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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 113 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access  
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Developments in Atmospheric Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access  
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 144)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Nīvār     Open Access  
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access  
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal  
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access  
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weather     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access  
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology
Number of Followers: 5  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2662-1495 - ISSN (Online) 2662-1509
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2658 journals]
  • Vertical profile of the clear-sky aerosol direct radiative effect in an
           Alpine valley, by the synergy of ground-based measurements and radiative
           transfer simulations

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      Abstract: Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in Earth’s radiative balance, directly interacting with solar radiation or influencing cloud formation and properties. In order to assess their radiative impact, it is necessary to accurately characterise their optical properties, together with their spatial and vertical distribution. The information on aerosol vertical profile is often scarce, in particular in mountainous, complex terrains. This study presents the first attempt to evaluate the shortwave aerosol direct radiative effect in the Aosta Valley, a mountainous region in the Northwestern Italian Alps. Ground-based, remote sensing instruments (a sky radiometer and an Automated Lidar Ceilometer) are used to derive two descriptions of the aerosol properties and vertical distribution: a first, more accurate description, which includes the whole spectral information about the aerosol extinction coefficient, phase function and single scattering albedo; a second, more approximate one, which only relies on spectrally constant values of aerosol single scattering albedo and asymmetry factor. This information is used as input for radiative transfer simulations, which allow to estimate, in cloudless conditions, the shortwave aerosol direct radiative effect and the vertical profile of the instantaneous heating rates in the lower layers of the atmosphere. The simulations obtained with the two descriptions do not differ significantly: they highlight a strong surface dimming (between − 25 and − 50 W m− 2) due to the presence of aerosol, with a considerable radiative absorption inside the atmospheric column (around + 30 W m− 2), and an overall small cooling effect for the Earth-atmospheric system. The absorption of solar radiation within the atmospheric column due to aerosol leads to instantaneous heating rates up to 1.5 K day− 1 in the tropospheric layers below 6 km a.s.l. These results show that, in some conditions, the shortwave aerosol direct radiative effect can be considerable even in this Alpine environment, usually considered as relatively pristine (yearly average PM10 concentration about 20 μg m− 3).
      PubDate: 2021-10-12
       
  • A network of water vapor Raman lidars for improving heavy precipitation
           forecasting in southern France: introducing the WaLiNeAs initiative

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      Abstract: Extreme heavy precipitation events (HPEs) pose a threat to human life but remain difficult to predict because of the lack of adequate high frequency and high-resolution water vapor (WV) observations in the low troposphere (below 3 km). To fill this observational gap, we aim at implementing an integrated prediction tool, coupling network measurements of WV profiles, and a numerical weather prediction model to precisely estimate the amount, timing, and location of rainfall associated with HPEs in southern France (struck by ~ 7 HPEs per year on average during the fall). The Water vapor Lidar Network Assimilation (WaLiNeAs) project will deploy a network of 6 autonomous Raman WV lidars around the Western Mediterranean to provide measurements with high vertical resolution and accuracy to be assimilated in the French Application of Research to Operations at Mesoscale (AROME-France) model, using a four-dimensional ensemble-variational approach with 15-min updates. This integrated prediction tool is expected to enhance the model capability for kilometer-scale prediction of HPEs over southern France up to 48 h in advance. The field campaign is scheduled to start early September 2022, to cover the period most propitious to heavy precipitation events in southern France. The Raman WV lidar network will be operated by a consortium of French, German, Italian, and Spanish research groups. This project will lead to recommendations on the lidar data processing for future operational exploitation in numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems.
      PubDate: 2021-09-24
       
  • Time-lapse photography and its teaching usefulness in planetary boundary
           layer meteorology

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      Abstract: In this paper, the author shares her experiences in producing time-lapse movies dedicated to teaching introductory level meteorology and micro-meteorology, intended as dynamical phenomena unfolding in time. In this work, the process of producing teaching-grade meteorological time lapses is discussed, along with indications based on literature and the author’s experience to obtain evocative results using easily accessible, low-cost off-the-shelf equipment. Ideas on use of time-lapse meteorological and micro-meteorological movies to build teaching presentations are also given, with practical suggestions on improving students learning experience, to allow them developing their own scientific voice, and hopefully to spark enduring passions on a subject often considered dry and cold.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42865-021-00039-4
       
  • The 2020 Arctic ozone depletion and signs of its effect on the ozone
           column at lower latitudes

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      Abstract: The present study discusses the effect of the ozone depletion that occurred over the Arctic in 2020 on the ozone column in central and southern Europe by analysing a data set obtained from ground-based measurements at six stations placed from 79 to 42°N. Over the northernmost site (Ny-Ålesund), the ozone column decreased by about 45% compared to the climatological average at the beginning of April, and its values returned to the normal levels at the end of the month. Southwards, the anomaly gradually reduced to nearly 15% at 42°N (Rome) and the ozone minimum was detected with a delay from about 6 days at 65°N to 20 days at 42°N. At the same time, the evolution of the ozone column at the considered stations placed below the polar circle corresponded to that observed at Ny-Ålesund, but at 42°–46°N, the ozone column turned back to the typical values at the end of May. This similarity in the ozone evolutional patterns at different latitudes and the gradually increasing delay of the minimum occurrences towards the south allows the assumption that the ozone columns at lower latitudes were affected by the phenomenon in the Arctic. The ozone decrease observed at Aosta (46°N) combined with predominantly cloud-free conditions resulted in about an 18% increase in the erythemally weighted solar ultraviolet irradiance reaching the Earth’s surface in May.
      PubDate: 2021-08-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s42865-021-00040-x
       
  • High-resolution climatic characterization of air temperature in the urban
           canopy layer

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      Abstract: Urbanized environments are of greater relevance because of the high and still rapidly increasing percentage of the world population living in and around cities and as the preferred location of human activities of every type. For this reason, much attention is paid to the urban climate worldwide. Among the UN 2030 17 Sustainable Development Goals, at least one concerns resilient cities and climate action. The WMO supports these goals promoting safe, healthy, and resilient cities by developing specially tailored integrated urban weather, climate, and environmental services. An unavoidable basis for that is an improved observational capability of urban weather and climate, as well as high-resolution modeling. For both the former and the latter, and of primary importance for the latter, urban meteorological surface networks are undoubtedly a very useful basis. Nevertheless, they are often unfit for detailed urban climatological studies and they are generally unable to describe the air temperature field in the urban canopy layer (UCL) with a spatial resolution which is sufficient to satisfy the requirements set by several professional activities and especially for local adaptation measures to climate change. On the other hand, remote sensing data from space offer a much higher spatial resolution of the surface characteristics, although the frequency is still relatively lower. A useful climatological variable from space is, for instance, the land surface temperature (LST), one of the WMO Essential Climate Variables (ECV). So often used to describe the Surface Urban Heat Islands (S-UHI), LST has no simple correlation with UCL air temperature, which is the most crucial variable for planning and management purposes in cities. In this work, after a review of correlation and interpolation methods and some experimentation, the cokriging methodology to obtain surface air temperature is proposed. The implemented methodology uses high quality but under-sampled in situ measurements of air temperature at the top of UCL, obtained by using a dedicated urban network, and satellite-derived LST. The satellite data used are taken at medium (1 × 1 km2) resolution from Copernicus Sentinel 3 and at high resolution (30 × 30 m2) from NASA-USGS Landsat 8. This fully exportable cokriging-based methodology, which also provides a quantitative measure of the related uncertainties, was tested and used to obtain medium to high spatial resolution air temperature maps of Milan (Italy) and the larger, much populated, but also partly rural, surrounding area of about 6000 km2. Instantaneous as well as long period mean fields of fine spatially resolved air temperature obtained by this method for selected weather types and different Urban Heat Island configurations represent an important knowledge improvement for the climatology of the urban and peri-urban area of Milan. It finds application not only in more detailed urban climate studies but also in monitoring the effects of urban activities and for the assessment of adaptation and mitigation measures in the urban environment. Finally, the first set of interactive maps of medium–high resolution UCL air temperature was produced in the framework of the locally funded ClimaMi project and made freely available to urban authorities and professionals as an improved climatological basis for present and future plans and projects to be developed in the framework of the national and international adaptation and mitigation measures.
      PubDate: 2021-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s42865-021-00038-5
       
  • On the computation of ISO amplitude and frequency indices using a discrete
           wavelet transform model and application to the study of the annual cycle
           of ISO activity in Central Africa

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      Abstract: The role of the intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) in the tropical climate system has been widely investigated by researchers around the world. However for the better representation of ISOs in climate models, one of the greatest challenges remains the definition of suitable ISO-related metrics. As attempt to the definition of these ISO-related metrics, we proposed in this paper an algorithm for the computation of ISO intensity (ISOI) and ISO periods (ISOP) indices using a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) model. Then we used these indices to investigate the annual cycle of ISO activity in Central Africa (CA). The plots of spatial distribution of ISOI and ISOP show that both quantities exhibit strong month-to-month variations throughout the year. In fact, the high values of ISOI are observed during December–May and lower values during June–November, while the ISOP values are high December–February and June–August and lower values during March–May and September–December. We also accessed the large-scale dynamics associated with the ISO activity and found that over the land, the incursions of the moisture flux from Atlantic and Indian basins are of great contribution in the annual variations of ISOI. Finally, we studied the impact of ISO on rainfall and showed that the influence of ISO on rainfall strongly varies throughout the year, with maximum impact during June and minimum impact during November.
      PubDate: 2021-08-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s42865-021-00035-8
       
  • ITALIAMETEO, ready to start'

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      PubDate: 2021-07-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s42865-021-00034-9
       
  • EUMETNET opens to microwave radiometers for operational thermodynamical
           profiling in Europe

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      PubDate: 2021-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s42865-021-00033-w
       
  • The predictive capacity of the high resolution weather research and
           forecasting model: a year-long verification over Italy

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      Abstract: Numerical models are operationally used for weather forecasting activities to reduce the risks of several hydro-meteorological disasters. The overarching goal of this work is to evaluate the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model predictive capabilities over the Italian national territory in the year 2018, in two specific cloud resolving configurations. The validation is carried out with a fuzzy logic approach, by comparing the precipitation predicted by the WRF model, and the precipitation observed by the national network. The fuzzy logic technique, by considering different intensity thresholds, allows to identify the reliable spatial scales of the forecasts. The same approach is applied to evaluate the performances of COSMO-2I model, a state-of-the-art numerical model configuration used for operational activities. For the entire year, except for summer, the model predictive capabilities are high, with useful forecasts for structures of medium intensities down to O(10 km) length scales. In summer the skills decrease mainly because of localization errors. The work aims to provide a robust evaluation of the forecast performances of another convection permitting operational meteorological models currently available in Italy.
      PubDate: 2021-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s42865-021-00032-x
       
  • Changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration over Lokok and Lokere
           catchments in Uganda

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      Abstract: This study analysed long-term (1948–2016) changes in gridded (0.25° × 0.25°) Princeton Global Forcing (PGF) precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) data over Lokok and Lokere catchments. PGF-based and station datasets were compared. Trend and variability were analysed using a nonparametric technique based on the cumulative sum of the difference between exceedance and non-exceedance counts of data. Seasonal (March-April-May (MAM), June-July-August (JJA), September-October-November (SON), December-January-February (DJF)) and annual precipitation exhibited negative trends (p < 0.05). Positive anomalies in precipitation occurred in the 1950s as well as in the early 2000s till 2016. Negative anomalies existed between 1960 and 2000. Both seasonal and annual PET mainly exhibited increasing trend with alternating positive and negative anomalies for the entire period, except in the southern region. The H0 was rejected (p < 0.05) for SON PET in the North and South of the study area. The H0 was rejected (p < 0.05) for DJF PET in the North. However, H0 was not rejected (p > 0.05) for MAM, JJA and annual PET. Positive and negative correlations were observed between PGF and station precipitation varying from one location to another. The PGF-based PET were lower than the observed PET at Kotido by about 40%. Besides, a close agreement was noticeable between PGF-based and MODIS PET from May to November. This showed the need to improve on the quality of PGF data in reproducing the observed climatic data in areas with low meteorological stations density. Nevertheless, the findings from this study are relevant for planning of predictive adaptation to the effects of climate variability on the water resources management applications. Impacts of human factors and climate change on the hydrology of the study area should be quantified in future research studies.
      PubDate: 2021-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s42865-021-00031-y
       
  • Real-time river level estimation based on variations of radar
           reflectivity—a case study of the Quitandinha River watershed,
           Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

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      Abstract: The real-time warning for flash floods represents one of the major challenges for monitoring centers and civil defenses due to the short time frame in which such phenomena occur. That situation often takes place particularly in mountainous regions where high slope rate favors an increase in the velocity of the water flow and it might generate conditions to impact the water level due to potential for provoking erosion, landslides, and debris flow. An initial one new and unique prototype of hydrometeorological relationship for real-time, site-tunable, water level for flash flood prediction is presented. Time variations of the reflectivity measured by horizontal polarization radar are evaluated and correlated to generate the local estimate of the elevation of the Quitandinha River water level for the next hour. The proposal of this relationship is not intended to act as a simplified hydraulic model but to characterize if a critical elevation of the water level could be obtained from the radar reflectivity data and consequently whether the flash flooding event should be expected. We verified that the proposed relationship that tended to underestimate the water level peaks, however, qualitatively was initially able to indicate if a flood event could occur or not in the next hour. The expectation related to this initial relationship is to improve the obtained results in order to be used as a tool for decision-making in relation to the issuance of warnings delivered by environmental monitoring centers.
      PubDate: 2021-02-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s42865-021-00030-z
       
  • The role of tropospheric ozone in flagging COVID-19 pandemic transmission

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      Abstract: COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, affected millions of people worldwide causing hundreds of thousands of related fatalities. It is crucial to understand why the virus transmission seems to spread more easily in some regions than others. The residuals, with respect to the modeled COVID-19 per-day hospitalized patients in intensive care unit, are correlated to the meteorological and air-pollutant variables in four major metropolitan areas in Italy during a strict lockdown implemented by the Italian government, making the analysis independent from socio-economic factors. The results show that COVID-19 pandemic–related infections are slowed down by higher tropospheric ozone concentrations and eased by the atmospheric particulate. We quantitatively assessed that higher levels of tropospheric ozone, already proven effective against viruses and microbial contaminants, play a role in flagging COVID-19 pandemic transmission. Because the tropospheric ozone production is depending, among others, by air-quality and sunlight, this can explain why the virus is spreading in different ways.
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42865-020-00026-1
       
  • Progress in extreme events forecasting, the case of the flood of November
           1994 in Piedmont (Italy)

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      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42865-020-00029-y
       
  • A hindcast study of the Piedmont 1994 flood: the CIMA Research Foundation
           hydro-meteorological forecasting chain

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      Abstract: Between the 4th and the 6th of November 1994, Piedmont and the western part of Liguria (two regions in north-western Italy) were hit by heavy rainfalls that caused the flooding of the Po, the Tanaro rivers and several of their tributaries, causing 70 victims and the displacement of over 2000 people. At the time of the event, no early warning system was in place and the concept of hydro-meteorological forecasting chain was in its infancy, since it was still limited to a reduced number of research applications, strongly constrained by coarse-resolution modelling capabilities both on the meteorological and the hydrological sides. In this study, the skills of the high-resolution CIMA Research Foundation operational hydro-meteorological forecasting chain are tested in the Piedmont 1994 event. The chain includes a cloud-resolving numerical weather prediction (NWP) model, a stochastic rainfall downscaling model, and a continuous distributed hydrological model. This hydro-meteorological chain is tested in a set of operational configurations, meaning that forecast products are used to initialise and force the atmospheric model at the boundaries. The set consists of four experiments with different options of the microphysical scheme, which is known to be a critical parameterisation in this kind of phenomena. Results show that all the configurations produce an adequate and timely forecast (about 2 days ahead) with realistic rainfall fields and, consequently, very good peak flow discharge curves. The added value of the high resolution of the NWP model emerges, in particular, when looking at the location of the convective part of the event, which hit the Liguria region.
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42865-020-00023-4
       
  • Post-processing rainfall in a high-resolution simulation of the 1994
           Piedmont flood

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      Abstract: In November 1994, a catastrophic flooding event occurred in the Piedmont region in Northwestern Italy over a period of about 3 days. The large time and spatial scales associated with this event prompted a number of reanalysis studies to assess the forecast skill of the models. This paper investigates another forecasting technique using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with post-processing techniques: the analog ensemble (AnEn) and the convolutional neural network (CNN). The complex topography found in this region presents a challenge for numerical weather prediction (NWP) models especially for events such as these, where the orography is crucial in determining the distribution and amount of precipitation. By applying these post-processing techniques to WRF model output, significant improvements were observed in the accumulated precipitation fields during the flooding event in both techniques, although improvements using the CNN were at the expense of underestimating the highest precipitation.
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42865-020-00028-z
       
  • Changes in air quality and human mobility in the USA during the COVID-19
           pandemic

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      Abstract: The first goal of this study is to quantify the magnitude and spatial variability of air quality changes in the USA during the COVID-19 pandemic. We focus on two pollutants that are federally regulated, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). NO2 and PM2.5 are both primary and secondary pollutants, meaning that they can be emitted either directly into the atmosphere or indirectly from chemical reactions of emitted precursors. NO2 is emitted during fuel combustion by all motor vehicles and airplanes. PM2.5 is emitted by airplanes and, among motor vehicles, mostly by diesel vehicles, such as commercial heavy-duty diesel trucks. Both PM2.5 and NO2 are also emitted by fossil-fuel power plants, although PM2.5 almost exclusively by coal power plants. Observed concentrations at all available ground monitoring sites (240 and 480 for NO2 and PM2.5, respectively) were compared between April 2020, the month during which the majority of US states had introduced some measure of social distancing (e.g., business and school closures, shelter-in-place, quarantine), and April of the prior 5 years, 2015–2019, as the baseline. Large, statistically significant decreases in NO2 concentrations were found at more than 65% of the monitoring sites, with an average drop of 2 parts per billion (ppb) when compared to the mean of the previous 5 years. The same patterns are confirmed by satellite-derived NO2 column totals from NASA OMI, which showed an average drop in 2020 by 13% over the entire country when compared to the mean of the previous 5 years. PM2.5 concentrations from the ground monitoring sites, however, were not significantly lower in 2020 than those in the past 5 years and were more likely to be higher than lower in April 2020 when compared with those in the previous 5 years. After correcting for the decreasing multi-annual concentration trends, the net effect of COVID-19 at the ground stations in April 2020 was a reduction in NO2 concentrations by − 1.3ppb and a slight increase in PM2.5 concentrations by + 0.28 μg/m3. The second goal of this study is to explain the different responses of these two pollutants, i.e., NO2 was significantly reduced but PM2.5 was nearly unaffected, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The hypothesis put forward is that the shelter-in-place measures affected people’s driving patterns most dramatically, thus passenger vehicle NO2 emissions were reduced. Commercial vehicles (generally diesel) and electricity demand for all purposes remained relatively unchanged, thus PM2.5 concentrations did not drop significantly. To establish a correlation between the observed NO2 changes and the extent to which people were actually sheltering in place, thus driving less, we used a mobility index, which was produced and made public by Descartes Labs. This mobility index aggregates cell phone usage at the county level to capture changes in human movement over time. We found a strong correlation between the observed decreases in NO2 concentrations and decreases in human mobility, with over 4 ppb decreases in the monthly average where mobility was reduced to near 0 and around 1 ppb decrease where mobility was reduced to 20% of normal or less. By contrast, no discernible pattern was detected between mobility and PM2.5 concentrations changes, suggesting that decreases in personal-vehicle traffic alone may not be effective at reducing PM2.5 pollution.
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42865-020-00019-0
       
  • Cyclogenesis in the lee of the Alps: a review of theories

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      Abstract: Although the phenomenon has been known, and investigated, as early as the nineteenth century, the interest in understanding Alpine lee cyclogenesis (often called Genoa cyclogenesis) has grown since the middle twentieth century, when it was realized that the largest fraction of cyclones affecting the central-eastern Mediterranean and later Eastern Europe originated in the area south of the Alps, more often in the Gulf of Genoa. Forecasting this type of cyclogenesis remained a challenging task until at least the mid-late 1980s, even after the development of the earlier NWP models, which failed in predicting this phenomenon, lacking the ability to adequately represent the orographic forcing. Monitoring and understanding of cyclogenesis in the lee of the Alps was the main objective of field projects, the most important being GARP-ALPEX in 1982. The following years were full of ideas and theories about this phenomenon, which is representative of orographic cyclogenesis in other regions of the world. The main steps in understanding the complex phenomenon of lee cyclogenesis, with particular reference to the Alps, are outlined here, focusing on theoretical explanations.
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42865-020-00021-6
       
  • Reforecasting the November 1994 flooding of Piedmont with a
           convection-permitting model

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      Abstract: The Piedmont region in Italy was affected by a heavy rainfall event in November 1994. On the 4th convective cells involved the coastal mountains of the region. On the 5th and early 6th, there were abundant precipitations, related to orographic lift and low-level convergences, in the Alpine area. This study aims to evaluate whether a convection-permitting model provides more valuable information with respect to past numerical experiments. Results for the 4th of November show that the high-resolution model successfully reconstructs the structure of precipitation systems on the downstream side of the coastal mountains. As regards the precipitations of the 5th of November, no added value is found. However, we provide evidence of the anomalously intense transport of moist air from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic and postulate how such transport is responsible for reducing the stability of the flow impinging on the Alps.
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42865-020-00017-2
       
  • Assessment of the potential role of atmospheric particulate pollution and
           airborne transmission in intensifying the first wave pandemic impact of
           SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 in Northern Italy

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      Abstract: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which exploded in Wuhan (Hebei Region, China) in late 2019, has later spread around the world, causing pandemic effects on humans. During the first wave of the pandemic, Italy, and especially its Northern regions around the Po Valley, faced severe consequences in terms of infected individuals and casualties (more than 31,000 deaths and 255,000 infected people by mid-May 2020). While the spread and effective impact of the virus is primarily related to the lifestyles and social habits of the different human communities, environmental and meteorological factors also play a role. Among these, particulate pollution may directly impact the human respiratory system or act as virus carrier, thus behaving as potential amplifying factor in the pandemic spread of SARS-CoV-2. Enhanced levels of PM2.5 and PM10 particles in Northern Italy were observed over the 2-month period preceding the virus pandemic spread. Threshold levels for PM10 (< 50 μg/m3) were exceeded on 20–35 days over the period January–February 2020 in many areas in the Po Valley, where major effects in terms of infections and casualties occurred, with levels in excess of 80 μg/m3 occasionally observed in the 1–3 weeks preceding the contagious activation around February 25, 2020. Threshold values for PM2.5 indicated in WHO air quality guidelines (< 25 μg/m3) were exceeded on more than 40 days over the period January–February 2020 in large portions of the Po Valley, with levels up to 70 μg/m3 observed in the weeks preceding the contagious activation. In this paper, PM10 particle measurements are compared with epidemiologic parameters’ data. Specifically, a statistical analysis is carried out to correlate the infection rate, or incidence of the pathology, the mortality rate, and the case fatality rate with PM concentrations. The study considers epidemiologic data for all 110 Italian provinces, as reported by the Italian Statistics Institute, over the period 20 February–31 March 2020. Corresponding PM10 concentrations covering the period 15–26 February 2020 were collected from the network of air quality monitoring stations run by different regional and provincial environment agencies. The case fatality rate is found to be highly correlated to the average PM10 concentration, with a correlation coefficient of 0.89 and a slope of the regression line of (6.7 ± 0.3) × 10−3 m3/μg, which implies a doubling (from 3 to 6%) of the mortality rate of infected patients for an average PM10 concentration increase from 22 to 27 μg/m3. Infection and mortality rates are also found to be correlated with PM10 concentrations, with correlation coefficients being 0.82 and 0.80, respectively, and the slopes of the regression lines indicating a doubling (from 1 to 2‰) of the infection rate and a tripling (from 0.1 to 0.3‰) of the mortality rate for an average PM10 concentration increase from 25 to 29 μg/m3. Considerations on the exhaled particles’ sizes, their concentrations and residence times, the transported viral dose and the minimum infective dose, in combination with PM2.5 and PM10 pollution measurements and an analytical microphysical model, allowed assessing the potential role of airborne transmission through virus-laden PM particles, in addition to droplet and the traditional airborne transmission, in conveying SARS-CoV-2 in the human respiratory system. In specific circumstances which can be found in indoor environments, the number of small potentially infectious particles coalescing on PM2.5 and PM10 particles is estimated to exceed the number of infectious particles needed to activate COVID-19 infection in humans.
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42865-020-00024-3
       
  • Reforecast of the November 1994 flood in Piedmont using ERA5 and COSMO
           model: an operational point of view

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      Abstract: The scope of this work is to assess the progresses made in the warning alert system of Piedmont since the 1994 flood. We used the COSMO model at high horizontal resolution forced by ERA5 re-forecast to simulate the November 1994 event, performing also a simple sensitivity test regarding the parameterization of convection. We compared the results with the original forecast and with the available observations, in order to understand how the emission of the alert would have been affected using the current operational system.
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42865-020-00027-0
       
 
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