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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 112 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Climate Change Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access  
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate Summary of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Developments in Atmospheric Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access  
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mathematics of Climate and Weather Forecasting     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 133)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Nīvār     Open Access  
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access  
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal  
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Cryosphere Discussions (TCD)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weather     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access  
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal of Meteorological Research
Number of Followers: 1  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 2095-6037 - ISSN (Online) 2198-0934
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2653 journals]
  • Investigation of Mesoscale Available Potential Energy Spectra in a
           Simulated Tropical Cyclone
    • Abstract: We investigated the moist mesoscale available potential energy (APE) spectra and corresponding spectral budgets of an idealized tropical cyclone (TC). The APE is defined with respect to a dry air mass using a modified potential temperature. For wavelengths below 500 km, the mesoscale APE spectra show a consistent quasi-linear shape and a -5/3 spectral slope in the troposphere and lower stratosphere during the mature period of the TC. The spectral APE budget in the troposphere is dominated by diabatic and energy conversion processes. The mesoscale APE is forcefully injected by the diabatic effect and immediately partially converted to other forms of energy by the buoyancy effect. The diabatic effect contains a positive contribution from the heating effect and a negative contribution from the dehumidifying effect, which weakens the heating effect by about 16%. The energy conversion tends toward the horizontal kinetic energy at larger scales and toward the gravitational potential energy of the total moist species at smaller scales. In the lower stratosphere, the mesoscale APE is primarily deposited by the three-dimensional divergent effect and removed by nonlinear interactions; however, the effect of the energy conversion is noisy. The lower troposphere and lower stratosphere are governed by clear downscale and upscale APE cascades, respectively, whereas the mid- and upper tropospheric mesoscale APE spectra undergo more complex cascade processes.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-9012-2
  • Capability of Fengyun-3D Satellite in Earth System Observation
    • Abstract: From the viewpoint of earth system science, this paper discusses the observation capability of the second-generation of Chinese polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous operational meteorological satellite observation systems, Fengyun-3 (FY-3), based on the function and performance test results from the FY-3D satellite observation system in orbit. The FY-3 series of satellites have numerous remote sensing instruments and a wide range of imaging and sounding electromagnetic spectrometers onboard. These instruments can obtain reflectivity data for land surface, soil, vegetation, water body, snow cover, ocean color, and sea ice on earth’s surface over a wide spectral range, as well as information on the absorption and scattering radiative transfer of molecules and particles (clouds and aerosols) in earth’s atmosphere. All of these data can be used to retrieve physical and chemical information about the land, ocean, and atmosphere of the earth system. Comprehensive observation of the earth system by the FY-3 meteorological satellites is preliminarily realized.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-9063-4
  • Decadal and Interannual Variability of Persistent Heavy Rainfall Events
           over the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River Valley
    • Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between the anomalous atmospheric circulation pattern and summertime persistent heavy rainfall (PHR) over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley (MLYRV) on the decadal and interannual timescales. Based on the gridded daily rainfall data of the US Climate Prediction Center, the PHR events on grid-point and the regional PHR events considering both the area of PHR and regionally averaged rainfall intensity are identified over the MLYRV during the summers of 1979–2017. A PHR index (PHRI) is defined, to describe the variability of summertime PHR event number over the MLYRV. The PHRI is then divided into the decadal and interannual components. Further analysis reveals that the decadal PHR events are closely related to anomalous precipitation, intensified vertical motion, and strengthened upper-level divergence over southern China, as well as an anomalous anticyclone over the western Pacific transporting more water vapor from the South China Sea (SCS) to southern China. As for the interannual component, the above pattern still co-exists but over a narrow region around the MLYRV. By choosing the years in which the decadal and interannual components of the PHRI are simultaneously positive (SP) or negative (SN), the features of regional PHR events in SP and SN years are analyzed, respectively. The results show that there are more regional PHR events in SP years with enhanced intensity and larger affected areas compared with those in SN years. Meanwhile, the zonal oscillations of the South Asian high (SAH) and the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) during the regional PHR events demonstrate a better regularity in SP years than those in SN years.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-9070-5
  • Development and Evaluation of Hourly and Kilometer Resolution
           Retrospective and Real-Time Surface Meteorological Blended Forcing Dataset
           (SMBFD) in China
    • Abstract: A real-time, long-term surface meteorological blended forcing dataset (SMBFD) has been developed based on station observations, satellite retrievals, and reanalysis products in China. The observations are collected at national and regional automatic weather stations, satellite data are obtained from the Fengyun (FY) series satellites retrievals, and the reanalysis products are obtained from the ECMWF. The 90-m resolution digital terrain elevation data in China are obtained from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) for temperature and humidity elevation adjustment. The dataset includes 2-m air temperature and humidity, 10-m zonal and meridional winds, downward shortwave radiation, surface pressure, and precipitation. The spatial resolution is 1 km, and the temporal resolution is 1 h. During the data processing procedure, various data fusion techniques including the space-time multiscale variational analysis, the discrete ordinates radiative transfer (DISORT) model, the hybrid radiation estimation model, and a terrain correction algorithm are employed. Dependent and independent evaluations of the dataset are performed against observations. The SMBFD dataset is also compared with similar datasets produced in other major meteorological operational centers in the world. The results are as follows. (1) All variables show reasonable geographic distribution features and realistic spatial and temporal variations. (2) Dependent and independent evaluations both indicate that the gridded SMBFD dataset is close to the observations, while the dependent evaluation yields better results than the independent evaluation. (3) Compared with similar datasets produced in other meteorological operational centers, the real-time and retrospective surface meteorological fusion data obviously have higher quality. The dataset introduced in the present study is in general stable and accurate, and can be applied in various practice such as meteorology, agriculture, ecology, environmental protection, etc. Meanwhile, this dataset has been used as the atmospheric forcing data to drive the operational High-resolution Land Data Assimilation System of China Meteorological Administration. The dataset with the network Common Data Form (NETCDF) can be decoded by various programming languages, and it is freely available to non-commercial users.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-9042-9
  • Development of a Self-Recording Per-Minute Precipitation Dataset for China
    • Abstract: The establishment of self-recording precipitation observation systems in China began in 1951, and strips of self-recording precipitation graph paper have been archived since then. More than 9 million sheets of self-recording graph paper from 2253 stations in 31 provinces have been digitized by using image scanning and curve extraction technology. Format specification and quality control have been applied to the digitized data, and the China Surface Self-Recording Per-Minute Precipitation Dataset (V1.0) has been developed. The integrity and accuracy of this dataset are evaluated. This is the first attempt in China to establish a per-minute precipitation dataset that covers the period from 1951 to present. Preliminary evaluation reveals that the station density is high and the data continuity is good in most areas of China. However, the integrity of stations in some areas of western China is relatively poor. The availability rate and accuracy rate in summer are higher than 99% at most stations, with the overall availability and accuracy rates reaching as much as 99.42% and 99.22%, respectively.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-9061-6
  • A Soil Moisture Data Assimilation System for Pakistan Using PODEn4DVar and
    • Abstract: Soil moisture is an important state variable for land-atmosphere interactions. It is a vital land surface variable for research on hydrology, agriculture, climate, and drought monitoring. In current study, a soil moisture data assimilation framework has been developed by using the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) and the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)-based ensemble four-dimensional variational assimilation (PODEn4DVar) algorithm. Assimilation experiments were conducted at four agricultural sites in Pakistan by assimilating in-situ soil moisture observations. The results showed that it was a reliable system. To quantify further the feasibility of the data assimilation (DA) system, soil moisture observations from the top four soil-depths (0–5, 5–10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm) were assimilated. The evaluation results indicated that the DA system improved soil moisture estimation. In addition, updating the soil moisture in the upper soil layers of CLM4.5 could improve soil moisture estimation in deeper soil layers [layer 7 (L7, 62.0 cm) and layer 8 (L8, 103.8 cm)]. To further evaluate the DA system, observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) were designed for Pakistan by assimilating daily observations. These idealized experiments produced statistical results that had higher correlation coefficients, reduced root mean square errors, and lower biases for assimilation, which showed that the DA system is able to produce and improve soil moisture estimation in Pakistan.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-9020-2
  • Relationship between Tropical Indian Ocean SSTA in Spring and
           Precipitation of Northeast China in Late Summer
    • Abstract: Sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) is a major signal for prediction of summer precipitation in East Asia. The relationship between SSTA in the tropical oceans and summer precipitation in East Asia has been documented in many studies. However, the relationship between SSTA and late summer (July-August) precipitation (JAP) over Northeast China (NEC) on the interannual timescale has received little attention. In this study, we examine the relationship between Indian Ocean Basin warming (IOBW) anomalies in spring and the JAP in NEC since the early 1960s. A significant positive correlation is found between the spring IOBW index and JAP over NEC. The positive spring IOBW anomaly is followed by an anomalous anticyclone from Northwest Pacific to the Korean Peninsula. This anomalous anticyclone favors a significantly strong and northward western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), which facilitates anomalous southerly winds over NEC and the transport of more water vapor into this region. Further analysis indicates that the spring IOBW anomalies have important impacts on the vertical air motion in the tropics and subtropics during the summer. Significant anomalous upward (downward) motion covering Indonesia (Northwest Pacific to the southern Korean Peninsula) occurs when the IOBW is in its positive phase, which favors the northward movement of the WPSH in late summer and more precipitation over NEC in July-August. Modulation of the atmospheric circulation by this mechanism further influences the JAP over NEC.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-9026-9
  • Climate Variability over the Maritime Continent and Its Role in Global
           Climate Variation: A Review
    • Abstract: The Maritime Continent (MC) consists of multiple islands with varying sizes and topography, and surrounding seas. It is characterized by rainfall (convection) variability on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Various large-scale atmospheric, oceanic, and coupled climate systems, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), and cold surge, exert significant influences on the spatio-temporal complexity of the MC climate and climate variability. As a major tropical heat source located within the warmest oceanic area (the western Pacific warm pool), the MC has been identified as a region of great importance for climate variation on the global scale. However, prediction of climate variability over the MC and its surrounding areas and the relationships to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns are big challenges, even for state-of-the-art climate models. In this paper, we provide a thorough review on current understanding of the spatiotemporal complexity and prediction of climate variability over this important region, and its influence on global climate variation.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-9025-x
  • Understanding the Performance of an Unstructured-Mesh Global Shallow Water
           Model on Kinetic Energy Spectra and Nonlinear Vorticity Dynamics
    • Abstract: A strategy for evaluating a global shallow water model based on aspects of kinetic energy spectra and nonlinear vorticity dynamics is proposed in this study. The kinetic energy spectra and nonlinear vorticity dynamics of a recently developed global shallow water model on an unstructured mesh are evaluated in comparison with the benchmark solutions from a global high-resolution spectral model. The results show that the kinetic energy spectra, the rotational and divergent components, the stationary and transient components, and the nonlinear spectral fluxes of the developed shallow water model agree well with those generated by the reference model. In addition, the influence of different flux operators for transporting the potential vorticity (PV) is assessed specifically. It is indicated that the second-order flux operator leads to a spurious increase in the kinetic energy at the tail of the spectrum, whereas the upwind third-order flux operator does not support this behavior owing to implicit numerical diffusion. Moreover, the nonlinear vorticity dynamics is studied by using colliding modons. It is found that the grid-point model maintains the symmetrical pattern of vortices, and generates similar kinetic energy spectra and nonlinear spectral fluxes to the reference model. The evaluation provides a reference for assessing the shallow water model in terms of nonlinear dynamics, and the developed global shallow water model presents a good example.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-9004-2
  • Improving Land Surface Hydrological Simulations in China Using CLDAS
           Meteorological Forcing Data
    • Abstract: The accuracy of land surface hydrological simulations using an offline land surface model (LSM) depends largely on the quality of the atmospheric forcing data. In this study, Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) forcing data and the newly developed China Meteorological Administration Land Data Assimilation System (CLDAS) forcing data are used to drive the Noah LSM with multiple parameterizations (Noah-MP) and to explore how the newly developed CLDAS forcing data improve land surface hydrological simulations over mainland China. The monthly soil moisture (SM) and evapotranspiration (ET) simulations are then compared and evaluated against observations. The results show that the Noah-MP driven by the CLDAS forcing data (referred to as CLDAS_Noah-MP) significantly improves the simulations in most cases over mainland China and its eight river basins. CLDAS_Noah-MP increases the correlation coefficient (R) values from 0.451 to 0.534 for the SM simulations at a depth range of 0–ss10 cm in mainland China, especially in the eastern monsoon area such as the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the southern Yangtze River basin, and the Zhujiang River basin. Moreover, the root-mean-square error is reduced from 0.078 to 0.068 m3 m−3 for the SM simulations, and from 12.9 to 11.4 mm month−1 for the ET simulations over mainland China, especially in the southern Yangtze River basin and Zhujiang River basin. This study demonstrates that, by merging more in situ and remote sensing observations in regional atmospheric forcing data, offline LSM simulations can better simulate regional-scale land surface hydrological processes.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-9067-0
  • Homogenization of Surface Pressure Data in Tianjin, China
    • Abstract: Based on a hydrostatic check, a preliminary quality control procedure was applied to the hourly surface air pressure (SAP) and sea level pressure (SLP) data from 13 surface observation stations in Tianjin, China. The daily and monthly series of the two pressures were tested for homogeneity with the RHtestsV5 software package and corrected by using the surface air temperature data as a reference. The results showed that 5 and 3 of the 13 stations had significant breakpoints in their SAP and SLP data, respectively, mainly caused by station relocation. Quantile matching adjustments showed that both pressures were dominated by positive deviation corrections and adjustments, with probability densities > 0.2 concentrated in the ranges 0.02 to 1.80 and −0.02 to 1.64 hPa. Comparison of the variances and trends of the two pressures before and after adjustment showed that homogeneity correction can greatly reduce the influence of abnormal discrete pressure data and make the long-term trends of the series more reasonable. Taking Baodi station (54525), which has the most significant correction results, as an example, the trend amplitude of the adjusted SAP and SLP was increased by 0.316 and 0.294 hPa (10 yr)−1 (95% confidence level), respectively, clearly weakening the sudden reduction induced in the two pressure series by the relocation of this station. Comparison with similar products showed that the adjusted data were better than those from the China Meteorological Administration. Therefore, the reliability of the surface pressure data and the processing techniques have been improved.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-9043-8
  • Forecasts of MJO Events during DYNAMO with a Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean
           Model: Sensitivity to Cumulus Parameterization Scheme
    • Abstract: An operational weather forecast model, coupled to an oceanic model, was used to predict the initiation and propagation of two major Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) events during the dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) campaign period. Two convective parameterization schemes were used to understand the sensitivity of the forecast to the model cumulus scheme. The first is the Tiedtke (TDK) scheme, and the second is the Simplified Arakawa-Schubert (SAS) scheme. The TDK scheme was able to forecast the MJO-1 and MJO-2 initiation at 15- and 45-day lead, respectively, while the SAS scheme failed to predict the convection onset in the western equatorial Indian Ocean (WEIO). The diagnosis of the forecast results indicates that the successful prediction with the TDK scheme is attributed to the model capability to reproduce the observed intraseasonal outgoing longwave radiation-sea surface temperature (OLR-SST) relationship. On one hand, the SST anomaly (SSTA) over the WEIO was induced by surface heat flux anomalies associated with the preceding suppressed-phase MJO. The change of SSTA, in turn, caused boundary layer convergence and ascending motion, which further induced a positive column-integrated moist static energy (MSE) tendency, setting up a convectively unstable stratification for MJO initiation. The forecast with the SAS scheme failed to reproduce the observed OLR-SST-MSE relation. The propagation characteristics differed markedly between the two forecasts. Pronounced eastward phase propagation in the TDK scheme is attributed to a positive zonal gradient of the MSE tendency relative to the MJO center, similar to the observed, whereas a reversed gradient appeared in the forecast with the SAS scheme with dominant westward propagation. The difference is primarily attributed to anomalous vertical and horizontal MSE advection.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-9062-5
  • Targeted Observations for Improving Prediction of the NAO Onset
    • Abstract: Based on the viewpoint that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) has an intrinsic timescale of approximate two weeks and can be treated as an initial value problem, targeted observations for improving the prediction of the onset of NAO events are investigated by using the conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) method with a quasigeostrophic model. The results show that flow-dependent sensitive areas for the prediction of NAO onset are mainly located over North Atlantic and its upstream regions. Targeted observations over the main sensitive areas could improve NAO onset prediction in most cases (approximately 75%) due to reduced errors in anomalous eddy vorticity forcing (EVF) projection in the typical NAO mode. Moreover, a flow-independent sensitive area is determined based on the winter climatological flow, which is located over North America and its adjacent ocean. The NAO onset prediction can also be improved by targeted observations over the flow-independent sensitive area, but the skill improvement is somewhat lower than that derived from observations over the flow-dependent sensitive area. The above results indicate that targeted observations over sensitive areas identified by the CNOP method can help to improve the onset prediction of NAO events.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-9053-6
  • Elevation Influence on Rainfall and a Parameterization Algorithm in the
           Beijing Area
    • Abstract: Using a high-density automatic weather stations (AWS) dataset of hourly rainfall observations, the present study investigates the relationship between rainfall and elevation in the Beijing area, and further proposes a rainfall amount dependent parameterized algorithm considering the elevation effect on rainfall on hourly timescale. The parameterization equation is defined as a segmented nonlinear model, which calculates the mountain rainfall as a function of valley rainfall amount. Results show that there exists an evident enhancement of rainfall amount by elevation effect in the Beijing area. In particular, larger rainfall amount is generally found in higher mountains, especially for slight rain and moderate rain. Furthermore, six representative station pairs located in valleys and on mountains respectively are selected to estimate the values of optimal parameters in the parameterization equation. The parameterization algorithm of elevation dependence can produce a reduction in the root-mean-square error and obtain a much closer mountain rainfall total to the observations compared with those using no elevation dependence. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of rainfall is more realistic and accurate in mountainous terrain when elevation dependence is considered. This study helps to understand the variability of rainfall with complex terrain in the Beijing area, and gives a possible way to parameterize rainfall-elevation relationship on hourly timescale.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-9072-3
  • Improved Calculation of Turbulence Parameters Based on Six Tropical
           Cyclone Cases: Implication to Wind Turbine Design in Typhoon-Prone Areas
    • Abstract: In view of the absence or insufficiency of tropical cyclone (TC) turbulence parameters in current design standards of wind turbines, in this paper, TC turbulence parameter models with roughness length involved are developed based on six landfall TCs observed from meteorological towers located on various underlying surfaces, so as to provide references for the wind turbine design under TC conditions. Firstly, the roughness length values are examined in order to reduce the effect on turbulence parameters of the various underlying surfaces. On this basis, the reference turbulence intensity is normalized by the roughness length. The related turbulence parameters are parameterized, including the turbulence standard deviation and the turbulence spectrum; and the turbulence parameters available under TC conditions for turbulence turbine design are presented finally. Comparisons of the wind parameter models presented in this paper with those used in current turbine design standards suggest that the former can represent TC characteristics more accurately. In order to withstand TCs, we suggest that the turbulence parameter models recommended in this paper be included in future wind turbine design standards under TC conditions.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-8174-2
  • Forecasting Different Types of Convective Weather: A Deep Learning
    • Abstract: A deep learning objective forecasting solution for severe convective weather (SCW) including short-duration heavy rain (HR), hail, convective gusts (CG), and thunderstorms based on numerical weather prediction (NWP) data was developed. We first established the training datasets as follows. Five years of severe weather observations were utilized to label the NCEP final (FNL) analysis data. A large number of labeled samples for each type of weather were then selected for model training. The local temperature, pressure, humidity, and winds from 1000 to 200 hPa, as well as dozens of convective physical parameters, were taken as predictors in our model. A six-layer convolutional neural network (CNN) model was then built and trained to obtain optimal model weights. After that, the trained model was used to predict SCW based on the Global Forecast System (GFS) forecast data as input. The performances of the CNN model and other traditional methods were compared. The results show that the deep learning algorithm had a higher classification accuracy on HR and hail than support vector machine, random forests, and other traditional machine learning algorithms. The objective forecasts by use of the deep learning algorithm also showed better forecasting skills than the subjective forecasts by the forecasters. The threat scores (TSs) of thunderstorm, HR, hail, and CG were increased by 16.1%, 33.2%, 178%, and 55.7%, respectively. The deep learning forecast model is currently used in the National Meteorological Center of China to provide guidance for the operational SCW forecasting over China.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-8162-6
  • Relationship between Extreme Precipitation and Temperature in Two
           Different Regions: The Tibetan Plateau and Middle-East China
    • Abstract: The change of extreme precipitation with temperature has regional characteristics in the context of global warming. In this study, radiosonde data, co-located rain gauge (RG) observations, and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) products are used to explore the relationship between extreme precipitation intensity and near-surface temperature in Middle-East China (MEC) and the eastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) during 1998–2012. The results show that extreme precipitation intensity increases with increasing temperature at an approximate Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) rate (i.e., water vapor increases by 7% as temperature increases by 1°C based on the C-C equation) in MEC and TP, but the rate of increase is larger in TP than in MEC. This is probably because TP (MEC) is featured with deep convective (stratiform) precipitation, which releases more (less) latent heat and strengthens the convection intensity on a shorter (longer) timescale. It is also found that when temperature is higher than 25°C (15°C) in MEC (TP), the extreme precipitation intensity decreases with rise of temperature, suggesting that the precipitation intensity does not always increase with warming. In this case, the limited atmospheric humidity and precipitable water could be the primary factors for the decrease in extreme precipitation intensity at higher temperatures.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-8181-3
  • Asymmetry of Atmospheric Responses to Two-Type El Niño and La
           Niña over Northwest Pacific
    • Abstract: The mechanism for asymmetric atmospheric responses to the central Pacific (CP) El Niño and La Niña over the western North Pacific (WNP) is studied in this paper. The negative anomalies of rainfall over the key region of WNP are explained by diagnosing the column-integrated equations of moisture and moist static energy (MSE). It is revealed that the nonlinear advection of moist enthalpy is critical to introduce negative rainfall anomalies over the region. The anomalous easterly (westerly) in La Niña (CP El Niño) causes negative advection of anomalous moist enthalpy, inducing negative heating anomaly and an anticyclone anomaly in the WNP, which weakens (strengthens) the cyclone (anticyclone) in La Niña (CP El Niño). The MSE budget analysis shows a larger nonlinear term in CP El Niño than in eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño, inconsistent with the amplitudes of sea surface temperature anomalies. The reason is that the nonlinear term transforms to positive above 700 hPa in EP El Niño, offsetting the negative advection below 700 hPa and thus making the nonlinear term smaller. The nonlinear term is negative at low levels in CP El Niño, resulting in a larger nonlinear term. The stronger precipitation anomalies in the WNP during EP El Niño can be attributed to the linear moist enthalpy advection. The mean easterly wind at mid levels causes a larger (smaller) positive moist enthalpy advection in CP (EP) El Niño, due to a larger (smaller) moist enthalpy gradient, resulting in a positive (negative) linear moist enthalpy advection, which weakens (strengthens) the negative precipitation anomalies in the key region.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-9022-0
  • Radiometric Cross-Calibration for Multiple Sensors with the Moon as an
           Intermediate Reference
    • Abstract: The instrument cross-calibration is an effective way to assess the quality of satellite data. In this study, a new method is proposed to cross-calibrate the sensors among satellite instruments by using a RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) model and Apollo sample reflectance in reflective solar bands (RSBs). The ROLO model acts as a transfer radiometer to bridge between the instruments. The reflective spectrum of the Apollo sample is used to compensate for the difference in the instrument’s relative spectral responses (RSRs). In addition, the double ratio between the observed lunar irradiance and the simulated lunar irradiance is used to reduce the difference in instrument lunar viewing and illumining geometry. This approach is applied to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on board three satellites, respectively. The mean difference between MODIS and SeaWiFS is less than 3.14%, and the difference between MODIS and ALI is less than 4.75%. These results indicate that the proposed cross-calibration method not only compensates for the RSR mismatches but also reduces the differences in lunar observation geometry. Thus, radiance calibration of any satellite instrument can be validated with a reference instrument bridged by the moon.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-9008-y
  • Fengyun-3D MERSI True Color Imagery Developed for Environmental
    • Abstract: Many techniques were developed for creating true color images from satellite solar reflective bands, and the so-derived images have been widely used for environmental monitoring. For the newly launched Fengyun-3D (FY-3D) satellite, the same capability is required for its Medium Resolution Spectrum Imager-II (MERSI-II). In processing the MERSI-II true color image, a more comprehensive processing technique is developed, including the atmospheric correction, nonlinear enhancement, and image splicing. The effect of atmospheric molecular scattering on the total reflectance is corrected by using a parameterized radiative transfer model. A nonlinear stretching of the solar band reflectance is applied for increasing the image contrast. The discontinuity in composing images from multiple orbits and different granules is eliminated through the distance weighted pixel blending (DWPB) method. Through these processing steps, the MERSI-II true color imagery can vividly detect many natural events such as sand and dust storms, snow, algal bloom, fire, and typhoon. Through a comprehensive analysis of the true color imagery, the specific natural disaster events and their magnitudes can be quantified much easily, compared to using the individual channel data.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13351-019-9028-7
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