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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Climate Change and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 153)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Nīvār     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Oxford Open Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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International Journal of Biometeorology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.897
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-1254 - ISSN (Online) 0020-7128
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Adverse effects of heat stress during summer on broiler chickens
           production and antioxidant mitigating effects

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      Abstract: Abstract Broiler chicken meat is a good source of protein consumed universally, and is one of the most commonly farmed species in world. In addition to providing food, poultry non-edible byproducts also have value. A major advantage of broiler chicken production is their short production cycle, which results in a greater rate of production in comparison to other species. However, as with any production system, there are constraints in broiler production with one of the most pressing being energy requirements to keep the birds warm as chicks and cool later in the growth cycle, as a result of the cost needing mechanical heating and cooling. While this is feasible in more advanced economies, this is not readily affordable in developing economies. As a result, farmers rely on natural ventilation to cool the rearing houses, which generally becoming excessively warm with the resultant heat stress on the birds. Since little can be done without resorting to mechanical ventilation and cooling, exploring the use of other means to reduce heat stress is needed. For this review, we cover the various factors that induce heat stress, the physiological and behavioral responses of broiler chickens to heat stress. We also look at mitigating the adverse effect of heat stress through the use of antioxidants which possess either an anti-stress and/or antioxidant effects.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28
       
  • Correction to: Relationship between meteorological variables and pneumonia
           in children in the Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre, Brazil

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      PubDate: 2022-09-27
       
  • Implications of exposing mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) plant to higher CO2
           concentration on seed quality

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      Abstract: Abstract Understanding the crop response to elevated carbon dioxide (e[CO2]) condition is important and has attracted considerable interest owing to the variability and crop-specific response. In mungbean, reports are available regarding the effect of e[CO2] on its growth, physiology and yield. However, no information are available on the germination and vigour status of seeds produced at e[CO2]. Therefore, in the present investigation, mungbean (Virat) was grown in the open top chamber during summer season of 2018 and 2019 to study the implications of e[CO2] (600 ppm) on quality of the harvested seeds (germination and vigour). The exposure of mungbean plant to e[CO2] had no major impact on seed quality as the percent viability (normal seedling + hard seeds) was not reduced. However, in one season (2018), the seed germination (normal seedling) was slightly reduced from 72 to 68%, attributed majorly to an increase in the hard seeds (from 13 to 19%), a predominant form of seed dormancy in mungbean. The changes in seed germination were apparent only in first year of the experiment. Accelerated ageing test (AAT) and storage studies revealed no differences in the vigour of seeds produced at ambient and e[CO2] environments. Also, the seeds from e[CO2] had low protein and sugar but recorded higher starch content than the seeds from ambient [CO2].
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
       
  • Heat abatement during the pre-weaning period: effects on growth, feed
           efficiency, metabolites, and insulin of male Holstein calves

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      Abstract: Abstract Heat stress abatement strategies for pre-weaned dairy calves are seldom evaluated. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of housing calves under a barn and provision of fans to calves housed under a barn on calfhood performance. The experiment was conducted in a dairy in southern Georgia, USA. Male Holstein calves (n = 60; 0 to 68 day of age) were assigned randomly at birth (day 0) to 1 of 3 treatments: hutch outdoors with 50% of its area covered with plywood (control = 20), hutch in a barn with no cooling (SH = 21), and hutch in a barn with ceiling fans (SHF = 19). Body weight (BW) was measured at birth, and total serum protein and wither-height were measured 24 to 48 h after birth. A sub-set of hutches was evaluated for air speed and temperature, and rectal temperature (RT) and respiratory frequency (RF) of calves housed in these hutches were measured at 0900 and 1500 h. Intakes of liquid feed (days 14 to 63) and starter (days 14 to 68) were recorded daily, BW and wither-height were measured weekly, and feed efficiency was calculated weekly. Blood was sampled on days 1, 14, 28, 42, 49, 52, 56, 58, 63, and 65 for the measurement of fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, and insulin. The SHF treatment resulted in air velocity 0.56 to 0.83 m/s greater (P < 0.01) than the control and SH treatments, respectively, whereas the control treatment resulted in air temperature 1.2 to 3.2 °C greater (P < 0.01) than the SH and SHF treatments, respectively. The RT of calves in the control treatment was 0.1 to 1.1 °C greater (P ≤ 0.03) than the SH and SHF treatments, respectively, and the control treatment resulted in RF 39.4 to 60.2 mov/min greater (P < 0.01) than the SH and SHF treatments, respectively. Treatment did not (P ≥ 0.27) affect feed efficiency and concentrations of metabolites and insulin, but calves in the control treatment were 2.6 cm shorter (P = 0.03) than calves in the SHF treatments at weaning. Provision of fans to calves housed under a barn reduced RT, RF, but only had a minute impact on wither-height.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
       
  • Climate change impacts on thermal stress in four climatically diverse
           European cities

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      Abstract: Abstract The thermal conditions that prevail in cities pose a number of challenges to urban residents and policy makers related to quality of life, health and welfare as well as to sustainable urban development. However, the changes in thermal stress due to climate change are probably not uniform among cities with different background climates. In this work, a comparative analysis of observed and projected thermal stress (cold stress, heat stress, no thermal stress) across four European cities (Helsinki, Rotterdam, Vienna, and Athens), which are representative of different geographical and climatic regions of the continent, for a recent period (1975 − 2004) and two future periods (2029 − 2058, 2069 − 2098) has been conducted. Applying a rational thermal index (Universal Thermal Climate Index) and considering two models of the EURO-CORDEX experiment (RCA4-MOHC, RCA4-MPI) under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5, RCP8.5), the projected future changes in thermal conditions are inspected. The distribution of thermal stress in the current climate varies greatly between the cities, reflecting their climatic and urban heterogeneity. In the future climate, a reduction in the frequency of cold stress is expected across all cities, ranging between − 2.9% and − 16.2%. The projected increase in the frequency of optimal thermal conditions increases with increasing latitude, while the projected increase in the frequency of heat stress (ranging from + 0.2 to + 14.6%) decreases with increasing latitudes. Asymmetrical changes in cold- and heat-related stress between cities were found to affect the annual percentage of optimal (no thermal stress) conditions in future. Although future projections are expected to partly bridge the gap between the less-privileged cities (with respect to annual frequency of optimal thermal conditions) like Helsinki and Rotterdam and the more privileged ones like Athens, the former will still lag behind on an annual basis.
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
       
  • Can spa rehabilitative interventions play a role for patients suffering
           from neurodegenerative disorders at the early stages' A scoping review
           

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      Abstract: Abstract The global burden of neurodegenerative disorders is significantly increasing as life expectancy rises but currently there is no cure for these conditions. An extensive search on MEDLINE (PubMed) and PEDro databases was conducted selecting clinical trials, Randomized Controlled Trials, and longitudinal studies published in the last 20 years in order to highlight what evidence there is for a role of spa rehabilitative interventions for patients with neurodegenerative diseases, in terms of motor function, symptoms, and quality of life (QoL) improvement and cost-effectiveness. A total of 225 publications were analyzed. Only three manuscripts were selected for review because they matched the inclusion criteria. These studies demonstrated statistically significant differences in the outcomes evaluated among patients affected by Parkinson’s disease after thermal rehabilitative treatments: motor function, balance, QoL, and psychological well-being statistically improved. In addition, rehabilitation in the spa setting seemed to be cost-effective for these patients. However, further studies are needed to define the role of spa rehabilitative interventions for these patients as the literature is still limited.
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
       
  • Analysis of the impact of climate change on grapevines in Turkey using
           heat unit accumulation–based indices

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      Abstract: Abstract Temperature is the most important factor influencing grapevine phenology and yield. Various indices have been developed that deal with the temperature sums that grapevines are exposed to during growth and maturation. With the help of these indices, predictions are made about whether the grapes will grow in a certain region and the quality of the grapevines. In this study, the future impacts of climate change on viticultural conditions in Turkey were projected by using Huglin index (HI), Winkler index (WI), and cool night index (CI). Under the RCP8.5 scenario, HI, WI, and CI indices for the future period of 2022–2050 were calculated for Turkey at 10 km spatial resolution with the RegCM4.4 model and compared with the 1972–2000 reference period. As a result of the study, a substantial increase in CI, HI, and WI and at least one level of categorical change were observed in the climatic conditions of the next 30 years in Turkey. These categorical shifts in CI, HI, and WI indicate that there may be changes in the geographical pattern of grapevine species grown in Turkey as well as the aroma and quality.
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
       
  • Machine Learning approach to Predict net radiation over crop surfaces from
           global solar radiation and canopy temperature data

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      Abstract: Abstract As the ground-based instruments for measuring net radiation are costly and need to be handled skillfully, the net radiation data at spatial and temporal scales over Indian subcontinent are scanty. Sometimes, it is necessary to use other meteorological parameters to estimate the value of net radiation, although the prediction may vary based on season, ground cover and estimation method. In this context, artificial intelligence can be used as a powerful tool for predicting the data considering past observed data. This paper proposes a novel method to predict the net radiation for five crop surfaces using global solar radiation and canopy temperature. This contribution includes the generation of real-time data for five crops grown in West Bengal state of India. After manual analysis and data preprocessing, data normalization has been done before applying machine learning approaches for training a robust model. We have presented the comparison in various machine learning algorithm such as ridge and spline regression, random forest, ensemble and deep neural networks. The result shows that the gradient boosting regression and ridge regression are outperforming other ML approaches. The estimated predictors enable to reduce the number of resources in terms of time, cost and manpower for proper net radiation estimation. Thus, the problem of predicting net radiation over various crop surfaces can be sorted out through ML algorithm.
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
       
  • Integration of GIS and remote sensing to derive spatially continuous
           thermal comfort and degree days across the populated areas in Jordan

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      Abstract: Abstract  The widespread availability of high-resolution digital elevation data and high computational capabilities, along with GIS tools, has revolutionized big data processing, management, and interpolation. The present investigation generates high spatial resolution maps of thermal comfort levels, heating (HDD), and cooling (CDD) degree days across the populated areas in Jordan. Results show that areas having indoor apparent temperature (IAT) of 26 °C or above, which represents warm/hot conditions on this thermal index, cover a large portion of the study area during July and August. This thermal zone encompasses a large cluster of the major urban centers in the country. For instance, Amman, Zarqa, and Irbid, which host more than 80% of the population of the country, experience 13, 14, and 19 h of warm to very warm conditions during July and August, demonstrating that cooling needs are required to bring about thermal comfort for dwellings and office buildings. Heavy cooling loads, 1700–2000 CDDs, are restricted to the Jordan Rift Valley (JRV) and other small, low-level urban centers. With the exception of the JRV, the populated areas in the country experience cold to very cold conditions during the three coldest months, December through February. Very cold conditions in winter, IAT ≤ 8 °C, span more than 13–14 h of the diurnal cycle in most urban centers. The HDD range from values close to zero along the JRV to ⁓ 1900 in the southern mountains. Heating loads for dwellings and office buildings are very demanding and represent a pressing financial challenge to bring about thermal comfort to homes and public buildings during winter. The present procedure can be integrated with auxiliary data within a GIS environment to investigate numerous climatological, environmental, and site suitability issues. The present procedure can be used for operational purposes over territorial or regional scales for a wide range of applications.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
       
  • Low sensitivity of Pinus mugo to surface ozone pollution in the subalpine
           zone of continental Europe

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      Abstract: Abstract High altitudes have been exposed to enhanced levels of surface ozone (O3) concentrations over recent decades compared to the pre-industrial era. The responses of vegetation to this toxic pollutant are species-specific and depend on the climate conditions. In this paper, we explored the reaction of Pinus mugo (P. mugo) to O3-induced stress in the continental climate of an ozone-rich mountain area in the High Tatra Mountains (Western Carpathians). The effects of O3 doses modelled by a deposition model, O3 concentrations and other factors on P. mugo were identified from (a) satellite-based data via NDVI (normalised differenced vegetation index) over 2000–2020 and (b) visible injury on needle samples gathered from P. mugo individuals at ground-truth sites in 2019 and 2020. Analysing the NDVI trend, we observed non-significant changes (p > 0.05) in the greenness of P. mugo despite growing in an environment with the average seasonal O3 concentration around 51.6 ppbv, the maximum hourly concentrations more than 90 ppbv and increasing trend of O3 doses by 0.1 mmol m−2 PLA (plant leaf area) year−1. The visible O3 injury of samples collected at study sites was low (mean injury observed on 1–10% of needles’ surface), and the symptoms of injury caused by other biotic and abiotic factors prevailed over those caused by O3. In addition, the correlation analyses between NDVI and the climatic factors indicated a significant (p < 0.05) and positive relationship with photosynthetic active radiation (R = 0.45) in July, and with stomatal conductance (R = 0.52) and temperature factor (R = 0.43) in August. Therefore, we concluded that the positive effect of climate conditions, which support the growth processes of P. mugo, may suppress the negative effect of the mean O3 doses of 17.8 mmol m−2 PLA accumulated over the growing season.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
       
  • Impact of environmental factors on heat-associated mortalities in an urban
           desert region

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      Abstract: Abstract The troubling trend of rising heat-associated mortalities in an urban desert region (Maricopa County, AZ, USA) has motivated us to explore the extent to which environmental factors may contribute to increased heat-health risks. Summertime data from 2010 to 2019 were used to construct a suite of models for daily heat-associated mortalities. The best-performing full model included the following predictors, ordered from strongest to weakest influence: daily average air temperature, average of previous 5 days daily average air temperature, year, day of year, average of previous 5 days daily average dew point temperature, average of previous 5 days daily average PM2.5, and daily average PM10. This full model exhibited a 5.39% reduction in mean absolute error in daily heat-associated mortalities as compared to the best-performing model that included only air temperature as an environmental predictor. The extent to which issued and modeled excessive heat warnings (from both the temperature only and full models) corresponded with heat-associated mortalities was also examined. Model hindcasts for 2020 and 2021 showed that the models were able to capture the high number of heat-associated mortalities in 2020, but greatly undercounted the highest yet observed number of heat-associated mortalities in 2021. Results from this study lend insights into environmental factors corresponding to an increased number of heat-associated mortalities and can be used for informing strategies towards reducing heat-health risks. However, as the best-performing model was unable to fully capture the observed number of heat-associated mortalities, continued scrutiny of both environmental and non-environmental factors affecting these observations is needed.
      PubDate: 2022-09-10
       
  • Phenology of Araucaria Forest fern communities: comparison of the
           influence of natural edge, artificial edge, and forest interior

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      Abstract: Abstract The edge effect, triggered by habitat fragmentation, alters forest microclimates and influences the life cycle of plants. Phenology may indicate the first changes in phenological patterns in response to the effects of climate change. Climate regulates the phenology of ferns and climatic triggers influence plants in tropical and subtropical regions differently. This study analyzed and compared the phenology of fern communities of three sub-areas — natural edge, artificial edge, and forest interior — of a fragment of Araucaria Forest in the Floresta Nacional de São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and its relationship with meteorological, astronomical, and edaphic variables. Abiotic and edaphic data were monitored concomitantly with phenological data (leaf renewal and senescence and sporangia formation) in each sub-area over a biennium. Temperature, air humidity, and soil moisture, which undergo changes with the edge effect, influenced edge plants. Leaf renewal was the main phenophase showing strong indication of changes in vegetative patterns in natural and artificial edge communities. Among the communities, that of the artificial edge signaled phenological changes that could compromise the development of ferns if effects intensify over time. In this respect, the phenology of artificial edge ferns differed from that of plants growing in originally natural formations (natural edge and forest interior), showing that exogenous transformations represent a new environmental situation for ferns to develop.
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
       
  • Human body radiation area factors for diverse adult population

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      Abstract: Abstract Radiation accounts for a significant fraction of the human body and environment heat exchange and strongly impacts thermal comfort and safety. The direct radiative exchange between an individual and a source or sink can be quantified using the effective (feff) and projected radiation area factors (fp). However, these factors have not been quantified for half of the population of the USA with an above-average body mass index (BMI). Here, we address this gap by developing thirty male and thirty female computational manikin models that cover the 1 to 99 percentile variation in height and BMI of adults in the USA. The radiative simulations reveal that the feff and the fp angular distributions are nearly independent of gender, height, and BMI. Appreciable relative differences from the average models only emerge for manikins with BMI above 80th percentile. However, these differences only occur at low zenith angles and, in absolute terms, are small as compared to variations induced by, for example, the zenith angle increase. We also use the manikin set to evaluate whether the body shape impacts the quality of human representation with several levels of geometrical simplification. We find that the “box/peg” body representation, which is based on the hemispherical fp average, is independent of the body shape. In turn, the fp distributions averaged over the azimuth angle range, representing the rotationally symmetric humans, are only impacted to the same degree as for the anatomical manikins. We also show that the anatomical manikins can be closely approximated by the multi-cylinder and sphere representation, at least from a radiation perspective. The developed anatomical manikin set is freely available and can be used to compute how body shape impacts a variety of external heat transport processes.
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
       
  • Relationships of frequencies of extreme low temperatures with grain yield
           of some Australian commercial chickpea cultivars

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, we examined the relationships between extremes of low temperatures and chickpea yield in 12 field experiments conducted at six sites in the subtropical environment of southeast Queensland (SEQ) from 2014 to 2019. Three commercial chickpea cultivars, PBA-Boundary, PBA-HatTrick and PBA-Seamer, were grown in all the experiments. Cultivars PBA-Pistol, PBA-Monarch and Kyabra were also included in three of these experiments conducted in 2015. In these experiments, the crop experienced a total of 8 to 41 frosts (minimum temperature <  = 0 °C), 2 to 41 pre-flowering frosts, 2 to 19 frosts during the critical period, 0 to 13 frosts and 2 to 71 low-temperature days (< = 15 °C) after flowering. The mean yield, which varied from 1 to 3 t/ha, was negatively related to post-flowering frosts (r =  − 0.74, p < 0.01) and low-temperature days (r =  − 0.76, p < 0.01), and positively related to pre-flowering frosts (r = 0.67, p < 0.05). Each post-flowering frost was associated with a 5% decrease and a low-temperature day with a 1% decrease in yield. The cultivar × site interaction was significant only in the three experiments with six commercial cultivars. This interaction was most likely due to an increase in the sensitivity range with additional cultivars, as indicated by frost damage scores and their relationships with yield. The results imply that extreme low-temperature events after flowering could negatively impact chickpea yield in SEQ and similar subtropical environments. Overcoming these effects through management and breeding should increase and stabilise chickpea yield.
      PubDate: 2022-09-07
       
  • Choosing multiple linear regressions for weather-based crop yield
           prediction with ABSOLUT v1.2 applied to the districts of Germany

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      Abstract: Abstract ABSOLUT v1.2 is an adaptive algorithm that uses correlations between time-aggregated weather variables and crop yields for yield prediction. In contrast to conventional regression-based yield prediction methods, a very broad range of possible input features and their combinations are exhaustively tested for maximum explanatory power. Weather variables such as temperature, precipitation, and sunshine duration are aggregated over different seasonal time periods preceding the harvest to 45 potential input features per original variable. In a first step, this large set of features is reduced to those aggregates very probably holding explanatory power for observed yields. The second, computationally demanding step evaluates predictions for all districts with all of their possible combinations. Step three selects those combinations of weather features that showed the highest predictive power across districts. Finally, the district-specific best performing regressions among these are used for actual prediction, and the results are spatially aggregated. To evaluate the new approach, ABSOLUT v1.2 is applied to predict the yields of silage maize, winter wheat, and other major crops in Germany based on two decades of data from about 300 districts. It turned out to be absolutely crucial to not only make out-of-sample predictions (solely based on data excluding the target year to predict) but to also consequently separate training and testing years in the process of feature selection. Otherwise, the prediction accuracy would be over-estimated by far. The question arises whether performances claimed for other statistical modelling examples are often upward-biased through input variable selection disregarding the out-of-sample principle.
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
       
  • Relationship between meteorological variables and pneumonia in children in
           the Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre, Brazil

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      Abstract: Abstract This work aims to analyze the relationship between meteorological conditions and the occurrence of hospital admissions for pneumonia in children under 5 years of age in the Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre, Brazil, from 1998 to 2017. To this end, data from hospital admissions obtained from the Unified Health System database (DATASUS) were used and classified into two groups: acute respiratory infections (ARI) and asthma, according to the international classification of diseases, tenth edition (ICD-10). Data regarding meteorological variables were also used: temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and wind speed, at 12Z and 18Z, as well as the Thermal Comfort Index (TCI), Effective Temperature as a function of the wind (ETw) and Windchill (W). From the data obtained, a descriptive analysis of the diseases and a statistical analysis with the analysis of correlation and main components were performed. Results showed that pneumonia (catalogued in the ICD-10 as J12 to J18) was the main cause of hospitalizations in children. The annual, monthly and daily hospitalization frequency distributions showed higher rates of admissions occurring in the months of May to September. The peaks of admissions and high admissions (HA) occurred mainly in the winter months (June, July and August), and in 1998. Meanwhile, the correlation and principal component analysis showed an increase in hospital admissions due to pneumonia related to a decrease in temperature and ETw and W indices (negative anomalies) and an increase in atmospheric pressure and relative humidity (positive anomalies).
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
       
  • Unusual early peaks of airborne ragweed (Ambrosia L.) pollen in the
           Pannonian Biogeographical Region

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      Abstract: Abstract Early peaks of airborne ragweed (Ambrosia L.) pollen concentrations were observed at several monitoring stations in Hungary in June 2017 and 2018, one month before the usual start of the pollen season at the end of July. Backward trajectories were calculated to simulate potential sources of pollen collected at different locations in the Pannonian Biogeographical Region. In a collaboration between aerobiological and phenological networks, a nationwide campaign was conducted to collect field data of ragweed blooming. During field surveys, ragweed plants having extremely early blooming were found most abundantly in a rural site near Vaja (North-East Hungary) and other locations in Hungary. Field observations matched with source areas identified by trajectory analyses; i.e., early-flowering ragweed plants were found at some of these locations. Although similar peaks of airborne pollen concentrations were not detected in other years (e.g., 2016, 2019–2021), alarming results suggest the possibility of expanding seasons of ragweed allergy.
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
       
  • Spatial heterogeneity of first flowering date in Beijing’s main urban
           area and its response to urban thermal environment

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      Abstract: Abstract Phenology — the rhythm of periodic plant life cycle events — was significantly shaped by urban climate, with flowering as one most sensitive phenophase. Apart from the widely noticed urban–rural phenological discrepancy caused by heat island effect, driven by the aggravating spatial unevenness of urban thermal environment, the spatial heterogeneity of flowering time was also found within the urbanized area of some metropolitans, bringing multiple impacts on urban ecology, landscape and public health. This research aimed to reveal the intraurban spatial variation and response characteristics of Beijing’s trees flowering phenology that remained largely unclear before. We analyzed the spatial heterogeneity pattern of the first flowering date (FFD) for 42 deciduous woody species in Beijing’s main urban area (MUA), and explored the species-specific phenological response to local thermal environment. The sample plots were set in 9 green spaces distributing from urban center to northwest suburb in Beijing’s MUA, the FFD data was collected by ground-based phenological observation, and local thermal environment was measured with land surface temperature (LST) retrieved from MOD11A1 products. The main results are as follows: (1) A significant spatial variation for FFD existed among 9 sample plots and the maximum spatial difference of FFD reached 6.76 ± 1.77 days in average, FFD showed an overall delay trend from urban center in 2nd Ring to outskirts beyond 5th Ring with 3rd Ring as a critical line for significant phenological difference. (2) The FFD of 35 species was found to be negatively correlated with \(\overline{{T }_{L}}\) (average of daily mean LST above 0 °C before mean FFD) in the sample plot (p < 0.05) with a response sensitivity of 2.99 ± 0.87 days/°C, which reflected the significant impact of LST variation during flower development period. Furthermore, the spatial difference and response sensitivity of FFD for a specific species were found to be negatively associated with its mean FFD value (p < 0.05), i.e., the flowering time of early-blooming species tended to be more sensitive to thermal environment variation compared with late-blooming ones. This research illustrated how flowering phenology responded to the heterogeneous intraurban thermal environment in Beijing’s MUA, which can improve our understanding of the vegetation dynamics in a constantly changing urban environment. And as a critical indicator of trees’ climate vulnerability assessment, the species-specific phenological response sensitivity could also guide species selection in urban forest construction.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Effect of environmental factors on growth performance of Nile tilapia
           (Oreochromis niloticus)

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      Abstract: Abstract Aquaculture is the practice of developing aquatic animals and plants under artificial environmental conditions, either in a controlled or semi-controlled environment. Due to high animal protein demand, it is one of the world’s growing food production industries. It plays a vital role in contributing to food security and lowering the unemployment rate of the world’s growing population. This review article aims to scope sight on the environmental factors that affect the growth and economic production process of Nile tilapia. Many of these factors are listed and analyzed in this review, such as stocking densities; various feed frequencies and feeding rates; water quality; water temperature; dissolved oxygen concentration; water pH degree; ammonia (NH3), nitrite (NO2), and nitrate (NO3) concentration; feeding regimes; feed cost; and tank culturing system of Nile tilapia. These factors can significantly alter body weight, composition, survival, behavior, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, feeding efficiency, and the health and reproduction of Oreochromis niloticus. Furthermore, feeding, growth, disease risks, and survival rates are all affected by water quality parameters. In general, higher growth performance of O. niloticus in aquaculture can be obtained by keeping the optimum quantity of feed with proper feeding rate and frequency, maintaining a good proportion of stocking density, and regularly evaluating water quality. This review article highlights—in details—the impact of various environmental factors on growth performance criteria of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
       
  • Protective role of Portuguese natural mineral waters on skin aging: in
           vitro evaluation of anti-senescence and anti-oxidant properties

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      Abstract: Abstract Natural mineral waters (NMWs) emerge from the earth as springs and their beneficial therapeutic effect has been empirically recognized in different countries. Portugal has diverse NMW resources that are sought for the relief of different afflictions including dermatological complications. However, there is a lack of scientific validation supporting this empiric knowledge. In this study, we aimed to screen the in vitro bioactivity of Portuguese NMWs with different chemical profiles, namely sulfurous/bicarbonate/sodic (SBS), bicarbonate/magnesium, sulfated/calcic, sulfurous/chlorinated/sodic, sulfurous/bicarbonate/fluoridated/sodic, and chlorinated/sodic, focusing on aging-related skin alterations. Mouse skin fibroblasts and macrophages were exposed to culture medium prepared in different NMWs. Cellular viability was evaluated by MTT assay and etoposide-induced senescence was analyzed through the beta-galactosidase staining kit. Wound healing was investigated by the scratch assay, and phototoxicity/photoprotection after UVA irradiation was evaluated using a neutral red solution. ROS production was quantified using the 2′7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate dye, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was analyzed by a commercial kit after lipopolysaccharide exposure. NMWs within the SBS profile demonstrated anti-senescence activity in skin fibroblasts, along with a variable effect on cellular viability. Among the tested NMWs, two decreased cellular senescence and preserved cell viability and were therefore selected for subsequent studies, together with a SBS NMW with therapeutic indications for dermatologic diseases. Overall, the selected NMW promoted wound healing in skin fibroblasts and activated SOD in macrophages, thus suggesting an anti-oxidant effect. None of the NMWs prevented phototoxicity after UV irradiation. Our results shed a light on the anti-aging potential of Portuguese NMW, supporting their putative application in cosmetic or medical products.
      PubDate: 2022-08-22
       
 
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