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  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 421-444: Espresso: A Global Deep Learning Model
           to Estimate Precipitation from Satellite Observations

    • Authors: Léa Berthomier, Laurent Perier
      First page: 421
      Abstract: Estimating precipitation is of critical importance to climate systems and decision-making processes. This paper presents Espresso, a deep learning model designed for estimating precipitation from satellite observations on a global scale. Conventional methods, like ground-based radars, are limited in terms of spatial coverage. Satellite observations, on the other hand, allow global coverage. Combined with deep learning methods, these observations offer the opportunity to address the challenge of estimating precipitation on a global scale. This research paper presents the development of a deep learning model using geostationary satellite data as input and generating instantaneous rainfall rates, calibrated using data from the Global Precipitation Measurement Core Observatory (GPMCO). The performance impact of various input data configurations on Espresso was investigated. These configurations include a sequence of four images from geostationary satellites and the optimal selection of channels. Additional descriptive features were explored to enhance the model’s robustness for global applications. When evaluated against the GPMCO test set, Espresso demonstrated highly accurate precipitation estimation, especially within equatorial regions. A comparison against six other operational products using multiple metrics indicated its competitive performance. The model’s superior storm localization and intensity estimation were further confirmed through visual comparisons in case studies. Espresso has been incorporated as an operational product at Météo-France, delivering high-quality, real-time global precipitation estimates every 30 min.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2040025
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 295-306: Cloudiness Parameterization for Use in
           Atmospheric Models: A Review and New Perspectives

    • Authors: Rae-Seol Park, Song-You Hong
      First page: 295
      Abstract: In atmospheric models, the representation of cloudiness is a direct linkage between the moisture amount and associated radiative forcing. This paper begins by providing a review of the parameterization of cloudiness that has been used for numerical weather predictions and climate studies. The inherent uncertainties in representing a partial fraction of clouds for radiation feedback and in evaluating it against the corresponding observations are focused. It is also stated that the major hydrometeor categories of water substances such as cloud ice and water that are responsible for cloud cover are readily available in modern weather and climate models. Inconstancies in cloud cover and hydrometeors, even in the case of the prognostic method, are discussed. The compensating effect of cloudiness for radiative feedback is found to imply that the condensed water amount itself is more influential on the radiative forcing, rather than the accuracy of the cloudiness. Based on the above perspectives, an alternative diagnostic parameterization method is proposed, utilizing a monotonic relation between the cloud water amounts and cloudiness that are obtained from aircraft and satellite observations. The basic premise of this approach lies in the accuracy of the water substance in the models, indicating that future efforts need to be given to improvements in physical processes concerning hydrometeor properties for the accurate representation of cloud radiative feedback.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2030018
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 307-328: Why Above-Average Rainfall Occurred in
           Northern Northeast Brazil during the 2019 El Niño'

    • Authors: Felipe M. de Andrade, Victor A. Godoi, José A. Aravéquia
      First page: 307
      Abstract: El Niño is generally associated with negative rainfall anomalies (below-average rainfall) in northern Northeast Brazil (NNEB). In 2019, however, the opposite rainfall pattern was observed during an El Niño episode. Here, we explore the mechanisms that overwhelmed typical El Niño-related conditions and resulted in positive rainfall anomalies (above-average rainfall) in NNEB. We focus on the austral autumn when El Niño is most prone to rainfall anomalies in the region. The analysis of several datasets, including weather station data, satellite data, reanalysis data, and modelled data derived from a dry linear baroclinic model, allowed us to identify that the austral autumn 2019 above-average rainfall in NNEB was likely associated with four combined factors; these are (1) the weak intensity of the 2019 El Niño; (2) the negative phase of the Atlantic Meridional Mode; (3) local and remote diabatic heating anomalies, especially over the western South Pacific and tropical South Atlantic, which resulted in anticyclonic and cyclonic circulations in the upper and lower troposphere, respectively, over the tropical South Atlantic; and (4) sub-seasonal atmospheric convection anomalies over the western South Pacific, which reinforced the low-frequency convection signal over that region. This latter factor suggests the influence of the Madden–Julian Oscillation on rainfall in NNEB during the first ten days of March 2019. We discuss these mechanisms in detail and provide evidence that, even during an El Niño event, above-average rainfall in NNEB in the austral autumn may occur, and its modulation is not limited to the influence of a single climate phenomenon. Our results may assist in the planning of several crucial activities, such as water resources management and agriculture.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2030019
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 329-343: Influence of Underlying Topography on
           Post-Monsoon Cyclonic Systems over the Indian Peninsula

    • Authors: Jayesh Phadtare
      First page: 329
      Abstract: During the post-monsoon cyclone season, the landfalls of westward-moving cyclonic systems often lead to extreme rainfall over the east coast of the Indian peninsula. A stationary cyclonic system over the coast can produce heavy rainfall for several days and cause catastrophic flooding. This study analyzes the dynamics of a propagating and stationary cyclonic system over the east coast, highlighting the possible cause behind the stagnation. The vorticity budgets of these two systems are presented using a reanalysis dataset. Vortex stretching and horizontal vorticity advection were the dominant terms in the budget. Vertical advection and tilting terms were significant over the orography. The horizontal advection of vorticity was positive (negative) on the western (eastern) side of the systems and, thus, favored westward propagation. Vortex stretching was confined to the upstream of orography in the stationary vortex. In the propagating vortex, the vortex stretching occurred over the orography during its passage. Data from the radiosonde soundings over a coastal station showed orographic blocking of the low-level winds in the stationary case. Conversely, the flow crossed the orographic barrier in the propagating case. Thus, the predominance of the upstream orographic convergence over the vortex circulation can be the reason for system stagnation over the coast.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2030020
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 344-367: Reliability of Extreme Wind Speeds
           Predicted by Extreme-Value Analysis

    • Authors: Nicholas John Cook
      First page: 344
      Abstract: The reliability of extreme wind speed predictions at large mean recurrence intervals (MRI) is assessed by bootstrapping samples from representative known distributions. The classical asymptotic generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) and the generalized Pareto (GPD) distribution are compared with a contemporary sub-asymptotic Gumbel distribution that accounts for incomplete convergence to the correct asymptote. The sub-asymptotic model is implemented through a modified Gringorten method for epoch maxima and through the XIMIS method for peak-over-threshold values. The mean bias error is shown to be minimal in all cases, so that the variability expressed by the standard error becomes the principal reliability metric. Peak-over-threshold (POT) methods are shown to always be more reliable than epoch methods due to the additional sub-epoch data. The generalized asymptotic methods are shown to always be less reliable than the sub-asymptotic methods by a factor that increases with MRI. This study reinforces the previously published theory-based arguments that GEV and GPD are unsuitable models for extreme wind speeds by showing that they also provide the least reliable predictions in practice. A new two-step Weibull-XIMIS hybrid method is shown to have superior reliability.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2030021
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 368-386: Airstream Association of Large
           Boundary Layer Rolls during Extratropical Transition of Post-Tropical
           Cyclone Sandy (2012)

    • Authors: James A. Schiavone
      First page: 368
      Abstract: Better understanding of roll vortices that often occur in the tropical cyclone (TC) boundary layer is required to improve forecasts of TC intensification and the granularity of damaging surface winds. It is especially important to characterize rolls over a wide variety of TCs, their environments, and TC development phases. Boundary layer rolls have been observed in TCs since 1998, but only recently in a TC during its extratropical transition phase. The work reported herein is the first to analyze how boundary layer rolls are distributed among the extratropical features of a transitioning TC. To this end, routine and special operational observations recorded during landfalling Post-tropical Cyclone Sandy (2012) were leveraged, including radar, surface, rawinsonde, and aircraft reconnaissance observations. Large rolls occurred in cold airstreams, both in the cold conveyor belt within the northwestern storm quadrant and in the secluding airstream within the northeastern quadrant, but roll presence was much diminished within the intervening warm sector. The large size of the rolls and their confinement to cold airstreams is attributed to an optimum inflow layer depth, which is deep enough below a strong stable layer to accommodate deep and strong positive radial wind shear to promote roll growth, yet not so deep as to limit radial wind shear magnitude, as occurred in the warm sector.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2030022
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 387-402: Characteristics of Convective
           Parameters Derived from Rawinsonde and ERA5 Data Associated with
           Hailstorms in Northeastern Romania

    • Authors: Vasilică Istrate, Dorin Podiuc, Dragoș Andrei Sîrbu, Eduard Popescu, Emil Sîrbu, Doru Dorian Popescu
      First page: 387
      Abstract: Using a database of 378 hail days between 1981 and 2020, the climatic characteristics of 23 convective parameters from sounding data and ERA5 data were statistically analysed. The goal of this work is to evaluate the usefulness and representativeness of convective parameters derived from sounding data and reanalysis data for the operational forecast of the hail phenomenon. As a result, the average values from 12:00 UTC were 433 J/kg for CAPE in the case of data from ERA5 and 505 J/kg from rawinsonde, respectively. The Spearman correlation coefficient matrix between the values of the parameters indicates high correlations among the parameters calculated based on the parcel theory, humidity indices, and the complex indices. The probability for large hail increases with high values of low-level and boundary-layer moisture, high CAPE, and a high lifting condensation level (LCL) height.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-08-23
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2030023
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 403-420: No City Left Behind: Building Climate
           Policy Bridges between the North and South

    • Authors: Mohamed Hachaichi
      First page: 403
      Abstract: Cities are progressively heightening their climate aspirations to curtail urban carbon emissions and establish a future where economies and communities can flourish within the Earth’s ecological limits. Consequently, numerous climate initiatives are being launched to control urban carbon emissions, targeting various sectors, including transport, residential, agricultural, and energy. However, recent scientific literature underscores the disproportionate distribution of climate policies. While cities in the Global North have witnessed several initiatives to combat climate change, cities in the Global South remain uncovered and highly vulnerable to climate hazards. To address this disparity, we employed the Balanced Iterative Reducing and Clustering using the Hierarchies (BRICH) algorithm to cluster cities from diverse geographical areas that exhibit comparable socioeconomic profiles. This clustering strives to foster enhanced cooperation and collaboration among cities globally, with the goal of addressing climate change in a comprehensive manner. In summary, we identified similarities, patterns, and clusters among peer cities, enabling mutual and generalizable learning among worldwide peer-cities regarding urban climate policy exchange. This exchange occurs through three approaches: (i) inner-mutual learning, (ii) cross-mutual learning, and (iii) outer-mutual learning. Our findings mark a pivotal stride towards attaining worldwide climate objectives through a shared responsibility approach. Furthermore, they provide preliminary insights into the implementation of “urban climate policy exchange” among peer cities on a global scale.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2030024
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 149-170: A Simple Family of Tropical Cyclone

    • Authors: Wayne Schubert, Richard Taft, Christopher Slocum
      First page: 149
      Abstract: This review discusses a simple family of models capable of simulating tropical cyclone life cycles, including intensification, the formation of the axisymmetric version of boundary layer shocks, and the development of an eyewall. Four models are discussed, all of which are axisymmetric, f-plane, three-layer models. All four models have the same parameterizations of convective mass flux and air–sea interaction, but differ in their formulations of the radial and tangential equations of motion, i.e., they have different dry dynamical cores. The most complete model is the primitive equation (PE) model, which uses the unapproximated momentum equations for each of the three layers. The simplest is the gradient balanced (GB) model, which replaces the three radial momentum equations with gradient balance relations and replaces the boundary layer tangential wind equation with a diagnostic equation that is essentially a high Rossby number version of the local Ekman balance. Numerical integrations of the boundary layer equations confirm that the PE model can produce boundary layer shocks, while the GB model cannot. To better understand these differences in GB and PE dynamics, we also consider two hybrid balanced models (HB1 and HB2), which differ from GB only in their treatment of the boundary layer momentum equations. Because their boundary layer dynamics is more accurate than GB, both HB1 and HB2 can produce results more similar to the PE model, if they are solved in an appropriate manner.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2020011
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 171-190: Frequency and Intensity of Landfalling
           Tropical Cyclones in East Asia: Past Variations and Future Projections

    • Authors: Johnny C. L. Chan
      First page: 171
      Abstract: This paper presents the latest analyses and integrates results of many past studies on the spatial and temporal variations of the annual frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) making landfall along different areas of the East Asian (EA) coast. Future projections of such variations based on the past investigations are also presented. No statistically significant trend in the number of landfalling TCs could be identified in most of the EA coastal regions, except for an increasing one in Vietnam and a decreasing one in South China. Multi-decadal as well as interannual variations in the frequency of landfalling TCs are prevalent in almost all the EA coastal regions. Only TCs making landfall in Vietnam and the Korean Peninsula showed an increase in landfall intensity, with no trend in the other regions. Nevertheless, more intense landfalling TCs were evident in most regions during the past two decades. Multidecadal variations were not observed in some regions although interannual variations remained large. Various oscillations in the atmospheric circulation and the ocean conditions can largely explain the observed changes in the frequency and intensity of landfalling TCs in different regions of the EA coast. In the future, most climate models project a decrease in the number of TCs making landfall but an increase in the intensity of these TCs in all the EA coastal regions, especially for the most intense ones.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2020012
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 191-221: Barotropic Instability during Eyewall

    • Authors: Christopher J. Slocum, Richard K. Taft, James P. Kossin, Wayne H. Schubert
      First page: 191
      Abstract: Just before making landfall in Puerto Rico, Hurricane Maria (2017) underwent a concentric eyewall cycle in which the outer convective ring appeared robust while the inner ring first distorted into an ellipse and then disintegrated. The present work offers further support for the simple interpretation of this event in terms of the non-divergent barotropic model, which serves as the basis for a linear stability analysis and for non-linear numerical simulations. For the linear stability analysis the model’s axisymmetric basic state vorticity distribution is piece-wise uniform in five regions: the eye, the inner eyewall, the moat, the outer eyewall, and the far field. The stability of such structures is investigated by solving a simple eigenvalue/eigenvector problem and, in the case of instability, the non-linear evolution into a more stable structure is simulated using the non-linear barotropic model. Three types of instability and vorticity rearrangement are identified: (1) instability across the outer ring of enhanced vorticity; (2) instability across the low vorticity moat; and (3) instability across the inner ring of enhanced vorticity. The first and third types of instability occur when the rings of enhanced vorticity are sufficiently narrow, with non-linear mixing resulting in broader and weaker vorticity rings. The second type of instability, most relevant to Hurricane Maria, occurs when the radial extent of the moat is sufficiently narrow that unstable interactions occur between the outer edge of the primary eyewall and the inner edge of the secondary eyewall. The non-linear dynamics of this type of instability distort the inner eyewall into an ellipse that splits and later recombines, resulting in a vorticity tripole. This type of instability may occur near the end of a concentric eyewall cycle.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2020013
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 222-238: Assessment of Winter Urban Heat Island
           in Ljubljana, Slovenia

    • Authors: Matej Ogrin, Domen Svetlin, Sašo Stefanovski, Barbara Lampič
      First page: 222
      Abstract: Although the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon is more commonly studied in summer, its influence is also important in winter. In this study, the authors focused on the winter UHI in Ljubljana (Slovenia) and its impact on the urban population, as well as in comparison with a UHI study from 2000. Through a combination of mobile and stationary temperature measurements in different parts of the city, the winter intensity of the UHI in Ljubljana was studied in a dense spatial network of measurements. It was found that the intensity of the winter UHI in Ljubljana decreases as winters become warmer and less snowy. The results showed that the winter UHI in Ljubljana intensifies during the night and reaches the greatest intensity at sunrise. During the winter radiation type of weather, the warmest part of Ljubljana reaches an intensity of 3.5 °C in the evening. In total, 22% of the urban area is in the evening UHI intensity range of 2–4 °C, and 65% of the urban population lives in this range. In the morning, the UHI in Ljubljana has a maximum intensity of 5 °C. The area of >4 °C UHI intensity covers 7% of the urban area, and 28% of the total urban population lives in this area. Higher temperatures in urban centers in winter lead to a longer growing season, fewer snow cover days, lower energy consumption and cold stress, and lower mortality from cold-related diseases compared to the colder periphery.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2020014
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 239-256: Heuristic and Bayesian Tornado
           Prediction in Complex Terrain of Southern Wyoming

    • Authors: Thomas A. Andretta
      First page: 239
      Abstract: A heuristic technique for tornado forecasting in the complex terrain of southern Wyoming is proposed for the weather sciences community. This novel approach is based on seasonal tornado climatology and observed mesoscale conditions obtained from in-situ surface and Doppler weather radar sources. The methodology is applied to four severe thunderstorm events which formed tornadoes during the spring and summer months of 2018 and 2019 in Albany County of Wyoming. Tornadic evolution is associated with supercell thunderstorms forming along moisture convergence axes of a dryline and updraft interactions with air mass stretching and shearing over the complex terrain. Applying Bayes’ theorem to each case, there is a low to high (30 to 80%) posterior probability associated with vortex detection.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2020015
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 257-275: Evaluation of Vertical Profiles and
           Atmospheric Boundary Layer Structure Using the Regional Climate Model CCLM
           during MOSAiC

    • Authors: Günther Heinemann, Lukas Schefczyk, Rolf Zentek, Ian M. Brooks, Sandro Dahlke, Andreas Walbröl
      First page: 257
      Abstract: Regional climate models are a valuable tool for the study of the climate processes and climate change in polar regions, but the performance of the models has to be evaluated using experimental data. The regional climate model CCLM was used for simulations for the MOSAiC period with a horizontal resolution of 14 km (whole Arctic). CCLM was used in a forecast mode (nested in ERA5) and used a thermodynamic sea ice model. Sea ice concentration was taken from AMSR2 data (C15 run) and from a high-resolution data set (1 km) derived from MODIS data (C15MOD0 run). The model was evaluated using radiosonde data and data of different profiling systems with a focus on the winter period (November–April). The comparison with radiosonde data showed very good agreement for temperature, humidity, and wind. A cold bias was present in the ABL for November and December, which was smaller for the C15MOD0 run. In contrast, there was a warm bias for lower levels in March and April, which was smaller for the C15 run. The effects of different sea ice parameterizations were limited to heights below 300 m. High-resolution lidar and radar wind profiles as well as temperature and integrated water vapor (IWV) data from microwave radiometers were used for the comparison with CCLM for case studies, which included low-level jets. LIDAR wind profiles have many gaps, but represent a valuable data set for model evaluation. Comparisons with IWV and temperature data of microwave radiometers show very good agreement.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2020016
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 276-294: Impact of ASOS Real-Time Quality
           Control on Convective Gust Extremes in the USA

    • Authors: Nicholas John Cook
      First page: 276
      Abstract: Most damage to buildings across the contiguous United States, in terms of number and total cost, is caused by gusts in convective events associated with thunderstorms. Their assessment relies on the integrity of meteorological observations. This study examines the impact on risk due to valid gust observations culled erroneously by the real-time quality control algorithm of the US Automated Surface Observation System (ASOS) after 2013. ASOS data before 2014 are used to simulate the effect of this algorithm at 450 well-exposed stations distributed across the contiguous USA. The peak gust is culled in around 10% of these events causing significant underestimates of extreme gusts. The full ASOS record, 2000–2021, is used to estimate and map the 50-year mean recurrence interval (MRI) gust speeds, the conventional metric for structural design. It is concluded that recovery of erroneously culled observations is not possible, so the only practical option to eliminate underestimation is to ensure that the 50-year MRI gust speed at any given station is not less than the mean for nearby surrounding stations. This also affects stations where values are legitimately lower than their neighbors, which represents the price that must be paid to eliminate unacceptable risk.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2020017
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 1-14: Airplane Emergency Landing Due to Quick
           Development of Mesoscale Convective Complexes

    • Authors: Renata Barros Vasconcelos Leirias, Natalia Fedorova, Vladimir Levit
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Some meteorological phenomena in South America develop quickly and take on large dimensions. These phenomena cause disasters for aviation, such as incidents and accidents. Mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) forced a commercial airplane into an emergency landing at Ezeiza International Airport in Buenos Aires (Argentina) in October 2018. The airplane took off from São Paulo (Brazil) to Santiago (Chile) and had to alternate to Ezeiza after encountering unanticipated agglomerations of MCCs along the flight route; its structure was seriously damaged, which affected the safety of the flight. A synoptic and thermodynamic analysis of the atmosphere, prior to the event, was made based on GOES16 infrared satellite data, radiosonde data, maps of several variables such as stream lines, temperature advection, surface synoptic maps and layer thickness from CPTEC/INPE and NCEP reanalysis data. The main observed processes that influenced the formation and development of conglomerates of MCCs were the following: (1) the cyclogenesis of a baroclinic cyclone on the cold front; (2) the coupling of subtropical and polar jet streams; (3) the advection of warm and humid air along a low-level jet stream. Recommendations for meteorologists in weather forecasting and for aviators in flight safety were prepared.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2010001
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 15-36: Evaluating Possible Changes in Air
           Temperature and Precipitation Patterns in Mozambique by Comparing Present
           and Future RegCM4 Simulation

    • Authors: Telmo Cosme A. Sumila, Simone E. T. Ferraz, Angelica Durigon
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Unlike global and regional assessments, the spatio-temporal variability of air temperature and precipitation, caused by climate change, must be more useful when the assessment is made at the sub-regional to local scale. Thus, this study aims to assess the possible changes in air temperature and precipitation in patterns for the late 21st century relative to the present climate in Mozambique. The regional model, RegCM4, driven by the global model HadGEM2, was used to perform the downscaling process under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), moderate RCP4.5 and strong RCP8.5. The three experiments were analyzed in the baseline (1971–2000) and future (2070−2099) range at the subregional scale in Mozambique. In this study domain, the highest amounts of precipitation and the highest air temperatures are observed during the extended summer season. However, the central region is rather warmer and rainier than the northern- and southernmost regions. Hence, the regional model RegCM4 demonstrated agreement relative to the observed weather stations and interpolated dataset from the Climate Research Unit. The strong performance of RegCM4 is revealed by its more realistic local spatio-temporal climate features, tied to the topography and geographical location of the study domain. The future increases in mean annual air temperature are well simulated by the model but, the spatial distribution and magnitude differ between the RCPs and over each of the three regions throughout the country. The sharp hottest response at the end of 21st century occurs in the summer and spring seasons under RCP8.5, spatially over the central and northern region of the study domain, with a hot-spot in the southern region. There is a predominantly drier response in the annual mean precipitation but, during the summer season, a meridional dipolarization pattern is observed, with the wettest response being over the southernmost region and a drier response in the northern and central regions of Mozambique.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2010002
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 37-51: Influence of Air Mass Advection on the
           Amount of Global Solar Radiation Reaching the Earth’s Surface in
           Poland, Based on the Analysis of Backward Trajectories (1986–2015)

    • Authors: Kinga Kulesza
      First page: 37
      Abstract: The paper aims to analyse the relationship between the amount of global solar radiation (GSR) reaching the Earth’s surface in Poland and the direction of air mass advection, using 72-h backward trajectories (1986–2015). The study determined average daily sums of GSR related to groups of trajectories with certain similarities in shape. It was found that the average daily sums of GSR during air mass inflow from all the directions (clusters) identified were significantly different from the average daily sum in the multi-year period. A significant increase in the amount of GSR over Poland is accompanied by air mass inflow from the north and east. The frequency of these advection directions is 27% of all days. The western directions of advection prompt different GSR sums: from slightly increased during advection from the north-west, to significantly decreased during advection from the west (from the central and western part of the North Atlantic). Special attention was given to days with extremely large (above the 0.95 percentile) and with the largest (above the 0.99 percentile) GSR sums. These are prompted by two main types of synoptic conditions: the Azores High ridge covering Central and Southern Europe; and the high-pressure areas which appear in Northern and Central Europe.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2010003
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 52-71: Study of Extreme Cold Surges in Hong

    • Authors: Man-Lok Chong, Hon-Yin Yeung, Kai-Kwong Hon
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Temperatures over Hong Kong have shown a marked increasing trend since the 1970s due to global warming and urbanization, but outbreaks of intense winter monsoon can bring very low temperatures in Hong Kong at times. This study aims at establishing criteria of extreme cold surges that suit the climatological characteristics of Hong Kong. Surges in this study were selected through percentile ranking of three weather attributes of each cold event: the lowest temperature, the largest temperature drop and the maximum sustained wind speed. Out of 152 cold events in 1991–2020, only four significant cold events in 1991, 1993, 2010 and 2016 met the most extreme 10th percentile of the three attributes concurrently and could be classified operationally as “extreme cold surge”. Very cold temperatures (at or below 7.0 °C), a temperature drop of at least 8.0 °C in two days and gale force wind speed (at or above 17.5 m/s) were recorded in all four surges. The results of classification are illustrated by selected cases. As ensemble products of some numerical weather prediction models tend to have a stable indication of extremity of cold events, the potential applications of cross-referencing the forecast and actual extremity in operational forecasting are also discussed.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2010004
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 72-73: Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of
           Meteorology in 2022

    • Authors: Meteorology Editorial Office Meteorology Editorial Office
      First page: 72
      Abstract: High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...]
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2010005
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 74-86: Changes in the Seasonality of Fire
           Activity and Fire Weather in Portugal: Is the Wildfire Season Really

    • Authors: Pedro Silva, Miguel Carmo, João Rio, Ilda Novo
      First page: 74
      Abstract: The length of the fire season has not garnered much attention within the broad field of meteorological research on fire regime change. Fire weather research on the Iberian Peninsula is no exception in this case; there is no solid understanding on fire season lengthening in Portugal, although recent decades do suggest ongoing transitions. Based on a complete record of fire occurrence and burned area between 1980 and 2018, we first searched for consistent trends in the monthly distribution of fire activity. To determine day-scale changes, an exceedance date method based on annual cumulative burned area was developed. Results show an early onset of fire activity in a range of 23–50 days and no significant extension into autumn, suggesting that existing projections of the lengthening of the fire season in Portugal over the present century have been already achieved. Fire weather results show a trend in the cumulative Daily Severity Rating (DSR), with the last two decades (2000–2018) displaying an early build-up of meteorological fire danger in late spring and early summer. The detailed spatio-temporal analysis based on the daily Fire Weather Index (FWI) shows that June stands out with the largest increase (year-round) in days per month with an FWI above 38.3, the threshold above which fire conditions make suppression uncertain. This aggravated fire weather is likely sustaining early fire activity, thus contributing to a longer critical fire season.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2010006
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 87-106: Diurnal Valley Winds in a Deep Alpine
           Valley: Model Results

    • Authors: Juerg Schmidli, Julian Quimbayo-Duarte
      First page: 87
      Abstract: Thermally driven local winds are ubiquitous in deep Alpine valleys during fair weather conditions resulting in a unique wind climatology for any given valley. The accurate forecasting of these local wind systems is challenging, as they are the result of complex and multi-scale interactions. Even more so, if the aim is an accurate forecast of the winds from the near-surface to the free atmosphere, which can be considered a prerequisite for the accurate prediction of mountain weather. This study combines the evaluation of the simulated surface winds in several Alpine valleys with a more detailed evaluation of the wind evolution for a particular location in the Swiss Rhone valley, at the town of Sion during the month of September 2016. Four numerical simulations using the COSMO model are evaluated, two using a grid spacing of 1.1 km and two with a grid spacing of 550 m. For each resolution, one simulation is initialised with the soil moisture from the COSMO analysis and one with an increased soil moisture (+30%). In a first part, a comparison with observations from the operational measurement network of MeteoSwiss is used to evaluate the model performance, while, in a second part, data from a wind profiler stationed at Sion airport is used for a more detailed evaluation of the valley atmosphere near the town of Sion. The analysis focuses on 18 valley wind days observed in the Sion region in September 2016. Only the combination of an increased soil moisture and a finer grid spacing resulted in a significant improvement of the simulated flow patterns in the Sion region. This includes a stronger and more homogeneous along-valley wind in the Wallis and a more realistic cross-valley wind and temperature profile near the town of Sion. It is shown that the remaining differences between the observed and simulated near-surface wind are likely due to very local topographic features. Small-scale hills, not resolved on even the finer model grid, result in a constriction of the valley cross section and an acceleration of the observed low-level up-valley wind in the region of Sion.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2010007
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 107-127: The Challenges of Micro-Nowcasting and
           the Women’s Slope Style Event at the PyeongChang 2018 Olympic Winter

    • Authors: Paul Joe, GyuWon Lee, Kwonil Kim
      First page: 107
      Abstract: The Women’s Slope Style event of 11–12 February 2018 at the PyeongChang 2018 Olympic Winter Games posed considerable challenges to the competitors and decision-makers, requiring sub-kilometer and sub-minute weather predictions in complex terrain. The gusty wind conditions were unfair and unsafe as the competitors could not achieve sufficient speed to initiate or complete their jumps. The term micro-nowcasting is used here to reflect the extreme high-resolution nature of these science and service requirements. The World Meteorological Organization has conducted several research development and forecast demonstration projects to advance, accelerate and promote the art of nowcasting. Data from compact automatic weather stations, located along the field of play, reported every minute and were post-processed using time series, Hovmöller and wavelet transforms to succinctly present the information. The analyses revealed dominant frequencies of about 20 min, presumed to be associated with vortex shedding from the mountain ridges, but were unable to directly capture the gusts that affected the competitors. The systemic challenges from this and previous projects are reviewed. They include the lack of adequate scientific knowledge of microscale processes, gaps in modeling, the need for post-processing, forecast techniques, managing ever-changing service requirements and highlights the role of observations and the critical role of the forecaster. These challenges also apply to future high-resolution operational weather and warning services.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2010008
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 128-145: A Statistical Model for Estimating the
           Amount of Monthly Global Radiation in the Horizontal Plane

    • Authors: Károly Tar, Andrea Bíróné Kircsi
      First page: 128
      Abstract: In addition to dynamic methods, purely statistical models, i.e., findings from the statistical analysis of the existing measured database, also play an important role in predicting the different characteristics of climate elements. In our article, we try to estimate the monthly amount of global radiation in each day of the month. In our previous articles, we presented the sliding-average model developed for estimating the average or amount of a climatic element, measured over a time interval, from within the interval. A version of this model for estimating the end-of-interval sums, the sliding-sum model, was used to estimate the amount of monthly global radiation. After generating the characteristics required for the estimation and analyzing their properties, we examined the errors of the performed estimation. Our model can also help solar energy users create the schedule.
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2010009
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2023)
  • Meteorology, Vol. 2, Pages 146-148: Early Career Scientists’ (ECS)
           Contributions to Meteorology

    • Authors: Edoardo Bucchignani
      First page: 146
      Abstract: The importance of meteorological events is felt in everyday life and the critical impact of the weather on human activities has led to the development of the science of weather forecasting [...]
      Citation: Meteorology
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/meteorology2010010
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2023)
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