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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 151)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Oxford Open Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Climate Change and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nīvār     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  

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Frontiers in Climate
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-9553
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Different types of drought under climate change or geoengineering:
           Systematic review of societal implications

    • Authors: Erin Coughlan de Perez, Ignacio Fuentes, Christopher Jack, Andrew Kruczkiewicz, Izidine Pinto, Elisabeth Stephens
      Abstract: Climate change and solar geoengineering have different implications for drought. Climate change can “speed up” the hydrological cycle, but it causesgreater evapotranspiration than the historical climate because of higher temperatures. Solar geoengineering (stratospheric aerosol injection), on the other hand, tends to “slow down” the hydrological cycle while reducing potential evapotranspiration. There are two common definitions of drought that take this into account; rainfall-only (SPI) and potential-evapotranspiration (SPEI). In different regions of Africa, this can result in different versions of droughts for each scenario, with drier rainfall (SPI) droughts under geoengineering and drier potential-evapotranspiration (SPEI) droughts under climate change. However, the societal implications of these different types of drought are not clear. We present a systematic review of all papers comparing the relationship between real-world outcomes (streamflow, vegetation, and agricultural yields) with these two definitions of drought in Africa. We also correlate the two drought definitions (SPI and SPEI) with historical vegetation conditions across the continent. We find that potential-evapotranspiration-droughts (SPEI) tend to be more closely related with vegetation conditions, while rainfall-droughts (SPI) tend to be more closely related with streamflows across Africa. In many regions, adaptation plans are likely to be affected differently by these two drought types. In parts of East Africa and coastal West Africa, geoengineering could exacerbate both types of drought, which has implications for current investments in water infrastructure. The reverse is true in parts of Southern Africa. In the Sahel, sectors more sensitive to rainfall-drought (SPI), such as reservoir management, could see reduced water availability under solar geoengineering, while sectors more sensitive to potential-evapotranspiration-drought (SPEI), such as rainfed agriculture, could see increased water availability under solar geoengineering. Given that the implications of climate change and solar geoengineering futures are different in different regions and also for different sectors, we recommend that deliberations on solar geoengineering include the widest possible representation of stakeholders.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • Lost in transformation: The Paris Agreement, the IPCC and the quest for
           national transformative change

    • Authors: Rolf Lidskog, Göran Sundqvist
      Abstract: The IPCC stated in its special report on global warming of 1. 5°C (SR15) that meeting the temperature target of the Paris Agreement requires rapid and far-reaching changes across all aspects of society. This is called a need for transformative change. However, what is meant by transformative change' What should be changed, and how should it be changed' These questions are explored in this paper, which is structured in three steps. First, it develops a conceptual meaning of transformative change that is centered on society. Then, it analyses how the IPCC in SR15 understands transformative change. The analysis finds that the proposed pathways to reach the targets of 1.5 and 2°C have a strong technical focus on energy supply, which makes broader and deeper transformative change almost unnecessary. This finding is related to the recently published IPCC report on mitigation. Even if institutional and socio-cultural dimensions of transformative change are better covered in this report, they are insufficiently integrated into the overall assessment of necessary transformative changes. Finally, it turns to the national level, analyzing Sweden's ambition to become the first fossil-free welfare society in the world. The analysis shows, in line with SR15, that Sweden has a restricted focus on changes in energy supply, making transformative change, such as restructuring the economic system and questioning consumption patterns, unnecessary. Based on this analysis of international (the IPCC) and national (Sweden) levels, this paper identifies a need for an elaborated, consistent and deeper understanding of transformative change. It concludes that to be relevant to countries' work to achieve ambitious climate targets, the IPCC should develop a more qualified understanding of transformative change, which requires a better integration of social science research.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • The influence of tropical basin interactions on the 2020–2022
           double-dip La Niña

    • Authors: Nahid A. Hasan, Yoshimitsu Chikamoto, Michael J. McPhaden
      Abstract: The recharge oscillator mechanism suggests that a strong El Niño event can trigger a following La Niña event that sometimes lasts for two or even three years through warm water volume preconditioning within the tropical Pacific. However, a prominent and persistent “double-dip” La Niña event appeared in the boreal winters of 2020/2021 and 2021/2022 without any significant El Niño preconditioning. Here we explore the possibility that tropical basin interactions may have initiated and helped to prolong La Niña conditions over the 2-year period 2020–2022. This period was preceded by a strong positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) during the boreal fall of 2019 that gave way to basin-scale warming in the Indian Ocean in early 2020 and a notable tropical Atlantic warming in the boreal winter of 2019/2020. Later, a strong Atlantic Niño developed in the boreal summer of 2021. Using composite analyses to characterize earlier double-dip La Niñas, we argue the unusual sequence of events in 2019–2021 in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans may have energized and sustained the 2020–2022 La Niña event without any significant warm water volume preconditioning within the tropical Pacific.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • Attribution of multi-annual to decadal changes in the climate system: The
           Large Ensemble Single Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (LESFMIP)

    • Authors: Doug M. Smith, Nathan P. Gillett, Isla R. Simpson, Panos J. Athanasiadis, Johanna Baehr, Ingo Bethke, Tarkan A. Bilge, Rémy Bonnet, Olivier Boucher, Kirsten L. Findell, Guillaume Gastineau, Silvio Gualdi, Leon Hermanson, L. Ruby Leung, Juliette Mignot, Wolfgang A. Müller, Scott Osprey, Odd Helge Otterå, Geeta G. Persad, Adam A. Scaife, Gavin A. Schmidt, Hideo Shiogama, Rowan T. Sutton, Didier Swingedouw, Shuting Yang, Tianjun Zhou, Tilo Ziehn
      Abstract: Multi-annual to decadal changes in climate are accompanied by changes in extreme events that cause major impacts on society and severe challenges for adaptation. Early warnings of such changes are now potentially possible through operational decadal predictions. However, improved understanding of the causes of regional changes in climate on these timescales is needed both to attribute recent events and to gain further confidence in forecasts. Here we document the Large Ensemble Single Forcing Model Intercomparison Project that will address this need through coordinated model experiments enabling the impacts of different external drivers to be isolated. We highlight the need to account for model errors and propose an attribution approach that exploits differences between models to diagnose the real-world situation and overcomes potential errors in atmospheric circulation changes. The experiments and analysis proposed here will provide substantial improvements to our ability to understand near-term changes in climate and will support the World Climate Research Program Lighthouse Activity on Explaining and Predicting Earth System Change.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T00:00:00Z
       
  • Evaluating carbon and water fluxes and stocks in Brazil under changing
           climate and refined regional scenarios for changes in land use

    • Authors: Aline Anderson de Castro, Celso von Randow, Rita de Cássia Silva von Randow, Francisco Gilney Silva Bezerra
      Abstract: Climate change and land-use change can alter the role of natural vegetation as a sink or source of atmospheric carbon. In this work, we evaluate the response of water and carbon fluxes and stocks in Brazilian biomes as a proxy for ecosystem services of regional climate regulation under two contrasting future scenarios: a sustainable development scenario, where some deforested areas are restored by vegetation regrowth combined with a low representative concentration pathway, and a pessimistic scenario, where there is still high deforestation rates and strong climate change. We used refined regional scenarios for land-use change in Brazil, together with climate projections of the HADGEM2-ES model for RCPs 2.6 and 8.5 to drive a land surface model and assess possible future impacts in surface fluxes. Our results show that drying climate and shifts of natural vegetation into anthropogenic land use might shift part of upperstory biomass into understory biomass, which can be more vulnerable to dry events. The simulations also show that climate change appears to drive most of the water balance changes compared to land-use change, especially over the Amazon.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T00:00:00Z
       
  • Assessing the impact of the recent warming in the East China Sea on a
           torrential rain event in northern Kyushu (Japan) in early July 2017

    • Authors: Atsuyoshi Manda, Satoshi Iizuka, Hisashi Nakamura, Takafumi Miyasaka
      Abstract: Sea surface temperature (SST) in the East China Sea (ECS) has undergone a rapid rise in recent decades, but the associated impact on extreme weather remains under debate. Here, using a cloud-permitting model, we assess the impact of the ECS warming observed since the 1980s on a torrential rain event that caused devastating floods and landslides in the Kyushu Island, western Japan, in July 2017. Without the increasing trends of SST and air temperature, the model cannot reproduce the observed extremely high amount of precipitation during the event, i.e.,>700 mm/12-h. The SST increase is found more influential in determining the precipitation amount. Without the ocean warming, increases in precipitable water and horizontal moisture transport due to the atmospheric warming would not lead to precipitation increase during this event. The change in the amount of precipitation can be largely explained by the change in the updraft intensity of the convective system. Higher SST suppresses downward surface sensible heat flux and enhances upward latent heat flux along the paths of air parcels flowing into the convective system in this case. This increases the equivalent potential temperature in the lower troposphere, which enhances the convective available potential energy in the lower troposphere, leading to intensification of the convective system and thereby the increase of precipitation. The findings of this case study suggest an important role of the warming ECS in the intensification of torrential rain events around Japan and the necessity of further assessment of the role of the ocean warming in the torrential rains.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T00:00:00Z
       
  • Enhancing climate services design and implementation through
           gender-responsive evaluation

    • Authors: Tatiana Gumucio, James Hansen, Edward R. Carr, Sophia Huyer, Brian Chiputwa, Elisabeth Simelton, Samuel Partey, Saroja Schwager
      Abstract: Assessing and responding to gender inequalities, and promoting women's empowerment, can be critical to achieving the goals of climate services, such as improved climate resilience, productivity, food security and livelihoods. To this end, our paper seeks to provide guidance to rural climate service researchers, implementing organizations, and funders on gender-responsive evaluation of climate services, including key questions to be asked and appropriate methodology. We draw on case studies of rural climate services in Mali, Rwanda and Southeast Asia to illustrate how gender-responsive evaluations have framed and attempted to answer questions about climate information needs, access to information and support through group processes, and contribution of climate services to empowerment. Evaluation of how group participatory processes can enable women's and men's demand for weather and climate information can help close knowledge gaps on gender equity in access to climate services. Quantitative methods can rigorously identify changes in demand associated with varying interventions, but qualitative approaches may be necessary to help assess the nuances of participatory communication processes. Furthermore, evaluation of how women's and men's information needs differ according to their roles and responsibilities in distinct climate-sensitive decisions can help assess gender inequities in climate services use. Evaluation that critically considers the local normative and institutional environment influencing empowerment can help identify pathways for climate services to contribute to women's empowerment. Qualitative and mixed method methodologies can be helpful for assessing the normative and institutional changes upon which empowerment depends. Although evaluations are often conducted too late to inform the design of time-bound projects, they can contribute to improvements to climate services if results are shared widely, if implementers and funders consistently factor evidence and insights from prior evaluations into the design of new initiatives, and if ongoing climate service initiatives conduct preliminary evaluations regularly to support mid-course adjustments.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T00:00:00Z
       
  • The role of financial inclusion and FinTech in addressing climate-related
           

    • Authors: David Mhlanga
      Abstract: Individuals and enterprises have an increasing need for financial resources, which has led to the development of numerous financial instruments such as microfinance, insurance, and cash transfers, among other things. The number of development partners advocating for the use of these technologies to address disaster risks and climate change-related concerns is also increasing. With the rise in risk reduction needs and challenges associated with climate change, it's more important than ever to assess the effectiveness of various financial instruments (financial inclusion) in solving climate-related issues. The study used secondary data studied through document analysis to answer the question, what role does financial technology play in addressing the challenges or hazards associated with climate change in the Fourth Industrial Revolution' The results indicated that financial inclusion through FinTech could aid in the resilience of households, individuals, and companies in the case of a rapid climate event or the gradual effects of changing rainfall patterns, rising sea levels, or salter water incursion. Insurance, savings, credit, money transfers, and new digital distribution channels can all help victims of climate change and those in charge of dealing with the new environmental realities. As a result, the study advises that financial inclusion through FinTech be promoted as one of the channels that can aid in managing the risks of climate-related concerns and achieving sustainable development goals through development patterns, governments, and civil society.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T00:00:00Z
       
  • On the seasonal prediction and predictability of winter surface
           Temperature Swing Index over North America

    • Authors: Xiaosong Yang, Thomas L. Delworth, Liwei Jia, Nathaniel C. Johnson, Feiyu Lu, Colleen McHugh
      Abstract: The rapid day-to-day temperature swings associated with extratropical storm tracks can cause cascading infrastructure failure and impact human outdoor activities, thus research on seasonal prediction and predictability of extreme temperature swings is of huge societal importance. To measure the extreme surface air temperature (SAT) variations associated with the winter extratropical storm tracks, a Temperature Swing Index (TSI) is formulated as the standard deviation of 24-h-difference-filtered data of the 6-hourly SAT. The dominant term governing the TSI variability is shown to be proportional to the product of eddy heat flux and mean temperature gradient. The seasonal prediction skill of the winter TSI over North America was assessed using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's new seasonal prediction system. The locations with skillful TSI prediction show a geographic pattern that is distinct from the pattern of skillful seasonal mean SAT prediction. The prediction of TSI provides additional predictable climate information beyond the traditional seasonal mean temperature prediction. The source of the seasonal TSI prediction can be attributed to year-to-year variations of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Pacific Oscillation (NPO), and Pacific/North American (PNA) teleconnection. Over the central United States, the correlation skill of TSI prediction reaches 0.75 with strong links to observed ENSO, NPO, and PNA, while the skill of seasonal SAT prediction is relatively low with a correlation of 0.36. As a first attempt of diagnosing the combined predictability of the first-order (the seasonal mean) and second-order (TSI) statistics for SAT, this study highlights the importance of the eddy-mean flow interaction perspective for understanding the seasonal climate predictability in the extra tropics. These results point toward providing skillful prediction of higher-order statistical information related to winter temperature extremes, thus enriching the seasonal forecast products for the research community and decision makers.
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T00:00:00Z
       
  • Soil carbon stocks and nitrous oxide emissions of pasture systems in
           Orinoquía Region of Colombia: Potential for developing land-based
           greenhouse gas removal projects

    • Authors: Ciniro Costa Jr, Daniel Mauricio Villegas, Mike Bastidas, Natalia Matiz Rubio, Idupulapati Madhusudana Rao, Jacobo Arango
      Abstract: Improving grassland conditions under grazing has the potential not only to accumulate carbon in soils, but also to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal urine deposition. However, measurements in developing countries are still scarce. In the Orinoquia region, degraded permanent grasslands (PG) based on unimproved grasses are found due to extensive, inefficient grazing combined with annual burning of pastures. We hypothesized that, compared to PG, improved grasslands (IG) managed through rotational grazing of introduced, productive and deep-rooted pasture grass species promote soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and reduce N2O emission from urine deposited by grazing cattle. We determined SOC and N2O emissions from urine deposited on soils in an area of PG and in a 6.5 year-old IG area of Urochloa (Syn. Brachiaria) humidicola grass pasture in a beef cattle ranch in Orinoquía region (Colombia). In both areas, we sampled soil for chemical/physical analysis, and measured N2O emissions by simulating urine deposition over 21 days. We applied two-way analysis of variance considering pasture type and soil depth as fixed factors. Estimated SOC stocks (0-100 cm) were in the range of 224.8 tCha-1 for the PG and 259.0 tCha-1 for the IG, with a significant (p
      PubDate: 2022-09-13T14:43:41Z
       
  • Country-specific challenges to improving effectiveness, scalability and
           sustainability of agricultural climate services in Africa

    • Authors: James W. Hansen, Lorna Born, Elliott R. Dossou-Yovo, Caroline Mwongera, Mustapha A. Dalaa, Osman Tahidu, Anthony M. Whitbread, Dawit Solomon, Robert Zougmore, Stephen E. Zebiak, Tufa Dinku, Amanda Grossi
      Abstract: Climate services are playing an increasing role in efforts to build the resilience of African agriculture to a variable and changing climate. Efforts to improve the contribution of climate services to agriculture must contend with substantial differences in national agricultural climate services landscapes. Context-specific factors influence the effectiveness, scalability and sustainability of agricultural climate service, but in ways that are challenging to anticipate. In the context of six countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Senegal, Zambia), this paper addresses the need to consider differing national contexts when developing strategies to make agricultural climate services in sub-Saharan Africa more effective, scalable and sustainable. Based on authors' collective firsthand knowledge and a review of information from secondary sources, we identify key strengths and weaknesses of climate services relative to agriculture sector needs in the focus countries; and assess factors that have contributed to those differences. Focus countries differ substantially in areas such as the degree of public support, alignment of services with agricultural needs, service delivery channels, degree of decentralization, and public—private-sector balance. These differences have been driven largely by differing national policies, delivery capacity and external actors, but not by responsiveness to agricultural sector demands. Building on the analyses of country differences and their drivers, we then discuss four key opportunities to further strengthen the contribution of climate services to agriculture: (a) leveraging farmer demand to drive scaling and sustainability; (b) exploiting digital innovation within a diverse delivery strategy; (c) balancing public and private sector comparative advantage; and (d) embedding climate services in agricultural extension. For each of these opportunities, we consider how different country contexts can impact the potential effectiveness, scalability and sustainability of services; and how efforts to strengthen those services can account for context-specific drivers to manage the tradeoffs among effectiveness, scalability and sustainability.
      PubDate: 2022-09-13T00:00:00Z
       
  • From research to practice: Adapting agriculture to climate today for
           tomorrow in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Amanda Grossi, Tufa Dinku
      Abstract: Eighty percent of the world's agriculture is rainfed, making it highly vulnerable to climate fluctuations and stresses, such as those brought about by climate variability and change. Sub-Saharan Africa and Ethiopia in particular have experienced a significant increase in climate variability over the past decade, which has led to more frequent weather extremes such as floods and droughts. Because 85% of Ethiopia depends upon agriculture for its livelihoods, such rainfall shortages or excesses can impede food production, access to financial and natural assets, and the ability to recover in subsequent crop seasons. This means that climate variability in agriculture not only affects the availability of the food Ethiopians consume, but also the income of its smallholder farmers. Variability in rainfall and temperature can also have adverse effects on livestock and the pastoralists whose livelihoods depend upon it. Thus, all development planning and practice in the agriculture and related sectors need to take climate variability and long-term climate change into account. Climate services can contribute to the alleviation of a range of climate-sensitive development challenges, including agricultural production and food security. The Adapting Agriculture to Climate Today for Tomorrow (ACToday) approach of the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI), Columbia University, USA, aims to develop climate service solutions through enhancement of the availability and effectiveness of climate information in national policy, planning, management, and other decision-making processes in countries that are particularly dependent on agriculture and vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change. It targets improved food security, nutrition, environmental sustainability and economic outcomes in these countries by promoting the use of climate information and services to manage current climate risks, while laying the foundation for adaptation to future climatic conditions. In this Perspective, we share experiences from the implementation of the ACToday project and approach in Ethiopia, outlining its accomplishments and challenges. In doing so, we characterize best practices and pitfalls to avoid to ensure climate knowledge and information truly meet the needs of climate-informed decision making and climate-smart policy and planning. We also outline pragmatic guidance to ensure activities designed to evolve climate research into services are done so appropriately, responsibly, and sustainably to bridge the gap between those who produce climate information and those who ultimately use it.
      PubDate: 2022-09-13T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Recent advances in agrometeorological analysis techniques for
           crop monitoring in support of food security early warning

    • Authors: Tamuka Magadzire, Andrew Hoell, Catherine Nakalembe, Mphethe Tongwane
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Geochemical Negative Emissions Technologies: Part II. Roadmap

    • Authors: Cara N. Maesano, James S. Campbell, Spyros Foteinis, Veronica Furey, Olivia Hawrot, Daniel Pike, Silvan Aeschlimann, Paul L. Reginato, Daniel R. Goodwin, Loren L. Looger, Edward S. Boyden, Phil Renforth
      Abstract: Geochemical negative emissions technologies (NETs) comprise a set of approaches to climate change mitigation that make use of alkaline minerals to remove and/or permanently store carbon dioxide (CO2) as solid carbonate minerals or dissolved ocean bicarbonate ions. This roadmap accompanies the comprehensive review of geochemical NETs by the same authors and offers guidance for the development and deployment of geochemical NETs at gigaton per year (Gt yr.−1) scale. We lay out needs and high-priority initiatives across six key elements required for the responsible and effective deployment of geochemical NETs: (i) technical readiness, (ii) social license, (iii) demand, (iv) supply chains, (v) human capital, and (vi) infrastructure. We put forward proposals for: specific initiatives to be undertaken; their approximate costs and timelines; and the roles that various actors could play in undertaking them. Our intent is to progress toward a working consensus among researchers, practitioners, and key players about initiatives that merit resourcing and action, primarily focusing on the near-term.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Improved representativeness of simulated climate using natural units and
           monthly resolution

    • Authors: Heike Huebener, Ulrike Gelhardt, Jürgen Lang
      Abstract: There is a considerable discrepancy between the temporal and spatial resolution required by climate impact researchers, policy makers, and adaptation planners on the one hand and climate data providers on the other hand. While the spatial and temporal aggregation of climate data is necessary to increase the reliability and robustness of climate information, this often counteracts or even prohibits their use in adaptation planning. The problem is twofold (i.e., space and time) and needs to be approached accordingly. Climate impact research and adaptation planning are the domain of impact experts, politicians, and planners, rather than climate experts. Thus, besides the spatial and temporal resolution, information also needs to be provided on platforms and in data formats that are easily accessible, easy to handle, and easy to understand. We discuss possible steps toward bridging the gap using an example from the federal state Hesse (Germany) as illustration. We aggregate the climate data at a level of “natural units” and provide them as monthly data. We discuss the pros and cons of this kind of processed data for impact research and decision making. The spatial aggregation to “natural units” delivers suitable spatial aggregation, while maintaining physical geographic structures and their climatic characteristics. Within these “natural units,” single grid cell values are usable for climate impact analyses or decision making. The temporal resolution is monthly values, i.e., deviations of single month values for the scenario period from climatological monthly values in the (simulated) reference period. This resolution allows analyzing compound events or consecutive events on a monthly scale within a climatological (30-year) period.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • The “save the earth!” narrative creates a narrative trap for
           climate advocates

    • Authors: Frank N. Laird
      Abstract: The phrase “Save the Earth!” encapsulates a common narrative among climate advocates, one of environmentalists battling polluters to save Mother Earth from being despoiled. In this narrative the moral boundaries are clear and the stakes are apocalyptic, leaving no room for doubt or compromise. Nonetheless, the narrative has not been an effective one for climate activists. Most importantly, it does not lay out a path for overcoming the deeply institutionalized barriers to transforming a large sociotechnical system. Climate advocates need a new narrative, one that continues to stress decarbonizing the economy but also emphasizes adapting to climate change that is already in the pipeline and ensuring a just transition that does not harm the most vulnerable parts of the population nor frustrate the aspirations of people around the world who seek better lives for themselves. The burgeoning field of just energy transitions encompasses these concerns, but it too needs a new story, one that avoids the narrative traps that have hampered climate policy more generally.
      PubDate: 2022-09-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Drivers of rainfall trends in and around Mainland Southeast Asia

    • Authors: Nikolaos Skliris, Robert Marsh, Ivan D. Haigh, Melissa Wood, Joel Hirschi, Stephen Darby, Nguyen Phu Quynh, Nguyen Nghia Hung
      Abstract: Observational rain gauge/satellite and reanalysis datasets since the 1950s are evaluated for trends in mean and extreme rainfall in and around Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA). Rain gauge data indicate strong increases exceeding 50% in both annual mean precipitation and various extreme precipitation indices over Vietnam and the northwestern part of the peninsula since 1979. The remote influence of ENSO may partially explain the recent precipitation trend toward a more intense regional hydrological cycle, in response to predominant La Niña states over recent decades. Increasing precipitation in MSEA is also associated with increased monsoon intensity in southeast Asia and a northward shift of the monsoon activity center toward MSEA over 1979–2018. Warming-driven evaporation increases were obtained over the adjacent seas typically feeding precipitation over MSEA associated with a shift toward predominantly positive phases of the two major natural climate variability modes of the tropical Indian Ocean, namely the Indian Ocean Dipole and the Indian Ocean Basin Mode. A moisture budget analysis using ERA5 re-analysis data showed increasing oceanic moisture transports along the typical winter and summer moisture pathways toward the MSEA. However, results show that during summer the major part of increased moisture from the oceanic moisture sources ends up as precipitation over the oceanic regions adjacent to MSEA with ERA5 not being able to produce the observed positive trends in summer continental precipitation. On the other hand, ERA5 reveals pronounced increases in winter precipitation over the MSEA, in accordance with rain-gauge data, associated with strongly increasing transport of moisture originated from the western tropical Pacific and the South China Sea.
      PubDate: 2022-09-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Negative erosion and negative emissions: Combining multiple land-based
           carbon dioxide removal techniques to rebuild fertile topsoils and enhance
           food production

    • Authors: Ivan A. Janssens, Dries Roobroeck, Jordi Sardans, Michael Obersteiner, Josep Peñuelas, Andreas Richter, Pete Smith, Erik Verbruggen, Sara Vicca
      Abstract: Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) that increases the area of forest cover or bio-energy crops inherently competes for land with crop and livestock systems, compromising food security, or will encroach natural lands, compromising biodiversity. Mass deployment of these terrestrial CDR technologies to reverse climate change therefore cannot be achieved without a substantial intensification of agricultural output, i.e., producing more food on less land. This poses a major challenge, particularly in regions where arable land is little available or severely degraded and where agriculture is crucial to sustain people's livelihoods, such as the Global South. Enhanced silicate weathering, biochar amendment, and soil carbon sequestration are CDR techniques that avoid this competition for land and may even bring about multiple co-benefits for food production. This paper elaborates on the idea to take these latter CDR technologies a step further and use them not only to drawdown CO2 from the atmosphere, but also to rebuild fertile soils (negative erosion) in areas that suffer from pervasive land degradation and have enough water available for agriculture. This way of engineering topsoil could contribute to the fight against malnutrition in areas where crop and livestock production currently is hampered by surface erosion and nutrient depletion, and thereby alleviate pressure on intact ecosystems. The thrust of this perspective is that synergistically applying multiple soil-related CDR strategies could restore previously degraded soil, allowing it to come back into food production (or become more productive), potentially alleviating pressure on intact ecosystems. In addition to removing CO2 from the atmosphere, this practice could thus contribute to reducing poverty and hunger and to protection of biodiversity.
      PubDate: 2022-09-07T00:00:00Z
       
  • Corrigendum: Solar geoengineering modeling and applications for mitigating
           global warming: Assessing key parameters and the urban heat island
           influence

    • Authors: Alec Feinberg
      PubDate: 2022-09-05T00:00:00Z
       
  • Informality, violence, and disaster risks: Coproducing inclusive early
           warning and response systems in urban informal settlements in Honduras

    • Authors: Laura E. R. Peters, Aaron Clark-Ginsberg, Bernard McCaul, Gabriela Cáceres, Ana Luisa Nuñez, Jay Balagna, Alejandra López, Sonny S. Patel, Ronak B. Patel, Jamon Van Den Hoek
      Abstract: Anticipatory disaster risk reduction (DRR) is an essential human right for the ~1 billion people living in informal settlements who are disproportionately exposed to climate-related hazards due to their high vulnerability. Participatory approaches are recognized as being critical for effective and sustainable disaster prevention, mitigation, and preparation through to response, but research on how to coproduce anticipatory DRR with people living and working in informal settlements is scant. Their exclusion is even more pronounced in challenging contexts, such as those characterized by social-political fragility and violence. As a result, a significant portion of the global population is left behind in best practices tied to global DRR ambitions, with DRR actions working neither with nor for the people most at risk. The signal case of urban informal settlements controlled by territorial gangs in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, illustrates the need for new thinking on how to inclusively mitigate, prepare for, and respond to natural hazard-related disasters. Our research examines the coproduction of early warning systems linked with response capacities for floods and landslides through the case study of the international NGO GOAL's work across the city with a focus on nine urban informal settlements with high levels of territorial gang violence. We explore how GOAL navigated informality and violent conflict to support the early warning and response system as an inclusive social process rather than a technical exercise. We identify four cross-cutting strategies employed by GOAL in support of local vulnerability reduction and capacity building based on a local systems approach. This research breaks new ground in identifying how to bridge the gap between knowledge and action in designing inclusive and sustainable early warning and response systems together with the millions of people around the world affected by the intersection of informality, violence, and disaster risks.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31T00:00:00Z
       
 
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