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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 112 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Climate Change Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access  
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate Summary of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 66)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Developments in Atmospheric Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access  
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mathematics of Climate and Weather Forecasting     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 134)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Nīvār     Open Access  
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access  
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal  
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Cryosphere Discussions (TCD)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weather     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access  
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal of Meteorological Research
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 2095-6037 - ISSN (Online) 2198-0934
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2656 journals]
  • Sustained Decadal Warming Phase in the Southwestern Indian Ocean since the
           Mid-1990s
    • Abstract: Regardless of the slowdown in global warming during the hiatus period, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the southwestern Indian Ocean (SWIO) have experienced sustained decadal warming for more than two decades since the mid-1990s. The SWIO SSTs warmed steadily during 1996–2016, causing a warming hot spot of 0.4 K decade−1 in a large region east of Madagascar. An upper-layer heat budget analysis indicated that heat advection by ocean currents was the greatest contributor to the warming of the SWIO SSTs. The existence of an anticyclonic geostrophic current along the western boundary of the SWIO tended to maintain such warming by transporting warmer water from the west into the SWIO region. In addition, net positive heat transport by ocean currents also occurred at the southern boundary of the SWIO as the climatological northward transport of cold water from the Southern Ocean weakened. This reduction in northward ocean currents at the surface was caused by local wind stress changes, leading to a southward Ekman current. Below the surface, an anticyclonic geostrophic current pattern existed around the warming center near the southeastern SWIO, which reduced the transport of cold waters from the Southern Ocean and warmed the SWIO. These processes near the two boundaries formed a self-sustaining positive feedback mechanism and favored the maintenance of sustained warming in the SWIO. More attention is needed to analyze the sustained long-lasting warming in the SWIO, as it is a unique phenomenon occurring under the background of the ongoing global warming.
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
       
  • An Initialization Scheme for Weak Tropical Cyclones in the South China Sea
    • Abstract: Variations in the initial structure of tropical cyclones (TCs) inevitably affect prediction results; however, the bogus model cannot accurately describe the structure of a weak tropical cyclone with increased initial field resolution. This study aims to construct a model to improve the prediction of weak TC in southern China. Based on the ECMWF 0.1° analysis data, several vortices were filtered out from tropical depressions and tropical storms in 2018 and 2019 to represent a weak TC reservoir in the South China Sea. For different simulation objects, filtered vortices were combined with the TC environmental field to form ensemble members. The observed TC information was assimilated for simulating TCs Bebinca, Mun, and Ewiniar to verify the feasibility of the proposed model, based on the Global/Regional Assimilation and Prediction Enhanced System (GRAPES) 9-km model developed by the Guangzhou Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology. The results show that the initialization scheme of the weak tropical cyclone model improved the intensity prediction of the TC by 26.81% (Bebinca), 18.65% (Mun), and 47.00% (Ewiniar), compared with the control experiment. Because typhoon intensity forecasting has not notably improved for many years, this scheme has certain scientific and operational significance.
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
       
  • Shortened Duration of Global Warming Slowdowns with Elevated Greenhouse
           Gas Emissions
    • Abstract: Continuous emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols in the last 160 years have resulted in an increasing trend of global mean surface temperatures (GMSTs). Due to interactions with natural variability, rates of the combined anthropogenically and naturally induced warming trends are characterized by significant slowdowns and speedups on decadal timescales. Here, by analyzing observed and model-simulated data, we investigate how the duration of these episodes will change with different strengths of GHG and aerosol forcing. We found that the duration of warming slowdowns can be more than 30 yr with a slower rate of anthropogenic emissions but would shorten to about 5 yr with a higher one. This duration reduction depends on both the magnitude of the climate response to anthropogenic forcing and the strength of the internal variability. Moreover, the warming slowdowns can still occur even towards the end of this century under high emissions scenarios but with significantly shortened duration.
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
       
  • Synchronous Characteristics of Precipitation Extremes in the Yangtze and
           Murray-Darling River Basins and the Role of ENSO
    • Abstract: The floods caused by the extreme precipitation in the Yangtze River basin (YRB) and Murray-Darling River basin (MDRB), the largest basins in China and Australia, have significant impacts on the society and regional economies. Based on the spatial-temporal analysis of the daily precipitation extremes (DPEs) during 1982–2016, we found that for both basins, the whole-basin-type DPEs have the highest proportion and a synchronous DPE interannual variation characteristic exists in the two basins, with the 3-yr running correlation coefficient of the annual DPE days (DPEDs) reaching almost 0.7 (significant at the 0.01 level). The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which is one of the most significant climate disturbance factors in the world, plays an important role in modulating the variability of the DPEs in the two basins. Singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis revealed that both the YRB and the MDRB’s whole-basin-type DPEs are closely coupled with the procedure that the preceding winter eastern Pacific (EP)-type El Niño faded to a central Pacific (CP)-type La Niña. This means that the DPEs in the YRB and MDRB may synchronously occur more frequently when the above process occurs. Owing to the atmosphere-ocean interaction from the east-west dipole sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly pattern, the atmospheric circulation disturbance exhibits a pattern in which the equatorial eastern Pacific region is a mass source anomaly with a higher pressure, drier air, and weaker convection, while the equatorial western Pacific region is a mass sink anomaly with a lower pressure, wetter air, and stronger convection. Moreover, two wave trains that originated from the tropical western Pacific were found to extend to the YRB and MDRB. The interaction between the wave train’s interphase dynamics and water vapor transport disturbance results in the ascent conditions and enhanced water vapor transport, which leads to the synchronous occurrence of DPEs in the YRB and MDRB on an interannual scale.
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
       
  • Interdecadal Variation of the Atmospheric Heat Source over the Tibetan
           Plateau and Surrounding Asian Monsoon Region: Impact on the Northern
           Hemisphere Summer Circulation
    • Abstract: We use 71-yr (1948–2018) reanalysis data to investigate the interdecadal variation in the atmospheric heat source (Q1) over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding Asian monsoon region (AMTP) and its effect on the Northern Hemisphere summer circulation. The large-scale circulation driven by Q1 over the AMTP is characterized by a center of convergent (divergent) or low (high) potential wind function in the lower (upper) troposphere. Q1 over the AMTP shows a clear interdecadal variation (with positive-negative-positive phases) and these three phases correspond to the time periods 1948–1972, 1973–2005, and 2006–2018, respectively. The thermal circulation has a corresponding interdecadal variation as a response to the interdecadal variation in Q1. An enhanced Q1 leads to an increase in the conversion of the total potential energy to non-divergent wind kinetic energy via the divergent wind velocity. The maximum conversion occurs in the tropopause. The primary thermal forcing for Q1 is produced by the intense, large volume precipitation of the summer monsoon. This induces a response in the large-scale circulation, leading to large-scale divergence patterns. The synergistic effects of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) influence Q1 over the AMTP, which is ultimately responsible for the modulation of variations in the global divergent circulation. The global divergent circulation in summer is therefore essentially a direct thermodynamic circulation driven by the strong Q1 over the AMTP.
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
       
  • Different Impacts of Madden-Julian Oscillation on Winter Rainfall over
           Southern China
    • Abstract: Winter rainfall over southern China is usually enhanced when Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is active over the Indian Ocean, but it can be weakened under certain conditions. Here, the diversity of MJO impacts on winter rainfall and its mechanisms are explored by using scenarios of enhanced and suppressed rainfall anomalies over southern China when MJO is active over the Indian Ocean. The combined effects of low-frequency background moisture and intraseasonal winds are the major contributors to the different rainfall anomalies. Anomalous circulation in mid-high latitudes, especially on intraseasonal timescales, is almost opposite in the two scenarios, which can modulate the response of extratropical atmosphere to MJO heating and then induces the different circulations over southern China. In the enhanced scenario, mid-high latitudes of Eurasia and southern China are dominated by positive and negative sea level pressure anomalies, respectively. The southerly over southern China and the South China Sea induced by MJO heating promotes the anomalous moisture convergence and ascending motion over southern China, resulting in the enhanced rainfall. In the suppressed scenario, however, the circulation in mid-high latitudes does not favor rainfall over southern China and leads to the northerly response to MJO heating over southern China, which enhances moisture divergence and weakens rainfall over southern China.
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
       
  • Impacts of Steering Flows with Different Timescales on the Track of
           Typhoon Sanba (2012)
    • Abstract: Typhoon Sanba (2012), the strongest tropical cyclone (TC) of the year worldwide, moved northward almost along 130° longitude during its lifetime and passed through different background flows from low to high latitudes. The steering flows with different timescales for Sanba are retrieved by using the NCEP reanalysis data with the total wind field separated into: a mean state, an interannual component, an intraseasonal component, and a synoptic component. Our analysis indicates that the intraseasonal timescale wave train (WT) with east-west oriented circulations made the largest contribution to the movement of Sanba. The effects of the environmental steering with different timescales on Sanba’s movement are investigated with numerical simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In the control simulation, total fields from the NCEP reanalysis are used as initial and boundary conditions, and the northward motion of Sanba is well captured. In sensitivity experiments, each of the intraseasonal and interannual components is removed one at a time. The steering vectors associated with these timescales can explain their influences on the movement of Sanba in the experiments. Vorticity budget analyses indicate that the horizontal vorticity advection made the largest contribution to the movement of the storm.
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
       
  • Spatial and Temporal Variability of Drought Patterns over the Continental
           United States from Observations and Regional Climate Models
    • Abstract: The aim of this study is to analyze the spatial and temporal structure of drought over the continental United States (CONUS) and their teleconnection at different timescales from observations and climate models. We use the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at 12- and 24-month timescales as the drought index. Spatial patterns of drought regimes are delineated by using the principal component analysis (PCA) while the temporal characteristics of the variability of each drought pattern and teleconnection with climate indices are analyzed by using the wavelet analysis. Wavelet coherence of the drought pattern and four climate indices: El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are analyzed. The results show that major drought patterns are located over the Northwest, South, Upper Midwest, and East regions. The spatial pattern of the drought regimes is similar for the 12- and 24-month timescale drought. ENSO influences the drought over West and South at decadal timescales throughout the study period (1950–2015) while intermittent significant coherence is observed at interannual timescale. The coherence of NAO and PDO with SPEI-12 is decreased during recent decades. Generally, regional climate model (RCM)-simulated drought patterns are more localized in a smaller area over the region compared to the spatial extent of observed drought patterns. Power spectra of seasonal to interannual variability (2–5-yr period) of all four drought patterns from RCM simulations are similar to those from the observations. However, at larger periodicities (decadal variations) among-RCM spread increases with increasing periods.
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
       
  • Retrieval of Oceanic Total Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Water
           from Fengyun-3D Microwave Sounding Instruments
    • Abstract: Fengyun-3D (FY-3D) satellite is the latest polar-orbiting meteorological satellite launched by China and carries 10 instruments onboard. Its microwave temperature sounder (MWTS) and microwave humidity sounder (MWHS) can acquire a total of 28 channels of brightness temperatures, providing rich information for profiling atmospheric temperature and moisture. However, due to a lack of two important frequencies at 23.8 and 31.4 GHz, it is difficult to retrieve the total precipitable water vapor (TPW) and cloud liquid water path (CLW) from FY-3D microwave sounder data as commonly done for other microwave sounding instruments. Using the channel similarity between Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) advanced technology microwave sounder (ATMS) and FY-3D microwave sounding instruments, a machine learning (ML) technique is used to generate the two missing low-frequency channels of MWTS and MWHS. Then, a new dataset named as combined microwave sounder (CMWS) is obtained, which has the same channel setting as ATMS but the spatial resolution is consistent with MWTS. A statistical inversion method is adopted to retrieve TPW and CLW over oceans from the FY-3D CMWS. The intercomparison between different satellites shows that the inversion products of FY-3D CMWS and Suomi NPP ATMS have good consistency in magnitude and distribution. The correlation coefficients of retrieved TPW and CLW between CMWS and ATMS can reach 0.95 and 0.85, respectively.
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
       
  • Assessing the Influence of Aerosol on Radiation and Its Roles in Planetary
           Boundary Layer Development
    • Abstract: A comprehensive measurement of planetary boundary layer (PBL) meteorology was conducted at 140 and 280 m on a meteorological tower in Beijing, China, to quantify the effect of aerosols on radiation and its role in PBL development. The measured variables included four-component radiation, temperature, sensible heat flux (SH), and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) at 140 and 280 m, as well as PBL height (PBLH). In this work, a method was developed to quantitatively estimate the effect of aerosols on radiation based on the PBLH and radiation at the two heights (140 and 280 m). The results confirmed that the weakened downward shortwave radiation (DSR) on hazy days could be attributed predominantly to increased aerosols, while for longwave radiation, aerosols only accounted for around one-third of the enhanced downward longwave radiation. The DSR decreased by 55.2 W m−2 on hazy days during noontime (1100–1400 local time). The weakened solar radiation decreased SH and TKE by enhancing atmospheric stability, and hence suppressed PBL development. Compared with clean days, the decreasing rates of DSR, SH, TKE, and PBLH were 11.4%, 33.6%, 73.8%, and 53.4%, respectively. These observations collectively suggest that aerosol radiative forcing on the PBL is exaggerated by a complex chain of interactions among thermodynamic, dynamic, and radiative processes. These findings shed new light on our understanding of the complex relationship between aerosol and the PBL.
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
       
  • Improvement of an Extreme Heavy Rainfall Simulation Using Nudging
           Assimilation
    • Abstract: From 21 to 22 July 2012, Beijing and its surrounding areas suffered from an extreme precipitation event that was unprecedented relative to the past 61 years, and the event caused 79 deaths and reported direct economic losses of 11.64 billion Yuan. However, current models have difficulty to simulate the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of such events. Therefore, improved simulations of these extreme precipitation processes are needed. In this study, nudging methods, including grid nudging (GN) and spectral nudging (SN), and more accurate surface type data retrieved from remote sensing were used in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate this extreme precipitation case. When the default city underlay surface of the WRF model was replaced by a more accurate urban surface (NU), the precipitation intensity could be better simulated, but the peak moment of precipitation seriously lagged. Although the peak precipitation intensity simulated by the GN experiment was weak, the simulated precipitation time was basically consistent with the observations. Using GN in only the outside domain could better simulate precipitation peaks, while using GN in both the inside and outside domains could better simulate the spatial distribution characteristics of precipitation. Additionally, the precipitation from GN could be better simulated than that from SN. Overall, the two nudging methods could contribute to better simulations of this case because the nudging methods could improve the simulations of 500-hPa geopotential height, 850-hPa water vapor transport, and low-level weather systems, which are the key factors in adjusting the spatial and temporal distributions of precipitation. This study is the basis for the investigation of the mechanism and attribution of extreme precipitation processes, and the results are of great significance for promoting understanding of and mitigating disasters caused by extreme precipitation.
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
       
  • Assimilation of Radar and Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Data Using WRF-3DVar
           Combined with the Physical Initialization Method—A Case Study of a
           Mesoscale Convective System
    • Abstract: Radar data, which have incomparably high temporal and spatial resolution, and lightning data, which are great indicators of severe convection, have been used to improve the initial field and increase the accuracies of nowcasting and short-term forecasting. Physical initialization combined with the three-dimensional variational data assimilation method (PI3DVar_rh) is used in this study to assimilate two kinds of observation data simultaneously, in which radar data are dominant and lightning data are introduced as constraint conditions. In this way, the advantages of dual observations are adopted. To verify the effect of assimilating radar and lightning data using the PI3DVar_rh method, a severe convective activity that occurred on 5 June 2009 is utilized, and five assimilation experiments are designed based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The assimilation of radar and lightning data results in moister conditions below cloud top, where severe convection occurs; thus, wet forecasts are generated in this study. The results show that the control experiment has poor prediction accuracy. Radar data assimilation using the PI3DVar_rh method improves the location prediction of reflectivity and precipitation, especially in the last 3-h prediction, although the reflectivity and precipitation are notably overestimated. The introduction of lightning data effectively thins the radar data, reduces the overestimates in radar data assimilation, and results in better spatial pattern and intensity predictions. The predicted graupel mixing ratio is closer to the distribution of the observed lightning, which can provide more accurate lightning warning information.
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
       
  • Corrigendum
    • Abstract: This corrigendum is to report a figure error in Xiao et al. (2020) entitled “Impact of FY-3D MWRI radiance assimilation in GRAPES 4DVar on forecasts of Typhoon Shanshan.” In Xiao et al. (2020), the green lines for CTL2 and CTL3 in Figs. 8b, c were mistakenly plotted the same as that (CTL1) in Fig. 8a. Now, they are corrected in the figure (Figs. 8b, c) below; i.e., the green lines are different now.
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
       
  • Impacts of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Vertical Structure on Haze Pollution
           Observed by Tethered Balloon and Lidar
    • Abstract: In this paper, the characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) vertical structure over the North China Plain (NCP) during a comprehensive observation experiment conducted during 15–21 December 2018 were investigated. Observational data were obtained with a large tethered balloon, Doppler wind lidar, and ground-level instruments. The maximum concentration of PM2.5 exceeded 200 µg m−3, and the ratio of PM2.5/PM10 was approximately 0.4 (its maxi-mum was approximately 0.8) during the whole observation period, indicating the explosive growth of dominant fine-mode aerosols in the winter heating season. Elevated concentrations of pollutants decreased the solar irradiance received by the ground, resulting in lower temperature at ground level. Our results illustrate three distinct types of vertical profiles: Type 1 (convective state)—the concentration of PM2.5 decreased nearly linearly with increase of the height below approximately 600 m; Type 2 (stable state)—the PM2.5 concentration sharply decreased from the ground to approximately 200 m; and Type 3 (multilayer structure)—some pollutants were suspended aloft in the upper air layer. Diurnal evolution of the vertical profiles of PM2.5 and their relationship with the changes in meteorological factors were identified. From daytime to nighttime, the vertical profiles evolved from Type 1 to Type 2 or Type 3. All the 33 vertical PM2.5 profiles that we obtained showed a strong relationship with elements of the ABL structure, such as the distributions of winds, the inversion layer, and turbulence activities. A light-wind layer and weak turbulence activity, especially within the inversion layer, contributed greatly to the accumulation of pollutants. Vertical PM2.5 concentration patterns were also greatly affected by local ground-level emission sources and regional transport processes.
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
       
  • Dynamic Response of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa to Climate
           Change in the Liaohe Delta Wetland
    • Abstract: Because of its unique geographical location and ecological function, the Liaohe Delta Wetland is important in maintaining regional ecological balance and security. Monitoring and evaluating changes in the wetland are therefore of great importance. We used medium- and high-resolution satellite data, meteorological station data, and site measurement data to analyze changes in the area and spatial distribution of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa in the Liaohe Delta Wetland from 1998 to 2017, as well as their growth response to the climate change. The results showed that during 1998–2017, the areas of both P. australis and S. salsa wetlands alternated through periods of decreasing, increasing, and then decreasing trends. The annual change in the area and spatial distribution range of S. salsa fluctuated more than that of P. australis. The annual variation of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in P. australis wetland showed an upward trend from 1998 to 2017. The area of P. australis cover that was improved, unchanged, and decreased accounted for 81.8%, 12.3%, and 5.9%, respectively, of the total area; evaporation and wind speed were the main meteorological factors affecting the NDVI; and contribution rates of the climate change and human activities to the NDVI were 73.2% and 26.8%, respectively. The area with vegetation cover being mainly S. salsa that was improved, unchanged, and decreased accounted for 63.3%, 18.3%, and 18.4%, respectively, of the total area; and no meteorological factors significantly affected the NDVI of S. salsa in the region. The interaction between vegetation growth and meteorological factors may help to explain the increasing trend in vegetation cover. The improvement in wetland vegetation also led to carbon sequestration and an increase in sequestration capacity.
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
       
  • Contributions of Local and Remote Atmospheric Moisture Fluxes to East
           China Precipitation Estimated from CRA-40 Reanalysis
    • Abstract: China Meteorological Administration (CMA) recently released its 40-yr (1979–2018) global Chinese reanalysis (CRA-40) dataset. To assess performance of the CRA-40 data in quantifying the regional water cycle, contributions of local and remote atmospheric moisture fluxes to precipitation in East China derived from CRA-40 are compared with those derived from the ECMWF reanalysis version 5 (ERA-5). Observed precipitation and evaporation data are also used for validation. As for mean precipitation, CRA-40 matches the observation better in winter and spring than in summer, with a larger wet bias (1.41 mm day−1) in summer than that in ERA-5 (0.97 mm day−1), particularly over South China. The conservation of atmospheric water vapor over East China measured by CRA-40 is comparable to that of ERA-5. Both reanalyses show a dominant role of the remote moisture transport in the East China precipitation. In comparison, the annual precipitation induced by the moisture influx from the west of the study domain in CRA-40 is 80 mm less than that in ERA-5. The recycling ratio of annual mean precipitation in CRA-40 is approximately 21.1%, slightly larger than that in ERA-5 (20.1%). The maximum difference of each hydrological component between the two datasets appears in the summer horizontal moisture influx (3.57 × 107 kg s−1; ERA-5 is larger) and winter runoff (1.84 × 107 kg s−1; CRA-40 is larger). CRA-40 shows better performance than ERA-5 in capturing the interannual variability of precipitation over East China, as evinced by a higher correlation coefficient with the observation (0.77 versus 0.33). The trend of summer precipitation since 2011 is better reproduced in CRA-40. Both reanalyses show prominent contribution of the southern moisture influx to the interannual variation of precipitation. This study demonstrates the reliability of CRA-40 in representing the hydrological cycle over East China and provides a useful reference for future application of CRA-40 in water cycle studies.
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
       
  • Multi-Model Ensemble Projection of Precipitation Changes over China under
           Global Warming of 1.5 and 2°C with Consideration of Model Performance and
           Independence
    • Abstract: A weighting scheme jointly considering model performance and independence (PI-based weighting scheme) is employed to deal with multi-model ensemble prediction of precipitation over China from 17 global climate models. Four precipitation metrics on mean and extremes are used to evaluate the model performance and independence. The PI-based scheme is also compared with a rank-based weighting scheme and the simple arithmetic mean (AM) scheme. It is shown that the PI-based scheme achieves notable improvements in western China, with biases decreasing for all parameters. However, improvements are small and almost insignificant in eastern China. After calibration and validation, the scheme is used for future precipitation projection under the 1.5 and 2°C global warming targets (above preindustrial level). There is a general tendency to wetness for most regions in China, especially in terms of extreme precipitation. The PI scheme shows larger inhomogeneity in spatial distribution. For the total precipitation PRCPTOT (95th percentile extreme precipitation R95P), the land fraction for a change larger than 10% (20%) is 22.8% (53.4%) in PI, while 13.3% (36.8%) in AM, under 2°C global warming. Most noticeable increase exists in central and east parts of western China.
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
       
  • Integration, Quality Assurance, and Usage of Global Aircraft Observations
           in CRA
    • Abstract: This paper presents a detailed description of integration, quality assurance procedure, and usage of global aircraft observations for China’s first generation global atmospheric reanalysis (CRA) product (1979–2018). An integration method named “classified integration” is developed. Aircraft observations from nine different sources are integrated into the Integrated Global Meteorological Observation Archive from Aircraft (IGMOAA), a new dataset from the National Meteorological Information Center (NMIC) of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA). IGMOAA consists of global aircraft temperature, wind, and humidity data from the surface to 100 hPa, extending from 1973 to the present. Compared with observations assimilated in the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) of NCEP, the observation number of IGMOAA increased by 12.9% between 2010 and 2014, mainly as a result of adding more Chinese Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) data. Complex quality control procedures for aircraft observations of NCEP are applied to detect data errors. Observations are compared with ERA-Interim reanalysis from 1979 to 2018 to investigate data quality of different types and aircraft, and subsequently to develop the blacklists for CRA. IGMOAA data have been assimilated in CRA in 2018 and are real-time updated at the CMA Data-as-a-Service (CMADaaS) platform. For CRA, the fits to observations improve over time. From 1994 to 2018, root-mean-square error (RMSE) of observations relative to CRA background decreases from 1.8 to 1.0°C for temperature above 300 hPa, and from 4.5 to 3 m s−1 for zonal wind. The RMSE for humidity appears to exhibit an apparent seasonal variation with larger errors in summer and smaller ones in winter.
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
       
  • Prediction of the Western North Pacific Subtropical High in Summer without
           Strong ENSO Forcing
    • Abstract: The western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) is one of the deterministic predictors of the East Asian summer climate, and a better prediction of the WNPSH favors more reasonable forecast of the East Asian summer climate. This study focuses on seasonal prediction of the WNPSH during neutral summers without strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forcing, and explores the associated predictable sources, using the one-month lead time retrospective forecasts from the Ensembles-Based Predictions of Climate Changes and Their Impacts (ENSEMBLES) project during 1960–2005. The results indicate that the ENSEMBLES atmosphere-ocean-land coupled models exhibit considerable prediction skill for the WNPSH during neutral summers, with successful reproduction of the WNPSH in the majority of neutral summers. The anomalous WNPSH in neutral summers, which corresponds to cyclonic/anticyclonic anomalies in the lower troposphere, is highly correlated with an east-west dipole local sea surface temperature (SST) distribution over the tropical WNP, suggesting an intimate local air-sea coupling. Further diagnosis of the local SST-rainfall relationship and surface heat flux indicates that the anomalous local SST plays an active role in modulating the variation of the WNPSH during neutral summers, rather than passively responding to the atmospheric change. The local SST anomalies and relevant air-sea coupling over the tropical WNP are reasonably well reproduced in the model predictions, and could act as primary predictable sources of the WNPSH in neutral summers. This could aid in forecasting of the East Asian rainband and associated disaster mitigation planning.
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
       
  • Changes in Vegetation and Assessment of Meteorological Conditions in
           Ecologically Fragile Karst Areas
    • Abstract: Meteorological conditions have an important impact on changes of vegetation in ecologically fragile karst areas. This study aims to explore a method for quantitative evaluation of these meteorological conditions. We analyzed the changing trend of vegetation during 2000–2018 and the correlations between vegetation changes and various meteorological factors in karst rocky areas of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Key meteorological factors in vegetation areas with varying degrees of improvement were selected and evaluated at seasonal timescale. A quantitative evaluation model of comprehensive influences of meteorological factors on vegetation was built by using the partial least-square regression (PLS). About 91.45% of the vegetation tended to be improved, while only the rest 8.55% showed a trend of degradation from 2000 to 2018. Areas with evident vegetation improvement were mainly distributed in the middle and northeast, and those with obvious vegetation degradation were scattered. Meteorological factors affecting vegetation were significantly different among the four seasons. Overall, high air humidity, small temperature difference in spring and autumn, and low daily minimum temperature and air pressure were favorable conditions. Low temperature in winter as well as high temperature in summer and autumn were unfavorable conditions. The Climate Vegetation Index (CVI) model was established by PLS using the maximum, minimum, and average temperatures; vapor pressure; rainfall; and air pressure as key meteorological factors. The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) was well fitted by the CVI model, with the average coefficient of determination (r2) and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.856 and 0.042, respectively. Finally, an assessment model of comprehensive meteorological conditions was built based on the interannual differences in CVI. The meteorological conditions in the study area in 2014 were successfully evaluated by combining the model and selected seasonal key meteorological factors.
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
       
 
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