the ozone mini-hole caused UVER increases of 2.67 standard erythema dose (SED) for diffuse and 4.32 SED for global radiation characterized by radiation amplification factors (RAF) of 1.62 and 1.52, respectively. The total global UVER dose reductions due to SSC coverage amount to 2.33 SED (6 April) and 2.81 SED (7 April). As innovation the RAF is decomposed into two parts, named cloud ozone factor (COF) and radiation amplification factor based on measured data (RAFm), to quantify the low-ozone event’s effect and the SSC influence in independently modifying the UVER doses. Hereby, the weight of each of these two effects acting during the same low-ozone event is expressed by the new COF. In this case, the COF values range between −0.13 and −0.11 for diffuse UVER and −0.03 to −0.07 for the global UV and UV-B parts. A positive COF value (0.18) results for the global UV-A range.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00484-018-01669-8
       
 
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