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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Climate Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 72)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Climate Change and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 198)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Nīvār     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Oxford Open Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-795X
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 350-366: Flooding and Waste Disposal Practices
           of Urban Residents in Nigeria

    • Authors: Adaku Jane Echendu
      First page: 350
      Abstract: The rising incidence of flooding is a cause for global concern. Flooding is caused by both natural and human factors. In Nigeria, flooding has been attributed chiefly to human factors, such as poor waste disposal practices and management. Despite this known link, no empirical study is known to have engaged with urban residents to understand their actual waste disposal practices and ascertain their knowledge of the connection of their waste disposal practices to the flooding they are increasingly experiencing. This work fills this gap via an in-depth engagement with residents and experts on their waste disposal practices in the flood-prone city of Port Harcourt via a mixed-methods case study. Questionnaire surveys and qualitative interviews served as the primary data collection tools. The study confirms the poor waste practices of residents and provides empirical data on the prevalence of various forms of waste disposal practices. This provides key information that can guide the needed change in waste practices to eliminate this known flood driver in the pursuit of sustainable flood risk management. This is pertinent as waste management is one of the areas where citizens have agency to act. A behavioural shift is needed in this regard and must be encouraged via targeted public sensitization. Having local vanguards champion waste management behavioural turn is also recommended. The relevant authorities are encouraged to adopt a more sustainable approach to waste management by ensuring there are waste services and putting in place adequate disincentives to deter offenders.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4040020
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 367-379: Is Sea Level Rise a Known Threat' A
           Discussion Based on an Online Survey

    • Authors: Stefano Solarino, Elena Eva, Marco Anzidei, Gemma Musacchio, Maddalena De Lucia
      First page: 367
      Abstract: Since the last century, global warming has been triggering sea level rise at an unprecedented rate. In the worst case climate scenario, sea level could rise by up to 1.1 m above the current level, causing coastal inundation and cascading effects, thus affecting about one billion people around the world. Though widespread and threatening, the phenomenon is not well known to citizens as it is often overshadowed by other effects of global warming. Here, we show the results of an online survey carried out in 2020–2021 to understand the level of citizens’ knowledge on sea level rise including causes, effects, exacerbation in response to land subsidence and best practice towards mitigation and adaptation. The most important result of the survey is that citizens believe that it is up to governments to take action to cope with the effects of rising sea levels or mitigate the rise itself. This occurs despite the survey showing that they actually know what individuals can do and that a failure to act poses a threat to society. Gaps and preconceptions need to be eradicated by strengthening the collaboration between scientists and schools to improve knowledge, empowering our society.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-10-03
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4040021
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 380-405: Evaluating Post-Fire Erosion and Flood
           Protection Techniques: A Narrative Review of Applications

    • Authors: George Papaioannou, Angelos Alamanos, Fotios Maris
      First page: 380
      Abstract: Wildfires affect and change the burned sites’ condition, functionality, and ecosystem services. Altered hydrologic processes, such as runoff, increased streamflows, and sediment transport, are only a few examples resulting from burned soils, vegetation, and land cover. Such areas are flood-prone and face risks of extreme peak flows, reduced infiltration, water pollution affecting habitats, and hydromorphological changes. In this study, we present the different post-fire erosion and flood protection treatments that have been developed to avoid and mitigate the consequences and risks mentioned above. We categorize them into Land, Channel, Barrier, and Road treatments and analyze their types, such as cover-based methods, barriers, mulching, in-channel treatments, such as check dams, seeding, or even chemical treatments. Examples of how such treatments were used in real cases are provided, commenting on their results in flood and erosion protection. We found that cover changes were more effective than barriers, as they provided an immediate ground-cover increase in both Mediterranean and US sites. We explore the factors that play a role in their effectiveness, including storm duration and intensity, topography and slopes, land cover and uses, treatment implementation-installation, as well as fire-related factors such as burn severity. These factors have different effects on different treatments, so we further discuss the suitability of each one depending on the site’s and treatment’s characteristics. The outcomes of this work are expected to improve the understanding of the practical aspects of these treatments, providing for the first time a synthesis of the available knowledge on the multiple complex factors that can determine their efficiency.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4040022
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 406-420: Influence of the 2020 Seismic Hazard
           Update on Residential Losses in Greater Montreal, Canada

    • Authors: Philippe Rosset, Xuejiao Long, Luc Chouinard
      First page: 406
      Abstract: Greater Montreal is situated in a region with moderate seismic activity and rests on soft ground deposits from the ancient Champlain Sea, as well as more recent alluvial deposits from the Saint Lawrence River. These deposits have the potential to amplify seismic waves, as demonstrated by past strong, and recent weak, earthquakes. Studies based on the 2015 National Seismic Hazard Model (SHM5) had estimated losses to residential buildings at 2% of their value for an event with a return period of 2475 years. In 2020, the seismic hazard model was updated (SHM6), resulting in more severe hazards for eastern Canada. This paper aims to quantify the impact of these changes on losses to residential buildings in Greater Montreal. Our exposure database includes population and buildings at the scale of dissemination areas (500–1000 inhabitants). Buildings are classified by occupancy and construction type and grouped into three building code levels based on year of construction. The value of buildings is obtained from property-valuation rolls and the content value is derived from insurance data. Damage and losses are calculated using Hazus software developed for FEMA. Losses are shown to be 53% higher than the SHM5 estimates.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-10-22
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4040023
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 421-436: Induced Seismicity Hazard Assessment
           for a Potential CO2 Storage Site in the Southern San Joaquin Basin, CA

    • Authors: Arjun Kohli, Yunan Li, Tae Wook Kim, Anthony R. Kovscek
      First page: 421
      Abstract: California’s Central Valley offers vast opportunities for CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers. We conducted an induced seismicity hazard assessment for a potential injection site in the southern San Joaquin Basin for 18 years of injection at 0.68 MtCO2/yr and 100 years of monitoring. We mapped stress, faults, and seismicity in a 30 km radius around the site to build a geomechanical model and resolve the stresses on major faults. From a 3D hydromechanical simulation of the CO2 plume, we calculated the change in pressure over time on these faults and determined the conditions for safe injection. Lacking any subsurface imaging, we also conducted a probabilistic fault slip analysis using numerous random distributions of faults and a range of geomechanical parameters. Our results show that the change in probability of fault slip can be minimized by controlling the size, migration, and magnitude of the pressure plume. We also constructed a seismic catalog for the last 20 years around the site and characterized the natural patterns of seismicity. We use these results to establish criteria for evaluating potential-induced events during the storage period and to develop a traffic light response system. This study represents a first-order procedure to evaluate the seismic hazards presented by CO2 storage and incorporate uncertainties in hydrological and geomechanical parameters.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4040024
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 437-452: Assessment of a Machine Learning
           Algorithm Using Web Images for Flood Detection and Water Level Estimates

    • Authors: Marco Tedesco, Jacek Radzikowski
      First page: 437
      Abstract: Improving our skills to monitor flooding events is crucial for protecting populations and infrastructures and for planning mitigation and adaptation strategies. Despite recent advancements, hydrological models and remote sensing tools are not always useful for mapping flooding at the required spatial and temporal resolutions because of intrinsic model limitations and remote sensing data. In this regard, images collected by web cameras can be used to provide estimates of water levels during flooding or the presence/absence of water within a scene. Here, we report the results of an assessment of an algorithm which uses web camera images to estimate water levels and detect the presence of water during flooding events. The core of the algorithm is based on a combination of deep convolutional neural networks (D-CNNs) and image segmentation. We assessed the outputs of the algorithm in two ways: first, we compared estimates of time series of water levels obtained from the algorithm with those measured by collocated tide gauges and second, we performed a qualitative assessment of the algorithm to detect the presence of flooding from images obtained from the web under different illumination and weather conditions and with low spatial or spectral resolutions. The comparison between measured and camera-estimated water levels pointed to a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.84–0.87, a maximum absolute bias of 2.44–3.04 cm and a slope ranging between 1.089 and 1.103 in the two cases here considered. Our analysis of the histogram of the differences between gauge-measured and camera-estimated water levels indicated mean differences of −1.18 cm and 5.35 cm for the two gauges, respectively, with standard deviations ranging between 4.94 and 12.03 cm. Our analysis of the performances of the algorithm to detect water from images obtained from the web and containing scenes of areas before and after a flooding event shows that the accuracy of the algorithm exceeded ~90%, with the Intersection over Union (IoU) and the boundary F1 score (both used to assess the output of segmentation analysis) exceeding ~80% (IoU) and 70% (BF1).
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-11-06
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4040025
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 453-474: Evaluating the Impact of Engineering
           Works in Megatidal Areas Using Satellite Images—Case of the
           Mont-Saint-Michel Bay, France

    • Authors: Jean-Paul Deroin
      First page: 453
      Abstract: The Mont-Saint-Michel is known worldwide for its unique combination of the natural site and the Medieval abbey at the top of the rocky islet. But the Mont is also located within an estuarine complex, which is considerably silting up. For two decades, large-scale works were planned to prevent the Mont from being surrounded by the expanding salt meadows. The construction of a new dam over the Couesnon River, the digging of two new channels, and the destruction of the causeway were the main operations carried out between 2007 and 2015. The remote sensing approach is fully suitable for evaluating the real impact of the engineering project, particularly the expected large-scale hydrosedimentary effects of reestablishing the maritime landscape around the Mont. The migration of the different channels and the erosion-progradation balance of the vegetation through space and time are the main features to study. Between 2007 and 2023, the erosion of the salt meadows was significant to the south-west of the Mont but more limited to the south-east. During the same period, the sedimentation considerably increased to the north-east of the Bay, which seems to be facing the same silting-up problem. At this stage, the remote-sensing survey indicates mixed results for the engineering project.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4040026
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 217-238: Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis
           for Vancouver Island Coast Using Stochastic Rupture Models for the
           Cascadia Subduction Earthquakes

    • Authors: Katsuichiro Goda
      First page: 217
      Abstract: Tsunami hazard analysis is an essential step for designing buildings and infrastructure and for safeguarding people and assets in coastal areas. Coastal communities on Vancouver Island are under threat from the Cascadia megathrust earthquakes and tsunamis. Due to the deterministic nature of current megathrust earthquake scenarios, probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis has not been conducted for the coast of Vancouver Island. To address this research gap, this study presents a new probabilistic tsunami hazard model for Vancouver Island from the Cascadia megathrust subduction events. To account for uncertainties of the possible rupture scenarios more comprehensively, time-dependent earthquake occurrence modeling and stochastic rupture modeling are integrated. The time-dependent earthquake model can capture a multi-modal distribution of inter-arrival time data on the Cascadia megathrust events. On the other hand, the stochastic rupture model can consider variable fault geometry, position, and earthquake slip distribution within the subduction zone. The results indicate that the consideration of different inter-arrival time distributions can result in noticeable differences in terms of site-specific tsunami hazard curves and uniform tsunami hazard curves at different return period levels. At present, the use of the one-component renewal model tends to overestimate the tsunami hazard values compared to the three-component Gaussian mixture model. With the increase in the elapsed time since the last event and the duration of tsunami hazard assessment, the differences tend to be smaller. Inspecting the regional variability of the tsunami hazards, specific segments of the Vancouver Island coast are likely to experience higher tsunami hazards due to the directed tsunami waves from the main subduction zone and due to the local underwater topography.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4030013
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 239-266: Seismic Hazard in Greece: A Comparative
           Study for the Region of East Macedonia and Thrace

    • Authors: Dimitris Sotiriadis, Basil Margaris, Nikolaos Klimis, Ioannis M. Dokas
      First page: 239
      Abstract: Greece is located in one of the most seismically active regions in Europe. Many seismic hazard studies have been performed for various sites around Greece, at a regional or local scale. However, the latest national seismic hazard map, currently used for the seismic design of buildings and infrastructure, was published in 2000 and has not been updated since then. In light of recent advances in seismic source and ground motion modeling, the present study focuses on a comparative Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) for the region of East Macedonia and Thrace (EMTH), located in Northern Greece. Various seismic source models are implemented and compared against an updated earthquake catalog to form the necessary source model logic tree. The ground motion logic tree is composed of Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs), which have been proven suitable for implementation in Greece. PSHA results are presented for the most important cities of East Macedonia and Thrace in a comparative way, which highlights the variability of the seismic hazard among the various seismic source models. An updated seismic hazard map of the study area is proposed, and a comparative disaggregation analysis is performed to estimate the earthquake scenarios with the largest contribution to the seismic hazard.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4030014
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 267-285: Correlation of Ground Deformation
           Induced by the 6 February 2023 M7.8 and M7.5 Earthquakes in Turkey
           Inferred by Sentinel-2 and Critical Exposure in Gaziantep and
           Kahramanmaraş Cities

    • Authors: Ioannis Gkougkoustamos, Pavlos Krassakis, Georgia Kalogeropoulou, Issaak Parcharidis
      First page: 267
      Abstract: On 6 February 2023, an M7.8 devastating earthquake started rupturing the East Anatolian fault system in Turkey, resulting in intense shaking that lasted over a minute. A second earthquake of magnitude 7.5 struck near the city of Elbistan a few hours later. Both of these events are associated with the East Anatolian fault system. The earthquake sequence caused widespread damage and collapse of structures in densely populated areas throughout the Southern Turkey and Northern Syria regions and a very large number of human losses. This study focuses on the correlation of the ground deformation with the critical exposure of the infrastructures of Gaziantep and Kahramanmaraş cities. The estimation of the ground deformation of the affected area is achieved with the use of Copernicus Sentinel-2 products and the Normalized Cross Correlation algorithm (NCC) of image matching. The results of the East–West component show that specific sections of the region moved towards the East direction, reaching displacement measurements of 5.4 m, while other sections moved towards the West direction, reaching displacement measurements of 2.8 m. The results of the North–South component show that almost the whole affected area moved towards the North direction, with specific areas reaching displacements of 5.5 m, and a few exemptions, as some areas moved towards the South direction, with displacements reaching even 6.9 m. Regarding the cities of Kahramanmaraş and Gaziantep, their estimated movement direction is North-West and North-East, respectively, and is consistent with the movements of the Arabian and Anatolian Plates in which they are located. Important infrastructures of the study areas (education, museums, libraries, hospitals, monuments, airports, roads and railways) are superimposed on the findings, enabling us to detect the critical exposure rapidly.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4030015
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 286-301: Experimental Investigation of Levee
           Erosion during Overflow and Infiltration with Varied Hydraulic

    • Authors: Liaqat Ali, Norio Tanaka
      First page: 286
      Abstract: This study investigated erosion during infiltration and overflow events and considered different grain sizes and hydraulic conductivity properties; four experimental cases were conducted under saturated conditions. The importance of understanding flow regimes during overflow experiments including their distinct flow characteristics, shear stresses, and erosion mechanisms in assessing the potential for levee failure are discussed. The failure mechanism of levee slopes during infiltration experiments involves progressive collapse due to piping followed by increased liquefaction and loss of shear stress, with the failure progression dependent on the permeability of the foundation material and shear strength. The infiltration experiments illustrate that the rate of failure varied based on the permeability of the foundation material. In the case of IO-E7-F5, where the levee had No. 7 sand in the embankment and No. 5 sand in the foundation (lower permeability), the failure was slower and limited. It took around 90 min for 65% of the downstream slope to fail, allowing more time for response measures. On the other hand, in the case of IO-E8-F4, with No. 8 sand in the embankment and No. 4 sand in the foundation (higher hydraulic conductivity), the failure was rapid and extensive. The whole downstream slope failed within just 18 min, and the collapse extended to 75% of the levee crest. These findings emphasize the need for proactive measures to strengthen vulnerable sections of levees and reduce the risk of extensive failure.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4030016
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 302-315: Slope Failure and Landslide Detection
           in Huangdao District of Qingdao City Based on an Improved Faster R-CNN

    • Authors: Yong Guan, Lili Yu, Shengyou Hao, Linsen Li, Xiaotong Zhang, Ming Hao
      First page: 302
      Abstract: To reduce the significant losses caused by slope failures and landslides, it is of great significance to detect and predict these disasters scientifically. This study focused on Huangdao District of Qingdao City in Shandong Province, using the improved Faster R-CNN network to detect slope failures and landslides. This study introduced a multi-scale feature enhancement module into the Faster R-CNN model. The module enhances the network’s perception of different scales of slope failures and landslides by deeply fusing high-resolution weak semantic features with low-resolution strong semantic features. Our experiments show that the improved Faster R-CNN model outperformed the traditional version, and that ResNet50 performed better than VGG16 with an AP value of 90.68%, F1 value of 0.94, recall value of 90.68%, and precision value of 98.17%. While the targets predicted by VGG16 were more dispersed and the false detection rate was higher than that of ResNet50, VGG16 was shown to have an advantage in predicting small-scale slope failures and landslides. The trained Faster R-CNN network model detected geological hazards of slope failure and landslide in Huangdao District, missing only two landslides, thereby demonstrating high detection accuracy. This method can provide an effective technical means for slope failures and landslides target detection and has practical implications.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4030017
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 316-327: Non-Stationary Flood Discharge
           Frequency Analysis in West Africa

    • Authors: Aymar Yaovi Bossa, Jean de Dieu Akpaca, Jean Hounkpè, Yacouba Yira, Djigbo Félicien Badou
      First page: 316
      Abstract: With climate change and intensification of the hydrological cycle, the stationarity of hydrological variables is becoming questionable, requiring appropriate flood assessment models. Frequency analysis is widely used for flood forecasting. This study aims to determine the most suitable models (stationary and non-stationary) for estimating the maximum flows observed at some stations spread across West Africa. A statistical analysis of the annual maximum flows in terms of homogeneity, stationarity, and independence was carried out through the Pettitt, modified Mann–Kendall, and Wald–Wolfowitz tests, respectively, to identify the stations whose flows are non-stationary. After that, the best-correlated climate covariates with the annual maximum flows of the non-stationary stations were determined. The covariates explored are the climatic indices of sea surface temperatures (SST). Finally, different non-stationary GEV models were derived by varying the scale and position parameters of the best-correlated index for each station. The results indicate that 56% of the annual maximum flow series are non-stationary. As per the Bayes information criterion (BIC) values, the performance of the non-stationary models (GEV, generalized extreme values) is largely greater than that of the stationary models. These good performances of non-stationary models using climatic indices open perspectives for the prediction of extreme flows in the study area.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4030018
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 328-349: Traditional Nomadism Offers Adaptive
           Capacity to Northern Mongolian Geohazards

    • Authors: Gabrielle L. Moreau, Kelsey E. Nyland, Vera V. Kuklina
      First page: 328
      Abstract: Mongolia’s northernmost province, Khövsgöl Aimag, famous for its massive Lake Khövsgöl set among the mountainous steppe, taiga, and tundra forests, increasingly attracts both domestic and international tourists. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, Mongolia received over 500,000 tourists annually. The aimag is also home to Indigenous, nomadic Dukha reindeer herders and semi-nomadic Darkhad cattle herders. Using a multidisciplinary approach, this study uses an analytical hierarchy process to map areas in Khövsgöl Aimag, where the infrastructure, including buildings, dwellings, formal and informal roads, and pastureland, is subject to geohazards. The hazards of interest to this mapping analysis include mass wasting, flooding, and permafrost thawing, which threaten roads, pastures, houses, and other community infrastructure in Khövsgöl Aimag. Based on the integrated infrastructure risk map, an estimated 23% of the aimag is at high to very high risk for localized geohazards. After a discussion of the results informed by the interviews, mobile ethnographies, and local and national land use policies, we postulate that communities exercising more traditional nomadic lifestyles with higher mobility are more resilient to these primarily localized geohazards.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4030019
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 107-120: Quantitatively Mapping Discolored
           Seawater around Submarine Volcanoes Using Satellite GCOM-C SGLI Data: A
           Case Study of the Krakatau Eruption in Indonesia in December 2018

    • Authors: Yuji Sakuno, Sakito Hirao, Naokazu Taniguchi
      First page: 107
      Abstract: The final goal of this paper is to contribute to the difficult task of understanding and forecasting submarine volcanic eruption activity by proposing a method to quantify discolored water. To achieve this purpose, we quantitatively analyzed the discolored seawater seen before and after the eruption of the marine environment around the Indonesian submarine volcano “Anak Krakatau”, which erupted at the end of December 2018, from the viewpoint of the “dominant wavelength”. The atmospherically corrected COM-C SGLI data for 17 periods from the eruption from October 2018 to March 2019 were used. As a result, the following three main items were found. First, the average ± standard deviation of the entire dominant wavelength was 497 nm ± 2 nm before the eruption and 515 nm ± 35 nm after the eruption. Second, the discolored water area around the island derived from SGLI was detected from the contour line with dominant wavelengths of 500 nm and 560 nm. Third, the size of a dominant wavelength of 500 nm or more in the discolored water areas changed in a complicated manner within the range of almost 0 to 35 km2. The area of the dominant wavelength of 500 nm or more slightly increased just before the eruption. Finally, it was proven that the “dominant wavelength” from the SGLI proposed in this paper can be a very effective tool in understanding or predicting submarine volcanic activity.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4020007
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 121-135: Fault Slip Tendency Analysis for a
           Deep-Sea Basalt CO2 Injection in the Cascadia Basin

    • Authors: Eneanwan Ekpo Johnson, Martin Scherwath, Kate Moran, Stan E. Dosso, Kristin M. Rohr
      First page: 121
      Abstract: Offshore basalts, most commonly found as oceanic crust formed at mid-ocean ridges, are estimated to offer an almost unlimited reservoir for CO2 sequestration and are regarded as one of the most durable locations for carbon sequestration since injected CO2 will mineralize, forming carbonate rock. As part of the Solid Carbon project, the potential of the Cascadia Basin, about 200 km off the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada, is investigated as a site for geological CO2 sequestration. In anticipation of a demonstration proposed to take place, it is essential to assess the tendency of geologic faults in the area to slip in the presence of CO2 injection, potentially causing seismic events. To understand the viability of the reservoir, a quantitative risk assessment of the proposed site area was conducted. This involved a detailed characterization of the proposed injection site to understand baseline stress and pressure conditions and identify individual faults or fault zones with the potential to slip and thereby generate seismicity. The results indicate that fault slip potential is minimal (less than 1%) for a constant injection of up to ~2.5 MT/yr. This is in part due to the thickness of the basalt aquifer and its permeability. The results provide a reference for assessing the potential earthquake risk from CO2 injection in similar ocean basalt basins.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4020008
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 136-156: 2D Numerical Simulation of Floods in
           Ebro River and Analysis of Boundary Conditions to Model the Mequinenza
           Reservoir Dam

    • Authors: Pablo Vallés, Isabel Echeverribar, Juan Mairal, Sergio Martínez-Aranda, Javier Fernández-Pato, Pilar García-Navarro
      First page: 136
      Abstract: The computational simulation of rivers is a useful tool that can be applied in a wide range of situations from providing real time alerts to the design of future mitigation plans. However, for all the applications, there are two important requirements when modeling river behavior: accuracy and reasonable computational times. This target has led to recent developments in numerical models based on the full two-dimensional (2D) shallow water equations (SWE). This work presents a GPU accelerated 2D SW model for the simulation of flood events in real time. It is based on a well-balanced explicit first-order finite volume scheme able to run over dry beds without the numerical instabilities that are likely to occur when used in complex topography. The model is applied to reproduce a real event in the reach of the Ebro River (Spain) with a downstream reservoir, in which a study of the most appropriate boundary condition (BC) for modeling of the dam is assessed (time-dependent level condition and weir condition). The whole creation of the model is detailed in terms of mesh optimization and validation. The simulation results are compared with field data over the flood duration (up to 20 days), allowing an analysis of the performance and time saved by different GPU devices and with the different BCs. The high values of fit between observed and simulated results, as well as the computational times achieved, are encouraging to propose the use of the model as a forecasting system.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4020009
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 157-182: Machine-Learning-Based Hybrid Modeling
           for Geological Hazard Susceptibility Assessment in Wudou District, Bailong
           River Basin, China

    • Authors: Zhijun Wang, Zhuofan Chen, Ke Ma, Zuoxiong Zhang
      First page: 157
      Abstract: In the mapping and assessment of mountain hazard susceptibility using machine learning models, the selection of model parameters plays a critical role in the accuracy of predicting models. In this study, we present a novel approach for developing a prediction model based on random forest (RF) by incorporating ensembles of hyperparameter optimization. The performance of the RF model is enhanced by employing a Bayesian optimization (Bayes) method and a genetic algorithm (GA) and verified in the Wudu section of the Bailong River basin, China, which is a typical hazard-prone, mountainous area. We identified fourteen influential factors based on field measurements to describe the “avalanche–landslide–debris flow” hazard chains in the study area. We constructed training (80%) and validation (20%) datasets for 378 hazard sites. The performance of the models was assessed using standard statistical metrics, including recall, confusion matrix, accuracy, F1, precision, and area under the operating characteristic curve (AUC), based on a multicollinearity analysis and Relief-F two-step evaluation. The results indicate that all three models, i.e., RF, GA-RF, and Bayes-RF, achieved good performance (AUC: 0.89~0.92). The Bayes-RF model outperformed the other two models (AUC = 0.92). Therefore, this model is highly accurate and robust for mountain hazard susceptibility assessment and is useful for the study area as well as other regions. Additionally, stakeholders can use the susceptibility map produced to guide mountain hazard prevention and control measures in the region.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4020010
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 183-196: Internal Structure and Reactivations of
           a Mass Movement: The Case Study of the Jacotines Landslide (Champagne
           Vineyards, France)

    • Authors: Nicolas Bollot, Guillaume Pierre, Gilles Grandjean, Gilles Fronteau, Alain Devos, Olivier Lejeune
      First page: 183
      Abstract: The Jacotines landslide is representative of the large mass movements that affect the Champagne vineyards. Understanding the subsurface structure of these slopes and the mechanisms leading to sliding events is of a great interest, particularly for winegrowers who produce Champagne. This knowledge is generally used to elaborate accurate hazard assessment maps, which is an important feature in land use planning. The approach presented is based on the integration of geophysical imaging (seismic wave velocity and electrical resistivity), lithostratigraphic analysis (drilling core) and geomorphological investigations (surface landforms) to reconstruct the relations between the landslide structure, surface water flow, groundwater regime and the overall slope stability. A first phase of instability resulting in a large rotational slip probably occurred during the Late Glacial Period in morphoclimatic conditions characterized by an excess of water. A second one, still active, leading to superficial reactivations and relates to present hydrogeological conditions determined by the internal structure of the landslide.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4020011
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 197-216: Earth Observation Data Synergy for the
           Enhanced Monitoring of Ephemeral Water Bodies to Anticipate Karst-Related

    • Authors: Elena Papageorgiou, Michael Foumelis, Antonios Mouratidis
      First page: 197
      Abstract: With the increasing availability and diversity of satellite imagery, the multisensor fusion of data can more effectively address the improved monitoring of temporary water bodies. This study supports the attempt to apply well established methods to detect spatial and temporal changes in ephemeral shallow lakes in lowland karst terrain, as well as to improve the understanding concerning the dynamics of water storage and hydrological mechanisms during extreme precipitation events. Based on the joint analysis of Copernicus Sentinel SAR and optical mission data, as well as soil moisture and EO-based rainfall observations over the period of 2015–2020, we demonstrated the control of the karst system on the ephemeral lake appearances in the broader area of Chalkida (Evvia, Greece). A connection between the prolonged and extended water coverage in the ephemeral lakes and flooding in the area is documented. Our EO-supported findings may serve as indicators for flood alerts in future extreme precipitation events, improving responses in cases of emergencies.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4020012
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 23-24: Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of
           GeoHazards in 2022

    • Authors: GeoHazards Editorial Office GeoHazards Editorial Office
      First page: 23
      Abstract: High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...]
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4010002
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 25-39: Ground Investigations and Detection and
           Monitoring of Landslides Using SAR Interferometry in Gangtok, Sikkim

    • Authors: Rajinder Bhasin, Gökhan Aslan, John Dehls
      First page: 25
      Abstract: The Himalayan state of Sikkim is prone to some of the world’s largest landslides, which have caused catastrophic damage to lives, properties, and infrastructures in the region. The settlements along the steep valley sides are particularly subject to frequent rainfall-triggered landslide events during the monsoon season. The region has also experienced smaller rock slope failures (RSF) after the 2011 Sikkim earthquake. The surface displacement field is a critical observable for determining landslide depth and constraining failure mechanisms to develop effective mitigation techniques that minimise landslide damage. In the present study, the persistent scatterers InSAR (PSI) method is employed to process the series of Sentinel 1-A/B synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired between 2015 and 2021 along ascending and descending orbits for the selected areas in Gangtok, Sikkim, to detect potentially active, landslide-prone areas. InSAR-derived ground surface displacements and their spatio-temporal evolutions are combined with field investigations to better understand the state of activity and landslide risk assessment. Field investigations confirm the ongoing ground surface displacements revealed by the InSAR results. Some urban areas have been completely abandoned due to the structural damage to residential housing, schools, and office buildings caused by displacement. This paper relates the geotechnical investigations carried out on the ground to the data obtained through interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), focusing on the triggering mechanisms. A strong correlation between seasonal rainfall and landslide acceleration, as well as predisposing geological-structural setting, suggest a causative mechanism of the landslides.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4010003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 40-62: Collapsing Response of a Nonlinear
           Shear-Beam Building Model Excited by a Strong-Motion Pulse at Its Base

    • Authors: Abbasgholiha, Gičev, Mihailo D. Trifunac, Reza S. Jalali, Maria I. Todorovska
      First page: 40
      Abstract: We present a simple nonlinear model of a shear-beam building that experiences large nonlinear deformations and collapse when excited by large pulses of strong earthquake ground motion. In this paper, we introduce the model and show that its properties can be selected to be consistent with the damage observed in a seven-story hotel in San Fernando Valley of the Los Angeles metropolitan area during the 1994 Northridge earthquake. We also show an example of excitation that leads to the collapse of the model. We illustrate the response only for a sequence of horizontal pulses. We will describe the response of the same model to horizontal, vertical, and rocking motions at its base, as well as for more general excitation by strong earthquake ground motion, in future papers.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4010004
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 60-76: Geothermal Explosion at the 2014
           Landslide-Covered Area of the Geyser Valley, Kamchatka, Russian Far East

    • Authors: Masoud Allahbakhshi, Alina V. Shevchenko, Alexander B. Belousov, Marina G. Belousova, Horst Kämpf, Thomas R. Walter
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Geyser geothermal fields are scenic volcanic landforms that often contain tens to hundreds of thermal spot vents that erupt boiling water or contain bubbling mud pools. The fields are potentially hazardous sites due to boiling water temperatures and changes in vent locations and eruption dynamics, which are poorly understood. Here we report on the rapid and profound changes that can affect such a geyser field and ultimately lead to a dangerous, unanticipated eruption. We studied the Geyser Valley, Kamchatka Peninsula, which is a field of geysers and other thermal features and boiling pools. Using high-resolution tri-stereo satellite data and unmanned aerial systems (UAS) with optical and thermal infrared cameras in 2018 and 2019, we were able to identify a newly emerging explosion site. Structure-from-motion analysis of data acquired before and after the explosion reveals morphological and thermal details of the new vent. The explosion site produced an aureole zone of more than 150 m3 of explosively redeposited gravel and clay, a slightly elliptical crater with a diameter of 7.5 m and a crater rim 0.30 m high. However, comparison with archives of photogrammetric data suggests that this site was thermally active years earlier and contained a crater that was obscured and covered by landslides and river sediments. The results allow us to develop a conceptual model and highlight the hazard potential of thermal features buried by landslides and clastic deposits. Sudden explosions may occur at similar sites elsewhere, highlighting the need for careful assessment and monitoring of geomorphological and hydrological changes at geyser sites in other regions.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4010005
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • GeoHazards, Vol. 4, Pages 77-106: Multi-Hazard Susceptibility Assessment
           Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process in Coastal Regions of South Aegean
           Volcanic Arc Islands

    • Authors: Pavlos Krassakis, Andreas Karavias, Paraskevi Nomikou, Konstantinos Karantzalos, Nikolaos Koukouzas, Ioannis Athinelis, Stavroula Kazana, Issaak Parcharidis
      First page: 77
      Abstract: Coastal environments are highly recognized for their spectacular morphological features and economic activities, such as agriculture, maritime traffic, fishing, and tourism. In the context of climate change and the evolution of physical processes, the occurrence of intense natural phenomena adjacent to populated coastal areas may result in natural hazards, causing human and/or structural losses. As an outcome, scientific interest in researching and assessing multi-hazard susceptibility techniques has increased rapidly in an effort to better understand spatial patterns that are threatening coastal exposed elements, with or without temporal coincidence. The islands of Milos and Thira (Santorini Island) in Greece are prone to natural hazards due to their unique volcano-tectonic setting, the high number of tourist visits annually, and the unplanned expansion of urban fabric within the boundaries of the low-lying coastal zone. The main goal of this research is to analyze the onshore coastal terrain’s susceptibility to natural hazards, identifying regions that are vulnerable to soil erosion, torrential flooding, landslides and tsunamis. Therefore, the objective of this work is the development of a multi-hazard approach to the South Aegean Volcanic Arc (SAVA) islands, integrating them into a superimposed susceptibility map utilizing Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) analysis. The illustrated geospatial workflow introduces a promising multi-hazard tool that can be implemented in low-lying coastal regions globally, regardless of their morphometric and manmade characteristics. Consequently, findings indicated that more than 30% of built-up areas, 20% of the transportation network, and 50% of seaports are within the high and very high susceptible zones, in terms of the Extended Low Elevation Coastal Zone (ELECZ). Coastal managers and decision-makers must develop a strategic plan in order to minimize potential economic and natural losses, private property damage, and tourism infrastructure degradation from potential inundation and erosion occurrences, which are likely to increase in the foreseeable future.
      Citation: GeoHazards
      PubDate: 2023-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/geohazards4010006
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
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