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International Journal of Environment and Climate Change
Number of Followers: 28  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2581-8627
Published by SCIENCEDOMAIN international Homepage  [66 journals]
  • Standardized Precipitation Index Based Drought Assessment over the North
           Western Zone of Tamil Nadu, India

    • Authors: B. Santhoshkumar , N. K. Sathyamoorthy , V. Geethalakshmi , Ga. Dheebakaran , K. Boomiraj , N. Manikandan
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Drought is a natural disaster that tremendously affect the agriculture production and livelihood. Though the Tamil Nadu state is located at peninsular region of India and contributed from both the monsoons, the frequency of drought is high due to vagaries of monsoonal pattern. A study was conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University to assess the drought characteristics across the north western Agro Climatic Zone (ACZ) of Tamil Nadu using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) during the past 30 years (1991-2020). The study clearly indicated that the Salem district had high vulnerability to drought followed by Dharmapuri and Namakkal districts during the South West Monsoon (SWM), whereas the Namakkal had high vulnerability followed by Salem and Dharmapuri during North East Monsoon (NEM).
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102612
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Multivariate Analysis in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for Yield and
           Attributing Traits under Soil Salinity and Alkalinity in Haryana

    • Authors: Divya Phougat , Rajender Parshad Saharan , Ishwar Singh Panwar , Ajay Verma , Sheetal Choudhary
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Salt-affected soils could be used by improving and developing salt-tolerant genotypes depending upon the amount of genetic variation and salt stress response of adapted and donor sources of wheat. Salt stress affects 20% of global cultivable land and is increasing continuously owing to the change in climate and anthropogenic activities. Globally, saline soils cover 3.1% i.e. 397 mha of the total land area and around 6.74 mha area of India is affected due to salinity. Salinity stress negatively affects the growth and development of wheat leading to low grain yield and quality. A station varietal trial was conducted to identify salt-tolerant genotypes, wherein 24 genotypes including 4 checks, namely, KRL 19, WH 157, KRL 210 and KRL 283 were evaluated in 6 replications in 4.0 m x 1.20 m in RBD under natural saline patch (pH 8.5, ECe 4.2 dsm-1) at Research area of Wheat and Barley Section, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding and Department of Soil Science (pH 8.5, ECe 4.5 dsm-1), CCS HAU, Hisar during Rabi 2021-22. Observations were recorded for germination (%), days to heading, days to maturity, plant height (cm), tillers per meter row, 1000-grain weight (g), grain yield per plot (g/plot) and hectoliter weight (kg/hl). High positive correlation has been observed for 1000-GW (g) with GY/P (g/plot), PH (cm) with hectoliter weight (kg/hl). Non-significant correlation was observed between days to heading and germination with plant height and hectoliter weight. Clustering of genotypes based on Ward’s Euclidean method was done so that identical genotypes may grouped together; 24 genotypes were grouped into three distinct clusters. Hectolitre weight (kg/hl) expressed as point of dissection of studied traits as GY/P (g/plot), 1000-GW (g), DM and PH (cm) falls at one side and germination (%), DH and T/meter row lies at another side. Entries, namely, WH 1313 (59.6 q/ha), WH 1306 (54.9 q/ha) and WH 1309 (52.9 q/ha) performed better and found significantly superior to the best check WH 157 (43.5+8.2 q/ha) at Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding. P 13582 (61.6 q/ha), P 13650 (62.1 q/ha) performed better and found significantly superior to best check KRL 283 (46.4+13.7 q/ha) at Department of Soil Sciences. Identification of wheat genotypes based on simultaneous selection among contributing traits will improve grain yield. Stable and promising genotypes may be included in breeding program aimed to develop salt tolerant varieties at state and national level to ensure nutritional food security.
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102613
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of Different Ornamental Ficus under Shadenet Conditions of
           Prayagraj

    • Authors: Bhagyasri Nandam , Devi Singh, C. John Wesley
      Pages: 18 - 24
      Abstract: An experiment entitled Evaluation of different ornamental ficus under shadenet conditions of prayagraj was conducted in shadenet house, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj during July-October 2022 on ficus. The experiment was conducted in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with eight varieties replicated thrice. The varieties used were Ficus microcarpa golden, Ficus microcarpa moclame, Ficus microcarpa crassifolia, Ficus triangularis variegata, Ficus benjamina exotica, Ficus benjamina reginald, Ficus benjamina starlight, Ficus benjamina safari. The results revealed that better performance was seen in Ficus microcarpa golden in all parameters like plant height at 90 days (56.33 cm), no. of leaves at 90 days (94.43 cm), leaf length at 90 days (10.13 cm), leaf breadth at 90 days (4.53 cm), no. of primary branches at 90 days (11.23 cm), plant spread at 90 days (36.93 cm), leaf petiole length    (1.6 cm).
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102614
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Standard Operating Procedure for Micropropagation of Melia dubia Cav.: An
           Important Fastgrowing Tree

    • Authors: Sarita Bodalkar , R. K. Prajapati , Ajit Mannade , S. P. Vishwakarma
      Pages: 25 - 30
      Abstract: Due to increasing demand to meet out industrial requirement as a raw material , soft wood forest species are under tremendous pressure across the globe. The demand of fast growing Melia dubia is one of them. The usual approach of regeneration for this plant is through seed is unable to produce large scale plants. The present investigation aimed to develop the Standard Operating Procedure through Tissue culture method for mass multiplication of M.dubia using nodal segment . Results showed that the highest shoot initiation response (86.6%) was recorded in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with additives, NAA (0.1 mg l-1) and Kinetin (0.5mg l-1). Maximum response of shoot multiplication with highest shoot length of 5.5 cm was obtained in MS medium supplemented with combinations of Ascorbic acid (50 mg l-1) and Kinetin 1 mgl-1. For rhizogenesis, MS + 3.0 mgl-1 IBA (93.3 %) demonstrated superior in terms of the percentage of cultures with root induction, the average number of roots, and the average length of roots per explant. In conclusion present study ensures the successful mass multiplication of M. dubia, demonstrating the importance of tissue culture in the expansion of this economically significant multipurpose tree.
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102728
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Study of Genetic Variability of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L) Germplasm for
           Fodder Yield and It’s Attributing Traits

    • Authors: B. Surender , T. Shashikala , N. Sivaraj , A. Padma Shri
      Pages: 31 - 36
      Abstract: The study investigated the phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation (PCV and GCV) and heritability estimates for various agronomic and nutritional traits in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). The analysis aimed to identify traits with optimum variability and heritability, as well as to explore the potential presence of additive genetic variance in specific characteristics. The results revealed that the number of secondary branches, plant height, and leaf length exhibited high estimates of both PCV and GCV, indicating the presence of ample variability for these particular attributes within the population. Additionally, the heritability and genetic advance for the number of secondary branches, plant height, dry fodder yield, leaf length, number of primary branches, leaf width, fresh leaf weight (g), green fodder yield, and fresh stem weight (g) were found to be significant, indicating that these traits were predominantly governed by additive gene action. The findings of this study hold significant implications for future breeding programs and genetic improvement strategies. The identified high heritability and genetic advance for the aforementioned traits suggest that these characteristics can be effectively manipulated through selective breeding to develop improved and high-yielding plant varieties.
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102641
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Variation in the Ability of Various Tree Species to Capture Particulate
           Matter in Industrial and Urban Areas

    • Authors: Maisnam Sushima Devi , M. Prasanthrajan , A. Bharani , N. Sritharan , D. Jeya Sundara Sharmila , M. Maheswari
      Pages: 37 - 46
      Abstract: There are several short- and long-term negative effects on human health caused by the well-known pollutant known as particulate matter (PM), which also significantly contributes to urban air pollution. Trees can act as a sustainable air purifying filter by adsorbing and absorbing tiny airborne dust. Their effectiveness is influenced by a number of variables, including particulate matter concentration and leaf features of tree species. In this study, the particulate matter capturing capacity of commonly grown 20 tree species were compared and the best tree species were chosen for the urban plantation to reduce particulate matter pollution. In this study, Ficus bengalensis (0.67 mg/cm2), Mangifera indica (0.61 mg/cm2), Polyalthia longifolia (0.57 mg/cm2), Tectona grandis (0.66 mg/cm2) and Terminalia catappa (0.63 mg/cm2) were found to be the best tree species among the 20 tree species and also it was confirmed that morphological characteristics of tree leaves plays an important role in capturing the particulate matter from the atmosphere. In conclusion, our findings may help in the selection of greening tree species with strong particulate matter purifying capacities for both industrial and urban areas.
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102642
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Elucidating Late Leaf Spot Disease Progression and Resistance Components
           in Different Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Cultivars towards
           Phaeoisariopsis personata

    • Authors: Sompalli Suresh Rao , R. Sarada Jayalakshmi , Hari Kishan Sudini , K. Vemana , A. Srividhya
      Pages: 47 - 54
      Abstract: Late Leaf Spot (LLS) disease is caused by Phaeoisariopsis personata, a devastating disease that significantly affects groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production worldwide. This research aimed to investigate the disease progress in resistant and susceptible groundnut genotypes under green house conditions with artificial inoculations. The four popularly growing groundnut cultivars in Andhra Pradesh i.e., Kadiri-6 (K6), Dharani, Harithandra and Lepakshi (K-1812) were evaluated in this study. The disease severity scale, percent disease index (PDI), Area under disease progression curve (AUDPC) and the epidemic rate (rate) were estimated by using the linear model. Highest disease severity was observed in K6 (88.19 %) and Dharani (85.19 %) with greater disease progression rate was observed in K6 (0.13) and Dharani (0.12) cultivars. However, the lowest disease progression was observed in Lepakshi (0.04) and Harithandhra (0.08) cultivars. Enhanced resistance to LLS was reported with Harithandhra and Lepakshi cultivars due to slower epidemic rate, longer incubation and latent periods with smaller lesions.
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102671
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Assessment of Genetic Variability, Correlation and Path Analysis among
           Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Landraces Genotypes for Grain Yield Characters
           under Irrigated Conditions

    • Authors: Arpita Mandal , Gabriyal M. Lal , G. Roopa Lavanya
      Pages: 55 - 65
      Abstract: The current study's objective was to analyze the genetic variability components, correlations, and path analysis in 24 rice genotypes for 13 quantitative aspects, including Days to 50% Flowering, Days to Maturity, Flag Leaf Length (cm), Flag Leaf Width (cm), Plant Height (cm), Number of Total Tillers, Panicle Length (cm), Number of Spikelets per Panicle, Number of Panicles per Hill, Test Weight (g), Biological Yield per Hill (g), Harvest Index (percent), & Grain Yield per Hill (g) in Randomized Block Design with three replications in Kharif season of 2022 in experimentation field, Department of Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Uttar Pradesh. Analysis of Variance revealed that high significant differences among the genotypes of all traits. Genotypes SHUATS DHAN-6, SHUATS DHAN-2, SHUATS DHAN-3 and MTU 1281 depicted highest Grain Yield per Plant. All the characters had expressed high estimates of heritability. Grain Yield per Hill had the highest Heritability followed by Number of Spikelets per Panicle, Number of Total Tillers, Panicle Length, Plant Height and Flag Leaf Width. According to research on GCV and PCV, these qualities are highly variable and that the environment plays a part in how they manifest. The yield and yield-attributing characteristics were shown to be positively and significantly correlated at both the genotypic and phenotypic levels, with grain yield per plant per plant. In Phenotypic and Genotypic Path Analysis, a thorough examination of diagonal values revealed a favorable direct effect on Grain Yield.
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102616
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Performance Evaluation of a Pump as Turbine in a Simplified Pico
           Hydropower System with Provision for Water Recycling

    • Authors: Alex Okibe Edeoja , Daniel Tertsegha Ipilakyaa , Paul Udom , Aondoyila Kuhe , Jacob S. Ibrahim
      Pages: 66 - 82
      Abstract: The performance of a pump used as a turbine (PAT) in a simplified Pico hydropower system with the provision for recycling water to an overhead reservoir (OHR) 7.2 m high was investigated. A vertical PVC pipe of diameter 0.0762 m reduced into four replaceable nozzles of diameters 0.0635, 0.0508, 0.0381 and 0.0254 m was used as penstock. A 1.5 Hp surface pump was used to lift water from an underground reservoir to the OHR and the PAT was coupled to a generator by a pulley and belt drive. The volume of water discharged was monitored for each nozzle diameter till the OHR was empty, and the voltage developed and current flowing through the load measured. The flow rate, shaft power, and efficiency of the PAT for the no-load tests and then including the electrical power for the on-load tests were computed. The highest and lowest efficiency of the system (0.694 and 0.497) corresponded to nozzle diameters of 0.0635 and 0.0254 m respectively, while the highest efficiencies for each nozzle diameter (0.684, 0.629, 0.550 and 0.497) were recorded for the highest respective flow rates for the no-load tests. For the on-load tests, the highest and lowest power developed (2.976 and 2.760 kW) were obtained for the largest and lowest nozzle diameters, with the highest power for each nozzle diameter corresponding to the highest respective flow rates. These results indicate the critical role played by the nozzle diameter in producing the torque required for power generation. This confirms the critical role of flow rate and available head for determining the site feasibility in conventional hydropower practice. Overall, the results show good potential for the system to be implemented as a clean, stand-alone, small power generation unit that will enhance end-user control.
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102617
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Physio-Chemical Changes during Ethrel Treatment of Mango cv. Alphonso
           under Different Temperature Regimes

    • Authors: R. Ranjhani , P. S. Kavitha , I. Muthuvel , M. K. Kalarani , K. A. Shanmugasundaram , K. Gurusamy
      Pages: 83 - 93
      Abstract: Aim: Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is the second most consumed fruit which belongs to the family Anacardiaceae. Ripening in mango (climacteric fruit) is hastened by application of ethrel. The experiment was conducted to study the effect of different temperatures during ethrel treatment on shelf life and quality of mango cv. Alphonso. Study Design: The experiment consisted of three treatments and seven replications laid out in Completely randomized design (CRD). Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Department of Fruit Science, Horticulture College and research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during 2022-2023.  Methodology: Mango cv. Alphonso was subjected to ethrel treatment in three different ripening chambers having different temperatures viz., T1 – silpaulin chamber (33°C), T2 – zero energy cool chamber (26°C), T3 – cold chamber (22°C) for a period of 24 hours. After ethylene treatment, the fruits were stored at ambient temperature to study the ripening behaviour. Shelf life and quality parameters were observed and recorded.                                                                   Results: The days taken for ripening was lesser (6 days) and the rate of conversion of quality attributes were higher in fruits subjected to ethrel treatment in silpaulin chamber. The quality attributes like TSS (22°Brix), acidity (0.25 %), TSS : acid ratio (88) were significantly higher in fruits treated in silpaulin chamber on the day of ripening. The physiological loss in weight was found to be significantly lesser in fruits subjected to ethylene treatment in cold chamber (6.56 %) and were on par with fruits treated in zero energy cool chamber (6.71%) whereas the firmness and shelf life were found to be significantly higher in cold chamber treated fruits (2.35 N, 15 days respectively) but firmness was on par with fruits subjected to ethylene treatment in zero energy cool chamber (2.21 N) on ripening. The overall acceptability of fruits in sensory evaluations was significantly higher in fruits treated in zero energy cool chamber (8.3) which was on par with fruits treated in cold chamber (8.1). Conclusion: The fruits treated in silpaulin chamber had better TSS, acidity and TSS: acid blend. The fruits treated in cold chamber were superior in shelf life and sensory score which was also on par with fruits treated in zero energy cool chamber. Hence zero energy cool chamber can be used as an alternative to cold chamber for ethrel treatment which would be cost effective, environment friendly and can be used by small traders and farmers.
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102618
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Weed Management Practices on Growth and Yield of Zero-Till
           Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    • Authors: A. Varshini , G. Satyanarayana Reddy , E. Rajanikanth , A. Krishna Chaitanya
      Pages: 94 - 100
      Abstract: A field experiment to compare weed management practices on growth and yield of zero till chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) during rabi, 2022 at RARS, Jagtial, Telangana. Treatments include Pendimethalin 38.7 % CS @ 700 g a.i. ha-1 , Topramezone 33.6 % SC @ 20.6 g a.i. ha-1 , Quizalofop ethyl 7.5 % + Imazethapyr 15 % EC @ 100 g a.i. ha-1, T4- Propaquizafop 2.5 % + Imazethapyr 3.75 % (w/w) ME @ 125 g a.i. ha-1 , two hand weedings at 15 and 30 DAS , weed free (Season long) and Un-weeded (Check). Weed free treatment and hand weeded plots showed highest growth and yield attributing characters because of season-long weed-free conditions and better microclimate during critical period of crop respectively. Among different herbicides, Topramezone treated plot recorded higher growth parameters viz.; plant height (38.7 cm), dry matter accumulation (320.8 g m-2) and yield attributing characters viz.; total number of pods plant-1 (30.97), with seed yield (1397 kg ha-1), haulm yield (2518 kg ha-1) and harvest index (35.7 %). Post emergence herbicide topramezone can be effectively adopted for getting higher yield of chickpea in rice fallow zero tillage conditions.
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102619
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Assessment of Climate Change Impact and Adaptation Strategies for Rainfed
           Maize (Zea mays L.)

    • Authors: S. Akshaya , S. Kokilavani , S. Pazhanivelan , Ga. Dheebakaran , K. Boomiraj , S. Mohan Kumar
      Pages: 101 - 111
      Abstract: The study was performed to assess the impact of climate change on spatiotemporal changes in rainfed maize yield. Climate projections data of MIROC-ESM-CHEM model from CMIP6 was used for future climatic scenarios in the maize growing areas of Dindigul and Perambalur districts of Tamil Nadu. The DSSAT model was used to simulate maize yield and evaluate adaptation strategies for base period (1991-2020), the mid (2040-2069) and end centuries (2070-2099) under SSP245 and SSP585 scenarios. The simulation finding shows that, in all scenarios maize yield declined in both Dindigul (7 to 9% and 11 to 12%) and Perambalur (6 to 9% and 11 to 13%) during mid and end centuries respectively from the base period (1991-2020). Following the adaptation strategies such as delayed sowing, the yield was increased in both Dindigul (5 to 6% and 4 to 5%) and Perambalur (4 to 5% and 5 to 6%) with respect to normal sowing date. The results of this study would help in developing adaptation strategies for minimizing the adverse effects of the projected climate in maize-growing districts of Tamil Nadu.
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102620
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Micrometeorological Parameters on Growth and Yield of Brinjal
           (Solanum melongena L.) under Different Planting Windows

    • Authors: M. G. Katkar , S. B. Kharbade , S. Y. Wankhede , A. A. Shaikh, V. A. Sthool
      Pages: 112 - 124
      Abstract: An experiment was carried out at Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agricultural Meteorology Farm, Centre for Advanced Agricultural Meteorology, College of Agriculture, Pune during Kharif seasons of 2014 and 2015.The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The treatment comprised of three brinjal hybrids viz.,V1:Phule Arjun, V2: Krishna, V3: Panchganaga as main plot and four planting windows viz., P1: 31st MW (30 July-5 August), P2: 32ndMW (6-12August), P3:33rdMW (13-19 August) and P4: 34thMW (20-26 August) as sub plot treatments.  In micrometeorological studies of the higher radiation absorptions and lower reflection was absorbed under hy. Phule Arjun as compared to hy. Krishana and hy Panchganga. The maximum Incident PAR (1270 u mol m-2s-1) Intercepted PAR (86.47u mol m-2s-1),Absorbed PAR (1094.4u mol m-2s-1) and Radiation use efficiency (2.43gmMJ m-2) was observed in hy .Phule Arjun. Cumulative GDD, HTU and PTU at the end of each growth stages showed that numerically higher requirement was observed in hy. Phule Arjun over hy. Krishana and hy. Panchganaga hybrids during both year 2014 and 2015 experimentation period. Whereas, the lowest canopy temperature was found in hy. Phule Arjun (29.0 0C) than rest of the brinjal hybrids. Canopy reflected PAR and transmitted PAR was higher in (191.54 and 188.62 µ mol m-2s-1) Panchganaga hybrids among the brinjal hybrids.
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102621
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Different Host Plants on Biology of Tobacco Caterpillar,
           Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)

    • Authors: Krishna Yadav , Deependra Kumar Saini , N. L. Dangi
      Pages: 125 - 133
      Abstract: The tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) is present as an economically important and regular polyphagous pests in India and other countries. The knowledge of biology and ecology of an insect pests is a prerequisite for its management. An experiment was conducted on biology of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) on different host plants in laboratory of the Department of Entomology, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur, Rajasthan. The results revealed that the minimum and maximum incubation period of S. litura was 2.98 and 3.30 days recorded on castor and cauliflower, respectively. The minimum larval and pre pupal period was 12.96 and 1.00 days recorded on castor. The minimum and maximum pupal period were recorded on cotton (8.27 days) and cauliflower (6.44 days), respectively. The adult male and female moth survival maximum larvae reared on cauliflower 5.00 and 6.90 days whereas minimum on castor 3.95 and 6.00 days, respectively. The maximum percent adult emergence was recorded larvae reared on castor (87.50%) followed by cauliflower (85.00%) whereas minimum on cotton (67.50%). The maximum fecundity was recorded on castor (886.25) followed by soybean (870.00). The entire minimum life cycle was recorded on castor (29.05 days) whereas maximum on cotton (36.50days) followed by soybean (34.24 days). It was concluded that castor is best host plant for S. litura.
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102622
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • A Study on Analysis of Factors Responsible for Adoption and Non-adoption
           of Green Technologies in Rice Based Ecosystem

    • Authors: M. Deepika , T. Kungumaselvan , N. Anitha Raj
      Pages: 134 - 140
      Abstract: The present study was conducted in Trichy and Madurai district of Tamil Nadu. From each district two blocks were selected. Thus, the total sample size of 240 were selected for the present investigation. Nature of technology (RBQ = 89.29) was the foremost factor governing the adoption of green technologies in technology and cultivation factor, social recognition (RBQ= 75.46) was the primary factor in social factors. Premium price (RBQ=72.58) was the foremost marketing factor followed by subsidies and schemes (RBQ= 73.37) as the paramount economic factor governing the adoption and non-adoption of green technologies as perceived by the farmers. Improvement needs to be done in accessing information by farmers. Most of the farmers felt complexity in the use of agricultural invention. This could be rectified by participatory technology development approach where farmers also a part of technology development. The farmers need to be provided with the knowledge of market demand for the produce, which will help the farmers to get more income and wastage of the produce will also minimized.
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102623
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Sustainable Management of Root- Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) on
           Brinjal

    • Authors: Kavita Choudhary , S. P. Bishnoi, Raju Dhayal , B. S. Chandrawat , Anil kulheri , Hemraj Gurjar
      Pages: 141 - 149
      Abstract: Brinjal (Solanum melongena) is an important Solanaceae family vegetable, which is grown all around the world. It is affected by various fungal, bacterial, viral, nematode diseases but it is a major host for root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica. Hence, for effective management of root-knot nematode experiment was conducted in field condition using the culture filtrate (3gm/kg soil) of bio-agents (viz., Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma harzianum, Purpureocillium lilacinum, Pochonia chlamydosporia and Pseudomonas fluorescens). The findings of the experiments revealed that, when compared to the control, all of the tested bio-agents considerably improved plant development characteristics and decreased nematode populations. Among the tested bio-agents T. viride was found most effective treatment with improve plant growth characters as well as in reducing nematode population over other treatment in field condition.
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102624
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Conservation Agriculture: A Long-term Approach towards Sustainability

    • Authors: Jyoti Sharma , Amit Mahajan , Monika Menia , Deepak Kumar , Ranjeet Singh Bochalya , Naveena, Shesh Narayan Kumawat
      Pages: 150 - 165
      Abstract: With the application of intensive agricultural techniques, conventional agriculture has been successful in meeting production goals but has also led to the depletion of natural resources. Sustainability in the management of the natural resource base is necessary for ongoing and expanded agricultural output to provide food security for future generations. Over a long period, the traditional tillage practice has led to the destruction of the natural resource base of the land. As a result of its inherent connection to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil, it has led to a significant loss of soil and SOM, which is a crucial component of soil quality. Therefore, a suitable cropping system and land use must be implemented and adopted to ensure food security on a sustainable basis. These measures should be based on principles to prevent land degradation, protect the natural resource base, and improve food and nutritional security through crop diversification and optimal rotation. The one sustainable cropping method that may reverse soil erosion, increase crop output, and improve the socioeconomic status of small landholder farmers is conservation agriculture (CA). Conservation agriculture (CA) is the integrated management of the available natural resources such as soil, water, flora, and fauna, with certain outside inputs to maximize the effectiveness of natural resource utilization. To fulfill the objective of sustainable crop production, an alternative approach known as conservation agriculture has emerged. It represents a significant advance in the direction of sustainable agriculture. This article reviews the emerging concerns due to the continuous adoption of conventional agriculture systems, contrasting features between conventional and conservation agriculture systems, and various principles and practices in conservation agriculture. It also highlights the benefits and limitations of CA and various challenges in the adoption of CA.
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102625
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Performance Assessment of Scented Field Roses in Open Field Cultivation: A
           Case Study in Coimbatore, India

    • Authors: K. Leela Vaishnavi , D. Keisar Lourdusamy , R. Chitra , M. Djanaguiraman , S. Maragatham
      Pages: 166 - 172
      Abstract: A field experiment to evaluate the performance of ten scented field roses in terms of growth and floral parameters under open field condition was carried out at Botanical Garden, Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during the year 2022-2023. Since there is a major lacuna in variety of scented field roses for cultivation in farmer’s field, the present study was undertaken to assess suitable variety for commercial cultivation under Coimbatore condition. The field experiment was carried out using Randomized Block Design (RBD) with ten treatments (Arka Sukanya, Arka Parimala, Bourbon rose type 1, Bourbon Rose type 2, Pusa Alpana, Rose Sherbet, Scent Pink, Damask rose type 1, Damask rose type 2, Andhra Red) and three replications. Results indicate a significance difference between the varieties for growth, flowering and yield characters. Experimental data revealed that the maximum plant height (68.92 cm), maximum number of shoots per plant (8.21), maximum leaves per plant (410.50), stem girth (6.28 cm), Highest chlorophyll content (58.1), Least number days for flower bud initiation (31.05), Diameter of fully opened flower (5.89 cm) and fresh flower weight (3.59 g) were seen in Bourbon rose type 1. Bourbon rose type 2 recorded maximum number of flowers per plant (41.12) and Andhra red rose recorded maximum number of petals per flower (94.89) among the evaluated varieties.
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102626
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Investigation on Genetic Variability, Heritability, Correlation Studies in
           Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

    • Authors: G. Aishwarya , Deepanshu
      Pages: 173 - 182
      Abstract: The field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2022 at horticulture research farm, department of horticulture, naini agriculture institute, shuats, to study on genetic variability, heritability, correlation studies in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) were estimated among 14 cowpea genotypes for 19 qualitative traits. The High estimate of GCV along with high heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean was recorded for number of seeds per plant, seed weight per plant, green pod yield per plant and pod yield per hectare. While moderate estimate of GCV along with high heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean was recorded for pod length, number of peduncles per plant, number of pods per peduncle, plant height at both flowering and maturity stage.
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102627
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Nutrient Management for Growth, Yield and Quality of Strawberry (Fragariax
           ananassa) in Vertical Hydroponics System

    • Authors: Sumit Kumar, Saket Mishra
      Pages: 183 - 194
      Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to find out nutrient management for growth, yield attributes, yield and quality attributes of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) under vertical hydroponics tower system in  Prayagraj. The experiment was conducted in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with nine treatments and three replications during November-March (2022-23) at Experimental Farm of Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India. The data were recorded from four randomly selected plants from each replication of the treatments for 14 characters. The 9 treatments comprising of different doses in combination of macro nutrients N:P:K , micro nutrients Zn: B: Fe and organic fertilizer sea weed extract  were  given in three different stages of the crop i.e., seedling  stage, vegetative growth stage and reproductive stage .  Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) as plant growth regulator (PGR) was applied in reproductive stage of the crop at the time    of flowering for better fruit set. Aqueous solution of nutrients applied at seedling stage followed by vegetative growth  stage  and reproductive stage ,  treatment T7   comprising of  N- 7.5, 8.5 and 9.5 g/10 litres  of water at all three stages, respectively, P- 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 g/10 litres of water at all three stages, respectively,  K- 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 g/10 litres of water, at all three stages, respectively,  Zn- 0.25,0.35 and 0.45g/10 l of water at all three stages, respectively , B – 0.35, 0.45 and 0.55g/10 litres of water at all three stages, respectively, Fe- 0.65,0.75 and 0.85 mg/10 litres of water at all three stages, respectively and organic fertilizer (see weed extract) @ 8 and 10 ml/ 10 litres of water at seedling and vegetative stages and NAA @ 300 ppm was applied at reproductive stage for fruit settings was the best and recorded maximum plant height (18.42cm),plant spread area (18.58cm2), number of leaves per plant (8.21), root length (16.03cm), leaf area (47.75cm2), number of flowers per plant (14.47), number of fruits per plant (14), yield  per treatment (1.451kg) with B: C ratio (1:2.72) and quality of the strawberry as  TSS (9.330brix), titratable acidity (1.33%) and ascorbic acid (60.45 mg/100g)  followed by T6 and T5.
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102629
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Mapping Rice Area in the Cauvery Delta Zone of Tamil Nadu Using Sentinel
           1A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Data

    • Authors: M. Ajay Parkash , S. Pazhanivelan , D. Muthumanickam , K. P. Ragunath , A. P. Sivamurugan
      Pages: 195 - 204
      Abstract: Since remote sensing based crop inventory provides accurate and timely information as compared to the conventional survey methods of estimating area, Multi-temporal Sentinel 1A Synthetic Aperture Radar data was used for the estimation of rice area during Samba season 2022 in the Cauvery delta zone comprising Thanjavur, Thiruvaru, Mayiladuthurai, and Nagapatnam districts of Tamil Nadu. SAR data was preferred over optical satellite data due to excess cloud cover during cropping the major season in Tamil Nadu. Temporal back-scatter (dB) signature of rice crop was generated from the multi-temporal processed SAR data utilizing the modules of a fully automated MAPscape software aiding the discriminating of the crop from others. The signatures revealed that the dB levels to be the lowest during agronomic floods, reached the highest during maximum tillering stage and started declining thereafter. Multi-temporal feature extraction module of Mapscape was used to estimate rice area and validated for accuracy using ground truth data collected during survey. A total of 3.05 lakh ha of rice area was estimated with an overall accuracy of 90.8 % and 0.82 kappa coefficient. Largest area of 1.12 lakh ha was recorded in Thanjavur followed by Thiruvarur and Mayiladuthurai with 0.95 and 0.51 lakh ha respectively.
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102630
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Block Wise Trend Analysis and Extreme Events in Raipur District, India

    • Authors: Gowtham S. , Gopi Krishna Das
      Pages: 205 - 214
      Abstract: The study was conducted in four blocks viz. Abhanpur, Arang, Raipur, and Tilda of Raipur district, using IMD gridded rainfall and maximum (Tx) and minimum (Tn) temperature data from 1951 to 2019. Trend analysis was performed with three non-parametric methods (Mann Kendall, Spearman's Rho, and Innovative Trend Analysis (ITA)) and one parametric test (Linear Regression analysis) for annual and seasonal rainfall and temperature. Extreme weather events were studied using Weather Cock and RClimdex software, calculating sixteen climatic indices. The data was divided into 1951-1986 and 1987-2019. The results demonstrated a significant decreasing trend (p<0.01) in rainfall by 10 to 15%. Maximum temperature had a significant increasing trend and minimum temperature significantly decreased (p<0.01) as per ITA. Other methods indicated non-significant decreasing trends for minimum temperature. ITA proved more effective in trend detection. The value of all indices differed before and after 1986, indicating noticeable climate changes. Increasing Warmer days, colder nights, and an expanding diurnal temperature range were observed, accompanied by increased heat wave incidence. Moderate drought episodes and all severe drought occurrences increased after 1986. The values of maximum and minimum temperatures reached new peaks. These findings highlight significant climate changes in the study area, emphasizing the need for sustainable climate management and adaptation strategies.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102631
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Exploring the Future of Agriculture through Nanotechnology: A Review

    • Authors: Vaishnavi Gawande , Razauddin, Hiren Das , Rakhi Gautam , G. Manisankar , Samikhya Bhuyan , Akshay Kumar Kurdekar
      Pages: 215 - 228
      Abstract: Agriculture, as one of the oldest and most essential human endeavors, has constantly evolved through the integration of technology. In recent years, nanotechnology has emerged as a pivotal tool, redefining traditional agricultural paradigms. This comprehensive review delves into the multifaceted implications and applications of nanotechnology within agriculture, providing a holistic view of its past, present, and future roles. Historically, nanotechnology's initial foray into agriculture sought to tackle prevalent challenges, from pest control to soil fertility. Despite some early obstacles, this merger has since showcased myriad successful applications, underscored by targeted and efficient solutions that significantly enhance crop yield and food quality. The present-day agricultural landscape is punctuated by nano-fertilizers ensuring optimal nutrient uptake, nanopesticides targeting pests with minimal off-target effects, nanosensors enabling precision agriculture, nano-based food packaging enhancing shelf life, and nanomaterials aiding in disease diagnosis and treatment. However, with innovation come challenges. The environmental and health ramifications of introducing nanoparticles into ecosystems remain a concern. While they promise reduced chemical usage and waste, potential issues like nanoparticle accumulation, unknown long-term effects, and possible toxicity necessitate rigorous research and regulation. Economically, the nano-agri sector promises substantial yield increases, but it also requires significant investments. As the technology permeates the agricultural supply chain, ramifications on job markets, trade dynamics, and global competitiveness become evident. Looking forward, anticipated advancements include smart nanodevices, potent nano-bio interfaces, and self-repairing materials. Nanobots, soil health rejuvenation techniques, and advanced nano-encapsulation are among the many potential R&D avenues. The road ahead requires collaborative efforts from governments, research institutions, farmers, and the private sector. Public-private partnerships, in particular, could prove indispensable, merging public sector oversight with private sector innovation.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102632
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Reaction of Maize Genotypes against Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda
           (Smith) in Madhya Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Suman Shivani , N. S. Bhadauria , S. P. S. Tomar , Singh Pradyumn
      Pages: 229 - 235
      Abstract: Aims: To identify the less susceptible varieties, allowing for targeted pest management strategies, reduced pesticide use, increased resilience to pest outbreaks, and long-term sustainable pest control solutions. Study Design: Randomized Block Design. Place and Duration of Study: Research Farm, College of Agriculture, Gwalior (Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior) during two consecutive years i.e., Kharif, 2021-22 and Kharif 2022-23. Methodology: In the experiment, twelve different varieties were sown on 17th July 2021 and 17th July 2022 during both the consecutive years respectively. Observations on the number of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda larvae and plant damage per cent were recorded from randomly selected ten plants at weekly intervals. Observations for FAW was also be recorded with visual scoring method. A numerical scale (0-9), also known as the Davis scale, was used to evaluate leaf damage. Results: The result of both the year indicated that not all varieties were found to be completely resistant to fall armyworm. For the purpose of interpreting the results, all the varieties were categorized for their reaction based on average data of both the years (Kharif 2021 and Kharif 2022) of mean larval population, mean plant damage percent, and leaf damage scoring. Based on statistical categorization, it was determined that the varieties NWMH-2002 and JM 218 exhibited lower susceptibility. On the other hand, the varieties Dkc-9141, Maize 3845, PAC 740, Yashoda gold, PM 303, Maize Ranker, Maize 5402, and Maize 3046 were classified as moderately susceptible. Lastly, Sona 5101 and M-909 were identified as highly susceptible varieties. Conclusions: It concluded that the varieties NWMH-2002 and JM 218 exhibited lower susceptibility against fall armyworm.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102633
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of Easy and Economic Protocols for High Quality Genomic DNA
           Extraction and Sex Determination in Papaya Using SCAR Markers

    • Authors: K. Soumiya , I. Muthuvel , N. Manikanda Boopathi , C. Kavitha , K. Chandrakumar , K. A. Shanmugasundaram
      Pages: 236 - 244
      Abstract: Rapid and precise identification of three sex types (male, hermaphrodite and female flowers) is the key in achieving good returns in papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivation. This study presents a simple, reliable, fast and cost-efficient DNA isolation protocol and a rapid and precise method of sex determination in papaya. Three DNA isolation protocols viz., CTAB method, Modified Dellaporta method and BioBasic DNA isolation kit were comparatively evaluated for their simplicity, economic, DNA quantity and purity. Among them, CTAB method was regarded as relatively economic, with a cost of Rs. 11.80943 per sample with higher amount of DNA (4667.4 µg/ µl). However, it was noticed that DNA isolation with the BioBasic kit was fastest method, which took only 6 hours 7 minutes. On the other hand, relatively better DNA purity was noticed with the Modified Dellaporta method  (average ratio of absorbance at 260 nm and 280 nm range between 1.8-2.0) and yielded clear, intact and distinct DNA  bands. Hence, Modified Dellaporta method is suggested as an ideal DNA isolation protocol for papaya. Molecular markers (such as SCAR derived from RAPD T12, W11, NAPF-2 and PKBT-4) were employed in this study to identify the sex type and they have successfully distinguished between male and hermaphrodite plants in both dioecious and gynodioecious varieties; especially, NAPF-2 has successfully distinguished male in dioecious varieties. Evaluation of different kinds of molecular markers has shown that the SCAR marker T12 can be used as reliable marker for rapid and precise identification of papaya sex type.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102661
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Influence of Plant Geometry and Cultivars on Growth, Yield Attributes and
           Yield of HDPS Cotton under Rainfed Shallow Soils

    • Authors: R. Gouthami, U. Nagabhushanam, A. V. Ramanjaneyulu, B. Madhavi , J. Kamalakar, M. Yakadri
      Pages: 245 - 250
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Siddapur research farm, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Warangal, Telangana, India during kharif 2022 to investigate the effect of plant geometry and cultivars on growth and yield of cotton under high plant density system. The results revealed that plant height (102.7 cm) and drymatter production (6499 kg ha-1) were significantly higher at ultra narrow spacing of 90 x 15 cm (74,074 plants ha-1) than medium and wider spacings of 90 x 30 and 90 x 60 cm, respectively but, was on par with narrow spacing of 90 x 20 cm (55,555 plants ha-1). Though sympodial branches plant-1 (16.4) and number of bolls plant-1 (24.0) were significantly greater with wider spacing (90 x 60 cm: 18,518 plants ha-1), adoption of high plant density method of 90 x 15 cm spacing (74,074 plants ha-1) (2707 kg ha-1) and 90 x 20 cm (55,555 plants ha-1) (2498 kg ha-1) resulted in significantly higher seed cotton yield. The yield from 90x15 cm was 26.2% and 11.7% higher than that of 90 x 30 cm (2391 kg ha-1) and 90 x 60 cm (1998 kg ha-1), respectively. In case of cultivars, though growth and yield attributes were not significantly influenced, but, the boll weight (5.2) and seed cotton yield (2845 kg ha-1) were significantly higher with NCS 2778 over other cultivars viz., Bt Suraj (2151 kg ha-1), WGCV-79 (2310 kg ha-1) and ADB-39 (2288 kg ha-1).
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102702
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Performance of Wheat Varieties at Different Sowing Dates under Open and
           Pongamia pinnata Based Agroforestry Systems

    • Authors: Makhan Singh Karada , R. Bajpai , S. B. Agrawal , M. K. Awasthi , Manish Bhan , Riya Mishra , Dheer Agnihotri
      Pages: 251 - 264
      Abstract: The experiment was carried out  in a Pongamia pinnata-based agroforestry system to assess the impact of land use systems, sowing dates, and wheat varieties on wheat cultivation at the Forestry Research Farm, JNKVV, Jabalpur during the Rabi season of 2021-22 The experiment followed a three-factor double split plot design with two systems (open system and agroforestry system) as the main plot, three sowing dates (12th November, 27th November, and 12th December) as subplots, and two wheat varieties (MP-3336 and GW-322) as sub-sub plots. The results showed that the open system outperformed the agroforestry system in terms of plant population, plant height at harvest, grain yield, straw yield, biological yield, and harvest index. Early-sown wheat consistently showed better performance in most parameters compared to timely-sown and late-sown varieties. Among the wheat varieties, the MP-3336 variety exhibited higher plant population, while the GW-322 variety showed taller plants at harvest, longer spikes, higher grain yield, and better harvest index. These findings provide valuable insights into optimizing wheat cultivation in agroforestry systems and emphasize the importance of considering land use systems, sowing dates, and wheat varieties to maximize crop productivity.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102634
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Role of Genetic Variability and Their Associated Character on Yield
           Attributing Traits in Castor (Ricinus communis L.) Germplasm Lines

    • Authors: Yenametla Rajavardhan , J. Jawahar Lal , P. Lakshmamma , C. V. Sameer Kumar , A. Anil Kumar
      Pages: 265 - 271
      Abstract: Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is an industrially important non-edible oil seed crop with limited genetic variation. It is consequently important to diversify the genetic base to utilize the diversity. The primary objective of this study was to assess the extent and significance of variability among castor genotypes concerning yield and its associated traits. A study with two hundred germplasm lines along with four checks on genotypes on variability, correlation, and path coefficient was carried out for nine traits. The genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) values indicated the presence of broad variation for all characters except for days to 50 percent flowering, days to maturity, number of nodes, and oil content. However, high heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent mean was observed for plant height, days to 50 percent flowering, days to maturity, number of nodes, total length of the primary spike, number of effective spikes, seed weight, and total yield. The character's plant height,    number of nodes, total length of the primary spike, number of effective spikes, seed weight, and oil content show a positive significant correlation with the total yield. The path coefficient analysis indicates that the utmost positive direct effect on total yield was exerted by a number of effective spikes per plant. Hence it was concluded that selection for traits total length of the primary spike, number of effective spikes, and 100 seed weight beneficial in yield improvement programs of castor.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102635
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Isolation and Characterization of Bacterial Endophytes from Maize
           Genotypes Varying in Resistance against Macrophomina phaseolina

    • Authors: Y. Pavani , B. Mallaiah , V. Ramya , M. V. Nagesh Kumar , S. Triveni , B. Vidyasagar
      Pages: 272 - 280
      Abstract: The present work aims to isolate and characterize the bacterial endophytes associated with different maize genotypes varying in resistance to disease reaction against Macrophomina phaseolina. A total of 50 endophytic bacteria were isolated from root and stem of healthy maize plants at 30 DAS, 60 DAS by using two different media like TSA, NA medium and maximum number of endophytic bacterial population were recovered from root followed by stem in all the genotypes and TSA medium was found to be the most suitable medium for deciphering maximum endophytic bacterial diversity. The isolated bacterial endophytes were characterized on the basis of morphological parameters viz., size, shape, colour, margin and texture, elevation, gram staining reaction and it was observed that Gram positive bacteria (68.0 %) formed the dominant group.  The colony characterization revealed that circular forms (38.0 %) were dominated. Among the colony features the colonies with entire margins (66.0 %) and convex elevation (44.0 %) were found to be dominating.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102636
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Potassium and Sulphur on Growth, Yield and Productivity of
           Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)

    • Authors: Bhavik Pravinbhai Solanki , A. U. Amin , A. S. Prajapati , Gharsiram, J. A. Naghera
      Pages: 281 - 286
      Abstract: A field experiment ‘‘Response of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) to potassium and sulphur’’ was conducted at S D Agricultural University, Gujarat during rabi season 2021-22 on loamy sand soil. The experiment comprised of 9 treatment combinations. Application of 40 kg K2O/ha significantly influenced the growth viz., plant height at 60, 90 DAS and at harvest, number of primary, secondary, tertiary branches per plant and yield attributes viz., number of umbels per plant, seed yield per plant, 1000 seed weight as well as seed and straw yields. The maximum seed and straw yields were recorded under the application of 30 kg S/ha similar response trend was also observed in growth and yield attributes.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102637
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Spatio-temporal Soil Erosion Estimation in Sangareddy District, Telangana
           Using Rusle Model

    • Authors: A. Madhukar , N. Hari , Ch. Radha Srivalli , T. L. Neelima
      Pages: 287 - 295
      Abstract: Soil erosion poses a significant environmental challenge worldwide, causing the depletion of fertile topsoil, reduced crop productivity, and heightened sedimentation in water bodies. The extent of erosion depends on factors such as rainfall intensity, land slope, soil type, land use, and management practices. Accurate assessment of soil loss, considering spatial, temporal, and climate change factors, is vital for effective soil and water conservation planning. In this study, a spatial model for estimating soil loss was developed by integrating GIS with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), and validation showed satisfactory results (R2=0.82). The spatial estimation revealed that most of the area experienced soil loss below 5 t ha-1 yr-1, with only a smaller portion showing soil loss exceeding 20 t ha-1 yr-1. To address this, in-situ soil conservation measures are recommended, such as using erosion-resistant crops (e.g., groundnut) in strip cropping, adopting crop rotations, mulching, and planting grasses for bund stabilization. Practices like deep ploughing, summer ploughing, and mixed cropping should also be adopted for sustainable watershed management. Construction of conservation structures like farm ponds and percolation tanks is highly recommended. The study also observed temporal variations in soil loss for Sangareddy district, with the highest soil loss of 134 t ha−1 yr−1 occurring in 2020, and the lowest of 71 t ha−1 yr−1 in 2018. These findings underscore the need for continuous monitoring and adaptive conservation strategies to mitigate soil erosion and ensure sustainable land use practices in the region.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102638
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Relationship between Flower Galls and Girth Class of Prosopis cineraria
           (L.) Druce

    • Authors: Shiwani Bhatnagar , Ameen Ullah Khan , Neha Sharma , Bundesh Kumar
      Pages: 296 - 301
      Abstract: Khejri (Prosopis cineraria) recognized as a multipurpose tree species of Thar Desert gets infested with flower galls caused by Eriophyes prosopidis. The heavy infestation turns the flowers into galls without forming pods causing high losses in the yield of pods locally known as sangri. The present work was conducted to find out the relation between girth class of tree and average number of galls per inflorescence in the flower gall infested trees. In the present study we concluded that the relation between girth class of tree and average number of galls per inflorescence is negative. The average number of mite induced galls per inflorescence was highest in the girth class 70-100 cm and least in girth class 130-160 cm showing a highly significant inverse relationship between DBH and average number of galls per inflorescence in Khejri.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102639
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Growth Regulators on Plant Growth and Flower Yield in Marigold
           (Tagetes erecta)

    • Authors: Shubham Maurya , Samir E. Topno , Anita Kerketta
      Pages: 302 - 309
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in the Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj. During rabi season (2022-2023). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different growth regulators on plant growth, flowering and flower yield of African marigold and to estimate the economics of different treatments. This experiment was laid out in Randomized block design (RBD) with 10 treatments and each treatment replicated thrice. The treatments consist of different combinations of plant growth regulators (Gibberellic acid, Salicylic acid and Sea weed extract). Treatment T3 (Gibberellic acid @150ppm) was statistically significant compared to other treatment combination, which recorded highest plant height (44.11 cm), no. of branches (43.53), stem diameter (1.61 cm), no. of leaves (118.93), plant spread (37.17 cm2), Bud length (0.93cm), days to 1st flowering (66.07 days), Size of flower (8.77cm), Number of flower per plant (34.10), Self-life (8.67 days), single flower wt. (18.28 g) in African marigold (Tagetes erecta). The economics estimation revealed that maximum benefit cost ratio was at 2.44.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102640
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Bio-fertilizer and Phosphorus on Growth and Yield of Green gram
           (Vigna radiata L.)

    • Authors: Chirumella Joharika , Shikha Singh , Anu Nawhal
      Pages: 310 - 317
      Abstract: The field experiment was conducted at Crop Research Farm, Naini Agriculture Institute, Department of Agronomy, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj during Zaid 2022 on sandy loamy soil. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design. The experiment consists of treatments i.e., VAM (20g/kg seed) + Phosphorus 30kg ha-1, PSB (20g/kg seed) + Phosphorus 30kg ha-1, VAM + PSB (40g/kg seed) + Phosphorus 30kg/ha, VAM (20g/kg seed) + Phosphorus 40kg ha-1, PSB (20g/kg seed) + Phosphorus 40kg ha-1, VAM + PSB (40g/kg seed) + Phosphorus 40kg/ha, VAM (20g/kg seed) + Phosphorus 50kg ha-1, PSB (20g/kg seed) + Phosphorus 50kg ha-1, VAM + PSB (40g/kg seed) + Phosphorus 50kg/ha, including control i.e., application of 20-40-20 kg NPK ha-1 (Farmer practice), which are replicated thrice. The variety PDM-139 SAMRAT green gram was sown in February 2023. The results of the experiment revealed that the application of VAM + PSB @ (40g/kg seed) along with 50 kg ha-1 of phosphorus significantly increased the growth parameters viz., plant height (32.94 cm), plant dry weight (42.73 g plant-1), crop growth rate (72.1 g m-2 day-1), relative growth rate (2.16 g m-1 day-1), branches per plant (6.53), nodules per plant (16.4) and yield parameters viz, pods per plant (19.20), seeds per pod (11.87), test weight (40.0g), seed yield (1,620 kg ha-1), haulm yield (1,022.22 kg ha-1), harvest index (49.30%) over control. This treatment also showed its positive effect on economics viz., gross returns (Rs. 1,45,770 ha-1), net return (Rs. 1,04,120.40 ha-1) and benefit cost ratio (2.50).
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102656
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Row Ratio on Growth and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and
           Mustard (Brassica nigra) Intercropping System

    • Authors: Shreya Roy , Rajesh Singh
      Pages: 318 - 325
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during Rabi 2022 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P) on the topic “Effect of row ratio on growth and yield of wheat and mustard intercropping system”. To study treatments consisting with row Proportions with wheat and mustard intercropping. The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 8.0), low in organic carbon (0.28 %), available N (225 kg/ha), available P (19.50 kg/ha) and available K (92 kg/ha). There were 8 treatments each being replicated thrice and laid out in Randomized Block Design. The results revealed that treatment 1 (Sole wheat cropping) recorded significantly higher Plant height (89.4 cm), plant dry weight (16.15 g), number of effective tillers/m2 (634.01), number of grains/spike (52.80), grain yield (4.02 t/ha), straw yield (6.73 t/ha) of wheat and treatment 2 (Sole mustard cropping) recorded significant and higher Plant height (120.50 cm), plant dry weight (34.18 g), number of siliqua/plant (210.47), number of seeds/siliqua (22.90), test weight (3.66 g), seed yield (1.27 t/ha), stover yield (2.65 t/ha) and Harvest index (32.33 %) in mustard.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102644
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Assessing the Suitability of Tomato Products as a Functional Ingredient in
           Paneer

    • Authors: Zenith Patel , Suneeta Pinto , Sunil Patel
      Pages: 326 - 336
      Abstract: This research involved the selection of suitable tomato products from amongst the puree, paste and powder for manufacture of tomato flavoured paneer. Paneer was prepared from milk standardized to 3% fat and 8.5% MSNF. The first part of the study was conducted to select the optimum level of tomato puree, paste and powder. From amongst different rate of addition (w/w of milk) of tomato products studied viz. 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15% in case of puree and paste and 4, 5, 6 and 7% in case of powder, it was found that samples containing puree, paste and powder @ 10, 10 and 5 % were liked the most. In the next part of the study three batches of paneer viz. T1, T2 and T3 were prepared in which tomato puree, paste and powder were incorporated at 10, 10 and 5% respectively. Control (C) paneer was prepared from standardized milk.  It was found that the fat, FDM and pH of T1, T2 and T3 were significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of C, whereas moisture content of T1, T2 and T3 were significantly (P<0.05) higher than C. The recovery of fat, protein and TS in T1, T2 and T3 was significantly (P<0.05) lower than C, while no significant (P>0.05) difference was observed in yield of paneer. All the textural properties viz. hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness and gumminess of samples containing tomato products were significantly (P<0.05) lower compared to control. The overall acceptability score of T1 was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of T2 and T3 but was significantly (P<0.05) lower compared to C. The Vitamin C, total dietary fiber and antioxidant capacity of T1 was significantly (P<0.05) higher compared to C. Hence, it was concluded that good quality tomato flavoured paneer can be prepared incorporating tomato puree @ 10% w/w of milk with better functional properties compared to control.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102645
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Moisture Stress in Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Measures to Overcome
           It under Changing Climate: A Review

    • Authors: Golmei Langangmeilu , Mahanand Sahu , Dondeshwar Prasad Sarthi , Kh Pusparani , Punabati Heisnam , Abhinash Moirangthem
      Pages: 337 - 347
      Abstract: Low yields in upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) are frequently linked to poor crop management practices along with a lack of high yielding varieties, abiotic and biotic stressors. Drought (lack of water), overwatering (waterlogging/flooding), extreme temperatures (cold, frost, and heat), etc, all negatively impact crop and other plant growth, development, yield, and seed quality. Drought or moisture stress is the most important factor affecting upland rice under changing climate. Global climate change also exacerbates the vulnerability of upland rice production. Upland rice plants undergo physiological and biochemical alterations as well as morphological changes as a result of moisture stress. Different moisture stress affects the yield of upland rice ranging from 18-97% yield loss. As a result, crop management with broad, integrative and multi-disciplinary methodologies is required to increase productivity and profitability. Different mitigation strategies to overcome moisture stress and increase upland rice yields have been addressed in this review.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102646
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Response of Phosphorus and Zinc on Growth and Yield of Chickpea (Cicer
           arietinum L.)

    • Authors: Ashutosh Kumar , Shikha Singh , Anu Nawhal
      Pages: 348 - 354
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at the Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj during Rabi season 2022-23 on chickpea crop. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with ten treatments and three replication. The treatments consist of 3 levels of Phosphorus (30, 40 and 50 kg/ha) and 3 levels of Zinc (10, 15 and 20 kg/ha). The treatment combinations are as follows, T1 – 30 kg/ha Phosphorus + 10 kg/ha Zinc,  T2 – 30 kg/ha Phosphorus and 15 kg/ha Zinc, T3 – 30 kg/ha Phosphorus and 20 kg/h Zinc, T4 – 40 kg/ha Phosphorus + 10 kg/ha Zinc, T5 – 40 kg/ha Phosphorus + 15 kg/ha Zinc, T6 – 40 kg/ha Phosphorus + 20 kg/ha Zinc, T7 – 50 kg/ha Phosphorus + 10 kg/ha Zinc, T8 – 50 kg/ha Phosphorus + 15 kg/ha Zinc, T9 – 50 kg/ha Phosphorus + 20 kg/ha Zinc and T10 – (control). The nutrient sources were Urea, Single Super Phosphate (SSP) and Muriate of Potash (MOP), applied as per the recommended dose of 20-40-20 kg NPK/ha. As per the treatment, application of phosphorus and zinc were done as basal application. The treatment consisted of soil application of Phosphorus (30 kg/ha, 40 kg/ha and 50 kg/ha), Zinc (10 kg/ha, 15 kg/ha and 20 kg/ha) and zinc and a control (20-40-20 kg NPK/ha). The results of the experiment showed that, plant height (48.81 cm), dry weight (14.88 g) number of nodules/plant (14.67), number of pods/plant (30.07), number of seeds/pod (1.37), seed index (21.36 g), seed yield (2.66 t/ha) and stover yield (4.26 t/ha), harvest index (38.31) were recorded significantly highest with the application Phosphorus 50 kg/ha + Zinc 20 kg/ha. Maximum gross returns (152516.67 INR/ha), net returns (102367.23 INR/ha), and B-C ratio (2.04) were also obtained with the same treatment.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102647
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Awareness of Farmers on Weather Based Agro Advisory Services in Telangana
           State, India

    • Authors: A. Harshini , K. Madhu Babu , Ch. Venu Gopala Reddy , K. Suhasini
      Pages: 355 - 365
      Abstract: Agriculture production is significantly influenced by the weather. From seeding to crop harvest, it has a significant impact on all aspects of farming. Crop germination, establishment, growth, development and yield are all affected. Extreme weather conditions including drought, floods, heavy rains, heat waves, frost, hailstorms, cyclones, etc. may cause the farming community to suffer significant crop yield losses. Since the farming community will be aware of the upcoming weather conditions in advance, required adjustments may be made to farm level agricultural operations and decisions to lessen the consequences of unfavorable weather conditions. Therefore, Integrated Agro met Advisory Services will make it possible for the farmer to be informed of current and expected weather as well as advice to the farmer the best course of action to reduce losses caused by unfavorable weather conditions and increase the output of agricultural systems. A study was conducted in Telangana state to ascertain the degree of farmer’s awareness on weather-based agro advisory services. Random sampling technique employed to collect data from 120 farmers. Ex-post facto research design was used for the investigation. The data with regards to level of awareness possessed by farmers about weather based agro advisory services, it is revealed that 38.33 % of them had the medium level of awareness followed by low level 35.01 % and high level 26.66% of awareness, respectively. All profile characteristics of respondents showed a significant correlation with the degree to which farmers were aware of weather-based agro advisory services, with the exception of education, annual income, farming experience, mass media exposure, and cropping pattern. Multiple linear regression value 77.61 per cent contributed to the extent of variation towards independent variables.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102648
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Variability of Chrysanthemum Species under Prayagraj Agro-climatic
           Conditions

    • Authors: Shweta Rani , Devi Singh , C. John Wesley
      Pages: 366 - 370
      Abstract: The present study was made to identify the suitable variety for growing in Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh. Twenty varieties were laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications during 2022-2023 at Departmental field of Horticulture, NAI, SHUATS, Prayagraj. In this experiment out of 20 varieties 2 varieties, Fantasy and Hemant Sagar was not able to survive in this condition. In this experiment data were recorded for various characters viz; Growth parameter, Floral parameters, Yield parameters and Economic parameters. Variety White cotton ball was found as elite variety for height (cm) 30DAP, 60DAP, and 90DAP in comparison with other varieties. Nanako was for number of flowers per plant. Apsara (24.14t/ha) was for flower yield(t/ha) in comparison to other varieties. Maximum B:C was obtained in Apsara (2.85). Based on findings of this experiment, it is recommended the Chrysanthemum varieties Apsara and White cotton ball should be used for commercial cultivation of chrysanthemum, although further studies may also be carried out for refinement for selection of best varieties from amongst these.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102724
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • A Descriptive Study of Workplace Risk Assessment in the Automobile Sector
           of Uttarakhand, India

    • Authors: Alka Chandrakanta , Deepa Vinay
      Pages: 371 - 380
      Abstract: Aims: The auto sector in India contributes 7.1% of the country's GDP and is predicted to earn USD 810.3 billion by 2026. However, India has a greater death rate and poorer job safety than the United States, where industrial accidents happen 20 times more frequently. Musculoskeletal disorders are a significant cause of disability and accidents at work. The goal of the study was to evaluate the existing working conditions in the automobile industry, where mechanics play a crucial role in precision. Study Design: The present study was carried out in Uttarakhand at Udham Singh Nagar district, block Rudrapur; Nainital district, block Haldwani; and Almora district, block Dwarahat. Purposive and random sampling techniques were used to select the study area and samples. The total 75 respondents and 14 garages were selected. Methodology: A checklist was developed to get information about the health status of garage workers, awareness of occupational hazards, use of personal protective equipment, risk assessment, and workplace analysis. Results: The study reveals that Udham Singh Nagar garages provide cent per cent PPE to their workers, while Nainital and Almora districts lack proper facilities. Nearly half of workers lack worksite cleaning facilities, slip-resistant floors, spray booths, dip tanks, and clean toilets. Additionally, a quarter of garages require adjustments to work height, foot platforms, item holders, work-rotation systems, hanging toolboxes, and hazardous chemical container labeling. Conclusion: 7.1% of India's GDP is contributed by the auto industry, which is projected to generate $810.3 billion by 2026. In contrast to the US, the nation has a greater fatality rate and a worse level of workplace safety, and industrial accidents happen there 20 times more frequently. According to a survey conducted in Uttarakhand, whereas Nainital and Almora districts lack adequate amenities, Udham Singh Nagar garages offer cent per cent PPE to employees. There aren't enough clean restrooms, or there aren't enough slip-resistant floors for the majority of employees.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102649
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Studies of Correlation and Path Coefficients for Tomato Yield and Quality
           Attributes (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    • Authors: Dhaneshvari Arya , Akhilesh Kumar Pal , Anand Kumar Singh , Bajrang Kumar , Avneesh Rathour
      Pages: 381 - 388
      Abstract: Fifteen genotypes of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) with 18 yield contributing traits, were studied for correlations and path coefficients. The experiment has been done at Vegetable Research Farm of Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, during Rabi season of 2020-21. The experiment was laid under Randomized Block Design with three replications. Using genotypic correlation, it has been found that the fruit yield per plant significantly positively correlates with lycopene, titrable acidity, pericarp thickness, fruits per plant, ascorbic acid and days to 50% flowering. This indicates that the selection of these qualities will impact the number of fruits produced by each plant. Yield per plant was showed the significant positive direct effects with ascorbic acid, pericarp thickness, firmness, fruit yield per plant, TSS, locules per fruit, number of fruits per plant, fruit diameter, lycopene content, seed test weight and days to 50% flowering at the genotypic path coefficient level that indicated the selection for these traits might be effective and there is a possibility of improving yield per plant through selection based on these characters. The investigation contains the necessary information to support the objectives, as shown by the residual influence at the genotypic (0.198) and phenotypic (0.206) routes.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102650
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of TA41 on Growth, Yield and Quality of Bitter Gourd (Momordica
           charantia) cv. Phule Green Gold

    • Authors: Rohit Rawat , V. M. Prasad , Samir Ebson Topno , Yash Kumar Singh
      Pages: 389 - 394
      Abstract: Water served as the control in nine treatments that included various TA41 properties. After the transplant, 30 and 45 days later, the therapy is administered. The plot size was kept at 2m x 1.5m, and each treatment was reproduced three times in a randomized block design. The best results were achieved with the treatment T6 (foliar spray 40ml/L plus soil drenching of TA41 @ 20ml/L). The maximum plant height (354 cm), number of primary branches (14.66 cm), number of leaves per plant (216 cm), days until first flowering (25), days until first fruit picking (53), number of fruits per plant (38), fruit yield per plant (2.1 kg), average fresh weight of fruit (82.66), yield per hectare (22.75 t/ha), TSS (4.2 Brix), and ascorbic acid per (100.66 mg/100g) are all included in the analysis. The gross return (Rs 341250/ha), net profit (Rs 251021/ha), and B:C ratio (3.78) were all significantly higher than those recorded under.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102651
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Influence of Seaweed Sap and Organic Manures on Growth and Yield of Baby
           Corn

    • Authors: Amit Raj , Biswarup Mehera , Prateek Kumar
      Pages: 395 - 402
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out during Rabi 2022 season at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agriculture Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, to study the response of Seaweed Sap and Organic Manures on Growth and Yield of Baby Corn. The treatments consists of three level of Seaweed sap (5%, 7.5% and 10%), Organic manures (FYM, Poultry manure, Vermicompost) and control. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with ten treatments and replicated thrice. The soil of the experimental field was sandy loam with pH (8.0), EC (0.56 ds/m), Organic Carbon (0.62%), Available N (225 kg/ha), Available P (38.2 kg/ha), and Available K (240.7 kg/ha). The results showed that application of Seaweed sap (10%) + Vermicompost – 8.5t/ha recorded significantly higher plant height (167.58 cm), maximum dry weight (98.48 g), No. of cobs/plant (2.47), cob length (21.40 cm), Cob weight with husk (49.84 g/cob), Cob yield (11.03 t/ha) and stover yield (35.33 t/ha). Maximum gross returns (281216.67 INR/ha), net returns (216726.67 INR/ha) and Benefit Cost (B.C) ratio (3.36).
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102652
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Liquid Organic Manure on Growth and Yield of Field Pea(Pisum
           sativum, Fabaceae)

    • Authors: Kruthik Kadam , Vikram Singh , Shruti Grace George
      Pages: 403 - 410
      Abstract: The field experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2022 at the Crop Research Farm (CRF), Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (UP) to examine the effect of liquid organic manure on growth and yield of Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.). The finding showed that field pea growth characteristics steadily improved with the maximum application of Dasagavya (250 l/ha) + spraying. This treatment resulted in significantly higher plant height (97.14 cm), Maximum number of nodules (28.13), plant dry weight (33.18 g), number of pods/plant (22.18), number of seeds/pod (4.16), seed yield (2.04 t/ha), and harvest index (40.16%), but in Stover yield the Dasagavya (250 l/ha) + seed inoculation and Spraying treatment (4.27 t/ha) was significantly greater. It is concluded with this data that spraying of Dasagavya is the most remunerative, profitable and economically efficient.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102655
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Decomposition of Agriculture Farm Wastes by Cellulolytic Bacteria

    • Authors: B. P. Bahatkar , S. J. Gahukar , A. A. Akhare , Y. V. Ingle , D. R. Rathod , A. M. Charpe
      Pages: 411 - 421
      Abstract: The most important component of the greatest material flow in the biosphere is the microbial consumption of cellulose. Despite the abundance of cellulase manufacturers, there aren't enough microorganisms that can effectively create enough of the enzyme to effectively break down cellulose into fermentable compounds. Despite the fact that bacteria have a very high level of natural variety and the potential to manufacture stable enzymes, little attention has been paid to their ability to produce cellulase. The present study aimed at the isolation and selection of cellulose degrading bacteria isolated from different samples for agriculture waste decomposition. Bacterial cultures were applied on agriculture waste material comprising soybean straw, pigeonpea straw; wheat straw and cotton stalk to investigate their percentage loss in weight. Among all the cultures, CDB 19 has shown the highest weight loss of the substrate (99.99%) followed by CDB 20 (99%), CDB5 (94.2%), CDB2 (92.8%) and CDB14 (88.6%). It was also observed that maximum weight loss of cotton straw (99.99%) was recorded by mixed culture followed by Pigeonpea straw and Soybean straw, while Wheat straw recorded minimum weight loss at 60 days of decomposition.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102658
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of Ivy Gourd (Coccinia grandis L) Genotypes under Prayagraj
           Agro Climatic Conditions

    • Authors: Pankaj Kumar Sutar , Devi Singh , C. John Wesley , Bijay Laxmi Sahu
      Pages: 422 - 427
      Abstract: The present investigation entitled “Evaluation of Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L) genotypes under Prayagraj agro climatic conditions” was carried out from October, 2022 to March 2023 at Horticultural Research Field, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology And Sciences, Prayagraj, U.P. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with seven genotypes in three replications. The genotypes namely G1-Arka Neelachal Khunki, G2-Arka Neelachal Sabuja, G3-Local Geda, G4-Local Denga, G5-Surekha, G6- CHIV-7 and G7-CHIV-8 were evaluated. It was concluded that all seven genotypes showed a significant performance on almost all the growth and yield characters as well as quality of Ivy gourd. The genotype G2-Arka Neelachal Sabuja was found superior in terms of vine length (315.11 cm), petiole length (6.37 cm), internodal length (12.71cm),fruit diameter (2.87 cm), average fruit weight (21.08 g), No. of seeds per fruit (122), No. of fruits per plant (422), fruit yield per plant (8.82 kg) ,fruit yield per hectare (17.35 t/ha), TSS (4.33), Ascorbic acid (15.34 mg/100g) and minimum days taken for first female flower anthesis (35.17 days) whereas maximum fruit length was obtained from genotype G1- Arka Neelachal Khunki (6.12 cm). Among the genotypes, highest gross return (Rs/ha) (3,47,000), net return (Rs/ha) (1,90,140), benefit cost ratio (2.21) was also obtained from genotype G2 i.e Arka Neelachal Sabuja.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102660
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Trend Analysis of Area, Production and Productivity of Tomato in Uttar
           Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Preeti Lata Singh , P. K. Singh , Debashish Kumar , Shiva Seth
      Pages: 428 - 433
      Abstract: India has access to several natural resources because of its diverse Agro-climatic conditions and a wide-ranging and large raw material base suitable for vegetable cultivation. This study was purely based on secondary data as collected from reports from Horticulture at a Glance, Agriculture at a glance and the Indiastat site. The trends of area, production, and productivity were estimated from the period 2001–2002 to 2021–2022, under tomato cultivation. The Study period was further divided into three subperiods: period I (2001–2011), period II (2011–2022), and the overall period (2001–2022). The compound growth rates of area, production, and productivity computed at the national level was 2.93 percent, 4.89 percent, and 1.90 percent, respectively and in Uttar Pradesh it was found 3.81, 13.22 and 9.11 percent. This study showed that the percentage share of Uttar Pradesh under Tomato cultivation was higher than in the whole of India.
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102662
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Agronomic Evaluation of Mustard (Brassica juncea l.) Hybrids under
           Agro-climatic Conditions of Prayagraj (U.P), India: Experimental
           Investigation

    • Authors: Lokendra, Vikram Singh , Sujit Kumar
      Pages: 434 - 440
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out at the Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj during Rabi season 2022 on Mustard crop. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with ten treatments and three replications. The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.1), low in organic carbon (0.36%), available N (171.48 kg/ha), available P (15.2 kg/ha) and available K (232.5 kg/ha). The maximum plant height (175.97 cm), primary branches (8.85), secondary branches (18.85/plant), plant dry weight (40.97 g/plant) at 100 DAS in hybrid M-155 was recorded. Maximum Crop growth rate (CGR) recorded at 60-80 DAS (10.24 g/m2 /day), number of siliqua/plant (466.27), number of seeds/siliqua (13.63), test weight (5.40 g) and seed yield (2.40 t/ha) were observed in hybrid M-155. In terms of economics, highest gross returns (Rs 130905.7/ha), net returns (Rs 81592.73/ha) and B:C ratio (1.65) were observed in hybrid M-155.
      PubDate: 2023-08-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102663
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effects of Biofertilizers and Phosphorus on Growth and Yield of Mustard

    • Authors: Ch. Rohith , C. Umesha
      Pages: 441 - 445
      Abstract: The field experiment titled “Effect of Biofertilizers and Phosphorous on Growth and Yield of Mustard” was conducted during Rabi 2022 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with nine treatments and control which are replicated thrice. The treatments viz T1: PSB + Phosphorus 40 kg/ha, T2: PSB + Phosphorus 50 kg/ha, T3: PSB + Phosphorus 60 kg/ha, T4: VAM + Phosphorus 40 kg/ha, T5: VAM + Phosphorus 50 kg/ha, T6: VAM + Phosphorus 60 kg/ha, T7: PSB + VAM + Phosphorus 40 kg/ha, T8: PSB + VAM + Phosphorus 50 kg/ha, T9: PSB + VAM + Phosphorus 60 kg/ha. The results obtained that growth parameters viz. plant height (180.40 cm), Number of branches (18.10), dry weight (42.01 g/plant), Significantly higher yield parameters viz. number of silique/plant (314.47), test weight (6.80 g) and number of seeds/silique (16.50). were recorded higher with the application of PSB + VAM + Phosphorus 60 kg/ha. 
      PubDate: 2023-08-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102664
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Thermal Indices Requirement of Brinjal Varieties (Solanum melongena L.)
           under Different Planting Windows

    • Authors: M. G. Katkar, S. B. Kharbade , S. Y. Wankhede , A. A. Shaikh , V. A. Sthool
      Pages: 446 - 453
      Abstract: An experiment was carried out at Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agricultural Meteorology Farm, Centre for Advanced Agricultural Meteorology, College of Agriculture, Pune during Kharif seasons of 2014 and 2015.The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications.The treatment comprised of three brinjal hybrids viz.,V1:Phule Arjun, V2: Krishna, V3: Panchganaga as main plot and four planting windows viz., P1: 31st MW (30 July-5 August), P2: 32ndMW (6-12August), P3:33rdMW (13-19 August) and P4: 34thMW (20-26 August) as sub plot treatments. Cumulative GDD, HTU and PTU at the end of each growth stages showed that numerically higher requirement was observed in hy.Phule Arjun over hy.Krishana and hy.Panchganaga hybrids during both year 2014 and 2015 experimentation period. Whereas, the lowest canopy temperature was found in hy.Phule Arjun (29.0 0C) than rest of the brinjal hybrids. Canopy reflected PAR and transmitted PAR was higher in (191.54 and 188.62 µ mol m-2s-1) Panchganaga hybrids among the brinjal hybrids. Heat unit requirement or GDD has been used for characterizing the thermal response in brinjal crop. GDD for entire crop growing period decreased with subsequent delay in planting. HTU and PTU were also decreased during later planting windows condition. GDD in different stages in that emergence (59.6 and 72.3), vegetative growth (481 and 478), 50% flowering (575 and 568), first harvesting (681 and 645), last harvesting (1178 and 1183) was observed in hybrid Phule Arjun during 2014 and 2015, respectively. Lower GDD was observed in hy.Panchaganaga during 2014 and 2015, respectively. The highest HTU observed in 31st MW planting windows in hybrids Phule Arjun (5376 and 9190.4).This was followed by hy.krishna and Panchganaga (5370 and 9086) during 2014 and 2015, respectively. Highest HTU was observed in 31st MW in hybrids Phule Arjun followed by hy.krishna and lower in panchganga.
      PubDate: 2023-08-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102665
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Organic Manure and Zinc on Growth, Yield Attributes and
           Economics of Maize

    • Authors: Aditya Raj , Biswarup Mehera , Prateek kumar , Malkarnekar Saharsh
      Pages: 454 - 460
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during Rabi 2022 season at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agriculture Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, to study the response of organic manure and soil application of zinc on the growth, yield attributes and economics of maize. The treatment consists of three level of zinc sulphate (2, 4 and 6 kg/ha) vermicompost (12 t/ha), poultry manure (4 t/ha) and control. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with ten treatment and replicated thrice. The soil of the experimental field was sandy loam with pH (8.0), EC (0.56 ds/m), organic carbon (0.62%), available N (225 kg/ha), available P (38.2 kg/ha), and available K (240.7 kg/ha). The results showed that application of 50% poultry manure and 50% vermicompost along with zinc 6kg/ha recorded significantly higher plant height (208.33 cm), higher dry weight (89.90 g), number of cobs/plants (2.93), cob length (29.80 cm), number of seeds/cob (414.70). Maximum gross returns (254310.40 INR/ha), net returns (173950.40 INR/ha) and Benefit Cost (B.C) ratio (2.16).
      PubDate: 2023-08-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102666
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Future Projections of Rainfall for Tamil Nadu from Coupled Model
           Intercomparison Project- 6 (CMIP6)

    • Authors: S. Divyadharshini , V. Geethalakshmi , K. Bhuvaneshwari , GA. Dheebakaran , R. Karthikeyan , K. Thirukumaran, V. Karthick , S. Mohan Kumar
      Pages: 461 - 471
      Abstract: Precipitation is a crucial input for agriculture and living things in the world, which changes drastically under a warmer climate due to climate change. Hence, the study was carried out to project the changes in annual and seasonal precipitation based on the France Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques (CNRM-CM6) model. In the present study, Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase six (CMIP6) datasets were used for two SSP scenarios: SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 and three-time slices for the future viz., near (2021–2050), mid (2051–2080) and end-century (2081–2099) and base period (1991–2020) dataset obtained from the India Meteorological Department (IMD) was used to compare with the future climate over Tamil Nadu. The result revealed that the highest positive mean deviations in annual (81%), SWM (21%), NEM (79%) and summer (163%) were observed in the projected precipitation under the SSP5-8.5 scenario during the Near, mid, near and mid-century respectively. For winter, SSP2-4.5 showed the highest mean deviation of 122% in the near century. According to the three future time scale simulations for the twenty-first century, annual rainfall is predicted to increase by 81% in the near future and 19% in the mid-century, while it is expected to decline by 1.5% at the end of the century under SSP5-8.5. In the SSP2-4.5 scenario, rainfall would increase by 1% in the near future, decrease by 30% in the end century and decrease by 30.5% in the mid-century. From the result, it is concluded that there would be an increase in heavy precipitation occurrences at the near, mid and end of the 21st century under both the SSP5-8.5 and SSP2-4.5 scenarios. These findings might be helpful in framing future agricultural water management regulations to deal with threats from heavy precipitation and researchers to study precipitation changes at the global level.
      PubDate: 2023-08-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102667
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin Isolate (TNAU ENT
           BB1) Against Rice Leaf Folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) in
           In-vitro (Laboratory) Conditions

    • Authors: R. Sharmila , V. Radhakrishnan , P. S. Shanmugam , V. Sendhilvel , S. Harish
      Pages: 472 - 477
      Abstract: Rice productivity is impaired by sucking, leaf feeding and borer insect pests. Among the leaf feeders, rice leaf folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) cause significant yield loss. The non-chemical insect pest management is gaining momentum among farmers, and biocontrol management is one of the essential components. The efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin isolate against C. medinalis was studied using the laboratory culture maintained in rice leaves. Different concentrations of B. bassiana were applied topically on the second instar C. medinalis larvae. The mortality observations were recorded at 48 hrs intervals from the third day and continued up to 11 days. The highest mortality of 78.33% was observed at concentration 1×108 conidia/ml, and the lowest mortality of 36.67% was observed at concentration 1×103 conidia/ml. The determined median lethal concentration (LC50) of B. bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin isolate against C. medinalis is 5.44 x 105 conidia/ml.
      PubDate: 2023-08-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102669
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Growth, Yield and Flower
           Quality of Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) under Naturally Ventilated
           Polyhouse Conditions in Prayagraj

    • Authors: Sunkara Mounika , Urfi Fatmi
      Pages: 478 - 482
      Abstract: A field experiment was executed during November, 2022 to April, 2023 under polyhouse conditions in the Research Field, Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Prayagraj. The objective was to study the response of foliar application of micronutrients on growth, yield and flower quality of gerbera. The research consisted of three levels of zinc, iron, magnesium (0.2, 0.4, 0.6%). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with ten treatments and replicated thrice. The results indicated that the treatment T2-Zn@0.4% performed better in all parameters recorded viz., plant height (24.08 cm), plant spread (37.68 cm), days for first bud initiation (73 days), number of flowers per plant (10), stalk length (54.17 cm) and vase life (9 days).
      PubDate: 2023-08-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102670
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Assessment of Soil Fertility Status under the Barren Land Soil of the
           Central Plain Zone of Uttar Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Mahendru Kumar Gautam , Sanjeev Sharma , Anil Kumar , Survesh Kumar , Hemant Jayant , Ravindra Sachan , Mandeep Kumar
      Pages: 483 - 490
      Abstract: Soil fertility evaluation of barren land is the most basic decision-making tool for an effective sustainable plan for a particular area. Thus, the present study was carried out to evaluate the soil fertility status in session variation of the two blocks of Kanpur Dehat (Akabrpur and Maitha). The soil samples were randomly collected based on the variability of land at a depth of 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, and 30-60 cm in 5-5 sites in the both blocks. A GPS device was used to identify the location of the soil sampling points. Soil samples were analyzed for texture, pH, OC, EC, N, P, K, S, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and exchangeable cations status following standard analytic methods in the laboratory of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, C.S.A. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, UP. The soil organic carbon ranged from 0.18 to 0.34% of both blocks. Available nitrogen ranged from 102.78 to 138.39 kg ha-1, available phosphorous ranged from 9.89 to 16.47 kg ha-1 and available potassium ranged from 230.65 to 276.38 kg ha-1 in the surface soil of Maitha, all of which showed a decrease in value with increase in depth. Exchangeable calcium ranged from 4.58 to 6.34 (cmol (p+) kg-1), exchangeable magnesium ranged from 2.20 to 4.40 (cmol (p+) kg-1), and the pH of the soil in both blocks was highly alkaline in nature, all of which varied significantly with site and depth. The results indicated that soils are not good for the cultivation of various crops. Farmers are required to maintain Soil Health Card which helps them to adopt suitable management practices and provide proper nutrition to soil.
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102672
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Estimation of Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis for Quantitative
           Characters in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) Genotypes

    • Authors: Vinod B., Gaibriyal M. Lal
      Pages: 491 - 501
      Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the genetic variability and parameters such as genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV), phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV), heritability, genetic advance, as well as perform correlation and path analyses on 20 different okra genotypes, including one check variety. The experiment was conducted during the kharif season of 2022 at the experimental farm of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences in Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh. A randomized block design with three replications was employed for the study. Thirteen characteristics were observed and recorded, which includes: days to first flowering, days to 50% flowering, length of mature fruit (cm), diameter of fruit (cm), average fruit weight (gm), internodal length (cm), number of nodes on the main stem, number of primary branches, plant height (cm), number of fruits per plant, number of seeds per fruit, seed index (gm), and fruit yield per plant (gm). Azad Bhindi-1 exhibited the highest mean performance in terms of fruit yield per plant among all the genotypes. The PCV values were consistently higher than the corresponding GCV values for all traits, indicating the influence of environmental factors on trait expression. Fruit yield per plant and number of primary branches displayed the highest GCV and PCV values. The number of primary branches exhibited both high heritability and genetic advance. The correlation analysis revealed a positive and significant association between number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant at both the genotypic and phenotypic levels. The traits with the highest positive direct effects on fruit yield per plant were obsereved for average fruit weight and plant height, as determined through genotypic and phenotypic path analysis. These identified traits can serve as effective selection criteria for strategizing an efficient breeding programme to enhance fruit yield in okra.
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102674
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Paddy Straw Incorporation on Growth and Yield of Rice under
           Wetland Ecosystem

    • Authors: C. Guruanand , M. Raju , K. Boomiraj , P. Boominathan , G. Prabu Kumar, S. Mohan Kumar
      Pages: 502 - 510
      Abstract: Burning the paddy straw had variety of effects both on and off the farm. It entails nutrient and economic productivity loss in addition to impact on air quality, animal and human health. Soil incorporation is a cost-effective method of disposing the paddy straw. Effects of enhanced paddy straw incorporation in the field to investigate the growth and yield parameters during the summer season at TNAU, Coimbatore. The treatments comprise Continuous flooding (Conventional) (M1), AWDI (field water tube):  Irrigation at soil    moisture depletion by 10 cm (M2), AWDI (field water tube):  Irrigation at soil   moisture depletion by 15 cm (M3) as main plots. The subplot treatments consist of Rice raw straw incorporation + 75% RDF (S1), Rice raw straw incorporation with Pusa Decomposer Capsules + 75% RDF (S2), Rice raw straw incorporation with TNAU Bio mineralizer + 75% RDF (S3), Rice raw straw incorporation with Pusa Decomposer Capsules + TNAU Bio mineralizer + 75% RDF (S4), 75% RDF (S5), 100% RDF (S6). Incorporation of rice straw, Pusa decomposer, TNAU Bio-mineralizer along with 75% RDF recorded better results in all growth stages and yield.
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102675
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Bio-stimulants and their Application Methods on Growth,
           Flowering, Yield and Vase life of Asiatic lilium cv. Fangio

    • Authors: Archana C. S. , V. M. Prasad , Samir E. Topno , Yash Kumar Singh
      Pages: 511 - 518
      Abstract: The present investigation entitled “Effect of bio-stimulants and their application methods on growth, flowering, yield and vase life of Asiatic lilium cv. Fangio” was carried out during November, 2022 to March, 2023 in, Horticulture Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, SHUATS. The experiment was conducted in Completely Randomized Design with ten treatment combinations, with application of three Biostimulants like Humicil, Hydropro gold and Biovita at different levels, which was replicated thrice. It was concluded that the application of biostimulants rendered their significant effect on almost all the growth, flowering yield and vase life characters as well as quality of lilium. The treatment T3 i.e., application of Biovita (Foliar method) found superior in terms of Plant height(70.84 cm), Stem girth (0.80 cm) Number of leaves(87.47),Leaf area (13.63 cm2), Bud diameter (2.56 cm), Flower diameter (14.68 cm), Fresh weight of stem (34.73 g), Vase life (12.60 days), Diameter of bulb (5.21 cm), Weight of bulb per plant (64.75 g) Number of flowers per plant (4.91), Number of flowers per 200 m2 (10924.83), Weight of bulbs per plant (0.071 kg), and Weight of bulbs per 200m2 (157.02 kg).
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102679
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Seaweed Extract Application Rate and Method on Growth, Flowering
           and Yield of Pansy (Viola x wittrockiana)

    • Authors: Debajyoti Jena , Samir E. Topno
      Pages: 519 - 525
      Abstract: Pansies, part of the Viola genus, are vibrant flowers with velvety petals and a distinct center blotch. They are popular as ornamental plants due to their colorful appearance. Seaweed extract, derived from various types of seaweed or marine algae, is utilized in agriculture, gardening, and skincare. Seaweed is nutrient-rich, containing essential macro and micronutrients, making seaweed extract a valuable natural fertilizer to enhance plant growth and health. Therefore, present investigation was carried during the Winter-2022-23 with a view to determine the effect of seaweed extract application on pansy variety Majestic Giant Mix for its growth, flowering and yield. The study was examined using completely randomized block design. From the present investigation, it is concluded that treatment T4 i.e., application of Sea weed extract @ 4ml/l as drench application found superior in terms of plant height (16.00 cm), plant spread (17.56), number of branches per plant (28.81), days taken for first flower opening (30.00), days taken for 50% flowering (58.33), stalk length (8.60 cm), flower diameter (7.83) number of leaves (43.33), number of flowers per plant (38.88) and seed yield per plant (3.00g).
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102676
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effects of Nitrogen and Gibberellic acid on Growth, Yield and Economics of
           Fodder Maize (Zea mays L.)

    • Authors: Suresh Gohil , Shikha Singh , Anu Nawhal
      Pages: 526 - 531
      Abstract: The experiment was conducted during the Rabi season 2022-23 at Crop Research Farm (CRF), Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj, (U.P.). The experiment was conducted in a Randomized Block Design consisting of 10 treatment combinations and 3 replications. The treatments consist of 3 levels of Nitrogen (60, 80 and 100 kg/ha) and 3 levels of Gibberellic acid (25, 50 and 75 ppm). The treatment combinations are as follows, T1 – [Nitrogen (60 kg/ha) + Gibberellic acid (25ppm)], T2 – [Nitrogen (60 kg/ha) + Gibberellic acid (50ppm)], T3 – [Nitrogen (60 kg/ha) + Gibberellic acid (75ppm)], T4 – [Nitrogen (80 kg/ha) + Gibberellic acid (25ppm)], T5 – [Nitrogen (80 kg/ha) + Gibberellic acid (50ppm)], T6 – [Nitrogen (80 kg/ha) + Gibberellic acid (75ppm)], T7 – [Nitrogen (100 kg/ha) + Gibberellic acid (25ppm)], T8 – [Nitrogen (100 kg/ha) + Gibberellic acid 50ppm)], T9 – [Nitrogen 100 kg/ha) + Gibberellic acid (75ppm)] and T10 – [Control]. The results showed that treatment 9 [Nitrogen (100 kg/ha) + Gibberellic acid (75ppm)] recorded significantly higher plant height (188.83 cm), maximum number of leaves/plant (15.00), higher plant dry weight (71.29 g), maximum stem thickness (2.40 cm), higher green forage yield (43.55 t/ha) and maximum moisture content (83.45 %) compare to all other treatments. The maximum gross return (108875.00 INR/ha), net return (71914.35 INR/ha) and highest B:C ratio (1.94) was recorded in treatment 9 application of [Nitrogen (100 kg/ha) + Gibberellic acid (75ppm)] as compared to all other treatments.
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102677
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Diversity of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora T.) Varieties under
           Open Field Condition in Prayagraj

    • Authors: Taniya Dey , V. M. Prasad , Vijay Bahadur
      Pages: 532 - 539
      Abstract: The field experiment entitled “Varietal evaluation of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora T.) under open field condition in Prayagraj” was carried out during September 2022 to January 2023, in Horticulture Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agriculture Institute, SHUATS. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. The experiment comprised of fifteen varieties of chrysanthemum viz. Kanadee, Flood, Winter Queen, Basanti, White Bonsai, Local Yellow, Ravi Kiran, Button Type, Rani, UBC 12, Wall Street, Bidhan Rajat, Bidhan Antara, British gold and Vijay. It is clear from the experimental analysis that all characters were significantly affected by different varietal treatments. From the experimental findings, it was found that maximum height was found in the variety Bidhan Antara (40.79 cm),plant spread (30.55 cm), primary branches (6), whereas earliness in flowering was found in the variety Bidhan Rajat, flower yield per plant (176.76 g) was found maximum in the variety Bidhan Rajat, average flower weight was recorded more in the variety Rani (7.19 g),duration of flowering (71.2 days) and benefit-cost ratio(4.32:1) was found maximum in the variety Bidhan Rajat.
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102678
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Response of Biofertilizer and Foliar Spray of Boron on Growth and Yield of
           Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    • Authors: Pranay P. Dhote , Biswarup Mehera , Prateek Kumar, Sahil Kumbhare , Nachiketa
      Pages: 540 - 545
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out at Crop Research Farm, Naini Agriculture Institute, Department of Agronomy, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj during Rabi, 2022 on sandy loamy soil. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design, Replicated thrice, consisting of ten treatments i.e., Rhizobium 20 g   +   Boron 0.25%, Rhizobium 20 g   + Boron 0.5%, Rhizobium 20 g   + Boron 0.75%, PSB 20 g + Boron - 0.25%, PSB 20 g + Boron - 0.5%, PSB 20 g + Boron – 0.75%, Rhizobium 10 g + PSB 10 g   + Boron - 0.25%, Rhizobium 10 g + PSB 10 g   + Boron - 0.5%, Rhizobium 10 g + PSB 10 g   + Boron - 0.75%, and Control Plot. The field experiment result revealed that Rhizobium 10 g + PSB 10 g   + Boron - 0.75% has significantly increased the growth parameters viz., Plant height (46.54 cm), Number of nodules/plant (16.44), Plant dry weight (15.37 g/plant), pods/plant (55.61), seeds/pod (2.52), test weight (265.6 g), Seed yield (1.99 t/ha), Stover yield (5.95 t/ha) and Harvest index (25.06%). The economics of experiment, i.e., maximum gross return (106464.00 INR/ha), net return (76796 INR/ha) and B:C ratio (2.58) was also recorded in Rhizobium 10 g + PSB 10 g   + Boron - 0.75%.
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102683
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Spatial Yield Assessment of Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor) Using DSSAT –
           CERES –Sorghum Model in Solapur, Maharashtra, India

    • Authors: H. Chandrakant Raj , K. Boomiraj , S. Pazhanivelan , N. K. Sathya Moorthy , M. Prasanthrajan
      Pages: 546 - 554
      Abstract: Accurate estimation of crop yield is crucial for ensuring food security and effective policy making. This study focuses on the estimation of sorghum yield in the Solapur region of Maharashtra (India), employing the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) model. Sorghum is the fifth largely produced staple crop of the world which also plays a vital role in the food security produced by India. Maharashtra has the largest area under sorghum crop, and Solapur has the most area under rabi sorghum with an area of 4.6 lakh ha, accounting for 23% of the total area under rabi sorghum in the state. Although productivity is lower in Maharashtra than in other states, these studies will help us to get a preharvest estimate of the crop.  Crop Cutting Experiments(CCE) were conducted for rabi sorghum and the model was validated for the simulated yields; which have a range of grain yield from 611 to 1525 kgs ha-1 and showed error with less than 14% and it was evaluated with statistical models such R2, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE) and results show as 84%, 0.84 and 0.07. This model can be used further used for the yield gap analysis, and climate change studies for the locations.
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102684
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Nitrogen Rates and Foliar Spray of Urea Application and Nano
           Urea on Yield and Economics of rabi Maize (Zea mays L.)

    • Authors: Avantika Srivastava , Rajesh Singh , Dilip Choudhary , Akankhya Pradhan , Shreya Roy , Shruti Pandey , Shreyash Anand
      Pages: 555 - 561
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during Rabi 2022 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P) to study the ”Effect of Nitrogen Rates and Foliar Spray of Urea Application and Nano Urea on Yield and Economics of rabi Maize (Zea mays L.)”effect of three nitrogen rates (50%, 75% and 100% RDN ) and three foliar spray of urea viz 20000 PPM (2%) and nano urea viz 2000 PPM (2 ml/L) and 4000 PPM (4ml/L) application on yield and economics of rabi maize (Zea mays L.). The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.1), low in organic carbon (0.28%), available N (225kg/ha), available P (19.50) kg/ha) and available K (92 kg/ha). The experiment consists of 10 treatment, each being replicated thrice and laid out in Randomized Block Design. The results of present investigation revealed that the highest Grain yield (6.41 t/ha), Stover yield (8.65 t/ha), Harvest Index (42.58), Maximum gross return (INR 1,28266.67), Net return (81,682.75) and B:C ration (1.75) under 100% RDN +4000ppm (4 ml/l) spray of nano urea.
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102685
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Genetic Variability of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandifloras L.) Varieties
           Under Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh Agro-Climatic Conditions

    • Authors: Akanksha Patel , Devi Singh , C. John Wesley
      Pages: 562 - 570
      Abstract: A study on genetic variability of gladiolus (Gladiolus grandifloras L.) varieties under prayagraj agro-climatic conditions was carried out at Departmental research field of Horticulture, Naini Agriculture Institute during the Rabi season of 2021-2022 with ten cultivars in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications viz.,. Punjab Flame, Source Biscuts, Arka Naveen, White Prosperity, Dhanvantri, Phule Neelrekha, Pusa Srijan, Arka Amar, Priscilla, Yellow Stone were evaluated. Out of these ten cultivars, genetic variability, heritability, phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was higher than the genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and genetic correlation for the characters viz., plant height at (30, 60, 90 DAS), number of leaves per plant at (30,60,90 DAS), no. of shoot per plant, days taken for corm sprouting, rachis length, days taken to spike emergence, days taken colour break stage, no. of floret per spike, no. of spike per plant, no. of days taken for first basal open, no. of days taken for last floret open, spike length, floret diameter, weight of daughter corm, weight of mother corm, corm diameter, corm weight, no. of corm per hectare, and corm yield/ plant were observed. for all characters, the highest GCV and PCV were recorded for the characters viz., weight of daughter corm (g) (33.6786 and 47.569), number of leaves per plant at 30 DAS (25.70 and 37.81), number of leaves per plant at harvest (24.73 and 35.25), number of shoots per plant ( 25.47 and 31.19), weight of mother corm (25.18 and 33.90), corm weight (25.11 and 33.38), days taken for corm sprouting (23.7566 and 23.7566) and the lowest GCV and PCV were recorded for floret diameter (17.50 and 40.95).The genotypes Phule Neelrekha followed by Arka Amar were identified as high corm yielding and no. of cormsper hectare and produced more no. of spikes/ plot and also yield per plotwhich indicated that these genotypes have resultedfor higher yield and indicated good response to selection owing to their high heritability, variability and genetic advance showing additive gene effect. These genotypes can be used for improvement of yield and component traits by selection.
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102686
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Comparing the Effectiveness of Different Machine Learning Algorithms for
           Crop Cover Classification Using Sentinel 2

    • Authors: S. Preethi , Kumaraperumal Ramalingam , Sellaperumal Pazhanivelan , Dhanaraju Muthumanickam , Ragunath Kaliaperumal , Nivas Raj Moorthi
      Pages: 571 - 582
      Abstract: Crop cover mapping is an essential tool for controlling and enhancing agricultural productivity. By determining the spatial distribution of different crop types, solidified judgements regarding crop planning, crop management, and risk management can be made. Crop cover classification using optical data pose constraints in terms of spatial and spectral resolution. With Sentinel – 2 data providing the ground information at 10m resolution, users may choose the best spectral band combinations and temporal frame by analysing the spectral-temporal information of different crops. The crop categorization map for the Kallakurichi and Villupuram districts were created in this study using the Random Forest (RF) and Decision tree (C5.0) classifiers. The study mainly focuses on comparing the classification accuracy of two classifiers and figuring out the best classifiers for crop cover mapping with respect to the study area. The ground truth information collected, were partitioned into calibration and validation datasets and the validation resulted with the Overall Accuracy (OA) and kappa coefficient of 66%; 0.63 and 60%; 0.57 for RF and C5.0 algorithms, respectively. From the results, it could be concluded that the RF classifier performed comparatively better than C5.0, thus making it suitable for crop cover classification.
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102688
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Risk Attitude of Farmers in the Climate Extreme Region of Andhra Pradesh,
           India

    • Authors: P. Bhargav Naik , A. Vidhyavathi , S. Padma Rani , R. Vasanthi , A. Janaki Rani
      Pages: 583 - 589
      Abstract: Aim: The objective of the current study was to assess the risk attitude of both insured and non-insured farmers and identify the factors influencing the risk attitude of insured and non-insured farmers. Study Area and Design: An ex-post-facto study was conducted, and the stratified random sampling method was used to collect the data at selected villages in Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh. Methodology: A sample of 150 farmers of chilli and cotton was collected (90 insured and 60 non-insured). Data regarding the agriculture year 2021-22 was analysed using Moscardi and de Janvry approach. The socioeconomic, institutional and farm characteristics were analysed by using discriminant analysis to identify the factors influencing farmers’ risk attitudes. Results: The present study results showed that the majority of the farmers are risk neutral. In the case of risk preferers insured farmers are more compared to non-insured farmers. Insured chilli farmers more than non-insured chilli farmers in case of risk-averse but, it is the reverse in the case of cotton farmers. Occupation, constraints in getting credit facility, membership of the association, the proportion of crop income to the total farm income and family size of insured chilli farmers and family size, education level membership of the association, constraints in getting credit facility, the proportion of crop income to total farm income of non-insured chilli farmers are significant. Variables like age, occupation, farming experience, constraints in getting credit facility and age, occupation, education level, and farming experience of insured and non-insured cotton farmers were found to be significant.    Conclusion: The majority of the farmers (both insured and non-insured) are risk neutral.
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102689
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Nano Phosphorus on Growth and Yield of Groundnut Varieties
           (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Yield Prediction over SPSS Model

    • Authors: Guguloth Shiva Kumar , Biswarup Mehera , Prateek Kumar , Gandla Suresh Kumar
      Pages: 590 - 595
      Abstract: The experiment was conducted during the Summer season 2022, at the Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Science, Prayagraj (U.P.) to find out the “Effect of Nano phosphorus on growth and yield of different varieties of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Yield validation using SPSS model”. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design comprising of 9 treatments which include 3 varieties Kadiri Lepakshi (K1812), Kadiri 6 (K6) and Kadiri 9 (K9) and 3 Different levels of nano phosphorous 2ml/litre, 4ml/litre and 6m/litre. Whose effect is observed in Ground nut varieties The result was observed in K-1812 by the application of nano phosphorus at the rate of 6 ml/lit was recorded maximum plant height (61.39 cm), plant dry weight (42.34 g/plant), number of pods per plant (32.87), seed index (42.09 g), pod yield (2.98 t/ha) and haulm yield (4.46 t/ha) and harvest index (40.07 %) were recorded in K-1812 with application of Nano phosphorus at the rate of 6 ml/lit respectively. At the same time higher gross return (1,25,307.00 INR/ha), net return (88,467.35 INR/ha) and benefit cost ratio (2.40).Treatment 3 has shown 42.28% increase over predicted yield where as there were 10.88% increase in treatment 7 over predicted yield through SPSS model.
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102690
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Potassium on the Growth and Yield of Different Varieties of
           Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) under Poplar (Populus deltoides) Based
           Agroforestry System

    • Authors: Sahil Kumbhare , Sameer Daniel
      Pages: 596 - 602
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to find out the "Effect of potassium on the growth and yield of different varieties of Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) under Poplar (Populus deltoides) based agroforestry system" at Forestry Nursery, the research farm of the College of Forestry, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, U.P., India. Experiment was laid out in randomized block design with 3 different varieties of Mustard viz. T59-Varuna, Pioneer 45s 42s, and Jugni in 3 replications and 5 levels of Potassium per variety (50% kg/ha), (75% kg/ha), (100% kg/ha), (125% kg/ha) and (150% kg/ha) as of total 15 treatments in all. The result shows that the application of increased levels of potassium fertilizers showed high growth and yield of Mustard. It was recorded from the application of potassium fertilizers in treatments applied with (MOP @ 150% kg/ha) resulted in increased pre-harvest observation viz., plant height (cm), dry weight (g/plant), crop growth rate (g/m2/day) and increased relative growth rate (g/g/day). It was also concluded from the trail that the application of fertilizers in treatment with (MOP @ 150% kg/ha) was found in increasing post-harvest observations viz., number of siliqua/plants, number of seeds/siliquas, test weight (g), seed yield (t/ha), stover yield (t/ha), harvest index (%). Also, after the economic analysis, the returns as compared to investment were found to be more profitable.
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102691
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Assessment of Soil Microbial Status under Different Land Use System at
           Various Depth

    • Authors: Prabhat Ranjan Pandey , Satvaan Singh , Sauhard Dubey , Suneel Kumar , Vikas Singh , Hariom Mishra , Devesh Pathak , Raisen Pal, Himanshu Tiwari
      Pages: 603 - 615
      Abstract: The present study was undertaken to assessment of soil microbial status under different land use system at various depth of main campus of University at Acharya Narendra, Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Ayodhya (U.P.) during 2018-2019. The land use systems selected for study were rice-wheat cropping system (RWCS), legume based cropping system (LBCS), and vegetable based cropping system (VBCS). Plantation land (mango, aonla and bael orchard), forest land (shisham, teak and eucalyptus) and barren land (NSP-6 farm). Soil samples were taken with GPS system from four depths viz. 0-15, 15-30, 30-45 and 45-60cm in order to analyze microbial population (bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes). The bacterial population (cfu × 105 g-1) under all the four land use viz. crop land, plantation land, forest land and barren land was decreased with increasing soil depth, which ranged from 2.76 to 4.95 cfu × 105 g-1 soil. The average bacterial population values were higher in forest land followed by plantation land, crop land and barren land. The fungi population (cfu × 103 g-1) under all the four land use viz. crop land, plantation land, forest land and barren land was, also, decreased with increasing soil depth at all land use system and ranged from 0.85 to 1.77 cfu × 103 g-1 soil. The average fungi population values were higher in forest land followed by crop land, plantation land and barren land. The actinomycetes population (cfu × 104 g-1) under all the four land use viz. crop land, plantation land, forest land and barren land was decreased with increasing soil depth at all land use system. The population varied from 0.57 to 1.02 cfu × 104 g-1 soil. The average actinomycetes population values were higher in forest land followed by plantation land, crop land and barren land.
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102692
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Varietal Evaluation of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) in Naturally
           Ventilated Polyhouse under Prayagraj Agro-climatic Condition

    • Authors: Shrangarika Sharma , Devi Singh , C. John Wesley
      Pages: 616 - 621
      Abstract: Carnation, scientifically known as Dianthus caryophyllus, is a popular and attractive flowering plant that belongs to the Caryophyllaceae family. Native to the Mediterranean region, carnations are now cultivated all over the world for their beauty and fragrance. Therefore, present investigation was carried out at the Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh during the Winter-2022-23 with a view to determine the performance of different varieties of carnation for its growth and flowering under ventilated polyhouse. Under this experiment, overall, 6 varieties were used comprising of variety Cerventes, Master, Magno, Baltico, Realism and Kiro. It was concluded that variety Baltico (white) reported significantly better performance compared to other varieties, in terms of Growth parameters like plant height was seen in cervantes (25.19 cm), number of leaves were maximum in master (20.94), number of internodes was highest in realism (18.49), number of branches were seen to be maximum in baltico (4.47), Kiro was found to be less suited variety for Prayagraj agro climatic condition due to metabolic activity. Flowering parameters like days to first flower bud break (65.33 days), days taken for first flower bud opening (66.00 days) was seen in Master, Flower Stalk length was seen highest in Realism (40.80 cm), number of flowers per plant was seen in cervantes (5.17), number of days taken for flower senescence on plant was seen highest in kiro (15.40 days), the vase life in carnation was seen to be the highest in master (0.40 days).
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102693
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Varietal Evaluation of Gerbera under Shade Net Condition in Prayagraj
           Agroclimatic Condition

    • Authors: Purva Chaturvedi , Devi Singh, C. John Wesley
      Pages: 622 - 628
      Abstract: Gerberas are widely cultivated and have a significant market value due to their popularity as ornamental plants and their traditional medicinal uses. The global gerbera market includes various segments, such as cut flowers, potted plants, and medicinal products. Therefore, present investigation was carried out with title at the Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh during the Winter-2022-23 to determine the performance of different varieties of gerbera for its growth and flowering. Under this experiment, overall, 8 varieties were used comprising of variety Shveen, Petali, Livia, Hiami, Deepti, 17026, Alcochate and Breakdance. The current study found that variety Hiami performed better in terms of characters like plant height at 30, 60 and 90 DAP (18.13, 21.20 and 23.77 cm respectively); early for days to first flower bud emergence (39.43 DAP); days from bud to flowering (9.97 days); number of days for flowering from planting (54.53 DAP); number of days for peak flowering (58.17 DAP); maximum number of buds (10.63 buds);  stalk length (64.77 cm); diameter of flower (9.33 cm) and yield per 200 m2 (11693 flowers). Variety Deepti performed better for parameters like number of leaves at 30, 60 and 90 DAP (7.53, 10.37 and 12.63 leaves respectively); plant spread at 30, 60 and 90 DAP (18.77, 26.13 and 35.30 cm respectively); Vase life (8.80 days); second highest for yield per 200 m2 (10263 flowers).
      PubDate: 2023-08-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102695
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Enumeration of Genetic Parameters and Genetic Diversity of
           Morpho-Physiological Traits in CIMMYT Bread Wheat Accessions [Triticum
           aestivum (L.) em. Thell]

    • Authors: Aavula Naveen, V. K. Mishra , B. Sinha , A. Sree Harika, Patel Supriya, M. B. Reddy
      Pages: 629 - 637
      Abstract: Fifty genotypes of CIMMYT bread wheat were evaluated at Agricultural Research Farm, BHU, Varanasi during 2019-2020.The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes for all traits. High Phenotypic coefficient of variation was recorded compared to the genotypic coefficient of variation. However, high genotypic coefficients of variation were found particularly for: grain yield per plot (8.71), harvest index (9.22), test weight (8.9), normalized difference vegetative index (9.59) and chlorophyll content (9.79), suggesting that these traits are having ample genetic potential for selection amongst genotypes, in breeding programs. The highest broad sense heritability manifested for harvest index (91.61%); remaining traits showed moderate estimates of heritability. Low to moderate genetic advance as percent mean was estimated for all the traits studied. This suggests the existence of variability for agronomic traits in the studied wheat genotypes which, should be exploited during future breeding programmes. Fifty genotypes were divided into six non-overlapping distinct clusters using tocher's method based on Euclidean distances. Thirty-one genotypes were classified in the first cluster accounting 62% of total genotypes followed by 15 genotypes categorized in the second cluster. The remaining four clusters have one genotype each. Divergence and cluster mean show that, crossings between genotypes of clusters (II, III), and VI could lead to recovery of good transgressive segregants for maximum heterosis in wheat varietal improvement.
      PubDate: 2023-08-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102696
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Added Phosphorous and Organic Matter on the Availability of
           Phosphorous Fractions in Normal Soil under Field Capacity Moisture Tension
           

    • Authors: Poornendra Mishra , Sanjeev Sharma, Ravindra Sachan , R. B. Singh, Ram Pyare, A. R. Ranjan, Bhayankar
      Pages: 638 - 643
      Abstract: An Incubation study was conducted from January 2020 – May 2020 under "Laboratory conditions" at the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Chandra Shekhar Azad Kanpur University of Agriculture and Technology, (U.P.) to study the “Effect of added phosphorous and organic matter on the availability of phosphorous fractions in normal soil under field capacity moisture tension”. To obtain a different fraction of phosphorus under the field capacity regime all three experiments were conducted under kankar soil conditions to determine Ca-P, Al-P and Fe-P as influenced by six different treatments. The results showed that with advancement in time of incubation, the availability of Ca-P (308.2 ppm and 235.3 ppm at 0 days and 90 days of incubation period, respectively), Al-P (89.5 ppm and 44.9 ppm at 0 days and 90 days of incubation period, respectively), while Fe-P (13.8 ppm and 13.1 ppm at 0 days and 90 days of incubation period, respectively) increased marginally at field capacity in kankar soil condition. Sunhemp (T2) proved more beneficial than FYM (T3) in increasing Fe-P, Al-P, and Ca-P as also Olsen’s P content in the soil. Therefore, the application of organic matter either in the form of sun hemp with phosphorus proved very useful in improving the avoidable content of the soil.
      PubDate: 2023-08-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102697
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Mass Trapping –A Promising Technique for Integrated Management of Pink
           Bollworm, Pectinophora gossyipiella Saunders (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in
           Cotton

    • Authors: M. S. Maha Lakshmi , N. V. V. S. Durga Prasad , G. A. D. Grace
      Pages: 644 - 650
      Abstract: The management of Pink bollworm, a worldwide pest in cotton is mostly dependent on chemical insecticides which lead to several implications and warrant the exploration of other methods. Use of sex pheromones for management of insect pests is not a new-fangled one but need be studied extensively for effective pest management. Hence, a study was conducted at RARS, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh for two consecutive seasons to study the effectiveness of mass trapping in pink bollworm management. The experimental results showed that the mean moth catch was highest from sleeve traps when compared to funnel trap and delta traps with sticky liners irrespective of trap densities. The mean number of larvae and locule damage was significantly low coupled with high seed cotton yield from the plots with sleeve traps at trap densities of 50 and 20 traps/ha.
      PubDate: 2023-08-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102698
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Micronutrients Foliar Application on Growth and Flowering of
           Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) in Naturally Ventilated Polyhouse under
           Prayagraj Agro Climatic Conditions

    • Authors: Abin Wilson , Devi Singh, C. John Wesley
      Pages: 651 - 658
      Abstract: The present investigation entitled “Effect of Micronutrients Foliar Application on Growth and Flowering of Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) in Naturally Ventilated Polyhouse Under Prayagraj Agro Climatic Conditions” was carried out during November 2022 to March 2023 in, Naturally Ventilated Polyhouse, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj. The experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design with thirteen treatment combinations, with the application of three micronutrients; FeSO4, MgSO4 and ZnSO4 at different levels, which was replicated thrice. It was concluded that the application of micronutrients treatments rendered their significant effect on almost all the growth, flowering and yield characters of gerbera. The treatment T11 i.e., application of ZnSO4 at 0.6% found superior in terms of plant height (28.17cm), number of leaves (13.5), length of the leaves (33.9cm), plant spread (47.68cm), days taken for first flower bud initiation (88.6days), minimum days taken to first harvest (119days), flower diameter (11.35cm), stalk length (43.16cm), stalk diameter (7.16mm), number of flowers per plant (9.17) and vase life (9.66days). Among the different treatments the highest gross return (142590 Rs/200m2), Net return (55938 Rs/200m2), benefit cost ratio (1.64) was obtained under the use of ZnSO4 at 0.6% (T11).
      PubDate: 2023-08-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102699
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Morpho-molecular Characterization of Carrot Soft Rot Incitant,
           Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp carotovoroum

    • Authors: S. Lavanya, P. Muthulakshmi , I. Johnson , R. Poorniammal , H. Usha Nandhini Devi
      Pages: 659 - 669
      Abstract: Carrot is an important root vegetable which plays an important role in human health. Globally, Post harvest diseases are the major constraint in carrot production, especially soft rot which resulting in severe yield loss. Early diagnosis of these post-harvest diseases paves a way for reducing the economic losses. Carrot samples showing typical rotting symptoms were collected from markets of four different districts of Tamil Nadu and the pathogen involved were isolated. Severe carrot soft rot incidence (66.74%) was observed in samples collected from Ooty area of The Nilgiris district and the least disease incidence of (16.21%) was recorded in Perundurai of Erode district. Pathogenicity of soft rot pathogen were conducted and the virulent isolates were identified based on Percent Disease Index (PDI) showing >50% rotting falls under disease grade 9 using disease grade scale (0 to 9). The bacterial isolates (KPB-7 and OCB-5) causing soft rot were characterized using various biochemical assays where in they showed positive response for methyl red, H2S gas production, KOH and catalase tests besides showing negative response for gram’s reaction. Furthermore, molecular characterization of 16s rRNA region revealed the soft rot isolate (KPB-7) as Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp carotovorum (with an accession number OR251119).
      PubDate: 2023-08-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102700
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Response of Sulphur and Zinc on Growth and Yield Components of Cluster
           Bean

    • Authors: Deepthi Banothu, Biswarup Mehera
      Pages: 670 - 674
      Abstract: Field test carried out during Zaid 2023 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences (SHUATS), Prayagraj (U.P). The soil in the field was found to be sandy loam, neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.10), natural carbon (0.50%), accessible N (183.40 kg/ha), accessible P (37.56 kg/ha) and accessible K (200.06 kg/ha). The experiment was a randomized block design as the experiment consisting of nine treatments each repeated three times. The treatment combinations are 1: Sulphur 10 kg/ha + Zinc 3 kg/ha, 2: Sulphur 10 kg/ha + Zinc 6 kg/ha, 3: Sulphur 10 kg/ha + Zinc 9 kg/ha, 4: Sulphur 20 kg/ha + Zinc 3 kg/ha, 5: Sulphur 20 kg/ha + Zinc 6 kg/ha, 6: Sulphur 20 kg/ha + Zinc 9 kg/ha, 7: Sulphur 30 kg/ha + Zinc 3 kg/ha, 8: Sulphur 30 kg/ha + Zinc 6 kg/ha, 9: Sulphur 30 kg/ha + Zinc 9 kg/ha, 10: Control 20:40:25 (N:P:K) kg/ha are used. The important findings of the experiment have been summarized and concluded here under the objectives taken. The application of Sulphur 30 kg/ha + Zinc 6 kg/ha, observed maximum Plant height (104.00 cm), highest number of nodules per plant (16.93) Plant dry weight (26.56 g/plant). Maximum pods/plant (41.07), Seeds/pod (10.00), Test weight (4.45g), Seed yield (2.03 t/ha), stover yield (3.98 t/ha), Harvest index (33.76%) were noted with the treatment combination of Sulphur 30 kg/ha + Zinc 6 kg/ha.
      PubDate: 2023-08-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102701
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Herbicide (Propaquizafop and Imazethapyr) on Weed Flora
           Associated with Blackgram in Central India

    • Authors: Shreya Malviya, Mukesh Kumar Saini
      Pages: 675 - 686
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted at Product Testing Unit, Department of Agronomy, JNKVV, Jabalpur to study the effect of application of propaquizafop and imazethapyr herbicide on weeds associated with blackgram. The experimental field was having mixed weed flora comprising of grassy as well as broad leaved weeds. Nine treatments comprised of four rates of application of propaquizafop+ imazethapyr at 47+70, 50+75, 53+80 and 56+85 g/ha and alone application of propaquizafop (100 g/ha), imazethapyr (100 g/ha), pendimethalin (1500 g/ha) and hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS including weedy check, were laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. All herbicide treatments were applied in 500 liters of water per hectare, using flat fan nozzle as per the treatments. The dominant weed flora, species wise weed density, weed biomass, Weed control efficiency and weed index were recorded at different interval. The study revealed that the Echinochloa colona (29.39%) and Dinebra retroflexa (24.30%) were the found as dominant weeds in the field whereas, other monocot weeds like Cyperus iria (18.19%) and dicot weeds like Mullugo pentaphylla (12.23%), Eclipta alba (7.58%) and Alternanthera philoxeroides (8.31%) were also present in less numbers in blackgram under weedy check plots. Among the herbicidal treatments, activity of propaquizafop+imazethapyr mixture at the dose 53+80 and 56+85 g/ha emerged as effective control for the weeds associated with blackgram.
      PubDate: 2023-08-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102703
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Studies on the Effect of Biostimulants on Quality of Cut Flower of
           Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora) cv. Denjigar Whitec

    • Authors: N. Suchitha, K. Kaladhar Babu , D. Lakshminarayana, S. Praneeth Kumar
      Pages: 687 - 692
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of biostimulants on quality of cut flower of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora) cv. Denjigar White”. It was carried out at naturally ventilated polyhouse at Ammapuram, village of Thorrur mandal, Mahabubabad district near JVR Horticulture Research Station, Malyal, Mahabubabad district during 2020- 2021. The treatments used were Ascophyllum nodosum (2.5, 5ml L-1), Rhodophyte extract (0.2, 0.4g L-1), Potassium humate (1.5, 3g L-1), Fulvic acid 10% + Seaweed 8% + Spirulina 6 % (2, 4 g L-1) and control (Water spray) in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with nine treatments and each treatment was replicated thrice. Among the treatments, the treatment T2 (Ascophyllum nodosum @ 5 ml L-1) recorded maximum flower diameter (7.48 cm), individual flower weight (6.55 g), stem length (72.10 cm), vase life (21.60 days) and shelf life (5.84 days), gross returns (₹ 76,93,200), net returns (₹ 59,82,204) and best benefit cost ratio (3.50). However, control recorded minimum in all the parameters.
      PubDate: 2023-08-21
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102704
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Irrigation Levels and Straw Mulching on Yield and Water Use
           Efficiency of Papaya under Drip Irrigation System

    • Authors: Baljeet Singh Gaat , Mukesh Kumar , Ram Naresh, Suresh Kumar , Kapil, Narender Kumar , Santosh Rani , Raj Kumar
      Pages: 693 - 701
      Abstract: Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a significant fruit crop cultivated worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions. However, its cultivation is often constrained by limited water availability and soil moisture stress, which may significantly affect its yield and quality. This study aimed to explore the effects of irrigation levels and straw mulch on the growth and yield of papaya under a drip irrigation system. The experiment encompassed six treatments: three different irrigation levels (100%, 75%, and 50% of crop water requirement) and two mulch levels (straw mulching and no mulch). The effect of mulch levels on plant growth, yield, and water use efficiency was statistically significant. The results revealed that applying 100% of crop water requirement along with straw mulch resulted in the maximum plant height, stem girth, crown diameter, and yield compared to the no mulch treatment. The study also evaluated irrigation water use efficiency, an essential aspect of sustainable farming practices. The results indicated that the maximum irrigation water use efficiency (58.47 kg m-3) was recorded when 50% of the crop water requirement was met alongside straw mulch. Conversely, the minimum irrigation water use efficiency was observed when 100% of the crop water requirement was completed without any mulch under the drip irrigation system.
      PubDate: 2023-08-21
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102705
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Response of Sulphur and Molybdenum on Growth and Yield Attributes of Field
           Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    • Authors: Mallela Nikitha Rani , Biswarup Mehera, Rachamallu Yogitha Reddy
      Pages: 702 - 706
      Abstract: During Rabi 2022, a field trial was conducted at the SHUATS Agriculture Crop Research Farm in Prayagraj. The soil in the experimental plot was sandy loamy, with a near-neutral soil response (pH 7.1), low organic carbon content (0.36%), available nitrogen (171.48 kg/ha), available phosphorus (15.2 kg/ha), and had an effective soil. K (232.5 kg/ha). The experiment was set up with a randomized block design in which he repeated nine treatments three times, based on a one-year experiment. The treatments are T1: Sulphur 20 kg/ha-1 + Mo 0.5 kg/ha-1, T2: Sulphur 20 kg/ha- 1 + Mo 1.0 kg/ha-1, T3: Sulphur 20 kg/ha-1 + Mo 1.5 kg/ha-1, T4: Sulphur 30 kg/ha-1 + Mo 0.5 kg/ha- 1, T5: Sulphur 30 kg/ha-1 + Mo 1.0 kg/ha-1, T6: Sulphur 30 kg/ha-1 + Mo 1.5 kg/ha-1, T7: Sulphur 40 kg/ha-1 + Mo 0.5 kg/ha-1, T8: Sulphur 40 kg/ha-1 + Mo 1.0 kg/ha-1, T9: Sulphur 40 kg/ha-1 + Mo 1.5 kg/ha-1, T10: Control are used. The application of Sulphur 40 kg/ha-1 + Mo 0.5 kg/ha-1, recorded significant Plant height (56.25 cm), Number of nodules/plant (9.00), Plant dry weight (22.13 g/plant), maximum pods/plant (19.00), Seeds/pod (8.21), Test weight (35.45 g), Seed yield (2.29 t/ha).
      PubDate: 2023-08-21
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102706
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Weed Management Practices on Growth, Yield and Quality of Okra
           [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench]

    • Authors: Dinesh Singh , Ram Batuk Singh , Nirankar, Budhesh Pratap Singh , Rupesh Kumar , Rajat Maurya , Tribhuwan Singh
      Pages: 707 - 715
      Abstract: The present investigation entitled “Effect of weed management practices on growth, yield and quality of okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)” was conducted at Vegetable Research Farm, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur during kharif season 2022. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with seven different treatments viz. T1 = Pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin @ 6 ml /L, T2= Post emergence application of Quizalofop-ethyl @ 0.040 kg/ha ,T3 = Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin @ 6 ml/L + one hand weeding at 40 DAS , T4 =  Post emergence application of Quizalofop-ethyl @ 0.040 kg ha-1 at 25 DAS  +  one hand weeding ,  T5 = Pendimethalin @ 6 ml /L as pre-emergence + Quizalofop-ethyl @ 0.040 kg ha-1 at 25 DAS , T6 = Weed free check (Three hand weeding) 20, 40 and 60 DAS , T7 = weed check control replicated thrice.  The result of the study revealed that at 30 DAS maximum plant height (30.96cm) was reported in treatment T3 : Pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin @ 6 ml/L + one hand weeding at 40 days of sowing whereas at  60 and 90 DAS maximum plant height (75.50 and 113.53 cm)  was reported in T6 : Weed free check (Three hand weeding) 20, 40 and 60 DAS. Maximum number of branches per plant (4.60)at 60 DAS was found in T3 : Pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin @ 6 ml/L + one hand weeding at 40 DAS  and 90 DAS maximum number of branches per plant (5.86) was reported in T6 : Weed free check (Three hand weeding) 20, 40 and 60 DAS. Maximum number of nodes (17.83 ) at 60 days after sowing was noticed in treatment T3 = Pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin @ 6 ml/L + one hand weeding at 40 DAS and 90 Days after of sowing maximum number of  nodes () was in treatment T6 = Weed free check (Three hand weeding) 20, 40 and 60 DAS. Maximum Pod diameter( 1.74cm) ,  fruit weight (12.88gm ), pod  length( 14.1cm) ,  number of pods per  plant( 25.66 ) , pod yield per plant ( 304.73gm) , pod yield per hectare (16.91  t), TSS( 3.2 Brix),  crude fibre (8.46%)  and cholorophyll content (1.18 mg) and relative cholorophyll content (54.39) .
      PubDate: 2023-08-21
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102707
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effects of Coral Reef Destruction on Humans and the Environment

    • Authors: Devarshi Ranjan , Sanjay Chandravanshi , Priyanka Verma , Mayank Bhushan Singh , Durgesh Kumar Verma , Preeti Maurya , Aditya Kumar Upadhyay , Raghunath, Ankit Kumar Tiwari , Kanta Kumar Sahu
      Pages: 716 - 725
      Abstract: Coral reefs are home to a rich biodiversity and one of the most diverse ecosystems on the planet. It provides home to 35,000–60,000 species of plants and animals (over 25% of all marine life), many of which have not been described by science. It provides food, employment, and tourism to people, protecting coastal areas from storm surges; and acts as nesting grounds for many species of fish that are important for commerce. In recent years, several natural and anthropogenic disturbances have damaged the coral reefs of the world a number of events, including pollution, overfishing, destructive fishing methods, boat anchor falls, tourism, mining coral for building materials, and a warming climate, are destroying coral reefs. To reduce the destruction of coral reefs, mitigation measures, encourage sustainable fishing, following all safety precautions when visiting coral reef areas, provide alternative management plans such as coral restoration, artificial reef management, and coral nurseries to improve the coral cover in degraded areas and also increase public awareness and stewardship program related to coral reef and its associated biota, reduce plastic pollution in the ocean.
      PubDate: 2023-08-21
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102708
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Response of China aster to Bio-inoculant Amendments under Pot Experiment

    • Authors: Suraj Singh , Samir E. Topno , V. M. Prasad
      Pages: 726 - 731
      Abstract: The present investigation was layout out in Completely Randomized design (CRD) to assess the impact of biofertilizers on China aster with total of nine treatments and each treatment replicated thrice. The treatments consist of different combinations of bio-inoculants (Azospirillum, PSB, VAM and KSB). The results revealed that the treatment T8 (75%RDF+Azospirillum+PSB) was found significantly higher compared to other treatment combination, which recorded highest plant height (27.28 cm), Number of leaves (27.44), plant spread (15.28 cm2), Days to bud emergence (47.11 days), days of first bud break (54.67 days), opening first flower (62.33 days),number of flowers per plant(14.12), stalk length (13.00 cm), flower dimeter (4.92cm),Vase life (12.22 days), Leaf area (14.11 cm2).The economics viz. Gross return (Rs. 16,800), Net return (Rs. 8928) and Benefit cost ratio (2.13) was found highest in the same treatment.
      PubDate: 2023-08-21
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102709
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Survey, Incidence and Pathogenicity of Root Rot Disease of Cotton in
           Different Districts of Haryana Incited by Rhizoctonia spp

    • Authors: Preeti Vashisht , N. K. Yadav
      Pages: 732 - 739
      Abstract: Aim: Survey, incidence and pathogenicity of root rot disease of cotton in different districts of Haryana incited by Rhizoctonia spp. Design: Survey. Place and Duration of Study: Ten major cotton growing districts in Haryana during Kharif 2021 and Kharif 2022. Methodology: A roving survey to record cotton root rot incidence was conducted in ten major cotton growing districts of Haryana during the month of June and July for consecutive two Kharif seasons 2021 and 2022. On an average 4 growing region of cotton in each district were visited and percent disease incidence was recorded. Results: Among all the surveyed districts of Haryana the maximum mean disease incidence was recorded in Fatehabad (18.75%) followed by Hisar (15.25 %), Sirsa (15%), While the minimum disease incidence was recorded in Nuh and Charkhi dadri 9.25 per cent in both during kharif 2021. Among all the surveyed districts of Haryana the maximum mean disease incidence was recorded in Fatehabad (18.25%) followed by Sirsa (15.25%), Hisar (15.42%), While the minimum disease incidence was recorded Charkhi dadri (9.08%). Conclusion: The results of the current study showed that important cotton-growing regions in Haryana have root rot disease incidence. It is clear from the overall study that root rot disease is common in significant mulberry-growing regions in Haryana. As a result, resistant cotton types are urgently needed to address the grower's issue, together with the best management techniques, such as effective biocontrol agents that can significantly reduce the illness. Consequently, research should be conducted to ascertain the incidence of the disease in different places.
      PubDate: 2023-08-21
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102710
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Regulation and Expression of Phytohormones for Root Architectural Trait
           Development in Rice: A Review

    • Authors: Prasanta Kumar Majhi, Sarita Pradhan, Partha Pratim Behera, Ritik Digamber Bisane, Prashant Kumar Sharma
      Pages: 740 - 748
      Abstract: The root system architecture (RSA) in monocotyledonous plants like rice is consists of primary roots, lateral roots, seminal/crown roots, and root hairs. The soil nutrients also influence many physiological processes via various root parameters like root length, root diameter and root angle for growth and development. The variation in root system architecture in rice is influenced by the intrinsic factors (phytohormones, transcription factors) and extrinsic factors (light, temperature and moisture) and their collective effect. The phytohormones such as; auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid and ethylene, and their mutual effects play vital role for root architectural trait development. Many genes/QTLs were identified in rice which are strong role player for root development. But the biochemical signaling pathways are not completely understood. The modern molecular tools like genome editing, sequencing and multi-omics (transcriptomics and proteomics) approaches and multi-disciplinary system biology studies can provide a better solution for this issue. To improve the sustainable food grain production under extreme environment, it is important to understand the physiological and biochemical mechanism of root development. Moreover, it is imperative to establish a resilient root system in rice cultivation in order to mitigate the overuse of chemical fertilizers, enhance nutrient efficiency, and improve climate resilience of the plant.
      PubDate: 2023-08-21
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102711
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Different Inorganic Fertlizers and Bio Fertilizers on Growth,
           Yield and Quality of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench )

    • Authors: Amchi Christbya M. Marak , Deepanshu, Niharika
      Pages: 749 - 758
      Abstract: This study was carried out during March – June 2022 on vegetable research farm Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj. The objective of the experiment was to screen out the best combination of biofertilizer and inorganic manures for growth, yield, and quality of okra and to work out the economics. The design of the experiment was randomized block design (RBD) with three replications. The result shows that T8  75%N + 100%PK + Azotobacter + Azospirillum + PSB was found superior in terms of plant height (9.30cm in 20 days, 30.23cm in 40 days, 43.58cm in 60 days),  plant spread (19.94cm2 in 20 days, 34.64 cm2  in 40 days, 60.74 cm2  in 60 days), days to first flowering (33.98 days), days to 50% flowering (42.43days), days to fruit setting (46.95 days), days to first fruit picking (48.68 days), fruit weight (9.83g), length of fruit at marketable stage (13.10cm), girth of fruit (2.02cm), no. of fruit per plant (23.98/plant), no. of seeds per fruit (48.39), fruit yield per plant(g) 235.65g, fruit yield per plot (kg) 7.78kg, fruit yield (t/ha) 19.44, TSS (14.61oBrix), ascorbic acid (21.31 mg/100g). Net economic returns of treatment were highest in T8 (75%N + 100%PK + Azotobacter + Azospirillum + PSB) Rs.472592.83 with highest cost benefit ratio of (4.27).
      PubDate: 2023-08-21
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102712
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Performance, Phenology and Water relations in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
           Concerning Moisture and INM Modules

    • Authors: Vivek Pandey , Adesh Singh , Vivek, Mukesh Kumar , B. P. Dhyani , Bhim Singh
      Pages: 759 - 766
      Abstract: A field experiment on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was carried out during two consecutive rabi seasons 2021-22 and 2022-23 at Crop Research Centre of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India. The soil of the experimental field was sandy loam in texture, low in organic carbon and available nitrogen, but medium in available phosphorus and available potassium having slightly alkaline pH (8.7) with an electrical conductivity of 0.327. The field experiment allocated three moisture regimes in main plots, I1: irrigation at IW/CPE ratio of 0.7, I2: irrigation at IW/CPE ratio of 0.9 and I3: five irrigations at critical stages (CRI, LT, LJ, F and M) and six integrated nutrient management (INM) modules in sub-plots, N1: control, N2: 100 % RDF (150:75:60 kg NPK/ha), N3: 125 % RDF, N4: 50% RDF+PM @ 2.5 t/ha, N5: 50% RDF+PM @ 2.5 t/ha+Azotobacter+PSB+KMB, N6: 50% RDF+PM @ 2.5 t/ha+NPK consortia were tested in split plot design with three replications. On pooled basis of two years experimentation the results showed that, the irrigation applied at critical stages (CRI, LT, LJ, F and M) resulted in significantly (P<0.05) tallest plants, more number of physiologically active leaves/plant at 50% flowering stage, days taken to 50% flowering, days taken to maturity, spike length, grains weight/spike, grain yield (48.7 q/ha), protein content (11.1 %) in grains and crop water use (541.9 mm) over IW/CPE ratio of 0.7. While, the reverse trend was noticed for soil pH and electrical conductivity, being maximum under the IW/CPE ratio of 0.7. Moreover, the highest water productivity was obtained with 0.9 ratio followed by 0.7. In respect of INM modules, the tallest plants, more of days taken to 50% flowering, days taken to maturity and soil pH were noticed with N3 treatment, which was significantly (P<0.05) higher over the rest of the treatments, except plant height, being on par with N2 and N6 and soil pH which did not show any significant variation during both the years. While, the maximum number of physiologically active leaves/plant, grains weight/spike, protein content (11.2%) in grains and electrical conductivity were recorded under N5. However, the physiologically active leaves/plant and grains weight/spike was significantly (P<0.05) superior over control and protein content in grains under N1 and N2. Moreover, the longest spike, grain yield (51.0 q/ha), crop water use (481.0 mm) and water productivity (6.38 kg/ha-mm) were registered with N6, being significantly (P<0.05) superior over the control. Further, this treatment out yielded control and RDF by 23.7 and 6.3 %, respectively.
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102713
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Agronomic Evaluation of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Hybrids under Agro-
           Climatic Conditions of Naini, Prayagraj

    • Authors: Diptendu Ghosh , Vikram Singh , Shruti Grace George
      Pages: 767 - 772
      Abstract: This research paper aims to evaluate the agronomic performance of twenty rice hybrid varieties under the specific agro-climatic conditions of Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India. The study focuses on analyzing their growth and yield parameters using a randomized block design replicated thrice. The findings will provide valuable insights into the performance of rice hybrids and assist farmers in selecting suitable varieties for optimal productivity in the region. During Kharif season, of 2022 the field experiment was conducted at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences (SHUATS), Prayagraj (U.P.). Based on the objectives taken maximum plant height (122.57 cm), number of tillers (15.07), plant dry weight (55.91 g/plant), panicle length (29.00 cm), filled grains (256.17), were recorded significantly higher in the hybrid R-504 as compared to other treatments though grain yield/hill (29.13 g) was recorded significantly higher in the hybrid R-410. This research paper aims to provide an in-depth analysis of agronomic evaluation of rice hybrids. The study is intended to explore the advantages and challenges associated with rice hybrid varieties, with a focus on growth attributes, yield potential and other agronomic traits.
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102714
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Extent of Awareness and Adoption of Climate Resilient Crop Production
           Practises among Farmers in Haryana State of India

    • Authors: P. S. Shehrawat , Aditya, Sandeep Bhakar , B. Arulmanikandan
      Pages: 773 - 783
      Abstract: The phenomenon of climate change presents a substantial obstacle to the attainment of food self-sufficiency and the overall welfare of rural communities. Climate change has significantly impacted the agricultural sector in India, with the majority of the population being more susceptible due to their direct or indirect reliance on the sector. The process of adapting to climate change is multifaceted and involves various factors, including economic, cultural, institutional, and biophysical aspects. Long-term climate change could threaten marginalised groups' livelihoods, thus proactive planning is needed. Strategic research that raises awareness and encourages adaptation helps Indian agriculture withstand climatic variability and climate change. This study evaluates farmers' knowledge and willingness to adopt climate-resilient agricultural practices in farming activities. The investigation involved 120 farmers from Hisar and Fatehabad districts, randomly selected two villages from each district viz., Sharwa and Chirod, and Gorakhpur and Jandlikalan, to gather data. The study found that farmers have a high level of awareness about climate-resilient crop production practices, with high adoption rates for crop insurance, field sanitation, irrigation scheduling, and seed treatment. However, there are areas where awareness is lacking, such as post-harvest losses, natural resource conservation, cultivation methods, tolerant crop varieties, and credit facilities. To improve awareness, farmers need to promote and enhance less widely accepted practices, such as credit facilities, natural resource conservation schemes, and cultivation methods. The study thus highlights some challenges include lack of knowledge about climate change, labor scarcity, limited resources, inadequate training, and poor institutional financial support.
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102715
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Knowledge of Vegetable Growers on the Effects of Agricultural Chemicals

    • Authors: G. Manunayaka , S. Ganesamoorthi
      Pages: 784 - 790
      Abstract: The present study was conducted in Kolar district of Karnataka state during 2018-19 to understand the knowledge level of vegetable growers on the effects of agricultural chemicals. The data was collected from 120 vegetable growing farmers in Kolar and Malur talukas by applying simple random sampling technique and pretested interview schedule. Results revealed that more than forty per cent of the vegetable growers (42.50 %) possessed medium level of knowledge on the effects of agricultural chemicals, more than three fourth of the vegetable growers. (77.50 %) knew that taking bath using soap immediately after application of agricultural chemicals was a must, only 53.33 per cent. of the vegetable growers knew that red colour on the agricultural chemical container indicated extremely toxic level, sixty per cent of the vegetable growers knew that usage of same fertilizer for a long time reduces soil fertility, nearly seventy per cent of the vegetable growers (69.17 %) knew about importance of puncturing the pesticide bottle to prevent its reuse and burying it in the waste land as a safe method of disposal. The results of the study implies that still majority of the farmers were largely unaware of ill-effects of agro-chemicals on various entities like soil, underground water, water bodies, soil micro-organisms, natural predators as well as their personal health. This necessitates the extension agencies to sensitize farmers on optimum use of agro-chemicals for a sustainable farming and livelihood. Other variables like age, family size, annual income, size of land holding hardly associated with their knowledge on the effects of agricultural chemicals.
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102716
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Impact of Auxin and Gibberellin on Vegetable Crops: A Review

    • Authors: Mohd. Faruk , Mashetty Rakesh Kumar , Dhaneshvari Arya , Monalisa Panda , Rakesh Kumar , Puja Fartiyal , Agnivesh Yadav
      Pages: 791 - 798
      Abstract: Plant growth regulators, also known as phytohormones, are a class of organic chemicals, either naturally occurring or artificially synthesised, that exert control over specific physiological processes in plants. The application of these substances elicits a range of effects on vegetables, encompassing seed germination, the disruption of seed dormancy, the commencement of flowering, the induction of gametocidal effects, the promotion of fruit set, the stimulation of parthenocarpy, and the facilitation of fruit ripening, among others. Auxin plays crucial factor in the development of several vegetable crops, including cucurbits. Notably, the application of Naphthalene acetic acid at a concentration of 10 ppm has been observed to exert a significant influence on sex expression, fruit set, and overall production in cucumber plants. The application of 4-CPA resulted in the greatest quantity of commercially viable fruit in tomato plants. The application of Naphthalene acetic acid at a concentration of 40 ppm exhibited the most substantial enhancements in leaf area, percentage of fruit set, total fruit production, as well as the quantity and weight of seeds per fruit in chilli plants. The treatment involving the application of 80 ppm Naphthalene acetic acid in brinjal resulted in the observation of increased fruit length, average weight of fruit per plant, and greatest fruit diameter. Gibberellin is also of significant importance, since it participates in using the gibberellic acid route to produce tomato plants that exhibit enhanced performance in both irrigated and water-limited environments, hence increasing their drought tolerance. The application of GA3 at a concentration of 75 ppm has been found to be highly beneficial in improving vegetative growth and yield characteristics in brinjal, as well as in several other vegetable crops as detailed in the present study. Additionally, they serve a crucial function in augmenting the output and productivity of many vegetables breeding programmes, and ensuring food safety.
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102717
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect on Vegetative Growth and Development of Strawberry (Fragaria
           ananassa) in Potting Mixture System under Shade Net Conditions cv. Winter
           Dawn

    • Authors: Mithun Tarafdar , Saket Mishra , Ravi Kumar Singh , Ashish Kumar , Shashi Kant Ekka
      Pages: 799 - 808
      Abstract: In Prayagraj agro climatic conditions strawberry is produced with high-technology, but there is little research on the productivity of strawberry in Potting media mixture under shade net conditions. The present study was conducted to compare single potting media for the strawberry. The conventional method was used for the comparison study. In this method, uniform runners of the strawberry cultivar Winter Dawn were grown in pots with growing medium consisting of goat manure, vermiculite, and peat moss in various ratios on a volume-to-volume basis. Additionally, Ponic green's 3-part Nute hydroponic nutrient set was applied to the plants via foliar spray at fortnightly intervals. In order to meet the nutritional requirements of each individual plant and ensure that the uppermost layer of the pots remained adequately moist, the irrigation process was carefully monitored. Based on both years2021- 22research trail findings of this study. It was determined to have the greatest growth traits for every growth, flowering and fruit weight criteria.
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102718
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Spacing and Biofertilizers on Growth and Yield of Chickpea

    • Authors: Akash Singh , C. Umesha , V. Uday Kiran
      Pages: 809 - 815
      Abstract: The field experiment was conducted during rabi 2022-23, at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P). The soil of the experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 6.9), low in organic carbon (0.32%), available N (283.93 kg/ha), available P (18.3 kg/ha) and available K (223.5 kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with ten treatments viz. T1: Spacing 20 cm x 15 cm + Uninoculated, T2: Spacing 20 cm x 15 cm + Rhizobium, T3: Spacing 20 cm x 15 cm + PSB, T4: Spacing 30 cm x 10 cm + Uninoculated, T5: Spacing 30 cm x 10 cm + Rhizobium, T6: Spacing 30 cmx 10 cm + PSB, T7: Spacing 40 cm x 10 cm + Uninoculated, T8: Spacing 40 cm x 10 cm + Rhizobium, T9: Spacing 40 cm x 10 cm + PSB and T10: Control: 100% RDF each replicated thrice. The results of the experiment obtained that application of Rhizobium (20 g/kg seeds) along with the Spacing 30cmx10cm significantly increased the growth parameters viz. plant height (46.79 cm), number of nodules (31.93/plant), plant dry weight (22.11 g/plant) and yield parameters viz. number of pods per plant (36.80), seed index (22.15 g), seed yield (3.44 t/ha) and stover yield (4.28 t/ha). This treatment also showed its positive effect on economics viz. gross returns (1,71,834 INR/ha), net returns (1,24,486 INR/ha), B:C (2.63). As the majority of Indian farmers are marginal and poor who cannot afford the use of high cost fertilizers with the result that crops are exposed to nutritional constraints. In such conditions biofertilizers can play an important role in contributing towards soil health and crop productivity. Biofertilizers are a cost effective renewable energy source that plays a crucial role in reducing inorganic fertilizer application and at the same increasing crop yield besides maintaining soil fertility. The optimum spacing for any crop means maintaining uniform and healthy crop stand so as to get optimum yield of crop. The growth and yield of crop is closely related to number of plants per unit area.
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102720
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Performance of Rice Varieties with Varying Irrigation Scheduling under
           Aerobic Condition

    • Authors: A. K. Padhairy , D. Panda , B. R. Nayak , S. Mondal , S. Srichandan
      Pages: 816 - 821
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at the Regional Research Technology and Transfer Station (RRTTS), Chiplima, Sambalpur, Odisha during summer season of 2019 & 2020 to evaluate performance of medium duration rice varieties with varying irrigation schedules under aerobic condition. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with 3 replications and consisted of four irrigation schedules i.e. I1 = Irrigation at IW/CPE = 1.0, I2 = Irrigation at IW/CPE = 1.5, I3 = Irrigation at IW/CPE = 2.0, and I4 = Irrigation at IW/CPE = 2.5 in main plot treatments and four varieties i.e. V1 = Naveen, V2 = MTU-1010, V3= CR Dhan-201 and V4 = CR Dhan-204 in subplot treatments. The result of pooled mean of both the years showed that higher grain yield was recorded at IW/CPE = 2.5 i.e. 4.07 t/ha , which was at par with IW/CPE = 2.0 (3.90 t/ha) and significantly superior to rest of other irrigation schedules. But in case of cultivars, higher grain yield was obtained with variety CR-Dhan 201(3.54 t/ha) which was at par with variety Naveen (3.30t/ha) and significantly superior to rest of other cultivars. The interaction of irrigation at IW/CPE 2.0 with variety CR Dhan 201 gave the highest grain yield (4.39t/ha) which was at par with irrigation at IW/CPE 2.5 with variety CR Dhan 201 (4.30 t/ha) and significantly superior to rest of other interactions. The interaction of irrigation schedules at IW/CPE 1.5 with Naveen variety produced the highest field water use efficiency (44.05 kg ha-cm-1) but it was at par with all irrigation schedules except at IW/CPE 2.5 with variety CR Dhan 201. Hence, it may be concluded that variety like CR Dhan 201 needs to be irrigated at IW/CPE 2.0 produced economically optimum yield and field water use efficiency on sandy loam soils of western region of Odisha under aerobic condition.
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102721
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Behaviour of Arrivals and Prices in Major
           Onion Markets of India

    • Authors: Sanket D. Chavan , Virendra Singh , Shyam Mani Tripathi , Katta Sravan Naga Parimala Kumar
      Pages: 822 - 833
      Abstract: The present study was an attempt to examine the behaviour of arrivals and prices of onion in major markets of India over the period from 2008 to 2022. The entire investigation relies on data obtained from secondary sources. Data on monthly wholesale prices and arrivals of selected markets was gathered from Agmarknet, Directorate of Marketing & Inspection, Government of India. Six markets were selected purposively, of which one each market was from four top onion producing states (Lasalgaon, Bangalore, Indore and Ahmadabad) and two were from top consuming cities (Mumbai and Delhi). Various statistical measures were such as linear trend analysis, ratio to trend method of seasonality and coefficient of variation were used to examine trend, seasonality, and inter-year prices variation, respectively in onion arrivals and prices in the selected markets. The findings of the trend analysis indicate that all markets experienced a significant increase in both arrivals and prices throughout the study period, except for the Delhi market, which showed a negative trend in arrivals. The seasonality indices reveal that prices tended to be higher from the month of August to January, while they were lower from February to July. Interestingly, an inverse relationship between onion arrivals and prices could not be established.
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102722
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Dates of Sowing on Growth and Yield of Chickpea Varieties

    • Authors: G. S. Sandeep , C. Umesha , V. Uday Kiran
      Pages: 834 - 838
      Abstract: The field experiment was titled “Effect of dates of sowing on growth and yield of Chickpea varieties” was conducted during rabi 2022-23, at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (UP). The soil of the experimental plot was sandy loam in texture. The experiment consists of three varieties (Himmat, Shulabh-45 and Chirag) and three different dates of sowing November 5th, November 15th and November 25th including control i.e., blanket application of 20-60-20 kg/ha of NPK (farmer's practice) which were replicated thrice. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with ten treatments viz., T1: Himmat + November 5, T2: Himmat + November 15, T3: Himmat + November 25, T4: Shulabh-45 + November 5, T5: Shulabh-45 + November 15, T6: Shulabh-45 + November 25, T7: Chirag + November 5, T8: Chirag + November 15, T9: Chirag + November 25, and control plot. The results of the experiment concluded that the variety Shulabh-45 with the date of sowing on November 25th significantly increased the growth parameters viz., plant height (45.54 cm), Number of nodules per plant (31.87), Plant dry weight (20.45 g/plant), and yield parameters viz., pods per plant (35.53), seeds per pod (1.35), seed yield (3.37 t/ha) and stover yield (4.90 t/ha). This treatment also showed its positive effect on economics viz., gross returns (1,71,870 INR/ha), net returns (1,19,475 INR/ha), B:C (2.28).
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102723
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Different Level of Sugar and Yeast on Production and Quality
           Attributes of Apple Cider (Malus x domestica) cv. Royal Delicious

    • Authors: Norzin Wangmo , Saket Mishra , Ravi Kumar Singh
      Pages: 839 - 850
      Abstract: An apple is a comestible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus x domestica Borkh). Cider is generally defined as an alcoholic libation attained by stirring apple juice. Cider product also plays a promising part in the apple fruit assiduity and the libation assiduity. The present trial was carried out during 2022 in Post- Harvest Laboratory of Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Prayagraj. The trial was conducted in Completely Randomized Design (CRD), with 9 treatments, replicated thrice. The treatments were T1- Apple Juice( 500 ml) Sugar( 100 gm) incitement (0.5 gm), T2- Apple Juice( 500 ml) Sugar (100 gm) incitement (1.0 gm), T3- Apple Juice( 500 ml) Sugar (100 gm) incitement (1.5 gm), T4- Apple Juice (500 ml) Sugar (150 gm) incitement (0.5 gm), T5- Apple Juice (500 ml) Sugar (150 gm) incitement (1.0 gm), T6- Apple Juice (500 ml) Sugar (150 gm) incitement (1.5 gm), T7- Apple Juice (500 ml) Sugar (200 gm) incitement (0.5 gm), T8- Apple Juice (500 ml) Sugar (200 gm) incitement(1.0 gm) and T9- Apple Juice (500 ml) Sugar (200 gm) incitement(1.5 gm). From the present exploration it's set up that treatment T4- Apple Juice (500 ml) Sugar (150 gm) incitement (0.5 gm), was set up superior in respect of the parameters TSS (° brix), Acidity (%), pH, Alcohol content (%), Ascorbic acid (mg/ 100 ml) Color and Appearance, Flavor and Taste, Texture and Overall Acceptability.
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102725
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Economic Impact of Wheat Sowing Through Zero Tillage Technique against
           Broadcasting under Hot Sub-humid (Moist) Eco-Region Uttar Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Kamlesh Meena , Rajneesh Srivastva , Ajay Kumar Rai , Shamsher Singh , Ajay Tiwari , Neeraj Singh
      Pages: 851 - 858
      Abstract: Aims: The production of cost of wheat is higher in farmers practice than the zero tillage sown of wheat due to non-adoption of recommended resource conservation technology, high-yielding varieties and advanced technologies by the farming community in the eastern plains of Uttar Pradesh. To replace this anomalous, we conducted 204 front-line demonstrations (FLDs) at farmers' fields in various adopted villages by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Deoria. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out by the Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Malhana, Deoria, under the Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi, UP. A total of 90, 12 and 50 FLDs were conducted under raised bed sowing with three varieties of pigeon pea ( Narendra Arhar 1, Pusa Bahar and Narendra  Arhar 2) from 2014-15 to 2018-19 respectively. Methodology: Prior findings were examined to identify any gaps and to enlist everyone's assistance in disseminating such a technology of global relevance. In the eight years from 2011–12 to 2018–19, a total of 204 FLDs were carried out at the 230 farmer’s fields in the 32 villages where wheat was sown by zero tillage Result: Rice-wheat cropping systems are the most often used agricultural method in Uttar Pradesh, India's hot, sub-humid (wet) eco-region. It provides farmers and agricultural labourers with a source of subsistence and revenue and is a crucial aspect of the region's infrastructure for food safety. In order to attain sustainable yield, it is always thought necessary to employ other alternatives of conserving essential inputs by adopting resources conservative techniques (RCT), such as zero tillage and broad bed furrow (BBF). According to the economic analysis of the data presented in the current study, zero tillage wheat farming is the most cost-effective and appealing alternative for the agricultural community of eastern Uttar Pradesh. When compared to the broadcasting method, the zero tillage technique yielded a higher return and a lower cost of cultivation per acre. Finally, the use of this strategy raises farmers' net returns, improves their social standing, living conditions, livelihood, and ultimately reduces poverty in the farming community. Conclusions: The new approach lowers production costs while producing equivalent wheat yields to other methods, which leads to higher net returns. Farmers in the area have begun to appreciate the technology's reduced tillage costs. Rice-wheat is the prevalent farming system practiced by the majority of farmers in the region. In the future, the prospect of extending the method to sow wheat after other crops should be investigated.
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102726
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Influence of Zinc and Boron Application on Growth and Yield of French bean
           (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    • Authors: Rachamallu Yogitha Reddy , Biswarup Mehera , Mallela Nikitha Rani
      Pages: 859 - 864
      Abstract: This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the response of boron and its interaction in maximizing the growth and yield performance of French beans. A field experiment was conducted during Rabi 2022 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P), India. To find out the influence of Zinc and Boron on the growth and yield attributes of French bean. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with ten treatments including control each replicated thrice based on one year of experimentation. The application of Zinc 45 kg/ha-1 + Boron 0.5% @ 15 DAS, recorded significantly higher Plant height (44.00 cm), Plant dry weight (29.31 g/plant). Significantly maximum pods/plant (17.40), Seeds/pod (7.00), Seed index (44.04 g), Seed yield (1.37 t/ha), stover yield (3.21 t/ha) were recorded with the treatment of Zinc 45 kg/ha-1 + Boron 0.5% @ 15 DAS.
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102727
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Agro-Forestry – A Crop Diversification Strategy for Adaption and
           Mitigation of Climate Change

    • Authors: T. G. Amrutha , K. S. Shubhashree , H. D. Shilpa , G. V. Venkataravana Nayaka , Karale Gangadhar Yamaji , C. N. Nalina
      Pages: 865 - 873
      Abstract: The biggest challenge the world is currently experiencing is the impact of climate change on agriculture. Developing nations like India will be particularly affected because of their growing populations, water shortages, declining soil fertility, and loss of biodiversity. Agroforestry system is a major component in sustainable agricultural production under climate change situation as inclusion of agroforestry system ensures the production of food, fuel, fodder, timber, manures and fibre even under adverse climatic situations. The issue of ecologically sound and commercially viable strategies for adaptation and mitigation of climate change is being addressed by agroforestry, which is intensive, integrated, intentional, and interactive. This is done through carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, microclimate improvement, and a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. Modern, effective agroforestry techniques enable farm activity diversification and improved stewardship of the environment. There are three ways that agroforestry helps to mitigate climate change. Sequestering carbon in biomass and soils, lowering greenhouse gas emissions, and reducing energy consumption on farms to minimize emissions are all ways to reduce emissions. This review highlights successful adoption of agroforestry as an crop diversification option for mitigating climate change effects.
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102729
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Biometric Assessment of Cyprinus carpio var. Communis from Anchar Lake of
           Kashmir Valley

    • Authors: Shazia Tariq , Tasaduq H. Shah , Farooz A. Bhat , Adnan Abubakr , Bilal A. Bhat , Tariq H. Bhat , Rizwana Malik , Hafsa Farooq Chashoo
      Pages: 874 - 880
      Abstract: Morphometric analysis have proven to be a useful tool for studying fish species, population and races. It is a basic fundamental tool for attaining information on development of organisms, systematics, growth, variation and morphology. The present study was carried out in Anchar lake of Srinagar Kashmir to analyze morphometric measurements of Cyprinus carpio var. communis. About 120 specimens of Cyprinus carpio var. communis was collected randomly from different zones of the water body. The morphometric characters were classified into genetically controlled (narrow range), intermediate (moderate range) and environmentally (vast range) controlled characters. In percentage of total length out of fourteen 14 morphometric characters 5 were genetically controlled, 2 characters were intermediate and 7 characters were environmentally controlled. The relationship between the different morphometric characters was found to be linear with most of them being highly significant (p<0.01). The study concluded that the environmentally controlled characters were maximum, which indicates that these characters are less stable in nature.
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102730
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Genetic Variability and Heritability of Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa)
           Cultivars under Agro-Climatic Conditions of Prayagraj

    • Authors: Bidisha Sarkar , Devi Singh , C. John Wesley
      Pages: 881 - 887
      Abstract: The present study entitled “Genetic variability and heritability of Tuberose cultivars under agroclimatic conditions of Prayagraj” was made to identify the suitable variety for growing in Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh. Fifteen varieties were laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications during May 2022 to February 2023 at Departmental field of Horticulture, NAI, SHUATS, Prayagraj. The observations recorded on various growth, yield and quality contributing characters. The result from the present investigation revealed the genotypes Arka Suvasini, Mexican single and Hyderabad single are identified as higher spike yield per plot which indicated that these genotypes may be shown for higher yield at Prayagraj Agro-climatic condition. The PCV were higher than GCV for all the characters taken in to consideration. High magnitude of GCV and PCV was recorded for No. of bulblets per plant, weight of bulb per plant , yield of bulb per hectare and weight of bulb and least estimates for PCV and GCV was observed for no. of leaves at 6 month after planting. Heritability and genetic advance indicate that the additive nature of gene action and reliability of those characters for selection and emerged as ideal traits for improvement through selection.
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102732
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • An Analysis of Constraints Faced by Organic Farmers in the Cauvery Delta
           Zone of Tamil Nadu, India

    • Authors: V. Logesh , M. Ramasubramanian , M. A. Vennila , C. Karthikeyan , M. Prahadeeswaran
      Pages: 888 - 895
      Abstract: Aim: This study examines the multifaceted challenges encountered by organic farmers operating within the Cauvery Delta Region of Tamil Nadu. Study Design: Ex-post facto research design was used to investigate and reveal the challenges that organic farmers have encountered over the preceding years. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Cauvery Delta Zone of Tamil Nadu. Five districts were selected for the study namely, Thanjavur, Thiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Mayiladuthurai and Tiruchirapalli. Respondents were interviewed during the period of June 2023 – July 2023. Methodology: The study aimed to include 40 organic farmers from each district, resulting in a collective sample size of 200 respondents across these districts, facilitated through snowball sampling technique. A well – structured interview schedule which included the major constraints faced by organic farmers of the CDZ was developed based on review of past literatures and discussion with experts in the area of organic farming. Based on the ranks given by the respondents to the constraints, the data was analyzed and conclusive results were obtained using the Rank Based Quotient (RBQ) technique. Constraints were studied in 7 different dimensions namely, labour, technical, service and supply, credit and economic, environmental, cropping and marketing constraints.  Results: The prime constraints with a higher RBQ values identified in these dimensions were, Labour scarcity due to MGNREGA (93.13), Cumbersome (Slow and complicated) certification process (79.90), Lack of supportive institutions for organic farming (91.80), Inadequate subsidies for organic agriculture (92.75), Use of polluted river water for irrigation (93.90), Lack of inputs specifically for weed management (96.63), Challenge in finding proper marketing channel (90.38). In addition to this, some minor issues were also identified as constraints in the study area. Conclusion: Through an in-depth exploration of these challenges, the study aims to provide insights that can guide policy makers, practitioners, and stakeholders in devising strategies to overcome the obstacles faced by organic farmers in the Cauvery Delta Zone which could have a threshold effect in boosting up the organic productivity of the state.
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102733
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Halophytes: A Rapid, Inexpensive and Significant Way to Address Land,
           Water, Food, Energy and Climate

    • Authors: Dennis M. Bushnell
      Pages: 896 - 901
      Abstract: Climate change, in spite of attempts at mitigation, is becoming much more serious. Wide spectrum major mitigation efforts are now necessary including removing ­CO2 from the atmosphere, reducing fossil energy use and increasing the planet albedo. Halophytes, salt plants grown on deserts and wastelands using saline and seawater are uniquely suitable to rapidly and profitably, at the tremendous scale of the climate problem, using inexpensive land and water, remove CO2 and produce major amounts of biofuels and food while returning up to 70% of the fresh water to direct human use. This article examines the extraordinary possibilities of halophytes to significantly mitigate the major societal issues involving land, water, food, energy and climate.
      PubDate: 2023-08-23
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102734
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Performance of Different Varieties of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) under
           Prayagraj Agro-Climatic Condition

    • Authors: Ashish, Samir Ebson Topno , Anita Kerketta
      Pages: 902 - 911
      Abstract: Eight cucumber varieties were evaluated at SHUATS, Prayagraj Uttar Pradesh, in randomized block design with three replications during summer season-2022 for growth, yield and fruit quality traits. The variety AGRI GREEN gave maximum mean value for maximum vine length (217.33cm), number of primary branches (5.67), number of nodes per plant (39.10), Days to first female flower appearance and node to first female flower appearance were minimum and that was about (50.76) and (4.33) respectively, fruit length and weight with (15.83cm) and (126.00gm) respectively), node number at which first female flower appears (4.33), number of female flowers per Plant (16.37),  fruit yield/ha (164.10 q/ha), number of fruits per plant (13.30), TSS (4.20 oBrix), was observed in same variety. The maximum fruit diameter was found in SS-100 (45.50 mm). AGRI GREEN was found superior based on overall performance in terms of growth, yield, and quality parameters. The study revealed that, these varieties of cucumber provide high benefit to the farmers through easy cultivation, better stress tolerance, diseases resistance and higher yields.
      PubDate: 2023-08-23
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102735
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Farmer’s Perception towards Mitigating Climate Change through Adoption
           of Soil Carbon Sequestration Practices: A Review Analysis

    • Authors: Shanmuga Surya K., C. Cinthia Fernandaz, C. Karthikeyan , S. P. Thamaraiselvi , K. Boomiraj , S. Manivasakan
      Pages: 912 - 926
      Abstract: Climate change is one of the most severe global environmental issues. Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and fluorinated gases (F) are the principal greenhouse gases (GHGs) whose atmospheric concentrations are escalating. According to [1], agricultural soils have the ability to mitigate GHG emissions by 89% through the sequestration of carbon and an additional 2% and 9% through the mitigation of N2O and CH4, respectively. The process of capturing and long-term stabilisation of CO2 in the soil is known as soil carbon sequestration. Increased food production, better soil health, diversified ecosystem services, and reduced environmental footprints are all the benefits of practices increasing soil organic carbon (SOC). These techniques include planting woods, managing nutrients by using compost, sludge and green manure, and mulching [2]. Additionally, they have the ability to reduce GHG emissions by up to 8% by mitigating around 18 Mg C ha-1 C year -1 (0-15 cm soil layer). Farmers and society as a whole may benefit from this approach [3]. Supporting campaigns and initiatives to boost soil C sequestration is crucial, both on a policy level and through programmes. Additional studies needs to be done to determine the benefits of C sequestration on soil quality precisely, which encourages farmers to adopt more C-positive agricultural practices that improve productivity, as well as water and air quality [4].
      PubDate: 2023-08-23
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102736
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Influence of Weather Parameters on the Population of Sucking Pests in
           Castor Genotypes

    • Authors: M. Anuradha , K. Divija
      Pages: 927 - 932
      Abstract: Field experiment were carried out to study the seasonal incidence of leafhopper, Empoasca flavescens and thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis and also the influence of weather parameters on the sucking pest population in five castor genotypes i.e., DCH-519, DCH-177, ICH-66, NBCH, PCH-111 during Rabi, 2020-21 at the research farm of RARS, Palem, PJTSAU, Telanagana. The pest population was recorded from 10 random plants and the incidence was observed from 48th standard meterological week and the peak population of sucking pests was observed during 6th to 8th standard week. PCH-111 and NBCH were observed to be more susceptible to sucking pests whereas DCH-519 was least susceptible. The observed pest population is correlated with weather parameters by taking the weather data from the agro meteorological observatory located at RARS, Palem. Correlation studies indicated that all the parameters except max temperature had a negative influence on thrips whereas temperature showed positive influence towards hoppers.
      PubDate: 2023-08-23
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102737
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Agrometeorological Indices Influenced by Varying Planting Windows and
           Varieties of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) in Maharashtra, India

    • Authors: M. G. Katkar, S. B. Kharbade, S. Y. Wankhede, A. A. Shaikh , V. A. Sthool
      Pages: 933 - 937
      Abstract: An experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agricultural Meteorology Farm, Centre for Advanced Agricultural Meteorology,College of Agriculture, Pune during Kharif seasons of 2014 and 2015.The experiment was laid out a split plot design with three replications.The treatment comprised of three brinjal hybrids viz.,V1:Phule Arjun, V2: Krishna, V3: Panchganaga as main plot and four planting windows viz., P1: 31st MW (30 July-5 August), P2: 32ndMW (6-12August), P3:33rdMW (13-19 August) and P4: 34thMW (20-26 August) as subplot treatments. Micrometeorological studies of Cumulative GDD, HTU, and PTU at the end of each growth stage showed that the numerically higher requirement was observed in hy.Phule Arjun over  hy.Krishna and hy.Panchganga hybrids during both the years  2014 and 2015 experimentation period.Whereas, the lowest canopy temperature was found in hy.Phule Arjun (29.0 0C) than the rest of the brinjal hybrids. Canopy reflected PAR and transmitted PAR was higher in (191.54 and 188.62 µ mol m-2s-1) Panchganaga hybrids among the brinjal hybrids. Amongst all the brinjal hybrids, Phule Arjun hybrids were found significantly superior under extended planting windows followed by Krishna and Panchganga. Planting during 31st MW (1st week of August) was observed to be most suitable and optimum for brinjal considering the growth and yield attributes. This planting window was at par with the 32nd MW planting window. Linear correlation analysis for brinjal fruit yield with weather parameters was significantly positively correlated with maximum temperature and minimum temperature.
      PubDate: 2023-08-23
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102738
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Inorganic Fertilizer and Organic Foliar Spray on Growth, Yield
           Attributes and Yield of Linseed

    • Authors: R. H. Kotadiya, R. B. Ardeshna, D. J. Patel, K. A. Kachhiyapatel, Devilal Birla
      Pages: 938 - 944
      Abstract: Aims: To evaluate the effect of fertilizer and organic foliar spray on growth, yield attributes and yield of linseed. Study Design: The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with four replications. Place and Duration of Study:  A field experiment was carried out at College Farm, N. M. College of Agriculture, Navsari during rabi season of 2019-20. Methodology: The study comprised of nine different treatments viz., T1(50% RDF),T2 (50% RDF + Foliar spray of 1% vermiwash at 30 and 60 DAS), T3 (50% RDF + Foliar spray of 1% banana pseudostem sap at 30 and 60 DAS), T4(75% RDF), T5 (75% RDF + Foliar spray of 1% vermiwash at 30 and 60 DAS), T6 (75% RDF + Foliar spray of 1% banana pseudostem sap at 30 and 60 DAS), T7(100% RDF),T8 (100% RDF + Foliar spray of 1% vermiwash at 30 and 60 DAS) and T9(100% RDF + Foliar spray of 1% banana pseudostem sap at 30 and 60 DAS). Results: From the results, it was observed that an application of 100% RDF + Foliar spray of 1% banana pseudostem sap at 30 and 60 DAS (T9) resulted in significantly higher values of plant height (63.37 cm at 90 DAS), number of branches plant-1 (6.94 at 90 DAS), number of capsules plant-1 (51.85), number of seeds capsules-1 (8.95) and seed weight plant-1 (1.89). Significantly higher seed yield (1157 kg ha-1) and stover yield (2051 kg ha-1) of linseed were observed with the application of 100% RDF + Foliar spray of 1% banana pseudostem sap at 30 and 60 DAS (T9). Conclusion: It can be concluded that, application of 100% RDF (60-30-00 N- P2O5-K2O kg ha-1) + Foliar spray of 1% banana pseudostem sap or vermiwash at 30 and 60 DAS was found to be the most viable option for getting higher growth and yield in linseed.
      PubDate: 2023-08-23
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102739
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Advancements in the Use of Entomopathogenic Microbes for Pest and Disease
           Management- A Review

    • Authors: Puskar Shukla, Devanand R. Bankar, Arun Kumar , Muhammad Suhaib Ismayil M. , Ashutosh Singh Aman, Pramod Kumar Mishra , Himendra Raj Raghuvanshi, Mateti Gayithri
      Pages: 945 - 953
      Abstract: This comprehensive review presents an in-depth analysis of the role of entomopathogenic microbes in insect pest and disease management. The study covers the taxonomy and classification of these organisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and nematodes, all of which have shown efficacy in controlling various insect pests. Entomopathogenic microbes represent a valuable, sustainable, and eco-friendly alternative to synthetic pesticides, highlighting their significant role in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. The review reveals that entomopathogenic microbes affect pests at different developmental stages through various mechanisms, including disease induction, parasitism, and competition for resources. The effects are not just lethal but also sub-lethal, affecting pest reproductive capacity, growth, and development. The microbes secondary metabolites often have antimicrobial properties, contributing to plant disease management by suppressing plant pathogens. Despite their promising potential, challenges exist in the widespread application of these microbes. Factors such as formulation, delivery, and environmental conditions can influence their effectiveness. The paper also discusses the importance of genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics in understanding the complex interactions between microbes, insects, and plants, which could lead to the development of more targeted and efficient bio-control agents. The review outlines future directions for this field, emphasizing the necessity for more extensive research to enhance our understanding of entomopathogenic microbes, optimize their use, overcome the current challenges, and harness their potential for sustainable pest and disease management. The need for regulatory frameworks to ensure safe and effective utilization is also underscored. This paper underscores the untapped potential of entomopathogenic microbes as acritical component of sustainable agriculture.
      PubDate: 2023-08-23
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102740
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Genetic Studies for Determination of Yield Components in Rice (Oryza
           sativa L.) Varieties under Saline Conditions Pooled Over Seasons

    • Authors: Y. Anbuselvam, S. R. Sruthi , N. Laleeth Kumar, J. Johnny Subakar Ivin , Greetty Williams, J. L. Joshi
      Pages: 954 - 959
      Abstract: The current study was conducted on 50 rice genotypes to evaluate the pooled correlation and path analysis of various biometrical traits viz., fifty percent flowering, plant height, panicle length, number of tillers per panicle, number of productive tillers per plant, number of grains per panicle, 100 seed weight with seed yield per plant of three seasons under salinity. The analysis of variance pooled over seasons revealed that all eight traits were highly significant thus indicating the existence of high genetic variability among the genotypes for all the traits and suggest the possibility of improving yield under saline condition. The pooled correlation analysis indicated that seed yield per plant has exhibited significant positive correlation with total number of tillers per plant, number of productive tillers per plant, panicle length and number of seeds per panicle. Thus, selection pressure could be applied for increasing the seed yield per plant under saline situation. From the path analysis studies, it was understood that the characters viz., number of productive tillers per plant, panicle length and number of seeds per panicle might be applied with selection pressure directly or indirectly to improve seed yield per plant and the characters studied for seed yield per plant is sufficient and sufficiently control the expression of seed yield in rice under saline situation due to their low residual effect.
      PubDate: 2023-08-23
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102741
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Bio-fertilizers and Zinc Levels on Growth and Yield of Pearl
           Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.)

    • Authors: Kottam Ravi Vamsi, C. Umesha
      Pages: 960 - 967
      Abstract: The field experiment was carried out during rabi season 2022 at the Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P.) India. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with ten treatments replicated thrice. The treatment combinations are T1:Azotobacter 25g + Zinc 0.1% (30 DAS and 50 DAS) T2:Azotobacter 25g + Zinc 0.3% (30 DAS and 50 DAS) T3: Azotobacter 25g + Zinc 0.5% (30 DAS and 50 DAS) T4:Azospirillum 25g + Zinc 0.1% (30 DAS and 50 DAS) T5:Azospirillum 25g + Zinc 0.3% (30 DAS and 50 DAS) T6:Azospirillum 25g + Zinc 0.5% (30 DAS and 50 DAS) T7:Azotobacter + Azospirillum 25g +Zinc 0.1% (30 DAS and 50DAS). T8:Azotobacter + Azospirillum 25g +Zinc 0.3% (30 DAS and 50 DAS) T9:Azotobacter+ Azospirillum 25g +Zinc 0.5% (30 DAS and 50 DAS), T10: Control (RDF-80-40-40 NPK kg/ha) are used. Results obtained that the higher plant height (205.06 cm), higher plant dry weight (78.17 g/plant), higher crop growth rate (37.6 g/m2 /day), higher ear head length (24.74 cm), higher grains/ear head (2212.69), higher test weight (10.29 gm), higher grain yield (34.16 q/ha) and higher stover yield (69.00 q/ha) were significantly influenced with application of Azotobacter+ Azospirillum 25g +Zinc 0.5% (30 DAS and 50 DAS). Higher gross returns (INR 96553.67/ha), higher net returns (INR 67523.67/ha) and higher B:C ratio (2.03) were also recorded in treatment-9 (Azotobacter+ Azospirillum 25g +Zinc 0.5% (30 DAS and 50 DAS).
      PubDate: 2023-08-23
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102742
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Crop Diversification Assessment in Tank Ayacut Areas of Lower Palar
           Sub-Basin of Chengalpattu District, Tamil Nadu, India Using Geo-Spatial
           Techniques

    • Authors: M. Vairavamani, D. Muthumanickam, S. Pazhanivelan, R. Kumaraperumal, K. P. Ragunath
      Pages: 968 - 980
      Abstract: For the assessment of crop diversification in the major tank Ayacut area of the Lower Palar sub-basin in Chengalpattu district of Tamil Nadu, research works were carried out using Sentinel 2 optical data by relating with ground truth data, to identify the crops in pixel-based classification and further classified the crops using Random Forest machine learning algorithms. The total area estimated under crop classification was 15767.97 and 28818.17 ha respectively for the summer seasons of 2018 and 2021. Since, the summer season experiences high crop diversification. The water spread area and water volume of tanks estimated were 612.31 and 1177.89 ha and 6,39,248 and 14,06,056 m3 respectively for 2018 and 2021. The accuracy assessment of ground truth points by confusion matrix reveals an overall classification accuracy of 96.8% (2018) and 94.9 % (2021) with kappa scores of 0.96 and 0.94 respectively. The crop diversification assessments were estimated using the Simpson Index of Diversity and values of 0.63 and 0.68 were accounted for in 2018 and 2021 respectively. The diversified pattern of crops is significantly correlated with tank water availability which increased the cropping area in 2021 as confirmed by the Crop Diversification factor.
      PubDate: 2023-08-23
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102744
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Awareness and Perception of Farmers and Dealers on Nano Urea in Gondia
           District of Maharashtra, India

    • Authors: K. Vishakha, N. Deepa, A. Rohini, A. Vidhyavathi, R. Ravikumar
      Pages: 981 - 991
      Abstract: This study investigates farmers' and traders' perceptions of nano urea in the Gondia district of Maharashtra. By providing accurate and long-lasting nutrient management, nano urea, a fertilizer based on nanotechnology, has the potential to revolutionize agriculture. Nearly 120 farmers and 50 merchants were polled as part of the study utilizing a multistage random sampling method. The findings showed that most farmers use nano urea in their fields and are aware of it. The adoption of nano urea by farmers was found to be highly correlated with education. Dealers were well aware of nano urea and eager to sell it since they recognized its benefits in terms of compatibility, storage capacity, and ease of use. However, some farmers voiced their displeasure with lesser paddy field yields and comprehension challenges. The paper discusses the difficulties in implementing and using nano urea in agriculture while highlighting its promise.
      PubDate: 2023-08-23
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102745
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Role of Exogenous Melatonin in Enhancing Shelf Life of Traditional Banana
           Varieties

    • Authors: K. Anchana , C. Kavitha, K. A. Shanmugasundaram, M. Djanaguiraman, I. Johnson
      Pages: 992 - 998
      Abstract: Aims: An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of various concentrations of melatonin on post harvest weight loss and shelf life of three traditional banana varieties viz. Ney Poovan, Nendran and Red Banana. Study Design: Completely Randomized Design. Place and Duration of Study: Post Graduate laboratory, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during 2022. Methodology: Banana hands were dipped in 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mM melatonin for 15 minutes and were stored at ambient temperature. The hands dipped in water were treated as control. Observations on physiological weight loss and shelf life were recorded till the fruits remained marketable. Results: The results depicted that fruits immersed in 1.0 and 1.5 mM melatonin for 15 minutes recorded lower weight loss (31.56, 30.55 and 24.90%) on 11th, 11th and 12th day of storage and longer shelf life by 3, 2.67 and 2.67 days in Ney Poovan, Nendran and Red Banana respectively. Conclusion: The effects of melatonin were due to its efficiency in reducing transpiration and respiration and thereby lowering weight loss. The lowered metabolic activity not only mitigated weight loss but also maintained firmness and turgidity of the fruits and thereby prolonging the storability. It was evident from the results that melatonin treatment could be a good practice for extending postharvest life of banana by reducing the physiological loss in weight simultaneously maintaining the appearance.
      PubDate: 2023-08-23
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102746
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Introgression of Stay Green Quantitative Trait Locus (QTLS) into Elite
           Sorghum Variety by MABC

    • Authors: S. Priyanka, G. Girish, R. Lokesha, B. V. Tembhurne, Amaregouda Patil, Ayyanagouda Patil
      Pages: 999 - 1016
      Abstract: Sorghum is a major staple food crop for the people in semi-arid areas of Asia. Post-flowering drought is a global constraint of sorghum production. The study aimed to improve stay-green characteristics of GS-23 sorghum variety by transferring stg3A and stg3B QTL`s respectively from donor genotypes K260 and K359w of ICRISAT by using marker assisted backcrossing. The experimental material comprised of six basic generations P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 developed from crossing GS-23 × K260 and GS-23 × K359 were genotyped using a set of 133 SNPs and 79 SSR markers. Whereas, 53 polymorphic SNPs among parents and backcross F1s for stay green trait at maturity were used to track introgression of stay green trait. Similarly,10 SSR markers were found to be polymorphic were used to track introgression of stay green trait i.e., stay green trait QTL`s stg3A and stg3B from donor parent K260 and K359w respectively in GS-23 background across backcross population and to identify plants that were homozygous for the desired allele. In which 02 SNPs SnpSB0039 and SnpSB0093 were identified as polymorphic for both K260 and K359w. Whereas 17 SNPs identified polymorphic for K260 and 34 SNPs for K359w. These SNPs were validated in both F1 and BC1F1 populations of both the crosses. Similarly, out of 10 SSR markers utilized, 02 SSRs were identified polymorphic to K260 and 02 SSRs were identified for K359w. Whereas 06 SSRs were polymorphic to both the parents K260 and K359w. Prominent 02 SSRs viz., Xtxp 141_Fam and Xgap84_Vic found to be more reliable and polymorphic to both the parents. These SSRs were validated in both F1 and BC1F1 populations of both the crosses. The genotypic analysis revealed the presence of favorable alleles in homozygous conditions at markers loci associated with stg3A and stg3B  QTL`s in BC populations, suggesting successful introgression of stay green QTLs from the donor parents to the recurrent parent. Therefore, our study demonstrated the utility of marker-assisted backcrossing for drought tolerance improvement of locally adapted sorghum variety.
      PubDate: 2023-08-24
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102747
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Analysis of Trend in Meteorological and Hydrological Time-series using
           Mann-Kendall and Sen’s Slope Estimator Statistical Test in Akwa Ibom
           State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Haruna Garba, Udeme Udeme Udokpoh
      Pages: 1017 - 1035
      Abstract: The monthly, seasonal, annual, and decadal trends of seven hydro-meteorological variables were analysed for stations in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, controlled by the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NiMet) and the Cross River Basin Development Authority (CRBDA) from 1972 to 2021. At the 5% statistical significance level, the non-parametric Mann-Kendall and Sen's slope estimator techniques were used to detect if there was a positive or negative trend and the magnitude of the trend in hydro-meteorological data. In the present study, there was a significant statistically increasing (positive) trend in mean seasonal and annual rainfall, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and runoff. However, there was a significant statistically decreasing (negative) trend in average annual relative humidity, solar radiation, and potential evapotranspiration. The magnitudes of the trends were 19.39mm/year, 0.0314oC/year, 0.013oC/year, -0.104%/year, -8.78MJ/m2/year, -1.440mm/year, and 0.028m3/s/year for annual rainfall, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, PET, and runoff, respectively. The rising trends in precipitation, temperature, and runoff in this research area show that this region is subject to climatic variability. The results of the Mann-Kendall and Sen's slope estimator statistical tests revealed the consistency of performance in the detection of the trend for the hydro-meteorological variables.
      PubDate: 2023-08-24
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102748
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Climatic and Fruit Productivity Trends in Solan District, Himachal
           Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Harish Bharti , Aditi Panatu , Yamini Thakur , Surjeet Singh Randhawa , Satpal Dhiman, S. K. Bhardwaj , Ranbir Singh Rana
      Pages: 1036 - 1048
      Abstract: The shortened duration of the winter season in the Himalayan region caused by snow melting has a negative impact on fruit crop growth and productivity. The present study focused on examining the impact of climate change on fruit crops in the Solan district of Himachal Pradesh, India, situated in the Himalayan region. The trend analysis of climatic variables (temperature and rainfall) along with the productivity of fruit crops was investigated. The climate data spanning 30 years (1990–2019), including average temperature (maximum, minimum, and diurnal) and annual rainfall used during crop development stages like pre-flowering, flowering, and fruit-setting stages. To evaluate climatic trends, the Standardized Anomaly Index (SAI) and Mann-Kendall Test for quantification were employed. The Multivariate Linear Regression Analysis was performed to establish a correlation between climatic variables and crop productivity. The findings indicated that during the pre-flowering stage, there was a gradual increase in average maximum temperature at a rate of 0.001°C per year, along with a corresponding rise in diurnal temperature at a rate of 0.036°C per year. However, annual rainfall and average minimum temperature exhibited non-significant decreasing trends, with rates of -0.044°C and -0.033 mm, respectively. During the flowering stage, there was a significant increase in minimum temperature at a rate of 0.151°C per year, while diurnal temperature exhibited a significant decrease of -0.158°C per year. Other variables did not exhibit substantial changes during this stage. In the fruit-setting stage, only the minimum temperature demonstrated a significant decrease over the study period. The response to climate change revealed an overall positive trend for all fruit crops, leading to higher productivity. The correlation study indicated that the phenological stages of each crop were more positively influenced by temperature than rainfall, owing to existing climatic variations. The current climatic conditions in the Solan district were found to be favorable and productive for crop development, as all crops showed increased productivity based on the trend analysis. The study highlights climatic trends and their impact on the productivity of fruit crops in the Himalayan region, which is useful for agricultural planning and adaptation strategies in response to changing climatic conditions.
      PubDate: 2023-08-24
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102749
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Organic Manures and Potassium Levels on Growth and Yield
           Attributes of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.)

    • Authors: Tiravaturu Madhan , C. Umesha
      Pages: 1049 - 1054
      Abstract: The field experiment was conducted during rabi 2022 at the Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology And Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P.) India. To study the Response of Organic manures and potassium on growth and yield of Pearl millet The treatment combinations were T1: FYM 5t/ha + 30 kg/ha potassium, T2: FYM 5t/ha + 40 kg/ha potassium, T3: FYM 5t/ha + 50 kg/ha potassium, T4: Vermicompost 5t/ha + 30 kg/ha potassium, T5: Vermicompost 5t/ha + 40kg/ha potassium, T6: Vermicompost 5t/ha + 50kg/ha potassium, T7: Poultry Manure 4t/ha + 30kg/ha potassium, T8: Poultry Manure 4t/ha + 40kg/ha potassium, T9: Poultry Manure 4t/ha + 50kg/ha potassium, and control plot T10:(RDF80:40:40 NPK kg/ha) . Results obtained that  the plant height (168.06 cm), plant dry weight(48.87 g/plant),crop growth rate (24.0 g/m2/day), ear head length (25.07cm) number of grains/ear head (2372.69), test weight (10.92 gm), seed yield (36.90 q/ha) and stover yield (68.03 q/ha)were significantly influenced with application of Poultry Manure 4t/ha + 50 kg/ha potassium. Higher gross return (INR 86707.17/ha), higher net return (INR 58590.17/ha) and highest B:C ratio (2.08) were also recorded in treatment-9 (Poultry Manure 4t/ha + 50 kg/ha potassium).
      PubDate: 2023-08-24
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102750
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Different Drying Media on Different Cut Flowers

    • Authors: Ananya Sha, Samir Ebson Topno, Anita Kerketta
      Pages: 1055 - 1062
      Abstract: The standardization of different drying techniques for various cut flowers is crucial for value addition in the floriculture industry. Drying flowers enhances their longevity, making them available year-round and reducing wastage. By preserving their vibrant colours, shapes, and textures, dried flowers offer novel and aesthetically appealing options for floral arrangements and decorations. Therefore, present investigation was carried out to determine the effect of different drying media on the quality of flowers. Under this experiment, overall, 11 treatments comprising of different drying media were applied for different cut flowers. The present investigation found that treatment T4 (Sand (microwave @ 280°C) and T6 (Silica gel (microwave @ 280°C) responded better among different drying method and T6 (Silica gel (microwave @ 280°C) also showed better colour, shape and texture of cut flowers employed in drying.
      PubDate: 2023-08-24
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102751
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Studies on Genetic Variability, Heritability, Correlation and Path
           Coefficient Analysis in Betel Vine (Piper betle L.) Genotypes

    • Authors: Priyanka Mudlapur, V. P. Singh, Y. C. Vishwanath, V. B. Narayanapur, G. Raghavendra, K. Himabindu, Y. S. Mahesh
      Pages: 1063 - 1074
      Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to estimate the genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for growth and yield parameters among 37 genotypes of betel vine in a randomized design with 3 replications during 2019-21 at farmer’s field, Badami, Karnataka. Analysis of variance revealed that the genotypes significantly differed for all the characters studied. The results showed that phenotypic coefficient of variations values were higher than the genotypic coefficient of variation for all the characters studied. The values of heritability in broad sense were observed very high for all the twenty one traits. Correlation studies revealed that total yield per vine was significantly and positively correlated with plant height (0.918), number of laterals per vine (0.988), number of leaves per lateral (0.827), total number of leaves per vine (0.863), clinging roots (0.887), petiole length (0.814) and path analysis showed that the traits such as number of laterals per vine (0.6350), total number of leaves per vine (0.2601), clinging roots (0.0839), leaf area (0.2091) and petiole length (0.2696) had direct and positive effect on total yield per vine. Hence, direct selection would be more effective in improving these traits. In this background, the aim of the study is to identify considerable variations among the genotypes for further crop improvement programme and multiplication of quality planting material.
      PubDate: 2023-08-24
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102752
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Allelopathic Effect of Leaf Leachates of Mulberry (Morus alba) on Growth
           and Yield of Brinjal (Solanum melongena)

    • Authors: Aanchal Choudhary, Sameer Daniel
      Pages: 1075 - 1082
      Abstract: An experiment was carried out to assess the allelopathic effect of leaf leaches of Morus alba on the growth and yield of Brinjal. Leaf leaches were prepared by soaking sun dry leaves in tap water for 24 Hours in a ratio of 1:10 (w/v). Various concentrations of leaf leashes (25, 50, 75 and 100%) were prepared. The result showed that the concentration plays an important inhibitory role on germination, shoot and root growth of brinjal. During laboratory experiment, seeds were soaked in  different concentrations and germination percentage, root and shoot length were observed. After laboratory experiment it was noticed that that the seed soaked in 25% concentration of Morus alba leaf lashes has better results than higher concentrations. In pot culture experiment, control have good effects on growth and yield of brinjal as compared to different concentration. Lower concentrations (25 and 50%) have beneficial effects on growth and the yield as compared to the higher concentrations (75 and 100%). At lower concentrations of Morus alba leaf leachates, the survival percentage of crops were more as compared to the 100% concentration. It can be concluded that the harmful effect of Morus alba was less on brinjal and recommended to avoid its use in the early growth stages of the crops.
      PubDate: 2023-08-24
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102753
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Organic Manures and Nano Zinc on Growth and Yield of Wheat

    • Authors: Yalamala Prasanghi, Umesha C.
      Pages: 1083 - 1089
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out during Rabi season 2022 at experimental field of Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology And Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India. The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH7.3), low in organic carbon (0.48%), available nitrogen (230 kg/ha), available phosphorus (13.60 kg/ha) and available potassium (215.4 kg/ha). The treatments consist of organic manures (FYM 10t/ha, panchagavya 3%, FYM 5t/ha + panchagavya 1.5%) and nano zinc (30, 40, 50 ppm) along with control plot (Recommended Dose Fertilizer). The experiment was layout in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with ten treatments each replicated thrice. Higher plant height (91.90 cm), higher plant dry weight (27.27 g), number of tillers/hill (8.67), Crop Growth Rate (11.82), grains/spike (45.12), effective tillers/row meter (73.57), Spikes/running row meter (77.57), grain yield (6.01 t/ha), straw yield (8.49 t/ha), maximum gross return (127712.50 INR/ha), net return (85765.70 INR/ha) and B:C ratio (2.04) were also obtained highest in the treatment 9 [FYM 5t/ha + Panchagavya 1.5% + Nano-zinc 50ppm].
      PubDate: 2023-08-24
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102754
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Assessing Land Use Dynamics of Lower Bhavani Basin Using Multiple GIS
           Platforms

    • Authors: Bridget Seremane, Balaji Kannan, V. Ravikumar, K. Arunadevi, R. Jagadeeswaran
      Pages: 1090 - 1096
      Abstract: Land use describes the actual form of land, such as a forest or open water and classification based on human utilization. Land use map provides the information about the current landscape of an area. In this study, the Lower Bhavani basin's land use and land cover were classified using GIS platforms and data from the Landsat 8 satellite. The platform utilized in this study were Semi-Automated Plugin (SAP) in QGIS and Random forest method in Google Earth Engine (GEE). The findings suggested that both platforms performed efficiently and displayed comparable percentages of land covered by various land use features. The accuracy of the resulting land use map was evaluated using a Google Earth image, and it was discovered that SAP and GEE hold 91.8% and 92.6% of the total accuracy. This study aids in evaluating and classifying the various Geographic Information System platforms land use trends.
      PubDate: 2023-08-24
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102755
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Boron and Iron on Growth and Yield of Baby Corn (Zea mays L.)

    • Authors: Akkala Saikiran Goud , Victor Debbarma
      Pages: 1097 - 1103
      Abstract: A field trail was conducted during zaid 2022 at Crop Research Farm 2, Department of Agronomy, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology And Sciences, Prayagraj, on the topic “Effect of Boron and Iron on Growth and Yield of Baby corn (Zea mays L.)” to study treatments consisting of 10 with 3 different levels of boron 5 kg/ha, 6 kg/ha, 7 kg/ha (soil application) and different levels of iron 0.3%, 0.4% and 0.5% (foliar application) The soil of the experimental field was sandy loam in texture, slightly alkaline in soil reaction (pH 8), low level of organic carbon (0.62%), available N (225 kg/ha), P (38.2 kg/ha) and K (240.7 kg/ha). There were 10 treatments each being replicated thrice and laid out in randomized block design. The results showed that treatment 9 with the application of Boron (7 kg/ha) + Iron (0.5%) recorded significantly higher plant height (138.42 cm), higher plant dry weight (86.17 g), maximum crop growth rate (82.42 g/m2/day), maximum number of cobs/plant (2.13), higher cob yield with husk (8.31 t/ha), higher cob yield without husk (2.65 t/ha), higher green fodder yield (19.14 t/ha) compared to other treatments. The maximum gross returns (81,700.00 INR/ha), maximum net returns (55,297.00 INR/ha) and benefit ratio (2.01) was recorded in treatment 9 [Boron (7 kg/ha) + Iron (0.5%)] as compared to other treatments. Minimum observations were recorded in treatment 10 control plot with RDF 100:60:40 kg/ha NPK.
      PubDate: 2023-08-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102757
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of pH on the Mycelial Growth of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus
           flavus

    • Authors: V. Divya , K. Malarkodi , S. Mathiyazhagan, V. Manonmani , T. Anand, A. Velayutham
      Pages: 1104 - 1109
      Abstract: Aspergillus fungus is well-known for causing a number of secondary plant and food rots that can result in the buildup of mycotoxins, despite their significant economic contribution to the fermentation industries. In the past, even the most fundamental influences on the development and inhibition of significant mycotoxigenic fungi were only partially understood. To overcome this issue, an investigation on the impact of pH on the mycelial development of Aspergillus species was conducted. A. niger and A. flavus were inoculated in PDA medium with a range of pH values from 4.0 to 9.0 under in vitro conditions and then cultured for 7 days at room temperature. Results revealed that, the mycelial growth of A. niger and A. flavus was increased with increase in pH level up to 6 and then became static up to pH level 9 and there was no mycelial growth in pH 4. Hence, it was concluded that the use of alkaline compounds as a way of preventing their proliferation and reproductive processes may be used to inhibit the development and spore production of A. niger and A. flavus, which can affect the crops.
      PubDate: 2023-08-25
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of pH on the Mycelial Growth of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus
           flavus

    • Authors: V. Divya , K. Malarkodi , S. Mathiyazhagan , V. Manonmani , T. Anand, A. Velayutham
      Pages: 1104 - 1109
      Abstract: Aspergillus fungus is well-known for causing a number of secondary plant and food rots that can result in the buildup of mycotoxins, despite their significant economic contribution to the fermentation industries. In the past, even the most fundamental influences on the development and inhibition of significant mycotoxigenic fungi were only partially understood. To overcome this issue, an investigation on the impact of pH on the mycelial development of Aspergillus species was conducted. A. niger and A. flavus were inoculated in PDA medium with a range of pH values from 4.0 to 9.0 under in vitro conditions and then cultured for 7 days at room temperature. Results revealed that, the mycelial growth of A. niger and A. flavus was increased with increase in pH level up to 6 and then became static up to pH level 9 and there was no mycelial growth in pH 4. Hence, it was concluded that the use of alkaline compounds as a way of preventing their proliferation and reproductive processes may be used to inhibit the development and spore production of A. niger and A. flavus, which can affect the crops.
      PubDate: 2023-08-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102759
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Standardisation for Preparation and Storage Stability of Papaya (Carica
           papaya) Candy

    • Authors: Ashish, Pragya Shrivastava , V. M. Prasad , Yash Kumar Singh
      Pages: 1110 - 1117
      Abstract: The lab experiment was conducted in the year 2021-2022 at Post Harvest Lab, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, in order to Standardisation for preparation and Storage Stability of Papaya Candy (Carica papaya) to evaluate the physico- chemical properties and consumers acceptability of different treatments Quality Characters. From the above experiment T7 (1Kg papaya slice + sugar syrup @75o B + Ginger extract@5%) showed better results in combination. Total soluble solids (T.S.S.), Total titratable acidity, Ascorbic acid content, Reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, Total sugar, sensory evaluation of candy, Colour, Texture, Flavour, Taste, Overall acceptability whereas minimum was observed in T0 (1Kg papaya slice + sugar syrup @75o B +Control).
      PubDate: 2023-08-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102760
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Deciphering the Genetic Variability for Seed Yield Components in Sesame
           (Sesamum indicum L.)

    • Authors: Manoj Kumar Patel, Deepti Tiwari, Versha Sharma, Mahaveer Prasad Ola, Ranjit Saroj, Shahil Kumar, Rajappa Harisha, Dhirendra Singh
      Pages: 1118 - 1126
      Abstract: The present study conducted an analysis of genetic variability for components traits of seed yield in 20 sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes at the Research Farm of S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner. The experiment followed a randomized block design with three replications during kharif, 2018. The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic variability among the genotypes. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant genotypic variation for all traits, indicating their potential for breeding programs. In the present study, RT - 384, RMT - 447 and RMT - 486 were identified as high yielding genotypes with per plant seed yield of 6.75, 6.7 and 6.01 g, respectively. Among the traits studied, plant height exhibited the highest variability with range of 83.13 to 108.40 cm, while test weight had the least variability having range of 3.00 - 3.51 g. Furthermore, phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) were higher than genotypic coefficients of variation (GCV) for all the traits, suggesting the influence of environmental factors on them. Among them, seed yield per plant had maximum value of GCV and PCV with magnitude of 20.32 and 24.07%, respectively; while, days to maturity had minimum value of GCV and PCV i.e., 2.07 and 3.15%, respectively. Notably, traits such as capsules per plant, seeds per capsule, biological yield per plant and seed yield per plant exhibited high heritability with magnitude of 85.96%, 64.18%, 63.68%, and 71.33%, respectively. Additionally, these traits displayed substantial genetic gains, with magnitudes of 33.46%, 21.29%, 26.19%, and 35.35%, respectively. This makes them promising for selection and eventually; these traits can be efficiently explored in different breeding programs for genetic improvement of sesame.
      PubDate: 2023-08-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102761
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Development and Optimization of Operational Parameters for
           Tractor-Operated Boom Sprayer for Field Crops

    • Authors: Manojkumara, Arudra Srinivasarao, B. Raj Kiran, K. Krupavathi, A. Ashok Kumar, K. V. S. Rami Reddy
      Pages: 1127 - 1134
      Abstract: Spraying is a crucial practice in agriculture, especially for the application of chemical pesticides that play a vital role in protecting crops. However, there has been a worrisome rise in the annual consumption of pesticides, leading to significant concerns. The excessive use of these pesticides has resulted in substantial wastage, which is a cause for alarm. To address these issues and enhance the efficiency of pesticide application, a tractor-operated boom sprayer was developed to ensure effective spraying. The study focused on evaluating and optimizing three operational factors: spacing between nozzles (30, 40, 50 cm), spray boom height (80, 90, 100 cm), and pressure (17.5, 21.0, 24.5 kg.cm-2). A factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD) approach was employed, 81 experiments were conducted and data were analyzed statistically by using the SPSS software package to investigate the effect of operational parameters on the performance of the sprayer. The results revealed that the operational parameters were significantly influencing the swath width and percent of overlap during spraying. The optimum combination of operational parameters was obtained using the R-software, the optimum combination for obtaining maximum swath width and minimum overlap is spacing between nozzles at 50 cm, spray boom height at 90 cm, and operating pressure at 24.5 kg.cm-2. The swath width and overlap at optimum combination were 7.77m and 43.12%, respectively. Implementing this optimal combination significantly improved the performance of the spraying activity, ensuring better coverage.
      PubDate: 2023-08-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102762
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Impact of Agrochemicals on Beneficial Microorganisms and Human Health

    • Authors: Khuban Buch, D. R. K. Saikanth, Bal Veer Singh, Biswajit Mallick, Shivam Kumar Pandey, N. Prabhavathi, Satya Narayan Satapathy
      Pages: 1135 - 1145
      Abstract: Agrochemicals, including fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides, are widely used in agriculture to improve crop yields and protect plants from pests and diseases. There is growing concern over their impact on beneficial soil microorganisms and, indirectly, on human health. This review aims to provide an in-depth analysis of the effects of agrochemicals on soil microbial communities and human health, focusing on recent scientific research and case studies. Exploring various agrochemicals can disrupt microbial diversity, population, and functionality, affecting crucial soil processes and, in turn, ecosystem health. We delve into the pathways of human exposure to agrochemicals and the potential health implications. To mitigate the adverse effects of agrochemicals, the review highlights several alternative approaches, including the use of organic fertilizers and pesticides, precision agriculture, and genetically modified crops. Despite these advancements, research gaps persist in understanding the complex interplay between agrochemicals, beneficial microorganisms, and human health, particularly in the changing agricultural practices and climate conditions. We argue that interdisciplinary, long-term studies are needed to fill these gaps and develop sustainable, health-conscious agricultural practices. The review is intended for researchers, policymakers, and agricultural practitioners seeking to understand and address the environmental and health impacts of agrochemicals.
      PubDate: 2023-08-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102763
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Assessment of Genetic Variation and Character Association among Yield and
           Yield Attributing Traits in Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. saccharata) Inbred
           Lines

    • Authors: Ramishetty Shiva Shankar, P. Bindu Priya, D. Bhadru, S. Vanisri
      Pages: 1146 - 1154
      Abstract: In this study, forty-six sweet corn inbred lines were evaluated to assess the variability and association among 11 yield and yield attributing traits at College Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, PJTSAU. The traits plant height, ear height, cob length, cob girth, number of rows per ear, number of kernels per row, cob weight with husk and cob weight without husk have shown moderate to high range of PCV, GCV, heritability and genetic advance over mean displaying the importance of these traits in selecting superior sweet corn inbreds. Critical analysis of results obtained from correlation and path analysis revealed that the traits cob length, cob girth, number of kernel rows per ear and cob weight without husk posses high positive significant associations and positive direct effects. From this study it was concluded that cob length, cob girth, number of kernel rows per ear and cob weight without husk are the key traits to be given prime importance during selection for further improvement of production as they exhibited significant positive direct effects with cob weight with husk.
      PubDate: 2023-08-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102764
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Influence of Fruit Bagging on the Physical Qualities and Shelf Life of
           Mango cv. Alphonso under Ultra-High-Density Planting

    • Authors: S. Aravinda Samy , I. Muthuvel, P. Soman, K. A. Shanmugasundaram, A. Senthil, I. Johnson
      Pages: 1155 - 1162
      Abstract: The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of preharvest fruit bagging on the physical parameters and shelf life of mango cv. Alphonso during 2023. Mango fruits were bagged 35 days after the fruit set with various types of bags viz: T1: Brown paper bag; T2: Double layered bag; T3: Transparent bag; T4: Non-woven bag; T5: Butter paper bag; T6: Control (no bagging). The experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with six treatments and four replications. The result indicated that preharvest fruit bagging had a significant effect on physical parameters, shelf life and days required for harvest after bagging. Bagging with Double layered bag increased fruit retention (75.03%), fruit length (9.35cm), fruit weight (295.36g), pulp weight (228.30g), shelf life (18.5 days) and decreased physiological loss of weight (8.16%). Therefore, preharvest fruit bagging improved fruit retention, physical parameters and shelf life in mango cv. Alphonso.
      PubDate: 2023-08-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102765
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Foliar Application of Liquid Micronutrient Formulation for Improving
           Quality of Panner Grapes

    • Authors: Yogaswathy D., D. Jegadeeswari, S. Suganya, C. Kavitha
      Pages: 1163 - 1171
      Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies play a significant role in impacting the yield and quality of grapes in vineyards. To address the deficiencies, a field study was conducted during the summer, of 2022 by using foliar micronutrient mixtures in three different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%), with one spray during pre-fruit set stage and twice at pre-fruit set/berry growth stages. The study aimed to investigate the effects of foliar micronutrient application on the biochemical quality characteristics of the Muscat Hamburg grapevine cultivar. The results of the study showed that the application of micronutrients spray showed a beneficial impact on all the yield parameters, such as number of bunches per vine (ranging from 28 to 44), the yield per vine (varied from 5.56 to 6.55 kg per vine), with overall yield range between 20.7 to 24.2 t ha-1. The biochemical properties of the berries, including sugars (reducing, non-reducing, and total sugars), juice pH and content, TSS (Total Soluble Solids), Titrable acidity, and berry firmness, were found to be high in grapevines sprayed at 1.0% twice. Results showed that total sugars ranged from 15.2% to 10.7%, with a juice pH of 3.47 to 3.94, juice content of 83.5 to 95.5%, and TSS from 15.6 to 17.40º Brix. Regarding the Titrable acidity and firmness of the berries, the outcomes showed a range of 0.92% to 1.14% for acidity and 9.4 to 12.9 N for firmness. Findings from the study clearly showed that applying 1.0% micronutrients twice at fruit-set and berry stages increased yield and improved quality indices of Paneer grapes.
      PubDate: 2023-08-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102766
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Impact Analysis of Front Line Demonstration on Tomato under Mid Plain
           Agro-Climatic Zone of Uttar Pradesh, India

    • Authors: A. K. Chaturvedi, R. Srivastava, R. P. Chaudhary, Ajay Tiwari, V. Dwivedi, Neeraj Singh
      Pages: 1172 - 1179
      Abstract: Aims: Tomatoes benefit local farmers because of their excellent storage and truck-gardening capabilities. Because of local demand, tomatoes are a prominent commercial vegetable production in the Bhadohi area. A Frontline demonstration was held to cover the aforementioned possibility and impact of increase farmer earnings. Place and Duration of Study: The current study was conducted by ICAR-IIVR - Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bhadohi for five years in a row from 2018–19 to 2022–23 in the farmers' fields in various areas of the district using front-line demonstration. Methodology: Over the investigation's five years, a total of 112 demonstrations were held at farmer fields on 5.0 ha of land. Each frontline demonstration was set up on 0.1 ha of land, with the nearby 0.3 ha serving as the comparison control (farmer's practice). KVK scientists gathered information on yield, production costs, and returns from farmers' practice plots (control plots) and front-line demonstration plots. Finally, the formulas proposed by Samui et al. [1] was used to calculate the extension gap, technology gap, and technology index. Results: Under the five-year FLD program, the average extension gap was 140.9 q/ha, the technology gap was 184.74 q/ha, and the technology indexwas 30.79 percent. The benefit cost ratio of tomato ranged from 5.02 to 7.44 in demonstration plots and from 3.99 to 5.74 in farmer’s practice plots during five years of demonstration with an average of 2.60 in demonstration and 2.09 under farmer’s practices.  Conclusion: Front-line example shows how new technology may boost output and profit .The Bhadohi districts of Uttar Pradesh's mid plain have improved vegetable production, consumption, nutritional security, and overall livelihood security as a result of the productivity gain under FLD over existing tomato cultivation practices. This has increased awareness and inspired other farmers in the district to adopt the demonstrated technologies for tomato production.
      PubDate: 2023-08-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102767
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Multivariate Analysis for Post Harvest Quality and Yield Attributes in
           Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    • Authors: B. Rajasekhar Reddy, Anil K. Singh, A. K. Pal
      Pages: 1180 - 1187
      Abstract: Aim: To study the multivariate analysis, genetic parameters and correlation for post harvest quality and yield traits in tomato. Study Design: The variability in the twenty genotypes of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) was evaluated for 18 yield attributes and post harvest quality traits using randomized block design and analyzed with multivariate methods. Place and Duration of Study: Twenty genotypes of tomato augmented from Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi were sown during rainy season at Horticulture Research Farm of Banaras Hindu University. Methodology: The unweighted pair group method of the average linkage (UPGMA) cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to analyze the data. Canonical discriminant analysis showed the contribution of each trait to the classification of the tomato accessions into different cluster groups. Results: The first seven principal components (PC) explained 87.83% of total variation and has eigen values >1. The traits that mainly contributed for this variation in PC1 and PC2 are fruit yield, plant height, number of flower clusters per plant, number of fruits per plant, days to first fruit set, number of fruits per cluster. High (>20%) genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was observed for number of fruits/cluster, fruit shape index, number of fruits/plant, fruit yield and shelf life. The correlation coefficients of number of primary branches/plant, days to first fruit set, number of flower clusters/plant, number of fruits/cluster, fruit width (cm), number of fruits/plant, fruit weight (g) and lycopene (mg/100 g) were positively and significantly correlated to fruit yield/plant. Conclusion: Number of flower clusters/plant, fruit weight and number of fruits per plant had contributed for maximum variation. These traits also had high heritability, high genetic gain and significant correlation with fruit yield.
      PubDate: 2023-08-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102768
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Zinc and Molybdenum on Growth and Yield of Chickpea

    • Authors: Gunukunta Vishnuvardhan, Umesha C.
      Pages: 1188 - 1193
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to find out the Effect of Zinc and Molybdenum on growth and yield of chickpea (var. Pusa 362) with ten treatments in the rabi 2022-23, with different levels of Zinc (5, 10, 15 kg ZnSO4/ha) and Molybdenum (1, 1.5, 2 kg/ha) respectively, at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, SHUATS, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh. By all these findings, significant and higher plant height (45.75cm), number of nodules/plant (20.78) plant dry weight (44.51g) number of pods/plant (32.65), number of seeds/pod (1.64), seed index (22.95g), seed yield (3.06 t/ha), stover yield (4.16 t/ha) and higher gross returns (INR 2,01,500.00), net returns (INR 1,54,383.00), B:C ratio (3.27) was recorded in treatment with the application of Zinc 15 kg/ha + Molybdenum 2 kg/ha.
      PubDate: 2023-08-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102769
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of Different Varieties of Sponge Gourd under Prayagraj Agro
           Climatic Conditions

    • Authors: Jajali Akhila, Samir E. Topno, Vijay Bahadur
      Pages: 1194 - 1199
      Abstract: The present investigation was carried out at the department of horticulture, Naini Agricultural institute Sam Higginbottom university of Agricultural Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj Uttar Pradesh during Zaid season-2021-2022 with a view to check Evaluation of different varieties of sponge gourd under Prayagraj Agro climatic conditions The experiment was laid in Randomized block design with 9 varieties and 3 replications for sponge gourd varietal evaluation. Varieties comprised of V1 (AVT2020/SPGVAR-1), V2 (AVT2020/SPGVAR-2), V3 (AVT2020/SPGVAR-3), V4 (AVT2020/SPGVAR-4), V5 (AVT2020/SPGVAR -5), V6 (AVT2020/SPGVAR -6), V7 (AVT2020 /SPGVAR-7), V8 (SUMAN) and V9 (PUSA CHAKNI). Among the various vartieties it was concluded that the variety AVT2020/SPGVAR-6 performed best in terms of growth parameters like vine length (396.86 cm), earliness in maturity (55.95 days for first fruit picking) and yield parameters like fruit length (28.56 cm), fruit diameter (3.71 cm), and fruit yield per hectare (12.64 t/ha). AVT2020/ SPGVAR-6 showed best performance for quality parameters also TSS (4.23°Brix) and Ascorbic acid content (10.66 mg/100g).
      PubDate: 2023-08-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102770
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of Different Hybrids of Chilli in Prayagraj Agro-Climatic
           Condition

    • Authors: Shivam Kumar , Vijay Bahadur , Samir Ebson Topno , V. M. Prasad , Anita Kerketta
      Pages: 1200 - 1208
      Abstract: The present investigation entitled “Evaluation of different hybrids of chilli in prayagraj agro-climatic condition” was conducted from July 2022- January 2023. The experiment was laid out in a Randomised Block Design with 3 replications and 10 hybrids viz., LHC-Diya, LHC-4010, Beauty, NS-1101, Deva, NS-1701 DG, VNR-305, Chushul, Pushkar, Sonali. Experiment was done to understand the plant growth, fruit yield, quality and economics of Chilli using different hybrids under Allahabad agro-climatic conditions at the experimental field of the Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute (NAI), Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences (SHUATS), Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh. From the above experimental findings it is concluded that, all the characters viz., growth parameters, earliness parameters, yield parameters and qualitative parameters varied significantly. Further, while studying the plant height (F1-Sonali) was found best, highest number of branches, maximum average fruit weight and maximum ascorbic acid was found in (F1-NS-1701 DG), days to first flowering and days to 50% flowering was found minimum in (F1- Pushkar), maximum number of fruits per plant, maximum fruit length and fruit girth was found in (F1- VNR-305), highest yield per plant, highest yield per hectare and highest profit and maximum benefit cost ratio were found in (F1-NS-1101), maximum TSS was found in (F1- Beauty).
      PubDate: 2023-08-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102771
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Phosphorus and Zinc on Fodder Yield and Quality of Leguminous
           Fodder: Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.)

    • Authors: Sourav Samanta , Sourabh Kumar, Rajeev, Rakesh Kumar , Narayan Maity , Shailja Sharma , Suhail Fayaz , Sudip Bhaumik
      Pages: 1209 - 1221
      Abstract: The contribution of the livestock sector to the Indian Economy is 4.11% of its total GDP and it is nearly 25.6% for total agricultural GDP. Small and marginal farmers are mainly attached to the mixed farming of field crops and dairy animals. Farmers get regular income from their dairy unit and also use dairy animals as economic security. Though India comes under the highest livestock populated countries, the production of milk is lower than expected because of improper feeding quality. Through the last two decades, the demand and price of milk both increase gradually, and farmers are not getting that much profit because of their dependency on ready cattle food. The gross profit after the selling of milk is nearly equal to the feeding expenditure. For the use of paddy straw as dry fodder, the quality and quantity of milk production are decreased. So, green fodder is the best option for livestock as it contains adequate nutrients as well as crude fibre. Among the fodder and forage crops, berseem is the second maximum cultivated fodder crop which possesses a 2 million ha area of fodder crops in India. There are several advantages of berseem as a fodder crop such as a short-duration crop, multi-cut nature, the capability of higher biomass production, the presence of a good amount of crude protein, cellulose, total digestible nutrients and succulent nature. Though Phosphorus and zinc play an antagonistic effect on each other, both are required for the growth and development of berseem crops. From cellular respiration to enzymatic reactions, phosphorus is essential for completing several metabolic activities. Zinc is related to yield and fodder quality by completing plant metabolisms like carbohydrates and auxin production. Adequate management practice is required to maintain the concentration of both nutrients at an optimum level. In Indian soil, zinc is deficient and phosphorus is mostly present in organic form. So, the use of biofertilizers will be effective to convert those complex nutrients form into simple and available for the plant.
      PubDate: 2023-08-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102773
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Traditionally used Botanicals: The Potential Source of Tribolium castaneum
           (Herbst) Management

    • Authors: Awaneesh Kumar , Anjumoni Devee , N. Ajitkumar Singh, Abhinandan Yadav
      Pages: 1222 - 1233
      Abstract: Wheat is widely used as a staple food in the world including India. But storage conditions of wheat grains are infected by several coleopteran pests. Tribolium castaneum Herbst is a ubiquitous and pestiferous pest among all. Adult and larvae both are harmful to wheat storage which often demolishes stored grains. The present study attempted at Entomology laboratory, Assam Agricultural University-Jorhat, to manage Dry powders of A. indica, C. roseus, C. heptaphylla, D. stramonium, E. tereticornis, M. struthiopteris, and V. negundo were used against T. castaneum to get rid of problematic local medicinal plants. During probit analysis the highest LD50 value was found in A. indica (1.49%) followed by D. stramonium (1.52%) and E. tereticornis (2.02%) and the lowest LD50 in Matteuccia struthiopteris (11.72%). In the repellency test, the highest rate of repellency was observed in A. indica (82.21%) followed by D. stramonium (72.59%), E. tereticornis (70.36%), and the lowest in Matteuccia struthiopteris (32.58%). Based on LD50 and mean repellency, the three botanicals (A. indica, D. stramonium, E. tereticornis) were selected for further work e.g., mortality and weight loss. A mortality study recorded 100% mortality after 35 days of treatment in the case of A. indica, D. stramonium, E. tereticornis. During the trial in 2018, A. indica (5.76%) had the lowest grain weight loss, followed by D. stramonium (12.05%) and E. tereticornis (12.05). The highest grain weight loss was observed in control with 62.33 per cent. Give your one line conclusion on these research.
      PubDate: 2023-08-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102774
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Integrated Effect of Inorganic Fertilizers and Biofertilizers on Growth
           and Yield of Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    • Authors: Shivendra Singh , Peeyush Kant Singh , Pooshpendra Singh Dixit , R. B. Singh , Ram Pyare , Bhayankar, A. R. Ranjan
      Pages: 1234 - 1238
      Abstract: The present investigation was carried out during winter of 2018-2019 at the Horticulture Farm of Post Graduate College, Ghazipur. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. Ten treatment combinations viz. T1-Control (100% Recommended dose of NPK), T2-75% NPK + 25% Azotobactor, T3-50% NPK + 50% Azotobactor, T4-25% NPK + 75% Azotobactor, T5-75% NPK + 25% PSB, T6-50% NPK + 50% PSB, T7- 25% NPK + 75% PSB, T8-75% NPK + 25% Azotobactor + 25% PSB, T9-50% NPK + 50% Azotobactor + 50% PSB and T10-25% NPK + 75% Azotobactor + 75% PSB. It can be concluded that the maximum growth attributes, yield parameter and yield of onion may be obtained by the application of 75% NPK + 25% Azotobactor + 25%PSBtreatment (T8), while, the treatment T7, i.e. application of 25% NPK + 75% PSB was also found to be good for growth and yield parameter  of onion.  It was observed that the combination of inorganic fertilizers and bio-fertilizers influence the growth and yield attributes. . Therefore, from the present investigation, it can be concluded that the onion variety  N-53 performed economically well by the application of 75% NPK + 25%   Azotobacter+25% PSB as compared to rest treatment.
      PubDate: 2023-08-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102775
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Influence of Nano Urea on Growth and Microbial Population in Paddy
           Ecosystem

    • Authors: S. Aanoor Dhayalan, V. Davamani , M. Maheswari , S. Maragatham , C. Sharmila Rahale
      Pages: 1239 - 1247
      Abstract: Chemical fertilizer usage has been a long-drawn criticism because of its harmful effects on the environment and on the quality of agricultural produce. Researchers are continually looking for more productive, better solutions while retaining societal wellbeing. Effective use of nano fertilizers in place of chemical fertilizers is essential in reducing fertilizer overuse and also contribute in lowering the pollution and leaching which in turn increase the effectiveness of nutrient consumption and also increase the yield of the crop. An experiment was carried out in paddy to study the influence of Nano urea applications on growth and microbial populations in soil. The field trial used a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with eight treatment combinations and three replications. Results showed that application of STCR based N as Urea (50%) and Nano Urea (2 sprays) and Recommended dosage of N as Urea (50%) and Nano Urea (2 sprays) recorded higher plant height, Leaf Area Index (LAI), Dry matter accumulation in paddy. In addition, applications of Nano urea increased the microbial population including bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. Combining recommended dosage of fertilisers with nano urea spray at critical stages of paddy crop increases the crop growth and microbial activity.
      PubDate: 2023-08-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102776
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Augmentation of Apis mellifera for Fruit Yield Enhancement in Capparis
           decidua (Forssk.) Edgew (Kair)

    • Authors: Shiwani Bhatnagar , Ameen Ullah Khan , Prem Singh Tak , Raj Kumar Suman , Mamta Sankhla , Neha Sharma
      Pages: 1248 - 1256
      Abstract: Capparis decidua (Family: Capparidaceae) is a very nutritious shrub of arid region. Its fruits are utilized in famous Rajasthani Panchkutta and Tricutta vegetable and pickle making. The present paper deals with the effect of augmentation of Apis mellifera beehives on the fruit setting and fruit quality parameters. It was found that the average numbers of fruit setting raceme-1 were found 4.36, 3.77 and 2.2 in natural pollination with augmentation of honey bees, pollination by honey bees only and natural pollination respectively. Germination percentages, total sugar, average fruit weight, shoot length and seedling length was higher in case of natural pollination with augmentation of honey bees among all the treatments.
      PubDate: 2023-08-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102777
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Performance of Different Varieties of Tinda (Praecitrullus fistulosus)
           under Prayagraj Agro-climatic Condition

    • Authors: Sahil Malik, Samir Ebson Topno, Anita Kerketta
      Pages: 1257 - 1266
      Abstract: The present experiment was carried out during summer season 2022-23 in Central Horticulture Research Farm of Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Prayagraj. The experiment was conducted to evaluate Performance of different varieties of Tinda (Praecitrullus fistulosus) under Prayagraj agro climatic condition. For the evaluation eight varieties treatments were V1-Ludhiana Special, V2- S-48, V3-Raja, V4-Komal, V5-IHS-45, V6-Laddu, V7-Heera, V8-Mahy Tinda are taken for the study in a Randomized Block Design with three replications in 2.5 x 1.5 m plot. The study revealed that the maximum vine length 182.8cm in V5 IHS-45. The number of primary branches was maximum in V5-IHS-45, 6.43 at final harvestings. At harvesting the number of nodes per plant was Maximum in V5-IHS-45, 34.36. Days to first female flower appearance was minimum in IHS45, 26.30. IHS-45 was found to be the best variety for fruit weight with 63.14gm. IHS-45 was found to be the best variety for diameter of fruit with 54.12mm. IHS-45 produced the maximum fruit yield/ha and the fruit yield was 143.66q/ha. Among the different varieties studied, IHS-45 performed best for flower, fruit and yield characters. And the best varieties followed by Laddu and Mahy Tinda. The study revealed that, these varieties of Tinda provide high benefit to the farmers through easy cultivation, better stress tolerance, diseases resistance and higher yield.
      PubDate: 2023-08-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102778
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Standardization of Post-Harvest Management Techniques for Ixora (Ixora
           spp.)

    • Authors: Reshma R., Ganga M., Visalakshi M., Irene Vethamoni P., Chitdeshwari T.
      Pages: 1267 - 1280
      Abstract: The objective of this experiment was to optimize the post-harvest handling techniques for four Ixora genotypes grown for loose flower purpose. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Completely Randomised Design (FCRD) with four genotypes namely viz., Red (Ixora casei-G1), Pink (I. chinensis-G2), Orange (I. coccinea-G3) and Yellow (I. chinensis-G4) and six post-harvest treatments replicated three times. Observations were made on the floral quality criteria as well as the physiological characters linked with flower post-harvest quality. The results revealed that among the genotypes, Red (I. casei-G1) proved superior with respect to quality parameters and physiological parameters followed by Pink (I. chinensis-G2). Among the post-harvest treatments, treating flower buds with 4% boric acid and storage under refrigeration @ 50C recorded superior results for all the quality parameters viz., freshness index, flower opening index, colour retention and shelf life and the physiological parameters viz., moisture content, relative water content and physiological loss in weight.
      PubDate: 2023-08-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102779
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • The Effect of Biofertilizers on Growth, Yield and Quality of Cape
           Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in Prayagraj Agro-Climatic Conditions

    • Authors: Akhand Jaiswal, Annjoe V. Joseph, Samir Ebson Topno, Rohit Rawat
      Pages: 1281 - 1288
      Abstract: The present investigation “The effect of biofertilizers on growth, yield and quality of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in Prayagraj agroclimatic conditions” was undertaken at Central Research Field, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Prayagraj (UP) during 2022-2023. The main objective of the experiment was to find out the effect of various biofertilizers on yield and quality of Cape Gooseberry and to estimate the economics of various treatments. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with 10 treatment combinations viz, T0 (Control), T1(100% RDF), T2 (100% RDF+ Azotobacter) 10g, T3 (100% RDF + Azospirillium) 10g, T4 (100% RDF + Azotobacter)10g, T5 (75% RDF= Azotobacter) 10g, T6 (75% RDF + Azospirillium) 10g, T7 (75% RDF + Trichoderma) 10g, T8 (75% RDF + Azotobacter + Azospirillium) 10g, T9 (75% RDF + Azotobacter + Azospirillium + Trichoderma) 10g with three replications. From the present investigation treatment T9(75% RDF + Azotobacter + Azospirillium + Trichoderma) 10g performed best in terms of yield parameters, (fruit weight (10.39g), and quality parameters Acidity (0.14%), of Cape Gooseberry. However, the highest B:C ratio was found in Treatment.
      PubDate: 2023-08-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102780
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • An Economic Analysis of Processing of Rainfed Cotton in Virudhunagar
           District of Tamil Nadu, India

    • Authors: R. Lakshmi Swetha, M. Thilagavathi, Isabella Agarwal, V. Karthick, Patil Santosh Ganapati, S. Rajeswari
      Pages: 1289 - 1297
      Abstract: The cotton processing industry holds a significant position in the Indian economy as the second-largest labor-intensive activity after agriculture, providing direct and indirect employment to the Indian population. Given the commercial importance of cotton at the national and State levels, there is a recognized need to thoroughly examine the cotton value chain, which includes producers and various stakeholders. Hence this study was proposed and conducted in 2022 covering 90 rainfed cotton growers, seven ginners, six spinners and twenty-seven weavers in Virudhunagar district. The findings of the study revealed that the cotton producers receive a share of (Rs.7006.1 per quintal) 48.37 per cent of the consumer rupee per quintal. The cost and returns analysis showed that, the stakeholders at different level i.e ginners, spinners and weavers incurred Rs.7591.11, Rs.18089.64 and Rs.31251.22 to process per quintal of product i.e kapas, lint, yarn and fabrics production and received as returns of Rs.10587, Rs. 27354.16 and Rs.48934.00 by them. The weavers had the highest financial profitability (1.52) in cotton value chain, followed by spinners (1.47), ginners (1.35) and farmers (1.11).
      PubDate: 2023-08-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102781
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Fresh Insight: Enhancing Verdant Leafy Vegetable’s Shelf Life Via
           Modified Atmosphere Packing and Storage

    • Authors: M. K. Prabhadharshini, M. Anand, P. Irene vethamoni, G. Amuthaselvi, P. Janaki
      Pages: 1298 - 1307
      Abstract: This study aimed to enhance the durability of selected green leafy vegetables, including Lettuce and Palak, by manipulating influential factors such as storage conditions (Ambient (35±5°C) and Refrigerated (5±5°C)), packing substrate (Low-density polyethylene and High-density polyethylene covers), and gas composition using modified atmosphere packaging. Factorial completely randomized design (FCRD) was employed, incorporating a total of 12 treatments for each crop. The evaluation primarily relied on calculating physiological weight loss. Lettuce showed optimal results with treatment T5 (0.38%) exhibiting superior performance, followed by T6 (0.45%) and T3 (0.58%) under ambient conditions. Similarly, for palak, T5 (0.18%) outperformed T3 (0.19%) and T2 (0.37%). Thus, it is advisable to adopt T5 (R1G3M1) as the preferred treatment with T3 (R1G2M1) as a viable alternative for ambient storage conditions. Refrigerated lettuce performed optimally with T11 (0.54%) leading, followed by T7 (0.56%) and T9 (0.69%). Similarly, palak exhibited superior results with T9 (0.61%) in the fore, succeeded by T11 (0.77%) and T7 (0.97%). Notably, produce stored under ambient conditions had a relatively short shelf life of approximately 5 days, while refrigeration extended it to 15 days, after which a decline in quality was observed across all treatments. Therefore, refrigerated produce has an extended shelf life, with T9 (R2G2M1) followed by T7 (R2G1M1) yielding highly favorable outcomes.
      PubDate: 2023-08-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102782
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Assessment of Influence of Seed Invigoration Treatments on Seed
           Germination, Seed Quality and Seedling Vigour in Fodder Maize (Zea mays
           L.)

    • Authors: Venkata Divya A., Prabhavathi K., Shashikala T., Jagan Mohan Rao P.
      Pages: 1308 - 1317
      Abstract: Poor germination in fodder crops is one of the major reasons responsible for lower than potential green forage yield of cereals. Invigoration treatments aids to promote and accelerate germination, increase the vigour of seedlings, and improve stand establishment in field, vegetable, and horticultural crops. Therefore, a study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different seed invigoration treatments on seed quality parameters viz., germination, field emergence, speed of germination, seedling length, dry weight and seedling vigour in fodder maize (Zea mays L.). The experiment was laid out in factorial completely randomized design with two factors i.e., months and treatments having 5 different seed priming treatment combinations i.e.,  - Priming with water for 12 hrs.,  - Priming with NaCl @ 4 g / litre of water for 8 hours.,  - Priming with Poly Ethylene Glycol solution @ 10g / litre of water for 8 hours.,  – Priming with GA3 @ 0.2 g / litre of water for 8 hours and  - Control (unprimed seeds) and the treatments were replicated four times during Rabi, 2022-23 at the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Seed Research and Technology Centre, College of Agriculture, PJTSAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana. The results obtained from this study indicate that hormonal priming with GA3 can be successfully employed to improve germination, field emergence, seedling length, dry weight, and seedling vigour in fodder maize (Zea mays L.). At the end of the study, it was observed that hormonal priming with GA3 had a significantly positive influence on mean germination per cent (90%), field emergence (87%), speed of germination (20.221%), seedling length (34.17 cm), dry weight (0.792 g), seedling vigour index-I (3082.05) and seedling vigour index-II (71.42) over the control.
      PubDate: 2023-08-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102783
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Combining Ability Analysis for Grain Yield and Yield Attributing Traits in
           Maize

    • Authors: Bichewar Nagesh Dattatray, B. V. Vara Prasad, M. V. Nagesh Kumar, N. Sunil, B. Mallaiah, A. Meena
      Pages: 1318 - 1332
      Abstract: Combining ability of inbred lines is the ultimate factor determining future usefulness of the lines for hybrid development while, an idea about the nature of gene action controlling the yield and yield contributing characters is important for development of fruitful breeding programme. Owing to this, the present study was carried out to investigate the General Combining Ability (GCA) and Specific Combining Ability (SCA) effect of parental lines and hybrids respectively, and to deduce the type of gene action regulating the grain yield and its components. The 30 single cross hybrids were generated by crossing 6 lines with 5 testers in line x tester mating system and evaluated along with four checks at three locations for the estimation of combining ability effects. Significant differences were observed among the inbred lines, testers, hybrids and parents vs. hybrids for most of the studied traits. The non-additive gene action was predominant for all studied traits except plant height. PFSR 145 found to be good general combiner for traits such days to 50% tasselling, days to 50% silking, days to maturity, plant height and ear height. GP 329 is best general combiner for ear girth, number of kernel per ear, number of kernels per row, 100 kernel weight and grain yield. These parents could be used in future breeding programme for the accumulation of favourable genes and thereby improve maize yield with desirable traits. Hybrid GP 82×GP 83 found to be the best specific combiner for days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% silking, days to maturity, number of kernels per ear and grain yield. The hybrid GP 82×GP 83 can be further tested extensively for the development of potential early maturing hybrids.
      PubDate: 2023-08-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102784
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Enhancement of Vigour Status through Hydro and Leaf Extract Priming and
           Humid Invigoration in Ribbed Gourd (COH 1) and Bitter Gourd (CO 1)

    • Authors: Poovarasu K. , R. Jegathambal, R. Umarani, P. S. Kavitha, M. Ravi
      Pages: 1333 - 1343
      Abstract: The present study focused on the evaluation of priming with water and various botanical leaf extract and followed by humid invigoration  as a means to improve seed germination and seedling vigour of ribbed gourd (COH 1)  and bitter gourd (CO 1). The seeds of these gourds were  primed with water  and various leaf extracts at 2% concentration viz., Pongam (Pongamia pinnata L.), Neem (Azadira chtaindica), Moringa (Moringa oleifera), Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii), Notchi (Vitex negundo), Coconut (Cocos nucifera), Hena (Lawsonia inermis) and Guava (Psidium guajava). Unprimed seeds taken as a control. Hydro and leaf extract priming with humid invigoration process significantly influence the germination and seedling vigour of both crops viz., ribbed gourd (COH 1) and bitter gourd (CO 1). The study revealed that highest seed and seedling quality characters like germination percentage, speed of germination, seedling length, dry matter production, vigour index I and vigour index II were recorded in hydro primed with humid invigoration. Among the leaf extracts moringa shows better seedling growth of above parameters. Minimum value of this parameter was recorded in henna leaf extract priming with humid invigoration in both ribbed gourd (COH 1) and bitter gourd gourd (CO 1).
      PubDate: 2023-08-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102785
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Drip Irrigation and Fertigation Levels on Yield Attributes and
           Yield of African Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) during Rabi

    • Authors: V. Chitra, P. Revathi, Md. Latheef Pasha, T. Srijaya
      Pages: 1344 - 1349
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out at College farm, College of Agriculture, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University (PJTSAU), Hyderabad, Telangana during rabi season 2022 to study the effect of drip irrigation and fertigation levels on yield attributes and yield of marigold. The results revealed that the drip irrigation scheduled at 1.2 Epan recorded significantly higher number of flowers per plant (55.3), flower diameter (5.8 cm), flower fresh weight per plant (557.2 g), flower dry weight per plant (101.9 g) and flower yield (12.11 t ha-1) than 1.0 Epan and 0.8 Epan. Whereas among the fertigation levels, 125% recommended dose of NK recorded significantly higher number of flowers per plant (53.7), flower diameter (5.6 cm), flower fresh weight per plant (538.4 g), flower dry weight per plant (92.8 g) and flower yield (11.48 t ha-1) than 100%RDF and 125%RDF.
      PubDate: 2023-08-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102786
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Enhancing Growth and Yield of Parching Sorghum through Organic Manure
           Application

    • Authors: Jyoti Potadar , M. B. Patil , S. S. Nooli
      Pages: 1350 - 1357
      Abstract: Aims: The combination of various sources of organic manures along with liquid organic manures is important to maintain nutrient availability to crop and sustain higher level of soil fertility. The aim is to meet the nutrient demand of parching sorghum as per requirement at different stages through solid and liquid organic manures which can give greater productivity of crops. Study Design: The experiment was laid in Randomized Complete Block Design with 9 treatments replicated thrice. Place and Duration of Study: A field experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, Vijayapur, during Rabi, 2020-21. Methodology: The treatments were T1-Ghanajeevamrutha based on 100% RDN (recommended dose of Nitrogen) as basal dose, T2-Vermicompost based on 100% RDN as basal dose, T3- T1 + foliar application of 10% vermiwash at 20 & 45 DAS (days after sowing), T4- T1 + foliar application of 10% cow urine at 20 & 45 DAS, T5- T1 + foliar application of 25% jeevamrutha at 20 & 45 DAS, T6- T2 + foliar application of 10% vermiwash at 20 & 45 DAS, T7- T2 + foliar application of 10% cow urine at 20 & 45 DAS, T8- T2 + foliar application of 25% jeevamrutha at 20 & 45 DAS and T9- Organic RPP of parching sorghum with SMJ-1 variety of parching sorghum. Results: The application of ghanajeevamrutha based on 100 per cent RDN as basal dose + foliar application of 25 per cent jeevamrutha at 20 and 45 days after sowing recorded significantly higher dry matter production (55.86 g plant-1), leaf area index (3.49), raw and roasted grain weight (39.49 g and 51.73 g respectively), raw and roasted grain yield (1063 kg ha-1 and 1505 kg ha-1 respectively) of parching sorghum (hurda) at harvest as compared to other treatments. In addition to improvement in the major plant nutrient uptake were recorded with incorporation of ghanajeevamrutha or vermicompost along with the liquid organic manure. Conclusion: The application of ghanajeevamrutha based on 100 per cent RDN as basal dose coupled with foliar application of 25 per cent jeevamrutha at 20 and 45 days after sowing recorded significantly higher growth, yield, quality and plant nutrient uptake by parching sorghum.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102787
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Efficient Use of Nano-fertilizer for Increasing Productivity and
           Profitability along with Maintain Sustainability in Rice Crop: A Review

    • Authors: Mandeep Kumar , Y. K. Singh , Shravan Kumar Maurya , Sandeep Kumar Maurya , Durgesh Kumar Maurya , Ravindra Sachan , Mahendru Kumar Gautam , Abhishek Tiwari
      Pages: 1358 - 1368
      Abstract: The need for food and the expanding global population have put enormous pressure on agriculture to increase crop yield while preserving sustainability. Since rice is a staple diet for millions of people, novel methods are needed to increase yields without harming the environment. The possible advantages of using nano fertilizers in rice farming are examined in this abstract in order to raise yields, increase farmer profitability, and ensure long-term sustainability. Nano-sized carriers created for effective nutrient delivery to crops are called nano fertilizers, an innovative application of nanotechnology in agriculture. Their special qualities, such as their large surface area and regulated release mechanisms, allow for the targeted supply of nutrients to rice plants, improving nutrient uptake and utilization. Nano-fertilizers successfully optimize nutrient availability as a consequence, increasing crop output. According to studies, using nano fertilizers in rice farming increases grain yields because plants are better able to absorb and assimilate nutrients. The crop's resistance to environmental challenges and disease strains is strengthened as a result of this enhanced nutrient utilization, which also boosts yield and contributes to sustainable rice farming practices. Furthermore, nano fertilizers offer cost-effectiveness and increased profitability for farmers. Despite their initial higher cost, the efficient nutrient delivery of nano fertilizers reduces the overall application rate required compared to conventional fertilizers. This reduction in input costs translates to improved profitability for farmers, promoting economic sustainability in rice production.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102788
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Seasonal Incidence of Insect Pests of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum
           Miller)

    • Authors: Jatin Kumar Singh , Saroj Chauhan , Pawan Kumar , Ritesh Kumar
      Pages: 1369 - 1375
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Entomology research field, IANS, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur during Rabi, 2022, for studying the seasonal incidence of insect pests infesting tomato. Serpentine leaf miner, aphid appeared during 46th SMW and whitefly, jassid during 48th   SMW, while fruit borer was observed during 2nd SMW. Correlation study revealed that Serpentine leaf miner, whitefly, aphid, jassid and fruit borer witnessed significant positive correlation with the maximum temperature and minimum temperature. Serpentine leaf miner and fruit borer recorded negative non-significant correlation with the morning relative humidity and evening relative humidity. Whitefly, jassid and aphid population had significant negative correlation with the morning relative humidity. Whitefly and jassid population registered a significant negative correlation with evening relative humidity. Aphid incidence had a non-significant negative correlation with the evening relative humidity. However, all the insect pests showed non-significant correlation with the rainfall.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102789
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Monitoring and Control of Particle Matter Concentration’s
           Traffic-Related Air Pollution Using Low-Cost Mobile Sensors at Six
           Intersections in Yaoundé, Cameroon

    • Authors: Yannick Cédric Ngangmo , Cyrille Adiang Mezoue , Cyrille Rodrigue Enone Ellah , Severin Mbog Mbog , Cyrille Armel Cheunteu Fantah , Yvan Martino Dantse
      Pages: 1376 - 1389
      Abstract: Particle pollution has a major influence on public health in Central African cities. Measuring the levels of pollution to which populations are exposed is difficult because only a few African countries have an air quality monitoring network in place. Yet, given the specific anthropogenic sources prevalent in African countries, as well as the predicted increase in their emissions in the next few years if no laws are implemented, solutions must be developed. The methodology utilised in this study allows diverse research teams to estimate the population's exposure levels to urban particle pollution at a lower cost. In this investigation, we collected data concentrations using Air Master. The spatial mapping of pollutants shows that the Mvog-Mbi crossroad and the Education crossroad are the most polluted points among the six measurement points, with PM2.5 concentrations around 145–170 µg.m-3. Regarding PM10 and PM1, the Mvog-Mbi crossroads is the point where concentrations are highest, fluctuating respectively between 150 and 180 µg.m-3, 41 and 48 µg.m-3. At some locations, the particle ratio exceeds the WHO recommended range of 0.5–0.8 (Mvog-Mbi Crossroads, Education Crossroads, Poste Centrale, Hilton). These are the high-risk zones for those with respiratory difficulties. At some locations, the particle ratio exceeds the WHO recommended range of 0.5–0.8 (Mvog-Mbi crossroads, education crossroads, Poste Centrale, Hilton). Regardless of particle size, these pollutants in air readings are greater and beyond the World Health Organization's recommended values. Furthermore, this investigation provides critical information on Yaoundé pollution levels, which can be a major source of disease in the city.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102790
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Different Sources of Nutrients on Growth, Yield and Quality of
           Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.)

    • Authors: A. Harish , P. K. Singh , Y. K. Sharma , A. P. Singh
      Pages: 1390 - 1401
      Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted in the experimental research farm of Department of Soil Science, SAS, Nagaland University, and Medziphema campus, Nagaland in the period of June to September 2022 to make a study on “Effect of different sources of nutrients on growth, yield and quality of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.). The experiment was laid out in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with 12 treatments and 3 replications. The study revealed that the incorporation of different sources of nutrients significantly influenced that the plant growth, yield attributes and quality parameters i.e., NPK and protein content, Nutrient uptake, and availability of nutrients in soil after harvest of green gram. The crop growth attributes such as plant height, number of leaves plant-1 and number of branches plant-1 were significantly influenced by its application. The highest seed yield of 11.67 g pot-1and stover yield of 37.88 g pot-1 recorded with the treatment of 100% RDF+PSB+FYM was significantly superior over all treatments. The quality of green gram was improved by 100% RDF+PSB+FYM in the presence of different sources of nutrients. The highest nutrient content and highest nutrient uptake by green gram was also recorded highest with the treatment 100% RDF+PSB+FYM. The available nutrients (NPK), cation exchange capacity, organic carbon, soil respiration, microbial biomass carbon in soil was also found to be more due to the treatment of 100% RDF+PSB+FYM.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102791
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Value Chain of Cotton Industry: A Study in Adilabad and Nalgonda Districts
           of Telangana

    • Authors: Shwetha M. N. , I. Shakuntala Devi , T. Lavanya , A. Meena
      Pages: 1402 - 1410
      Abstract: Aim: To identify the main chain actors involved in value chain of cotton and asses their linkage, roles and responsibilities in the value chain and to map the complete value chain of cotton from producers to consumers. Methodology: Descriptive statistics mainly value chain analysis is used to map the generic value chain of cotton. The required primary data about the movement of cotton along the length of the value chain were collected from different stake holders involved in the value chain through pretested questionnaires by employing personal interview method. Results: It was found that value chain of cotton includes many stakeholders like input suppliers, producers, intermediaries, processors like ginners, spinners, weavers, dyers and printers and garment manufactures, playing their respective role in the value chain. Conclusion: Cotton crop undergoes multistage processing at the industrial level and it has very complex value chain involving multiple stake holders. Cotton has enormous potential as a source of raw materials for the textile industry. However, the low productivity, which is primarily the result of suboptimal farming practices, limits the total expansion of the cotton business. There is a need to set up a common platform which engage all stakeholders from farmer to consumers and strengthen the linkage between them so as to trade without the mediation of the brokers or commission agents.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102793
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Inorganic Fertilizer and Spacing on the Plant Growth of Dragon
           Fruit (Hylocereus costaricencis) under Tamil Nadu Agro-Climatic Conditions
           

    • Authors: V. A. Samant, C. Indu Rani, K. A. Shanmugasundaram, P. Janaki, M. Djanaguiraman, R. Neelavathi, Patil S. G.
      Pages: 1411 - 1418
      Abstract: The dragon fruit (Hylocereus costaricencis) is a new emerging fruit crop, there is very less information available on the spacing and fertilizer dose requirements of this crop so the present study was carried out to find the effect of fertilizer doses, spacings, and interaction effect of both on plant growth of dragon fruit (Hylocereus costaricencis) at the Orchard, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. during the year 2022. The design of the experiment was a split plot with four main plots viz. M1 = 3.5 x 2.0 m2, M2 = 3.0 x 3.0 m2, M3 = 3.0 x 2.5 m2, M4 = 2.5 x 2.5 m2 and six sub plots viz. S1 = N540 P420 K360, S2 = N495 P385 K330, S3 = N450 P350 K300, S4 = N340 P260 K225, S5 = N225 P175 K150, S6 = N0 P0 K0 g per pillar was applied and replicate four times. A significant difference was observed in terms of vine length (m), cladode girth (cm), cladode length (cm), and cladode number when different doses of fertilizers were applied. The highest vine length (2.96), cladode girth (24.52), cladode length (67.21), and number of cladodes (67.48) were observed in S3 (N450 P350 K300). Similarly, the highest vine length (2.503) and cladode girth (19.78) were observed in M4 (2.5 x 2.5 m2). The highest cladode length (67.47) was observed in treatment combination M2S3. Hence, the application of fertilizer dose S3 (N450 P350 K300) and adoption of spacing M4 (2.5 x 2.5 m2) is good to enhance the vegetative growth characters of dragon fruit under Tamil Nadu conditions. 
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102794
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Seed Quality Enhancement Techniques in the Production of Elite Seedlings
           Suitable for Machine Transplanting in Rice

    • Authors: Kokila M., Vakeswaran V. , Umarani R., Sakthivel N., Ravichandran V.
      Pages: 1419 - 1426
      Abstract: The goal of the current study was to study the effect of seed enhancement techniques for the production of elite seedlings suitable for machine transplanting in rice (ADT 45, CO 51) and an experiment was laid out in Factorial Completely Randomized Block Design (FCRD) in three replications in the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during 2023. In order to overcome the major constraint in machine transplanting of rice ie., planting density (number of seedlings per hill), an improved seedling characteristics should be obtained. The treatment consists of T0 - Dry seeds, T1- Seed coating with Vithai Amirtham, T2 - Seed coating with Vithai Amirtham + Priming, T3 - Sprouted seeds, T4 - Seed coating with Vithai Amirtham+ Sprouted seeds, T5 - Seed coating with Vithai Amirtham+ Priming + Sprouted seeds. Among the different treatments, T5 sprouted seeds after coating with Vithai Amirtham (20 ml/kg) and hydro priming exhibits higher speed of germination, root length, shoot length, dry matter and vigour index than the control (dry seeds). From this study, it was concluded that seed coating with Vithai Amirtham and hydro priming has led to improved seedling quality characteristics, thereby the number of seedlings per hill during machine transplanting could be reduced and hence this would be a successful pre-sowing seed treatment to overcome the problem in machine transplanting of rice.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102795
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Poultry Manure, Vermicompost and Boron on Growth and Yield of
           Maize

    • Authors: Chappidi Venkatesh , Umesha C., Gangothri K.
      Pages: 1427 - 1433
      Abstract: A field experiment titled “Effect of Poultry Manure, Vermicompost and Boron on Growth and Yield of Maize” (Zea mays L.) was conducted during Rabi 2022 at Crop Research Farm. Department of Agronomy, Naini Agriculture Institute SHUATS, Prayagraj Uttar Pradesh. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with ten treatments which are replicated thrice. Results obtained that combined application of Poultry Manure 50% (1t/ha) along with Vermicompost 50% (2 t/ha) and Boron – 5% (Treatment) significantly increased higher plant height (234.45 cm), plant dry weight (135.84 g/plant) and also yield attributes like effective Number cobs per plant (2.00), Number of Seeds per cob (302.67), Seed index (24.69 g), Grain yield (6.73t/ha), stover yield (15.20 t/ha) and Harvest index (30.68%). The economics viz., maximum gross returns (INR/ha 39,832.43), net returns (INR/ha 84,600.00) and benefit cost ratio (2.48) was also recorded in treatment 9 [Poultry Manure 50% (1t/ha) + Vermicompost 50% (2 t/ha) + Boron – 5%)].
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102796
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Nitrogen and Zinc on Growth and Yield of Cowpea

    • Authors: Rodda Narendra, Umesha C. , Sabbavarapu Bhargav, Chappidi Venkatesh, Saikiran Goud
      Pages: 1434 - 1440
      Abstract: The field trail titled “Effect of Nitrogen and Zinc on growth and yield of Cowpea” was conducted during Zaid, 2022 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agriculture institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh. The soil of experimental field was sandy loamy in texture, nearly neutral in a soil reaction (pH 7.8) low in organic carbon (0.62), available nitogen (225 kg/ha), available phosphorus (38.2 kg/ha) and available potassium (240.7 kg/ha). The experiment was carried out in Randomized Block Design with nine treatments each replicated thrice. The treatments combination are T1: N-20 kg/ha + Zn-10 kg/ha, T2: N-20 kg/ha + Zn-20 kg/ha, T3: N-20 kg/ha + Zn-30 kg/ha, T4: N-30 kg/ha + Zn-10 kg/ha, T5: N-30 kg/ha + Zn-20 kg/ha, T6: N-30 kg/ha + Zn-30 kg/ha, T7: N-40 kg/ha + Zn- 10 kg/ha, T8: N-40 kg/ha + Zn-20 kg/ha and T9: N-40 kg/ha + Zn-30 kg/ha. Results revealed thatcombined application of Nitrogen 30 kg/ha along with Zinc 30 kg/ha significantly Higher plant height (51.39 cm), number of branches/plant (4.80), dry weight (16.60 g), number of pods/plant (10.60), number of Seeds/pod (5.47), seed index (100.80 g), seed yield (1.30t/ha), stover yield (1.73 t/ha). And also higher economics viz., higher gross returns (1,01,380.00 INR/ha), net returns (67,812.00 INR/ha) and B:C ratio (2.02).
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102797
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Identification and Analysis of Transgressive Segregants in F2 Rice
           Populations: A Cross-Study of Naveen x IR 64 Drt1 for Enhanced Yield
           Traits

    • Authors: Jenny P. Ekka, Priyanka Kumari, Swapnil, Krishna Prasad, Manigopa Chakarbarty, Ekhlaque Ahmed
      Pages: 1441 - 1446
      Abstract: Not all crosses display it, and only a small proportion of progeny in any particular cross may be transgressive, but it occurs frequently enough that plant breeding works as a matter of routine. The traditional thinking in plant breeding holds that transgressive segregants are the most rare individuals in the population. However, depending on the level or clarity with which the phenotypic is investigated, it is reasonable to believe that this phenomenon may be more widespread in plant breeding populations than is now recognized. In the present study the F2 segregants that surpassed both the parentals and had higher values than the increasing parent, were observed in the cross (Naveen x IR64 Drt 1) for all the characters viz plant height, number of panicles, panicle length, number of primary branches, number of filled grains, total number of spikelets and 1000 grain weight except for the character number of secondary branches. The maximum number of transgressives were observed for the character panicle length for the cross Naveen x IR 64 Drt1.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102798
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Different Sowing Dates and Planting Distance on Growth, Yield
           and Quality of China Aster (Callistephus chinensis L.)

    • Authors: Aman Singh, Samir E. Topno, Anita Kerketta
      Pages: 1447 - 1455
      Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to find out the best planting time and spacing in terms of growth and flower yield and quality of China aster during Rabi season 2022. The research was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design, which had nine treatments replicated thrice. The dates of sowing were kept in the month of October at an interval of one week i.e., 2nd, 9th and 16th having different planting distance (30x20 cm, 30x30 cm, 30x40 cm). This experiment reviled that that Treatment T1 in which seed were sown in 1st week of October having planting distance of 30 x 20 cm performed best in with respect to growth, flower yield and quality of China aster.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102799
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Characterization of Florescent Pseudomonads for Biological control
           Efficacy, Plant Growth Promotion and Antibiotic Tolerance

    • Authors: Zaya Roshani, Srinivasaraghavan A., Kalmesh Managanvi, Erayya, Ramesh Nath Gupta
      Pages: 1456 - 1466
      Abstract: A collection of fourteen indigenous Fluorescent Pseudomonads (FLPs) was isolated from diverse crop rhizospheres across different regions of Bihar, and their distinctive characteristics were documented. The differentiation between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens was achieved through pigmentation, fluorescence assessment on King's A media, and growth analysis at 42°C. Among the isolates, nine were identified as P. aeruginosa: FLP strains associated with Rice, Turmeric, Mustard-1, Mustard-2, Okra-G, Pea, Barley, Brinjal, and Chickpea. Meanwhile, five isolates - FLP Wheat, FLP Bean, FLP Mango, FLP Brinjal New, and FLP Cauliflower - were classified as P. fluorescens. Confirmation of these classifications was established through DNA sequencing of the 16s RNA region. These FLP isolates were evaluated against prevalent phytopathogens, including Macrophomina phaseolina, Colletotrichum musae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Notable performance was exhibited by FLP Barley (70.55%) against Macrophomina phaseolina, FLP Okra-G (53.82%) against Colletotrichum musae, FLP Rice (38.58%) against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, and FLP Okra-G against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. In the context of biocontrol efficacy, FLP Turmeric, FLP Pea, FLP Okra-G, and FLP Mustard-1 showcased superior performance in combatting phytopathogens. Additionally, all FLP isolates, except FLP Cauliflower, exhibited phosphate-solubilizing capabilities, with FLP Brinjal demonstrating the highest solubilization (Phosphate Solubilizing Index of 2.89). Siderophore production was a common trait among the isolates. Compatibility with antibiotics, namely Streptocycline at concentrations of 0.025% and 0.10%, as well as Copper oxychloride at 0.25%, 0.30%, and 0.50%, was assessed. Only FLP Cauliflower exhibited compatibility with both antibiotics across all concentrations. Notably, FLP Rice, FLP Turmeric, and FLP Barley demonstrated positive antibiotic compatibility alongside effective biocontrol potential. In summation, this study unveils the distinct attributes and potential applications of indigenous Fluorescent Pseudomonads (FLPs) isolated from the rhizospheres of diverse crops in Bihar. The identified isolates exhibit promising traits such as disease control, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, and antibiotic compatibility, thus presenting valuable options for sustainable agricultural practices and disease management.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102800
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Exploring the Insecticidal and Repellent Activity of Garlic Essential Oil
           against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) Infestation in Stored Maize

    • Authors: Kanimozhi; T. , Srinivasan, T., Suganthi, A., Elaiyabharathi, T., Santhanakrishnan, V. P.
      Pages: 1467 - 1473
      Abstract: The potential of garlic essential oil for its insecticidal and repellent properties against the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae was investigated through various bioassays. The results of the contact toxicity assay showed that the mortality rates were dependent on the concentration of the garlic essential oil, and its effectiveness increased with time. This was evident from the decreasing median lethal doses (LC50) over the course of the study, ranging from 7.13 µl/ 20g of seeds (1 DAT) to 3.40 µl / 20g of seeds (5 DAT). The highest repellency rate of 88.89 per cent was achieved with a concentration of 6µl over a 4-hour period. This finding was further supported by the negative preference indices, which ranged from -1.0 to -0.1. With regard to fumigant toxicity assay, the LC50 values decreased as the study progressed, ranging from 4.72 µl /96cm3 (1 DAT) to 1.70 µl/96cm3 (5 DAT). Thus, garlic essential oil can be considered as a potent botanica compound on account of its contact, repellent and fumigant toxicity properties against Sitophilus oryzae. The results of this study underscore the potential of garlic essential oil as a promising compound for the management of S. oryzae.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102801
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen and Seed Treatment on Growth and
           Yield of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L.)

    • Authors: Gangothri K., Umesha C., Chappidi Venkatesh
      Pages: 1474 - 1481
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during Zaid 2023 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P) to determine the “Effect of Different levels of Nitrogen and Seed treatment on growth and yield of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.)”. The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.8), low in organic carbon (0.62%), available nitrogen (225 kg/ha), available phosphorus (38.2 kg/ha) and available potassium (240.7 kg/ha). The treatments consisted of three levels of [Nitrogen 40 kg/ha, 50 kg/ha, 60kg/ha] and three types of Bio-fertilizers [Azospirillum 2 g/kg, Pseudomonas fluorescens 6 g/kg, Azotobacter 3 g/kg] as seed treatment, whose effect is observed in finger millet. The results revealed that the treatment with application of Nitrogen 60 kg/ha + Azospirillum 2 g/kg recorded higher plant height (86.27 cm), number of tillers/plant (8.67/plant), plant dry weight (23.41 g/plant), higher test weight (2.92 g), number of fingers/plant (5.67), number of ear heads/plant (3.32), number of grains/fingers (114.14), grain yield (2,635.65 kg/ha), straw yield (4,883.10 kg/ha) and Harvest index (35.05%). The economics viz., maximum gross returns (1,05,426.00 INR/ha), net returns (67,577.00 INR/ha) and B:C (1.78) was also recorded in treatment 7 [Nitrogen 60 kg/ha + Azospirillum 2 g/kg] as compared to other treatments.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102802
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of Bed Disinfectants on Rearing Performance of Multivoltine
           Hybrid Mulberry Silkworm [NISTARI × (SK6×SK7)], in Kishanganj District,
           Bihar, India

    • Authors: Shriya Singh, Kalmesh Managanvi, S. N. Ray, Erayya, Srinivasaraghvan A., Ali Asaba
      Pages: 1482 - 1488
      Abstract: The silkworm, (B. mori L). is highly susceptible to pathogens such as protozoa, virus, bacteria and fungus. To evaluate the various bed disinfectant viz, Vijetha, Sericilin, Labex, and Amla compare with untreated control for their suitability and standardization for the management of diseases during silkworm rearing. The rearing of silkworm multivoltine hybrid race [NISTARI × (SK6×SK7)] was carried out in the centre. In the present study the larvae treated with Labex @ 5 g/sq. ft. ½ an hour before resuming feeding had shortest (20.00 days) larval duration. Larvae weight higher (31.24 g) respectively at late 5th instar stage. Larval mortality was observed (25.93%) Effective rate of rearing (64.08%) and significantly lowest disease incidence (26.06%) was recorded.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102803
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Performance of South Indian Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora T.)
           Varieties Under High Density Planting in Prayagraj Climatic Conditions

    • Authors: Polimetla Harini, Urfi Fatmi
      Pages: 1489 - 1494
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of south Indian chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora T.) varieties under high-density planting in Prayagraj climatic conditions at the Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, during the period of October, 2022 to January, 2023. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) comparing two factors with twelve treatment combinations in three replications. Significant improvement in growth and flowering characters was recorded in T8(Poornima White with spacing of 30 cm x 10 cm, 47.5 cm) was found to be tallest in plant height, T5(Poornima White with spacing of 30 cm x 30 cm) recorded wider in plant spread (42.6 cm2), more the number of primary branches (15.7), greater the number of flowers per plant (23.9), bigger size of flower diameter (7.6 cm) and longer shelf life of the flower (8.5), T12(Belgium Pink with spacing of 30 cm x 10 cm) found best in parameters i.e., less number of days taken to first flower bud initiation (43 days), and days taken to 50 percent flowering (73 days).
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102804
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Enriched TSP Polymer Seed Coating on Germination Physiology of
           Greengram Var. CO8

    • Authors: Pravina K., P. R. Renganayaki, N. Sritharan
      Pages: 1495 - 1500
      Abstract: During 2023, the research was carried out under laboratory condition at the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, to find out the effect of TSP polymer seed coating on germination physiology of green gram. The seeds were coated with TSP polymer, TSP polymer with preservatives, TSP polymer with PGRs and TSP polymer with preservatives and PGRs @ 6 g/ kg of seeds. Among the various constituents of polymer, TSP polymer with preservative (0.1% Sodium sorbate) and PGR (1.5 ppm BRs) performed better with good speed of germination and seedling vigour.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102805
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Utilization of Microencapsulated Thyme Essential Oil for Aroma Treatment
           of Wool Fabric

    • Authors: Anita, Neelam M. Rose, Saroj Yadav, Shalini Rukhaya
      Pages: 1501 - 1516
      Abstract: Background: With rising global trends and changing lifestyles in fashion, beauty as well as healthcare, the awareness of consumers has enforced the evolution of specialty value-added textiles. Essential oils and basic aromatherapy ingredients are microencapsulated and applied to the materials to provide a therapeutic effect and long-lasting aromas. The present study was carried out to prepare thyme essential oil microcapsules using a complex coacervation technique. The prepared microcapsules were applied on wool fabric using pad-dry-cure method by optimizing various variables of aroma treatment. Methods: Thyme essential oil was used based on its aromatic and therapeutic properties. A complex coacervation technique of microencapsulation was used to prepare thyme oil microcapsules. The padding bath components and treatment variables were optimized based on the presence of microcapsules on wool fabric as observed under a stereo zoom microscope, aroma durability to washing and improved properties of treated material regarding bending length, flexural rigidity and crease recovery angle. The aroma treatment was given on wool fabric using pad-dry-cure method. Results: Optimized variables for aroma treatment were 60 g/l microcapsule gel, two g/l softeners and ten g/l binder concentration, 1:20 material to liquor ratio, 35 ºC temperature, and 30 minutes treatment time as at these conditions more number of microcapsules, longer wash durability and better fabric properties in terms of bending length, flexural rigidity and crease recovery angle were observed. Aroma-treated wool fabric were dried at 70 ºC temperature for 4 minutes and cured at 100 ºC for 60 seconds. Conclusions: Thyme essential oil has many reported therapeutic properties therefore microencapsulated thyme basic oil-treated wool fabric can be used for apparel, home, and healthcare textiles. Higher concentrations of microcapsule gel and lower concentrations of softener and binder promoted the deposition of a maximum number of microcapsules on wool fabric. Complex coacervation techniques of microencapsulation for preparation of thyme essential oil microcapsules and pad-dry-cure method to impart durable aroma treatment on wool are needed to acquire long term sustained finish.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102806
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Boron on Yield of Different Varieties of Mustard (Brassica
           juncea L.)

    • Authors: Badavath Vamshi Kumar , Biswarup Mehera, Prateek Kumar
      Pages: 1517 - 1521
      Abstract: The field experiment was conducted during Rabi 2022 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P). The soil of the experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.2), low in organic carbon (0.22 %), available N (171.48 kg/ha), available P (12.3 kg/ha) and available K (235.7 kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with nine treatments and one control plot each replicated three based on one-year experimentation. The results showed that treatment with the application of Laxmi + Boron at 20 kg/ha recorded a significantly higher number of Siliquae/plant (259.00), Number of seeds/siliquae (15.00), Test weight (6.12 g), Seed yield (2.05 t/ha) and Stover yield (6.30 t/ha).
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102807
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Relationships between Different Growth and Yield Traits in Bottle Guord
           [Lagenaria siceraria (mol.) Standl] with Path Coefficient Analysis over
           Seasons under Salt Affected Soil

    • Authors: Anoj Yadav, G. C. Yadav, Ruchika Abha, Vikash Singh, Prabhakar Yadav
      Pages: 1522 - 1538
      Abstract: This study used 23 genotypes of bottle gourd—27 F1 hybrids, 12 Parents (9 lines, and 3 testers)—during two seasons (Y1 and Y2) and pooled analyses to analyze the correlations between fruit production per plant (Kg), growth, and economic features. The observations were evaluated based on qualities that are related to growth and yield. It was discovered that the fruit yield per plant had exhibited a significant and positive phenotypic correlation with the length of the male and female flowers' pedicels, the number of primary branches per plant, the length of the vine, the number of nodes per vine, the internodal length, the duration of picking, the length of the peduncle, the length of the fruit, the average fruit's circumference, the average fruit's weight, the number of fruits per plant. The highest positive direct effect on fruit yield per plant was exerted by number of fruit per plant followed by average fruit weight at phenotypic level. Whereas, higher negative direct effects exerted by days to first fruit harvest. The soil type of experimental site was sandy loam with average fertility level and pH in the range of 7.5-8.5
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102808
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Potentials of Constructed Wetland for the Treatment of Wastewater from
           Cocopeat Production Industry

    • Authors: Lokesh S. , E. Parameswari , P. Janaki , R. Jayashree , R. Poorniammal
      Pages: 1539 - 1546
      Abstract: The cocopeat production industry generates a significant amount of wastewater containing high organic loads and chemical residues, posing environmental challenges and economic concerns. This study aims to assess the potential of constructed wetlands as an innovative and sustainable approach for managing coco peat production industry wastewater. An artificial wetland was created and filled with 30% soil, 40% sand, 10% bio and hydrochar, and 20% gravel along with Canna indica was used as the plant component. Three types of hydraulic loading rates were studied: 5 ml/min, 10 ml/min, and 15 ml/min, with a retention time of 7 days. The results showed that the wastewater contains significant levels of Electrical Conductivity (5.24 – 6.31 dS m-1), Total Dissolved Solids (4190 - 5150 mg/L), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (730 - 818 mg/L), and Chemical Oxygen Demand (1825 – 2045 mg/L). The utilization of artificial wetlands along with Canna indica decreased the pollution loads by 42% of Electrical Conductivity, 41% of Biochemical Oxygen Demand, and Chemical Oxygen Demand, 45% of Total Suspended Solids, and 55% of Total Dissolved Solids. Based on the above results, constructed wetlands are recognized as a reliable wastewater treatment technique and a good solution for the treatment of coirpith washwater, which is a step towards a greener and more sustainable future. By integrating these natural filtration systems into the wastewater treatment process, industries can foster a harmonious coexistence with the environment, ensuring a balance between economic growth and environmental well-being.
      PubDate: 2023-08-29
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102809
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Studies on the Effect of Nano-Urea on Growth, Yield and Nutrient Use
           Efficiency in Transplanted Rice

    • Authors: Anushka A. S., G. Senthil Kumar , N. Sritharan , S. Radhamani , S. Maragatham
      Pages: 1547 - 1554
      Abstract: Rice is a staple crop that feeds a large section of the world's population, and conventional urea fertilisers have played an important role in increasing rice yields. However, nano urea, a game-changing invention in modern agriculture, represents a big step forward in terms of sustainable and efficient crop production. The experiment was carried out at wetlands farm of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, during Navarai season, 2022 in a Randomized block design with eight treatments and three replications. The main objective is to enhancing the growth and yield of rice through foliar application of nano urea. The rice variety CO 55 was taken up for the study with the RDF of 150:50:50 NPK kg ha-1. The experimental details viz; T1 -100% recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) (150 kg N) through urea (25% each at basal, AT, PI and heading stage), T2 - 100% RDN (150 kg N) through urea (50% as basal+ two top dressing 25% each at AT & PI), T3 - 50% RDN (75 kg N) through urea (basal only) , T4 - 50% RDN (75 kg N) through urea (basal only) + two foliar sprays of nano urea at 20th and 40th DAT, T5 -50% RDN (75 kg N) through urea (basal only) + three foliar sprays of nano urea at 20th, 40th and 60th DAT, T6 -25% RDN (37.5 kg N) through urea (basal only) + three foliar sprays of nano urea at 20th, 40th and 60th DAT, T7 -Foliar sprays of nano urea at 20th 40th and 60th  DAT (no basal application), T8 -Control (0% N). Based on the experimental results show that, among the treatments the higher plant height, leaf area index and yield should be obtained in the T5 treatment ie; reduced basal nitrogen application as 50%, with nano urea foliar spray.
      PubDate: 2023-08-29
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102810
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Wheat Genotype Evaluation for Spot Blotch Disease Resistance: Unveiling
           Resilient Varieties

    • Authors: Deepak Kumar , Ramji Singh , Kamal Khilari, Prashant Mishra , D. V. Singh
      Pages: 1555 - 1564
      Abstract: Spot blotch, caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoemaker is a major disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), in all the six agro climatic zones of India. Estimation of losses due to this disease vary from location to location, due to diverse environmental conditions. The use of resistant cultivars is the most effective, long-lasting, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly technique for sustainable disease control. The experiment was conducted at Crop Research Centre, Chirodi farm of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut (U.P.). Among the tested varieties, disease index and AUDPC values varied significantly for both years’ data viz. 2021-22 and 2022-23. In this experiment 32 wheat varieties were screened against B. sorokiniana under artificial epiphytotic conditions in the field. Each variety were sown in two row of three-meter length with three replications, two line of susceptible check RAJ 4015 was sown at every ten genotypes of interval. Among 32 wheat varieties, two varieties were found to be resistant, eleven varieties were found moderately resistant, fourteen varieties were found moderately susceptible and five varieties were found susceptible, none of the variety was found immune and highly susceptible against spot blotch disease. Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC) calculated for the thirty- two wheat varieties on the basis of disease index. AUDPC varies from 212.90 to 1143.9 and 198.80 to 1144.90 during the 2021-22 and 2022-23 years’ data. The pooled mean, Area Under Disease Progress Curve varied from 205.85 to 1144.40, showing the fast progress of disease in all genotypes.  It was observed that different wheat varieties expressed varied type of disease response against B. sorokiniana.
      PubDate: 2023-08-29
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102811
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Novel Insecticides on Sucking Pests and Pink Bollworm in Cotton
           Plants under Field Conditions

    • Authors: K. Rajashekar, Sreedhar Chauhan
      Pages: 1565 - 1570
      Abstract: The study investigated that the effectiveness of various novel insecticides for controlling sucking pests and pink bollworm in cotton cultivation over a three-year period. The treatments were evaluated based on their impact on aphids, jassids, thrips, whiteflies and pink bollworm populations. During 2018-19, 2019-20 and 2020-21 years, among the tested novel insecticides, Fipronil + Imidacloprid @ 100g/ha has recorded lowest population of thrips, jassids.  Similarly, Fipronil+ Acetamiprid @ 1000 ml/ha has recorded lowest aphid population whereas incidence of pink bollworm was least in Lamdacyhalothrin + Chlorantraniliprole @ 200 ml/ha.
      PubDate: 2023-08-29
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102812
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of Biochars against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.
           radicis-cucumerinum and their Impact on Growth Parameters of Cucumber in
           Pot Condition

    • Authors: Suresh Kumar , N. L. Meena , N. L. Panwar
      Pages: 1571 - 1584
      Abstract: The present study was conducted under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the efficacy of biochars prepared from different plant parts against the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum causing root and stem rot of cucumber. Three types of raw materials were used to prepare the biochars (Eucalyptus wood, citrus wood, and greenhouse waste). The prepared biochar was collected and filled into pots at four concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% W/W). All biochars were effective in reducing the incidence of the disease up to 3% concentration with minimum mortality (4.17%) obtained with Eucalyptus wood (EW) + Citrus wood (CW) + Greenhouse waste (GHW). The biochars also positively influenced the plant growth parameters like seed germination, root length, and shoot length. Maximum shoot length 7.73 cm and root length 12.10 cm was observed with 3% Eucalyptus wood (EW) + Citrus wood (CW) + Greenhouse waste (GHW) biochar treated seeds.
      PubDate: 2023-08-29
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102813
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Crop Growth,Yield Attributes,Yield and Quality of Chia (Salvia hispanica
           L.) as Influenced by Spacing and Fertilizer Levels

    • Authors: Nunavath Umil Singh, V. Venkatachalapathi, T. G. Amrutha , D. V. Naveen, M. V. Srinivasa Reddy
      Pages: 1585 - 1597
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during Kharif season-2019 at Agricultural Research Station, Chintamani, Karnataka. The experiment consisted of four levels of spacing (45 × 15, 45 × 30, 60 × 15, and 60 × 30 cm) and three levels of fertilizer (40:20:20, 60:40:40 and 80:60:60 kg NPK ha-1). The experiment was arranged in a statistical design of Factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (FRCBD) with three replications to determine the influence of different spacing and fertilizer levels on growth, yield and quality of chia (Salvia hispanica L). The report of the study indicated that the wider spacing of 60 × 30 cm produced a significantly higher number of primary branches per plant (22.38), secondary branches plant-1 (27.69), Dry matter accumulation plant-1 (146.09 g) and leaf area plant-1 (4292 cm2), number of spikes plant-1 (81.68), number of spikelets spike-1 (28.50), spike length (14.82 cm), seed weight spike-1 (0.23 g), seed yield plant-1 (18.62 g), seed yield (1015.92 kg ha-1), haulm yield (4765.26 kg ha-1), protein (22.93% ) and oil content (29.44%) as compared to 45 × 30, 45 × 15 cm and 60 × 15 cm spacing’s. However, lower spacing of 45 × 15 cm registered significantly higher plant height (125.57 cm), leaf area index (7.19 at 90 DAS), crop growth rate and relative growth rate over other levels. Among the fertilizer levels, application of 80:60:60 kg NPK ha-1 noticed significantly higher plant height (125.59 cm), primary branches (22.47), secondary branches(27.63), dry matter accumulation (131.47 g) and leaf area plant-1 (4556 cm2), number of spikes plant-1 (72.26), seed yield plant-1 (12.65 g), seed yield ha-1 (1020.53 kg ha-1), haulm yield (4124.91 kg ha-1) at harvest and also observed faster Crop Growth Rate, Relative Growth Rate and Leaf Area Index over other fertilizer level of 60:40:40 kg NPK ha-1 and 40:20:20 kg NPK ha-1 at all the growth stages of the crop but oil content and omega -3-fatty acid(Alpha-linolenic acid) content was obtained at lower fertilizer level of 40:20:20 NPK kg ha-1 (30.96% and 55.65% respectively) and higher level of fertilizer 80:60:60 NPK kg ha-1 recorded maximum protein content (22.67%). Significantly higher seed yield (1122 kg ha-1) was obtained in the treatment combination of 60 × 30 cm with 80:60:60 kg NPK ha-1 compared to other treatments.
      PubDate: 2023-08-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102814
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of Genetic Diversity through D2 Statistic in Chickpea (Cicer
           arietinum L.)

    • Authors: Rakesh Kumar Yadav, Manoj Kumar Tripathi, Sushma Tiwari, Ruchi Asati, Shailja Chauhan, R. S. Sikarwar, Mohammad Yasin
      Pages: 1598 - 1611
      Abstract: The present investigation was conducted at the Agriculture Research Farm, Department of  Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Rajmata Vijyaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India. The objective of the investigation was to assess the genetic diversity among 71 different chickpea genotypes in relation to their yield and its attributing traits. The experimental design employed was a complete randomized block design with two replications. A comprehensive set of observations was made on twelve distinct yield accrediting traits from five randomly selected plants within each genotype. Based on D2 Statistics analysis, the 71 chickpea genotypes were classified into 26 distinct clusters. Conspicuously, the cluster with the highest numbers of genotypes was designated as cluster 1. A remarkable finding emerged from the analysis of intra-cluster distances, with cluster 16 displaying the greatest distance within its constituents. The evaluation of inter-cluster distances revealed significant dissimilarity between clusters 22 and 26, suggesting presence of considerable genetic variation between these clusters. Conversely, the inter-cluster distance was minimal between clusters 2 and 4, indicating a closer genetic relationship between genotypes ICCV 201109 and SAGL- 162387. In terms of the genetic diversity analysis, it became evident that the yield related traits exerting the most substantial influence on the overall genetic divergence among the 71 chickpea genotypes were biological yield per plant, 100-seed weight, and the numbers of pods per plant. In contrast, the numbers of effective pods per plant contributed minimally to the overall genetic divergence. Based on the findings from both inter-cluster distances and individual performance assessments (per se performance), two specific genotypes viz., ICCV 201207 and SAGL 22-121, were short out as promising for inclusion in a hybridization programme. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of chickpea genetic variability and lay the groundwork for further breeding programmes aimed to enhance chickpea crop productivity.
      PubDate: 2023-08-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102815
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Biorational Approaches for Purple Blotch Disease of Garlic (Allium sativum
           L.) Incited by Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cif

    • Authors: Anshika, Sunil Zacharia
      Pages: 1612 - 1620
      Abstract: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is the second most important bulb crop after onion. It is a major spice crop. Garlic is attacked by many diseases, one of which is Purple blotch. This study was aimed to determine the effect of botanicals and bio-agent on purple blotch disease of garlic caused by Alternaria porri. The research work was undertaken at Central Research Farm (CRF) Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, SHUATS, Naini, Prayagraj during Rabi in 2022-23. A randomized block design with eight treatments was employed including T0 (Control - untreated) , T1 ( Azoxystrobin @0.1% as treated check), T2 (Trichoderma harzianum @10g/litre) , T3 (Lantana camara leaf extract @10%), T4 (Azadirachta indica leaf extract @10%), T5 (Henna leaf extract @2% + Licorice root extract @2% + Rosemary leaf extract @2% ), T6 (Licorice root extract @10%) and T7 (Neem cake @50g/m2). The treatments led to significant decrease in purple blotch severity in garlic.The results revealed that among the treatments, T7 showed minimum disease intensity (4.33, 18.74 and 26.35%) at 30, 60 and 90 days after sowing (DAS) respectively; while maximum disease intensity was recorded in T0 (10.42, 25.52 and 34.68%). T7 also recorded maximum plant height (24.02, 34.01 and 45.71cm) at 30, 60 and 90 DAS, respectively and highest yield of 4.46t/ha. Maximum number of leaves were recorded with T3 (5.53, 7.5 and 9.4) at 30, 60 and 90 DAS respectively. Fungicide usage is increasing day by day that can lead to negative effect on human and soil health in the long run, so there is need to find effective and economic alternatives preferably some bio-agents and botanicals.
      PubDate: 2023-08-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102816
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Biochar: A Comprehensive Overview of Its Role in Soil Health

    • Authors: Akarsha Raj, Anchal Karol, Ashline Shaji , Rajnish Pandey, Hitesh Gupta
      Pages: 1621 - 1628
      Abstract: Soil health plays a crucial role in agricultural productivity, environmental sustainability, and global food security. In recent years, biochar has emerged as a promising soil amendment due to its ability to enhance soil fertility, nutrient retention, water holding capacity, and overall soil health. From an agricultural standpoint, using biochar as a soil conditioner has various advantages, including improved physical, chemical, and biological qualities of soils, which leads to enhanced crop output. Biochar can be utilised for soil carbon sequestration, reducing the bioavailability of pollutants impacting living organisms, and water treatment due to its physicochemical qualities This review paper aims to provide an in-depth analysis of the role of biochar in improving soil health.
      PubDate: 2023-08-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102817
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Herbicidal Management of Cuscuta spp. in Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum
           L.) Crop

    • Authors: Himalay Sahu, Nitish Tiwari, Thakkar Singh, D. Anil, Harendra Kumar
      Pages: 1629 - 1636
      Abstract: Aims: To correlate the efficiency of herbicides towards control of Dodder (Cuscuta spp.) in green forage and seed yield of berseem crop. Study Design:  Randomized block design (RBD). Place and Duration of Study: Research cum Instructional Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.) during the Rabi season of 2019-20. Methodology: The experiment consisted of three replications and ten treatments, in which oxyfluorfen was applied as pre-emergence herbicide and pendimethain was applied as pre-emergence and early post-emegence herbicide while imazethepyr, imazamox 35 % + imazethapyr 35 % (ready mix) and sodium acifluorfen 16.5 % + clodinafop-propargyl 8 % (ready mix) were applied as post-emergence herbicides in different proportion along with control. Results: No cuscuta infestation was observed during the experimentation period under any treatments (T1, T2, T3). Highest cuscuta length (41.20 cm), threads (3.00/m2), and dry weight (0.49 g/m2) were recorded just before 1st cutting with treatment (T7). Just before 2nd cutting, the highest cuscuta length (46.32 cm), threads (4.00/m2), and dry weight (0.74 g/m2) were recorded with treatment (T5) and before 3rd cutting, the highest cuscuta length (53.11 cm), threads (5.00/m2), and dry weight (1.06 g/m2) recorded under control (T10). No cuscuta infestation after herbicide application in all treatments. The significantly highest total green forage and seed yield of 60.12 ton/ha and 0.35 ton/ha were recorded under the pre-emergence application of oxyfluorfen 250 g/ha (T3) as compared to the rest of the treatments. Conclusion: The selective action of oxyflourfen, pendimethalin, and imazethapyr on berseem and non-selective control of weeds, including cuscuta spp., resulted in minimal weed competition during critical growth stages. This created a favourable environment for berseem, leading to improved growth, yield quality, and overall crop productivity. The effective herbicidal treatments played a vital role in enhancing berseem yield.
      PubDate: 2023-08-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102818
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Trichoderma Species and Their Biological Mechanisms

    • Authors: Prashanth Kumar A. , Sathish G., Srinivas J., Chandrasekhar B.
      Pages: 1637 - 1651
      Abstract: Biocontrol agents (BCA) are an important tool for preventing crop losses and increasing plant food production in agriculture. Providing an eco-friendly and more sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides and fertilizers. A number of biocontrol applications are often conducted on the fungus Trichoderma, which is one of the most widely used and studied organisms in the field due to its numerous biocontrol traits, including parasitism, secondary metabolite production, antibiosis which induced plant defense mechanisms. It is well known that several Trichoderma species act as mycoparasites. Certain species within this group also possess the ability to oppose many organisms, including nematodes and plant pests, hence exhibiting their versatility as a biological control agent. The utilization of bioformulations incorporating Trichoderma species or other beneficial microbes for plants, such as plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), has gained significant traction in the agricultural industry. The present review provides a comprehensive summary of the biocontrol studies conducted on six commonly utilized Trichoderma species. It focuses on elucidating their biocontrol attributes and explores the potential of incorporating these fungal genera into Trichoderma-based formulations for safeguarding against plant diseases. Furthermore, it discusses the viability of Trichoderma as a substitute for chemical pesticides and fertilizers.
      PubDate: 2023-08-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102819
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Genetic Variability and Character Association for Yield and Related
           

    • Authors: Kunigiri Manoj Kumar, Gaibriyal M. Lal, Podeti Vamshi Krishna
      Pages: 1652 - 1658
      Abstract: The present study was designed to assess the extent of variability, genetic advance, heritability and correlation of different traits of 20 groundnut genotypes using randomized block design with three replications. The observations were recorded on five randomly selected plants from each treatment and replication for 15 different quantitative traits. Based on the mean performance, high pod yield per plant were identified for the genotype SC-28, VG-17 (CHECK). High estimates of GCV and PCV were recorded for number of branches per plant followed by days to germination, number of pegs per plant, plant height. Genetic parameters revealed that high heritability and genetic advance as % mean values  were recorded for number of pegs per plant followed by plant height, biological yield per plant and 100 kernel weight. Correlation coefficient analysis revealed that pod yield per plant exhibited positive and significant association with number of branches and days to germination at genotypic and phenotypic levels. Path coefficient analysis revealed that characters viz.. harvest index, biological yield per plant, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, kernel yield per plant excetred positive direct effect on pod yield per plant at genotypic and phenotypic levels.
      PubDate: 2023-08-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102820
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Seed Testing Temperature on Germination of Bhendi Seed

    • Authors: Kavinesh V. S., Sasthri G., Malarkodi K., Vijayalakshmi D., Kavitha M.
      Pages: 1659 - 1666
      Abstract: Temperature is one of the factors which play a major role in deciding the planting value of a seed lot in the seed testing laboratory. The temperature requirement varies with species. High or low temperature may stimulate or inhibit the germination of seeds under testing. The tropical crops may require higher temperature than temperate crops for germination. Eventhough, a seed lot is having high germination and vigour parameter, it could be revealed with suitable seed testing temperature only. Since bhendi is a tropical vegetable crop, two varieties of bhendi, Arka Anamika and CO4 with each five different lots were tested with four different temperature regimes viz., 15, 20, 25 and 30ºC. The experimental results revealed that bhendi seeds performed well at the temperature regime of 30ºC followed by 25ºC which was on par with each other. It was also accompanied with seed quality characteristics of seedling length, vigour index and dry matter production of seedlings. Irrespective of varieties and lots studied, the high temperature showed its superiority over other temperatures. The study also disclosed that the low temperature of 15ºC was not suitable for bhendi seed germination, because none of the seeds produced normal seedling. At low temperature seeds could produce more abnormal seedlings than rest of the temperature regimes studied. It could be inferred that the seed testing temperature suitable for bhendi seed germination is 30°C or 25°C. Low temperature (15°C) is not suitable, since the normal seedlings were not produced at this temperature.
      PubDate: 2023-08-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102821
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Studies on Heterosis for Fruit Yield, Quality and ToLCV Resistant in
           Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    • Authors: Anita Kerketta, Vijay Bahadur, Rajneesh Srivastava, Suraj Luthra, Agnivesh Yadav, Lalita Lal
      Pages: 1667 - 1676
      Abstract: Aims: The current study was designed to investigate the nature and extent of heterosis for marketable fruit output, quality attributes, and resistance to tomato leaf curl virus. Study Design: Statistical Randomized Block Design. Place and Duration of Study: The current study was conducted in Horticulture Research Field at Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences at Prayagraj U.P. India during Rabi, 2016–17. Methodology: The experimental included three testers and thirteen lines During Rabi, 2016–17, out of these, ten lines (female parents) were crossed with every three testers (male parents). The resulting 30 F1s were assessed for yield, fruit quality, and leaf curl virus resistance.  To gather data, five plants from each replication were randomly tagged in each entry and analysis of variance was performed. Heterosis over better parent (BP) was calculated by treating each feature using the approach proposed by Hayes et al. [1]. The studied data were statically analyzed using the Indostat software Hyderabad program. Results: The standard heterosis for fruit yield ranged from -67.19 to 29.70% Check (Kashi Abhiman). Five crosses viz., Arka Abha x Kashi Aman, Arka Abha x Kashi Vishesh, Pant T-7 x Kashi Vishesh, S-22 x H-88-78-5 and Pant T-7 x Kashi Aman were exhibited sufficient amount of significant and positive heterosis for fruit yield over standard check. The hybrids Azad T-5 x Kashi Aman and Pant T-7 x Kashi Aman exhibited low incidence with negative heterosis for the ToLCV incidence and severity. Conclusion: Commercialization of hybrid vigor in tomato (Solanum lycopersium L.) has gained prominence due to various advantages of hybrids over pure line varieties, including higher marketable fruit output, component characteristics, and resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses.  According to data presented in the study it is concluded that hybrid vigour can obtain by crossing of parents having desirable characters in tomato.
      PubDate: 2023-08-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102822
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of Different Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea L.) Accessions for
           High Rhizome Yield with Good Quality and Starch Content

    • Authors: Nidhi Priya, C. Thangamani, J. Suresh Kumar, P. Suresh Kumar, B. K. Savitha, P. Geetha, G. Amuthaselvi, L. Pugalendhi
      Pages: 1677 - 1686
      Abstract: Aim: Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea L) is an underutilized tuber crop belonging to the family marantaceae. This study mainly aims to evaluate different arrowroot accessions for quality starch and best yield. Study of Design: The field experiment was conducted in randomized block design with total ten accessions and three replications. Place and Duration of Research: The present investigation was undertaken at the College Orchard, Department of Vegetable Science, Horticultural College & Research Institute, TNAU, Coimbatore during the year 2022-2023. Methodology: In this study, ten arrowroot accessions viz.,TAr18-01, TAr18-02,TAr18-04,TAr18-05,TAr18-10, TAr18-11, TAr18-12, TAr18-13, TAr18-14 and Local were evaluated for their growth, yield and quality parameters. Results: The statistical results revealed that all the accessions significantly differ from each other. Results obtained as maximum height in the accession TAr18-14(132.01cm), maximum number of leaves in TAr18-10 (109.33), number of tillers in TAr18-14 (8.45) and biggest rhizome weight in TAr18-14(198.81g) respectively. The yield traits like rhizome length (25.49 cm), diameter (9.46cm) and number of rhizome per plant (30.00), rhizome yield per plant (1.49kg) were maximum in TAr18-10. The quality parameters viz., dry matter (%) was highest for TAr18-10(56.76%),TSS in TAr18-12 (27.83%), ash contents in TAr18-10 (3.88%). These parameters mainly decide the quality and nutritive value of Arrowroot. There is a significant variation in the quality parameters like starch, TSS, dry matter, protein, crude fiber. Among various accessions TAr18-04 recorded the highest starch (54.62%) and TAr18-14recorded highest protein content (6.194%). Amylose content (21.88%) was maximum in TAr18-01. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the following study that TAr18-10 recorded highest rhizome yield, dry matter content with quality starch and can be selected for further evaluation and exploitation in industrial applications.
      PubDate: 2023-08-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102823
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Assessment of Macro-nutrients of Cultivated Soils in Rangareddy District
           of Telangana, India

    • Authors: Ch. Sai Sravani, Tarik Mitran, G. Jayasree, K. Suresh
      Pages: 1687 - 1693
      Abstract: In the present study a comprehensive field survey was undertaken to evaluate the levels of soil macro nutrients in the arable lands of Rangareddy district, situated in the Southern Telangana region. A total of 179 surface soil samples (0–15 cm depth) were collected from the cultivable soils in parts of Rangareddy district, considering topography and soil types. This collection was accomplished using a stratified random sampling approach, conducted after the kharif season and prior to the commencement of the rabi season. The collected soil samples were analysed for soil Available Nitrogen (Avl. N) (Kg ha-1), Available Phosphorus (Avl. P) (Kg ha-1) and Available Potassium (Avl. K) (Kg ha-1) using standard protocols. The prevalent soil types in the study area predominantly consist of clay, clayey loam, and gravelly clay. The concentrations of Avl. N, Avl. P, and Avl. K exhibited a range of 13.86 to 501.73 Kg ha-1, 1.13 to 127.58 Kg ha-1, and 69.88 to 896.0 Kg ha-1, respectively. The outcomes pertaining to different crop varieties indicated that the highest content of Avl. N was observed in plantation crops, while the maximum Avl. P and Avl. K were recorded in agricultural soils. Conversely, the least Avl. N was noted in agricultural crop types, and the lowest Avl. P and Avl. K were registered in plantation crop types. Regarding soil categorizations, clay soils demonstrated the highest levels of Avl. NPK, whereas gravelly soils exhibited the lowest Avl. N content, and clayey loam soils displayed the lowest levels of Avl. P and Avl. K.
      PubDate: 2023-08-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102824
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Importance of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) and It’s Proportion in
           the World as a Nutritional Vegetable

    • Authors: Joginder Singh, Rashmi Nigam
      Pages: 1694 - 1699
      Abstract: Okra belong to Malvaceae family, a commercial vegetable crops. It is extensively distributed in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate parts of the world and is native to Ethiopia. It is essential to human nutrition and a good source of total minerals, vitamins, calcium, potassium, enzymes, and other nutrients that are frequently lacking in developing country diets. Additionally, reports of its medicinal value in treating curingulcers and providing relief from haemorrhoids. Okra has found medical application as a plasma replacement or blood volume expander and also useful in genito-urinary disorders, spermatorrhoea and chronic dysentery. The fruits of okra crop bringing into commercial production have reawakened beneficial interest.
      PubDate: 2023-08-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102825
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Environmental Sustainability through Soil Conservation: An Imperative for
           Future Generations

    • Authors: Magar Akshay Sanjay , Sumit Rai , Atish Ajit Patil , Th. Nengparmoi, Khumanthem Babina Devi, Hanumanthu Shanthi Vardhan Dora , Yagyavalkya Sharma
      Pages: 1700 - 1707
      Abstract: Environmental sustainability is a critical concern for the well-being of future generations. Within the realm of sustainability, soil conservation plays a crucial role in preserving Earth's vital resource and maintaining the balance of ecosystems and agricultural productivity. This review explores the importance of environmental sustainability and the significance of soil conservation in achieving this objective. It examines the detrimental impacts of soil degradation on ecosystems and agriculture, emphasizing the need for effective conservation strategies. Various strategies for soil conservation and sustainable land management are discussed, including erosion control, soil restoration, agroforestry, and precision agriculture. The review also highlights the benefits and challenges associated with implementing soil conservation measures. By embracing these strategies, we can ensure the long-term health and productivity of our planet's soil, securing a sustainable future for generations to come.
      PubDate: 2023-08-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102826
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Growth Enhancer on Growth and Productivity of Maize (Zea mays
           L.)

    • Authors: Shreenidhi S. N. , Venkatachalapathi V. , Jayadeva H. M. , Naveen D. V. , Amrutha T. G.
      Pages: 1708 - 1717
      Abstract: The experiment was conducted during Rabi 2021 at Zonal Agricultural Research. Station, GKVK, Bangalore to study the efficacy of a Growth Enhancer (GE) as a foliar nutrient source for enhancing maize growth and yield. The field investigation was carried out using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) having eleven. treatments viz., T1: GE 10.0 ml per litre + 50 % RDF, T2: GE 10.0 ml per litre + 75 % RDF, T3: GE 10.0 ml per litre + 100 % RDF, T4: GE 20.0 ml per litre + 50 % RDF, T5: GE 20.0 ml per litre + 75 % RDF, T6: GE 20.0 ml per litre + 100 % RDF, T7: Urea spray - 0.5 % + 100 % RDF, T8: Nano N two sprays at 30 and 60 DAS + 50% RDN and 100% P&K, T9: Nano N & P two sprays at 30 and 60 DAS + 50% RDNP and 100% K, T10: RDF with FYM, and T11: Only RDF with three replications. The results of the study revealed that among different treatments application of growth enhancer 20 ml per litre of water with 100 % RDF was recorded a significantly higher plant height, dry matter accumulation in leaves, stem, cob and total dry matter accumulation, cob length, cob girth,, number of kernels cob-1 and weight of kernels cob-1, kernel and stover yield in comparison to all other treatments. Similarly higher gross returns, net returns and benefit cost ratio were obtained with the application of GE 20.0 ml per litre + 100 % RDF.
      PubDate: 2023-08-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102827
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Tillage and Weed Management Practices on Growth and Yield
           Attributes of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    • Authors: Gaurav Shukla , R.S. Singh , Rishabh Singh Chandel , Ankit Singh , Suneel Kumar
      Pages: 1718 - 1724
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during the Rabi season of 2017-18 at Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Ayodhya 224229 (U.P.) to study the effect of various tillage and weed management practices on growth parameters, yield attributes and yield of wheat crop. The combination of treatments were five tillage system in main plot viz., TPR-CT, W-CT (T1), TPR-CT+W-ZT+S-ZT (T2), DSR-CT+W-CT+S-ZT (T3), DSR-ZT+W-ZTR+S-ZT (T4) and DSR-ZTR+W-ZTR+S-ZT (T5) and three-level of weed management practices in sub plot viz., Clodinafop + metsulfuron @ 60 + 4g/ha at 30 DAS (W1), Clodinafop + metsulfuron @ 60 + 4g/ha at 30 DAS fb 1 hand weeding at 45 DAS (W2) and 1 hand weeding at 45 DAS (W3) in wheat were tested with 3 replication in split-plot design. The soil was silt loam in texture and medium in fertility status. Among various tillage and weed management practices DSR-ZT+R, W-ZT+R, S-ZT (T5) and Clodinafop + metsulfuron 60 + 4g/ha at 30 DAS fb 1 hand weeding at 45 DAS (W2) resulted in lowest in total weed density and total weed dry weight (g/m2) and highest values of growth parameters, yield attributes and yield in comparison to other tillage practices and weed management practices.
      PubDate: 2023-08-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102828
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of Fungicides Against Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub) Butler
           Causing Dry Root Rot of Groundnut and Their Compatability with Trichoderma
           asperellum

    • Authors: Gurijala Sri Varshitha , P. Arunasri , Hari Kishan Sudini , Subramaniam Gopalakrishnan , Pradeep Manyam
      Pages: 1725 - 1731
      Abstract: The efficacy of four systemic and combination fungicides, namely Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% WP, Tebuconazole 25% WG, Hexaconazole 4% + Zineb 68% WG, and Tebuconazole 50% + Trifloxystrobin 25% WG, against Rhizoctonia bataticola, the causal agent of dry root rot in groundnut was evaluated using the poison food technique. Among the tested fungicides, Hexaconazole 4% + Zineb 68% WG exhibited the highest efficacy, with 100% inhibition of mycelial growth at all concentrations tested. Tests of compatibility of these fungicides with Trichoderma asperellum revealed that Hexaconazole 4% + Zineb 68% WG caused 38.88% of growth inhibition in T. asperellum while the other fungicides tested  were totally incompatible with100 percent inhibition.
      PubDate: 2023-08-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102829
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Inorganic Fertilizers in Combination with Biofertilizers on
           Nutrient Content and Uptake of Kharif Maize

    • Authors: S. Janardhan , P. R. K. Prasad , P. Venkatasubbaiah , D. Ramesh
      Pages: 1732 - 1742
      Abstract: A field experiment entitled “Effect of inorganic fertilizers in combination with biofertilizers on nutrient content and uptake of kharif maize” was conducted at Agriculture College Farm, Bapatla, during both kharif 2020 and 2021. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with seven treatments and replicated thrice. The treatments consisted of T1- Control; T2- 100% RDF; T3- 125% RDF; T4 – 100% RDF + VAM; T5- 100% RDF +VAM + Azospirillum + PSB; T6- 75 % RDF + VAM; T7- 75 % RDF + VAM + Azospirillum + PSB. During kharif in two years of study significantly higher nitrogen content and uptake was recorded with 125 % RDF (T3) it was on par with 100% RDF + VAM + Azospirillum + PSB (T5) and 100% RDF + VAM (T4). The maximum nitrogen content and uptake was significantly influenced due to various level of inorganic fertilizers. Higher phosphorus, potassium and sulphur (non-significant) content and uptake were recorded in the treatment T5 that received 100% RDF +VAM + Azospirillum + PSB and it was on par with treatment which received 75 % RDF + VAM + Azospirillum + PSB (T7), 125 % RDF (T3) and 100% RDF + VAM (T4) at knee high, tasseling and harvest stage of maize. The results revealed that application of biofertilizers along with inorganic fertilizers significantly increased plant nutrient content and uptake of maize crop.
      PubDate: 2023-08-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102830
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Species Diversity, Phytosociological Attributes and Regeneration Status of
           Pench Tiger Reserve, Maharashtra, India

    • Authors: Ravivarma Dudipala , Chandramohan Kolagani , Sree Lakshmi A. , Prabhunath Shukla , Sahith Chepyala , Varun Podishetti , Swamynath Shakati , Nikhil Basai , CH. Bhargavi
      Pages: 1743 - 1757
      Abstract: Aims: Pench Tiger Reserve (PTR) is known for its rich biodiversity comprising of tropical deciduous forests as their primary forest type. Tropical deciduous forests are enriched with economically important species. They serve as habitat areas for most of the wild animals for their food and shelter. So, a phytosociological investigation was carried out in PTR to know the information on plant cover dynamics related to human activity, climate change, and all other factors affecting plant development. Place and Duration of Study: Pench Tiger Reserve (PTR), June 2021 to December 2022. Methodology: The study was carried out by laying out 47 sample plots in the PTR by dividing Tiger Reserve into 7 ranges. The plot size was 0.1 ha with 31.62 m x 31.62 m quadrats. Varied diversity indices such as Simpson, Shannon–Weiner, species evenness, and IVI were calculated according to standard formulae. Carbon stock, vegetation analysis and IVI value of each species were calculated and analysed. Results: A total of 102 species, comprising 90 genera and 44 families, were reported. The dominant family in the study area was Leguminosae, followed by Malvaceae and Poaceae. The Shannon–Weiner index was 2.92 and the Simpson index was 0.103, indicating moderate diversity with less dominance of trees, saplings, and herb layer in the area. Top five species holding highest IVI value are Tectona grandis (66.20), Lagerstroemia parviflora (20.44), Chloroxylon swietenia (19.91), Lannea coromandelica (18.35), and Terminalia tomentosa (16.62). Conclusions: As a part of long–term monitoring programme for the tree communities in the Pench Tiger Reserve, the current study has generated baseline data that will be used to evaluate the current ecological effects of ongoing and future climate change.           
      PubDate: 2023-08-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102831
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Estimates of Variability, Heritability, Genetic Advance for Yield and its
           Quality Traits in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Genotypes

    • Authors: Pushpa Hulagannavar , Bapurayagouda Patil, Raghavendra Gunnaiah , Sarvamangala Cholin , Ambresh
      Pages: 1758 - 1770
      Abstract: The present investigation to estimate genetic variability was carried out with forty genotypes of onion which were collected from different locations of Karnataka and were evaluated for growth yield and quality traits. Among all the genotypes studied, Gadag Local exhibited highest plant height at 30 DAT (34.20 cm), 50 DAT (43.46) and 90 DAT (51.76 cm), highest number of leaves were produced by Nasik Red at 50 DAT (9.40 cm) and Savalagi Local at 90 DAT (13.53 cm), Sathara Local exhibited highest equatorial diameter (4.54 cm). highest total soluble solids (15.03%) was recorded by Gadag Local.  Kalasakoppa Local produced highest dry matter (20.16%) and      B-780 took less number of days to maturity (100days), Bilagi Local had highest polar diameter (4.93 cm). The high GCV and PCV was observed for ten bulb weight and leaf diameter respectively. High estimates of heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean was observed for ten bulb weight and Total yield(q/ha)  Hence, for future onion improvement, these well performing genotypes can be subjected to selection and also used as parents in hybridization programme to obtain varieties/hybrids with desirable quality and higher yield.
      PubDate: 2023-08-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102832
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Preparation and Characterization of Fish Protein Isolate from Tiger Tooth
           Croaker (Otholithus ruber) Obtained through PH Shift Method

    • Authors: Varsha Likhar , B. G. Chudasama , Nidhi Patel , Bhavyata Tandel , Bhavika Tandel
      Pages: 1771 - 1780
      Abstract: Development of Fish Protein Isolate (FPI) from tiger tooth croaker (Otholithus ruber) fish meat using the pH shift method was carried out during this study. Tiger tooth croaker was used as raw material because of their abundance and comparatively low price. During the study, the physical characteristics and proximate composition of the fresh fish were analysed. The average length of fish was 19.95 cm and weighed 94.6 g. respectively. FPI treated at different pH treatments (2.5, 4, 7, 11.5 and 12.5) were analyzed for proximate composition, peroxide value and functional characteristics. In the present work, Tiger tooth croaker (Otolithes ruber) fish was found to be suitable for fish protein isolate production using acid or alkali processing and isoelectric precipitation. During storage at ambient temperature for 120 days in a 200 gauge LDPE pouch, Fish Protein Isolates treated at different pH treatments (2.5, 4, 7, 11.5 and 12.5) indicated an increase in moisture content, reduction in protein and lipid content and no significant reduction in ash content. The total protein content was specifically high for pH 7 followed by pH 12.5, 11.5, 4 and 2.5. The effect of different pH on PV of fish protein isolates showed increasing content with increasing storage. The functional properties such as water-holding capacity (WHC), oil-holding capacity (OHC), emulsifying capacity (EC) and foam measurements (Foaming capacity (FC) and foam stability (FS) exhibit high values for all the samples of fish protein isolates. The quality attribute of functional properties of all fish protein isolates samples showed a trend of decreasing during the storage of 120 days.
      PubDate: 2023-08-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102833
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Weed Management Practices on Growth, Yield of Vegetable Cowpea
           (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) cv. Kashi Kanchan

    • Authors: Rajat Kumar Maurya , Rajiv, Akhil Kumar Chaudhary , Dinesh Singh , Ranjana Maurya
      Pages: 1781 - 1787
      Abstract: The present investigation contains seven different treatments viz., weedy check (control), weed free check (3 hand weeding) (first hand weeding at 25 DAS), pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin @ 6ml/L, pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin @ 6ml/L + one hand weeding, pre- emergence application of Pendimethalin @ 6ml/L + post emergence @ 40-50 g/ha at 25 DAS, post-emergence application of Metribuzin @ 525g/ha at 25DAS and post-emergence spray of Imazethapyr @ 100 g ai/ha at 25 DAS replicated thrice. The cowpea variety ‘Kashi Kanchan’ was used in experiment. Results of the experiment revealed that though, the weed free check (T2) recorded zero weed population and slightly higher values of growth and yield parameters but among tested treatments, pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin @ 6ml/L + one hand weeding (T4) and pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin @ 6ml/L + Quizalofop ethyl @ 40-50 g/ha at 25 DAS(T5) significantly reduced weed number (48.12 and 52.18/m2) and produced significantly highest plant height (47.30 and 45.98 cm), pod length (21.64 and 20.86 cm), number of pods/plant (35.94 and 34.18), average pod weight(11.18 and 11.06 g), green pod weight/plant (367.84 and 348.63g), green pod weight/plot (11.24 and 10.54 kg) and green pod yield per hectare(118.96 and 111.55q). However, these three treatments (T2, T4 and T5) were statistically at par with each other in terms of growth and yield parameters.Hence, these two weed management practices (T4 and T5) may serve as alternative of manual weeding and may be recommended for farmers of the central plain zone of Uttar Pradesh for higher returns from vegetable cowpea crop.
      PubDate: 2023-08-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102834
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Physiological Changes in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) by Postharvest
           Application with Hexanal Containing Aqueous Formulations

    • Authors: Shubham Sachdeva, T. Sumathi, P. Irene Vethamoni, R. Sivakumar, C. Sharmila Rahale, H. Usha Nandhini Devi
      Pages: 1788 - 1803
      Abstract: Aim: Okra is a vegetable that holds a significant share in both domestic and export markets, but it is prone to desiccation and fungal spoilage, leading to a short shelf life. A laboratory study was undertaken to determine the effects of hexanal containing aqueous formulation to improve the shelf life of okra with the objective to maintain the best quality of pods for end consumer acceptance. Study Design:  Factorial Completely Randomized Design was followed with three replications. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in laboratory conditions, Department of Vegetable Science, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore during 2021-2022 Methodology: In this study, TNAU released nanoformulation– TNAU FRUITY FRESH – ENHANCED FRESHNESS FORMULATION consisting of 2% Hexanal, 10% Formulation ingredients, 88% Deionized filler. and hexanal was used at varying concentrations for imposing treatments on freshly harvested, uniform sized undamaged tender pods of bhendi hybrid COBh H4 (TNAU released hybrid) using spray and dip methods under ambient and cold storage conditions and physiological parameters were assessed. Results: As per the investigation, 2% Enhanced Freshness Formulation using dip method in cold storage conditions slower the physiological loss in weight, preserves the L*, a*, b* value, extend the shelf life and preserved the quality for consumer acceptance during storage 9 days as compared to control. Conclusion: The study gave the knowledge of hexanal containing aqueous formulation and their effectiveness to use as post-harvest technology tool for okra.
      PubDate: 2023-08-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102835
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Estimation of Surface and Subsurface Soil Moisture Using Microwave Remote
           Sensing: A Typical Analysis

    • Authors: Duda B. Balas, Mukesh Kumar Tiwari, Gautam R. Patel
      Pages: 1804 - 1816
      Abstract: Accurate measurement and monitoring of surface and subsurface soil moisture is essential for understanding hydrological processes, crop growth modeling, crop water requirement, and climate studies. Accurate measurement of the soil moisture content (SMC) in the root zone is essential for precise irrigation authority and plant water stress evaluation. However, the existing passive microwave satellite missions, Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), that operate at L-band, can only estimate the top 5 cm of soil moisture. Microwave remote sensing has proven to be a valuable tool for non-invasive soil moisture estimation. This research aims to investigate and develop a methodology for estimating surface and subsurface soil moisture using microwave data from Sentinel-1. The study was conducted to establish the relationship between surface & the backscatter coefficient derived using the Sentinel-1 SAR microwave remote sensing satellite imagery, and relationship between surface and subsurface soil moisture at different depths, in the Godhra region. Two seasons namely summer (Zaid) and monsoon (Kharif) were taken into consideration to build up the relationship between surface soil moisture and co-polarization backscatter coefficient ( For the summer (Zaid) and monsoon (Kharif) seasons, the co-polarization backscatter coefficient ( and surface soil moisture (0-5, cm) were found to have a correlation in terms of R2 as 0.91 and 0.90, respectively. The study explores the relationship between microwave signals and surface soil moisture content (0-5, cm) and then the relationship between surface soil moisture and soil moisture at various depths were also modeled thereby contributing to improved soil moisture estimation techniques and applications. The value of the coefficient of determination (R2) of surface soil moisture (0-5, cm) to subsurface soil moisture at 6-20 cm, 21-40 cm, and 41-60 cm depths were found to be 0.60, 0.51, and 0.46, respectively, in the summer (Zaid) season. The value of the coefficient of determination (R2) of surface soil moisture (0-5, cm) to subsurface soil moisture at 6-20 cm, 21-40 cm, 41-60 cm, 61-80 cm, and 81-100 cm depths were found to be 0.83, 0.61, 0.51, 0.26, and 0.13, respectively. According to the study, it is observed that the relationship between co-polarization backscatter coefficient ( and soil moisture weakens as the depth of soil moisture increases. Overall, the regression models developed between the co-polarization backscatter coefficient ( and surface soil moisture showed very good results, whereas the regression models developed between the surface soil moisture and soil moisture at various depths showed reasonably acceptable results up to the depth of 60 cm. The findings in the present study suggest that Sentinel-1A C-band SAR data can be used to estimate surface soil moisture. It is also shown in this study that the surface soil moisture can be correlated with the subsurface soil moisture up to the depth of 60 cm, satisfactorily using regression equations.
      PubDate: 2023-08-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102836
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Adoption Behavior among Farmers of Tamil Nadu towards District
           Agro-meteorology Unit (DAMU) Agro Advisory Services in Agriculture and
           Allied Sectors

    • Authors: Kanimolzhi A., Noorjehan A. K. A. Hanif, Sriram N., Sathyamoorthy N. K., Gangai Selvi R.
      Pages: 1817 - 1824
      Abstract: An ex post facto research was undertaken during 2022 to assess farmers' adoption of District Agro-Meteorology Unit (DAMU) Agro Advisory Services (AAS) in Cuddalore, Ramnad, and Aruppukottai districts of Tamil Nadu with sample size of 180. Data was collected using a standardized questionnaire. DAMU offers specialized weather information to support local agricultural activities. The study revealed that 70 per cent of farmers fall into the "Medium" adoption category adopting weather-based timing for planting, harvesting, and irrigation. The respondents fully adopt the practice of scheduling sowing time using weather-based farm advisories (77.78%), 62.22 per cent adopt the practice of scheduling harvesting operations, illustrating a substantial majority using this approach to enhance efficiency and yield during crop harvesting and 56.67 per cent fully adopt the practice of scheduling supplementary irrigation. The farmers attributes viz., education status, annual income, extension agency contact, extension participation, mass media participation, information seeking behaviour, knowledge level and perception had shown a positive and significant correlation with the dependent variable adoption of DAMU services at one per cent level of significance. The study revealed that traits like media engagement, scientific thinking and information seeking are closely tied to DAMU AAS adoption, along with extension involvement, knowledge, and perception, contributing to a notable 68.30% variance in adoption.
      PubDate: 2023-08-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102837
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Assessment of Plants Biodiversity in Innerline Reserve Forest, Hailakandi,
           Assam, India

    • Authors: Martin Sakachep , Neelam Khare
      Pages: 1825 - 1834
      Abstract: The study deals with the “Assessment of Plant biodiversity of Innerline Reserve Forest, Hailakandi (Assam)” India. that was carried out in six sites. A total of 54 species of trees belonging to 32 families with 2,303 individuals, 17 species of shrubs belonging to 13 families with 2,195 individuals and 27 species of grasses and herbs belonging to 13 families with a total of 1,595 individuals were encountered. Quadrate size of 400 m2 for trees, 100 m2 for shrubs, 20 m2 grasses and herbs. Compared to all the six sites, Site-III shows the highest Basal area (243.67 m2). In terms of IVI, Tectona grandis was found to be the most dominant tree species, Clerodendrum infortunatum was found to be the most dominant shrub species and Oplismenus compositus was found to be the most dominant grasses and herb species. In aspects for all the sites it can be concluded that Site-III showed the highest value for Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index (Hˈ) (3.2) for trees species, Site-V showed the highest value for Shannon- Weiner Diversity Index (Hˈ) (2.27) for shrubs species and Site-III showed the highest value for Shannon- Weiner Diversity Index (Hˈ) (2.32) for grass & herb species.
      PubDate: 2023-08-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102838
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Production, Value Addition and Entrepreneurship Development of White
           Grained Variety Finger Millet KMR 340

    • Authors: A. Bhavana , B. Gayathri , R. Manjunath
      Pages: 1835 - 1843
      Abstract: One of the significant millets that is widely grown in diverse regions of India and Africa is finger millet. In terms of raw fibre and minerals like calcium and phosphorus, it is more nutrient-dense and even superior to wheat and rice. For a considerable portion of the population and at least one meal a day for families living in producing catchments, it provides a significant source of dietary carbs. Unfortunately, it is referred to as "poor men's food," and because people are unaware of its benefits and limitations, its use is restricted in the areas where it is grown. The white Finger millet cultivar KMR 340, specifically developed for confectionery use, is resistant to blast and blight diseases and is tolerable to stem borer and aphids. The main cause of finger millet's limited use is the lack of processed millet products. By setting up businesses on finger millet with the aid of Self-Help Groups in rural regions, efforts have been made to transform the millet grains into practical forms like Multi-grain Flour and Ragi Malt and provide the products to the consumers. For farm women and SHGs, starting rural businesses using finger millet has proven to be a profitable venture. This has increased demand for finger millet, which is resistant to blast and blight diseases and tolerant of stem borer and aphids, as well as increased employment opportunities and revenue for the group members. This is closely connected to the rise in nutrient-dense food consumption, which is moving society closer to greater health.
      PubDate: 2023-08-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102839
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Different Spacing and Time of Planting on Growth and Yield of
           Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa) under Prayagraj Agro Climatic Condition

    • Authors: Ramswroop Jat , Amit Raj Singhand , Rohan Sehrawat , Shankar Lal Yadav
      Pages: 1844 - 1852
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during the Rabi season in 2022-23 at vegetable research farm, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Prayagraj (UP). The experiment consisted of nine treatments combinations with three plants spacing viz. (i) 30 x 45cm, (ii) 45 x 60cm and (iii) 45 x 45cm and three levels of sowing date viz. (i) November 5th 2022, (ii) November 12th 2022, (iii) November 19th 2022, were included in the study in Randomized Block Design with three replications. The growth, yield and quality contributing all characters were significantly influenced by the treatments. The highest plant height, number of leaves, weight of head per plant, chlorophyll content and length of outer leaves (cm) as recorded in T6 (D2S3) (plants sowing November 12th 2022 with spacing 45 x 45cm) followed by T3 (D1S3) and lowest in T7 (D3S1). The maximum weight of head per m2, yield per plot (79.6kg) and yield per hectare (89.1t ha) were recorded -1 in T4 (D2S1) (plants sowing November 12th 2022 with spacing 30 x 45cm) followed by T1 (D1S1) and minimum weight of head per m2, yield per plot (35.6kg) and yield per hectare (199.0 t ha-1) were recorded in T8 (D3S2) of Chinese cabbage.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102841
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Impact of Technological Interventions on Pigeon Pea for Enhancing Income
           through Cluster Front Line Demonstrations

    • Authors: R. P. Chaudhary , V. Dwivedi , R. Srivastava , A. K. Chaturvedi , Kamlesh Meena , Neeraj Singh , Sarvesh Barnwal
      Pages: 1853 - 1859
      Abstract: Aims: The area and production of pigeon pea in Bhadohi are still significantly lower than in other districts of other states. There is a significant yield gap between the potential output and the yield under current farming conditions. To study the impact of technological interventions on the pigeon pea crop for increasing income through Cluster Front Line Demonstrations was the goal of the current study. Place and Duration of Study: Cluster front line demonstrations on improved pigeon pea technologies were carried out by ICAR-IIVR-Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bhadohi, at farmers' fields from 2015–16 to 2019–20. Methodology: A total of 155 pigeon pea cluster front line demonstrations on improved pigeon pea technologies covering a 45.70 hectare area were held in one hundred eighteen localities. Field days, training and group meetings were also organized to provide opportunities for other farmers to witness the benefits of demonstrated technologies. The output data were collected from CFLD plots as well as control plots (farmers practice) by random crop cutting method and analyzed using simple statistical tools such as per cent change in yield, cost of cultivation, net income, and benefit cost ratio etc.   Results: In the experimental plots, the mean yield over five years was 15.44 q/ha, while it was only 11.21 q/ha in the control plots. Over the course of the five years of the study, the yield development varied, though on average, it was measured at 42.49 percent. When compared to the farmer's practice (28,463/ha), the average net return for the demonstration plots at the farmer's field over the investigation period was greater at 56,611/ha. Additionally, the demonstration plots' benefit-cost ratio was larger (2.32) than the farmer's practice's (1.69). Conclusion: From the aforementioned findings, it can be concluded that using modern technologies for pigeon pea cultivation may significantly close the extension and technology gap, increasing pigeon pea yield in the area. It requires collaborative extension efforts to enhance the adoption of location and crop specific technologies among the farmers to bridge these gaps.    
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102840
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Performance of Qualitative and Quantitative Models in Creating Landslide
           Susceptibility Map of Chaliyar River Basin

    • Authors: L. Aiswarya , K. P. Rema , J. Asha
      Pages: 1860 - 1875
      Abstract: A Landslide Susceptibility Map (LSM) for Kerala's Chaliyar river basin is what this study aims to provide. Several landslides occurred in this basin as a result of the floods in 2018 and 2019. There were 592 identified landslides. Using ArcGIS 10.7 software, the landslide inventory was taken from the inventories created by the National Remote Sensing Center (NRSC) and Kerala State Disaster Management Authority (KSDMA), and the future incidence of landslides was projected by linking the landslide cause variables. Landslide inventories were split into training and validation groups in this study, with the ratios fixed at 70:30. Two models, including a qualitative one called Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) and a quantitative one (a bivariate statistical model) called Weights of Evidence (WOE) model, were used to evaluate landslide susceptibility. The following factors were employed as causative parameters: Slope, Aspect, Curvature, Relative Relief, TWI, Distance to Road, Distance to Streams, Distance to Lineaments, Land Use Land Cover, Drainage Density, Road Density, Lineament Density, Geomorphology, Soil Texture, and NDVI. The performance of the models was evaluated using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC)'s Area Under the Curve (AUC). In the study, the WLC model yields an AUC success rate accuracy of 59.9%, while the WOE model yields an accuracy of 70.9%. In terms of ratio of landslide validation accuracy, the WOE model outperforms the WLC model by 11%. The anticipated landslide area is included in the landslide susceptibility map, which can be incorporated to lessen the risk of landslides in this research.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102842
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • The Implications of Growth-Regulating Substances on Growth and Yield
           Traits of Cauliflower

    • Authors: Dhara Gadhiya , Dushyant D. Champaneri , Naren K. Patel
      Pages: 1876 - 1881
      Abstract: Background: Present investigation was carried out to evaluate the performance of the different levels of GA3 and NAA as foliar spray on growth and yield attributes of cauliflower cv. Pusa Snowball KT-25 at Vegetable Research Farm, Regional Horticultural Research Station, ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat. Methods: The experiment was framed in Randomized Block Design with three replications, which included nine treatments. Results: The results revealed that the application of GA3 @ 150 mg l-1 (T5) recorded higher values for growth character viz., plant height (69.26 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (29.67), length of stalk (6.54 cm) as well as plant spread in N-S (69.48 cm) and E-W (71.70 cm). In case of yield attributes, the same treatment GA3 @ 150 mg l-1 (T5) at 40 and 60 DATP exhibited maximum curd diameter (17.80 cm), gross weight of curd (2.88 kg plant-1), net weight of curd (789.59 g plant-1), yield plot-1 (20.23 kg) and yield hectare-1 (31.22 t) followed by NAA @ 80 mg l-1 (T7). Whereas, days to 50 % curd initiation and days to first marketable curd did not show any significant differences.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102843
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Rice Blast Forecasting Using Interval Valued Data at Coimbatore, India

    • Authors: N. Sandeep, S. G. Patil, C. Gopalakrishnan, M. Vijayabhama, Ga. Dheebakaran, Meena A. G.
      Pages: 1882 - 1888
      Abstract: Aims: The persistence of rice blast, caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, continues to pose a significant threat to rice production worldwide, impacting both yields and food security. The primary goal of this study is to apply interval-valued independent weather data to accurately model the dependent variable of percentage disease incidence. Study Design: In this paper, we present a detailed study on forecasting rice blast outbreaks through the application of Average method, Center method and Min Max method using interval valued weather data and percentage disease incidence. Place and Duration of Study: The blast disease data include percent disease incidence (PDI) collected at the Paddy Breeding Station (PBS), Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, from 2018 to 2021.And Weather variables includes the following: Maximum Temperature, Minimum Temperature, Relative humidity (morning), Relative humidity (evening) from 2018 to 2021. Methodology: The available interval weather parameter data and disease incidence data are utilized to fit a regression model, specifically employing simple linear regression and multiple linear regression, in the R version 4.3.0. Results: Upon analyzing various methods, it is evident that the variables of Minimum temperature exhibit a significant relationship with a high level of significance, indicating a significance level at  P 0.001. Conclusion: Minimum temperature shows more contribution in disease incidence followed by relative humidity at evening.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102844
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Response of Different Level of Zinc and Boron on Growth, Flowering, Yield
           and Quality of Cherry Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme) cv.
           ‘Pusa Cherry-1’

    • Authors: Agniwesh Sandilya , V. M. Prasad, Vijay Bahadur, Devi Singh, Yash Kumar Singh
      Pages: 1889 - 1897
      Abstract: This study investigates the effect of Zinc and Boron on the growth, yield, and quality of Cherry tomatoes. [Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (Alef.) Fosberg] cv. ‘Pusa Cherry-1’ in Prayagraj, India.The purpose of the study is to evaluate the plants in terms of various parameters such as plant height, number of branches, plant spread, days to first flowering, days to 50% flowering, days to fruit setting, days to fruit picking, number of flowers per cluster, number of fruit set per cluster, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, total soluble solids (TSS), ascorbic acid, acidity and benefit-cost ratio. The nine treatments applied in the study include control, Zinc at different concentrations (50 ppm and 100 ppm), and Boron at different concentrations (50 ppm and 100 ppm). The results of the study indicate that the application of Zinc and Boron significantly improved the growth and yield of Cherry tomatoes. The highest fruit yield, fruit weight, TSS, and ascorbic acid content were observed in the plants treated with Zinc at a concentration of 100ppm added Boron at a concentration of 100ppm. The benefit-cost ratio was also found to be higher in the treated plants compared to the control. Overall, the study suggests that the application of Zinc and Boron can be an effective and sustainable method for enhancing the growth, yield, and quality of Cherry Tomatoes.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102845
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Influence of INM on Growth and Yield of Green Gram (Vigna radiata L.) NEPZ

    • Authors: Mo Naushad, Lalit Kumar Sanodiya, Mohd Rehan, Ashish Prajapati, Ravin Singh, Ravendra Kumar
      Pages: 1898 - 1903
      Abstract: At the United University's Agricultural Research Farm in Rawatpur, Jhalwa, Prayagraj (U.P.), India, during the Kharif season of 2022, a research on green gram (Vigna radiata L.) was carried out to examine the effects of integrated nutrient management on growth, yield, and economics. On green gram (Vigna radiata L), the experiment was conducted using a randomized bock design with three replications in all allowable combinations of inorganic fertilizers, Rhizobium, and PSB together with FYM. This study showed that plant height (91.99 cm), dry weight (105.45 g), and number of root nodules (111.33) were all significantly enhanced by 100% RDF + 5.0 tonnes FYM ha-1 + Rhizobium and PSB seed inoculation. In terms of increasing yield and yield-related indicators, such as number of pods plant-1 (31.43), number of seeds pod-1 (12.46), test weight (37.26 g), and harvest index (34.90%), the same treatment combination likewise showed the best results. As a result, adding farm yard manure at a rate of 5 tonnes per hectare coupled with Rhizobium and PSB increased yield compared to the control. But using 100% RDF, bio fertilizer, and FYM @ 5.0 tonnes ha-1 greatly boosts gross returns (₹ 104,120.00), net returns (₹ 76,017.00), and benefit: cost ratio (2.70). These results showed that the addition of organic matter, inorganic fertilizers, and bio-fertilizers all combined to boost yield while using various nutrition sources.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102846
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Varietal Evaluation in Marigold (Tagetes spp.) Under Prayagraj Agro
           Climatic Conditions

    • Authors: Shubham Kumar, V. M. Prasad, Samir E. Topno
      Pages: 1904 - 1908
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in the Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj. During rabi season (2021-2023). The aim of this study was to determine to find out the most suitable variety of marigold in terms of growth, yield and quality under Prayagraj Agro climatic conditions and to work out the economics of different varieties of marigold. The experiment was laid out in Randomized block design (RBD) with 10 varieties and each replicated thrice. The variety Inca (m) Orange reported significantly better Performance compared to other varieties, in terms of Growth parameters like plant height (67.67 cm), Number of branches per plant (11.17), Leaf length (9.47), Plant spread (35.70) and Yield parameters like Flower yield per plant (272.08 g), Flower yield per plot (1632.50), Flower yield per ha (14.41 t).
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102847
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Methodology of Micropropagation of Elite Genotype in Lotus (Nelumbo
           nucifera) Genotype Lakshmi

    • Authors: Karthika D., Chitra R., Irene Vethamoni P. , Rajagopal B., Rajavel M.
      Pages: 1909 - 1915
      Abstract: The lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) is an aquatic plant grown extensively throughout Asia, mostly for commercial and ornamental purposes. It is mostly propagated via rhizomes. A potent and reproducible plant regeneration system for lotus has been developed in this work employing rhizomes, shoot tips from the mother plant, and mature and immature embryos collected from eighteen and twenty-six-day-old aseptically fertilized seed. Shoot induction, number of shoots, and length of roots were induced on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium supplemented with various concentrations of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) mgL-1 (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4). The response of the explant varied with different BAP concentrations. The most favorable outcomes were achieved using MS medium treated with 0.5 mgL-1 6-Benzylaminopurine (T2).
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102848
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Morphological Evaluation of the Local Genotypes of Broad Bean (Vicia faba
           L.) for Yield Attributes under the Nilgiris Condition

    • Authors: A. Ajay Raja, S. Karthikeyan, S. Geethanjali, P. Raja, S. P. Thamaraiselvi
      Pages: 1916 - 1924
      Abstract: The broad bean (Vicia faba L.) is the predominant and oldest domesticated cool-season food legume in the world next to chickpea and pea. The present study was carried out to evaluate the performance of 20 broad bean accessions (named from Vf 1 to Vf 20) in Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India conditions. It was developed in randomized block design with three replications during the year 2022. Observations on quantitative traits viz., plant height (cm), number of branches per plant, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, pod length (cm), pod width (cm), number of pods per cluster, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight (g), seed yield per plant (g) and pod yield per plant (g) were recorded fo-r each genotype. Substantial genotypic variations were observed for all attributes under investigation. Based on the mean performance, the genotypes Vf 2 (273.67), Vf 8 (245.83) and Vf 1 (234.67) have recorded the highest green pod yield per plant, outperforming all other genotypes. Their outstanding performance in terms of number of branches per plant, pod length, number of pods per cluster, number of pods per plant, and 100-seed weight was the major factor contributing to their superiority in terms of yield. Since the genotypes show wide range of variation for all the traits taken under study, they can be effectively utilized in breeding programmes for varietal development in broad bean.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102849
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Crop Regulation Studies in guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. L 49 under Ultra
           High Density Planting

    • Authors: Geethanjali S., Saraswathy S., Rajaduarai K. R., Venkateasn K., Anitha T.
      Pages: 1925 - 1935
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out on 8 years old guava cv L 49 trees to assess the effect of pruning level and growth regulators with different combinations on vegetative growth and fruiting attributes in Ultra High Density Planting. The experiment consisted of 2 factors with 36 combinations viz., factor -1 (pruning level) P1- pruning of 25 cm of the shoot from the tip, P2- pruning of 50 cm of the shoot from the tip, P3- pruning of 75 cm of the shoot from the tip, P4 – control (without pruning). Factor -2(growth regulators) G1, G2- Potassium nitrate (1 ,2%), G3, G4- Thiourea (0.1 ,0.2%), G5, G6- Ethephon (250, 500 ppm), G7, G8- Cycocel (250, 500 ppm) and G9 – Control. Results showed that among different levels of pruning, 50cm pruning from the tip with potassium nitrate spray at 2 different concentrations was found to be the best for promoting early vegetative bud burst, fruit set and fruit yield. The increment in plant height and canopy spread in East-West and North-South were recorded more in 25 cm pruning from the tip. A greater number of shoots are visible in the P3G5 combination. When compared to other treatments, the P3G2 combination significantly increased the average index number of bud bursts and shoot length under Ultra High Density Planting.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102850
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Study on Impact of Sowing Dates on Rice Leaf Folder Cnaphalocrocis
           medinalis (Guenee) in Direct Seeded Rice

    • Authors: Sachin N., Sandhya Rani C., Rama Rao C.V., Rambhadra Raju M., Sandeep D.
      Pages: 1936 - 1944
      Abstract: A field experiment to study the impact of sowing dates on Rice leaf folder in direct seeded rice was conducted at Agricultural College Farm, Bapatla during kharif, 2021. Early planted rice crop had lower pest than later transplanted rice. Various dates have a significant impact on the occurrence of biotic stress, particularly insect pests. To identify suitable plating dates to minimize the leaf folder infestation in paddy the following experiment was conducted. Sowing was done at four different dates with 10 days interval which were taken as treatments each replicated with five times and the data has also been correlated with light trap data. The mean per cent damage ranged from 9.44 to 16.64 %. Highest infestation (16.64 %) was observed in last date of sowing and least damage  (9.44 %) was observed in first date of sowing. Correlation analysis of light trap catch data shown a positive correlation with morning (r = 0.373) and evening (r = 0.186) relative humidity while a negative correlation with maximum (r = - 0.182), and minimum (r = - 0.017) temperatures and rainfall (r= - 0.154). Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) of trapped adult number and climatic conditions at different sowing dates revealed that weather parameters contributed to the variation in moth number trapped in light trap by 35.4 per cent in first date of sowing, 42.2 per cent in second date of sowing, 59.6 per cent in third date of sowing, and 50.7 per cent in fourth date of sowing. Yield ranged from 3632 kg ha-1 in last date of sowing to 5156 kg ha-1 in first date of sowing.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102851
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Food Samples of Oil and
           Non-Oil Producing Communities in Rivers State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Ezinne C. Iwunze, Chukwunenye T. Kanu
      Pages: 1945 - 1953
      Abstract: Aim: To compare heavy metal concentrations in locally consumed vegetables and food crops grown in oil and non-oil-producing communities in Rivers State. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Kegbara Dere and Omerelu communities in Gokana and Ikwerre local government areas, Rivers State, Nigeria between November 2021 and January 2022. Methodology: Heavy metal concentrations (lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) mercury (Hg), and arsenic (Ars) of vegetables, food crops, and sea animals selected from the local markets and rivers of the two communities were determined. Data entry and analysis were done using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)version 21. T-test was used to compare the mean differences in heavy metal concentrations of vegetables and food crops between the two communities. Results: Mean concentrations of Lead (0.70 vs 0.01) Cadmium (0.09 vs 0.00) and Arsenic (0.18 vs0.00) respectively of vegetables grown in the oil-producing community were higher than that of the non-oil-producing community. The difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Mean concentrations of Lead (1.48 vs 0.00) Cadmium (0.28 vs 0.00), and Arsenic (0.41 vs 0.00) of the food crops in the oil-producing community were higher than that of the non-oil-producing community. However, only the difference in the lead concentrations was significant (P<0.05) The concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Ars in sea creatures collected from the surface waters of the oil-producing community were above WHO-recommended limits. Conclusion: Food grown in oil-polluted environments has higher heavy metal concentrations compared to non-polluted environments and therefore highlights the need for continued and increased efforts towards complete remediation of the polluted regions of the Niger Delta.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102852
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Characterization of Native Fluorescent Pseudomonads against Sclerotinia
           Blight of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)

    • Authors: Ritwik Sahoo, Zaya Roshani, Munni Kumari, Srinivasaraghavan A., J. N. Srivastava, Kalmesh Managanvi
      Pages: 1954 - 1965
      Abstract: Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the most common and known rich source of vitamin B1 (Thiamin), dietary fibre, manganese, niacin (vitamin B3), copper, vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), folate (vitamin B9), potassium, Vitamin K. Brinjal cultivation is affected by several pests and diseases. Sclerotinia blight is one of the most destructive diseases of brinjal caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) de Bary. Under the present investigation two isolates of Fluorescent Pseudomonads (FLPs) viz., FLP-Brinjal 2020-1 and FLP-Brinjal 2020-2, were evaluated against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SCL)under in vivo and in vitro conditions using dual culture, inverted plate assay. FLP-Brinjal 2020-2 gave maximum inhibition over the control followed by FLP-Brinjal 2020-1 against the pathogen in in vitro condition. Experiments conducted in pluck trays indicated that FLP-Brinjal 2020-2 was superior with least sclerotinia blight incidence (20.53%).The identity and diversity among the FLP isolates were examined by sequence analysis of 16s rRNA gene. The gene was amplified by PCR using primers pair, 27 F/1492 R. Amplified DNA products were sequenced and analysed by BLAST (BLASTn) programme at NCBI database for species identification. Among the 10 FLPs isolates assessed 9 were found to have maximum similarity with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. FLP 2020-2 and FLP 2020-1 were found to be Pseudomonas fluorescence which is in confirmation with the morphological observations. Significant diversity among the isolates was observed when dendrogram of the sequence was plotted using    CLUSTAL W.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102853
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Nitrogen and Zinc on Growth and Yield of Lentil

    • Authors: Kethavath Vijay Prasad, Umesha C.
      Pages: 1966 - 1972
      Abstract: A field experiment titled “Effect of Nitrogen and Zinc on Growth and Yield of Lentil” was conducted during Rabi season of 2022-23 at the Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P.) India. To study the Response of Nitrogen and zinc on growth and yield of Lentil. The treatment combinations are T1: Nitrogen 10 kg/ha+ Zinc 8.0 kg/ha, T2: Nitrogen 10 kg/ha + Zinc 10 kg/ha, T3: Nitrogen 10 kg/ha + Zinc 12 kg/ha, T4: Nitrogen 20 kg/ha + Zinc 8.0 kg/ha, T5: Nitrogen 20 kg/ha + Zinc 10 kg/ha, T6: Nitrogen 20 kg/ha + Zinc 12 kg/ha, T7: Nitrogen 30 kg/ha + Zinc 8.0 kg/ha, T8: Nitrogen 30 kg/ha + Zinc 10 kg/ha, T9: Nitrogen 30 kg/ha + Zinc 12 kg/ha, T10: Control (RDF: 20:40:20 kg/ha) are used. The soil of experimental plot was sandy loamy in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.8), low in organic carbon (0.35%). Results obtained that the higher plant height (34.01 cm), higher number of nodules (9.20), higher plant dry weight (14.73 g/plant), higher number of pods/plant (153.60), higher number of seeds/pod (1.87), higher 1000 seed weight (21.51 g), higher seed yield (1.61 t/ha) and higher stover yield (3.13 t/ha)   were significantly influenced with application of Nitrogen 30 kg/ha + Zinc 12 kg/ha. Higher gross return (INR 96,480/ha), higher net return (INR 64,094/ha) and higher B:C ratio (2.98) were also recorded in treatment 9 (Nitrogen 30 kg/ha + Zinc 12 kg/ha).
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102854
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Fruit Characteristics and Yield of Mango cv. Amrapali as Influenced by
           Bio-enhancers and Bio-fertilizers

    • Authors: Ankit Singh Bhadauria , V. K. Tripathi
      Pages: 1973 - 1981
      Abstract: To study the “Fruit Characteristics and Yield of Mango cv. Amrapali as Influenced by Bio-enhancers and Bio-fertilizers” a field experiment was conducted in the Garden, Department of Horticulture, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur (U.P.) during 2020-2021. The experiment consists of seven treatments i.e., FYM (25 kg/tree/year) + Organic mulch (Paddy straw) i.e., Control, FYM (25 kg/tree/year) + Organic mulch (Paddy straw) + Amritpani (20%) + Azotobacter (100 g/tree), FYM (25 kg/tree/year) + Organic mulch (Paddy straw) + Panchagavya (3%) + Azotobacter (100 g/tree), FYM (25 kg/tree/year) + Organic mulch (Paddy straw) + Jivamrit (20%) + Azotobacter (100 g/tree), FYM (25 kg/tree/year) + Organic mulch (Paddy straw) + Amritpani (20%) + PSB culture (100 g/tree), FYM (25 kg/tree/year) + Organic mulch (Paddy straw) + Panchagavya (3%) + PSB culture (100 g/tree), FYM (25 kg/tree/year) + Organic mulch (Paddy straw) + Jivamrit (20%) + PSB culture (100 g/tree) which were replicated thrice in randomized block design by using one plant as a unit per treatment. The application of different bio-enhancers and bio-fertilizers to mango plant was made as per the requirement of the treatment. The experimental results clearly revealed that the plants treated with the application of FYM (25 kg/tree/year) + Organic mulch (Paddy straw) + Panchagavya (3%) + Azotobacter (100g/tree) produced fruits with significantly higher length, width, weight, volume, pulp weight, pulp:peel ratio with more yield. However, the fruit with minimum fruit length, width, weight, volume, pulp weight, pulp:peel ratio, and yield were recorded from the plants treated with the application of FYM (25 kg/tree/year) + Organic mulch (Paddy straw) i.e., Control. Thus, on the basis of the above observations, this can be suggested that the application of FYM (25 kg/tree/year) + Organic mulch (Paddy straw) + Panchagavya (3%) + Azotobacter (100 g/tree) were effective for substantially higher physical fruit characteristics and yield under the sub-tropical plains of Central Uttar Pradesh, India.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102855
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Organic Manure and Bio Fertilizer on Growth, Yield and Quality
           in Cabbage

    • Authors: Harshvardhan Singh , Anita Kerketta , V. M. Prasad , Vijay Bahadur
      Pages: 1982 - 1988
      Abstract: The Department of Horticulture at the Naini Agricultural Institute Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Prayagraj (UP) conducted an experiment in 2022 to investigate the "Effect of organic manures and biofertilizers on growth, yield, and quality in cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. Var. capitata)". There were ten treatments totaling various amounts of organic manure and bio-fertilizer, with water serving as the control. At 20, 40, and 60 days after transplantation, the treatment is sprayed. The plot size was kept at 2 m × 1.5 m, and each treatment was reproduced three times in a randomized block design. The best results were achieved with treatment T6 (Farm Yard Manure @20t/ha + Bio-Fertilizer (Azotobacter + PSB) each @5kg/ha). The maximum plant height (24.33 cm), the plant's spread (68.59), the number of leaves per plant (13.67), the average head weight (1.93 kg), the head's compactness (5.56 Kg/inch), the yield per plot (6.93 kg), the yield per hectare (71.60 t/ha), the TSS (5.9 Brix), and the amount of ascorbic acid per 100g.Under T6, the gross return (Rs 221430/ha), net profit (Rs 172530/ha), and B:C ratio (4.52) were all much greater. Overall results revealed that the application of FYM @20t/ha + Biofertilizer @5kg/ha proved to be better for different growth, yield and quality traits in cabbage.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102856
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Tissue Culture: Aeon of Micro Propagation in Vegetable Crops

    • Authors: V. M. Chaudhari
      Pages: 1989 - 1999
      Abstract: Tissue culture in vegetable crops is a technique that has revolutionized the way we produce and propagate plants. It involves the growth of plant cells, tissues or organs in an artificial nutrient medium under sterile conditions. This method offers numerous advantages, including the production of disease-free plants, rapid multiplication and the ability to grow plants year-round. One of the key benefits of tissue culture in vegetable crops is the production of disease-free plants. By starting with a small piece of healthy tissue such as a leaf or stem, it is possible to grow an entire plant that is free from any pathogens. This is particularly important in vegetable crops, as diseases can significantly reduce yields and quality. By using tissue culture, farmers can ensure that the plants they grow are healthy and resistant to common diseases. Another advantage of tissue culture is the rapid multiplication of plants. Through a process called micropropagation, a single piece of tissue can be used to produce hundreds or even thousands of identical plants within a short period. This is particularly useful for vegetable crops that have a high demand or are difficult to propagate through traditional methods. By using tissue culture, farmers can quickly and efficiently produce large quantities of plants to meet market demands. Furthermore, tissue culture allows for year-round plant production. Unlike traditional methods that are limited by seasonal variations, tissue culture can be done in controlled environments such as laboratories or greenhouses. This means that farmers can grow vegetable crops regardless of the weather conditions outside. This is particularly advantageous for regions with harsh climates or limited growing seasons.
      PubDate: 2023-09-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102857
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Priming of Micronutrients on Growth and Yield of Linseed

    • Authors: N. Maheswari Devi , Umesha C.
      Pages: 2000 - 2006
      Abstract: The field study took place in rabi season 2022 at the CRF, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higgin bottom University of Agriculture, Technology, and Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P.). To ascertain the “Effect of Priming of Micronutrients on Growth and Yield of Linseed.” The soil of experimental plot was sandy loamy in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.8), low in organic carbon (0.35%). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with ten treatments which are replicated thrice. The treatment combinations are T1: Iron Sulphate 2500 ppm + Ammonium Molybdenum 3000 ppm T2: Iron Sulphate 2500 ppm + Ammonium Molybdenum 4000 ppm T3: Iron Sulphate 2500 ppm + Ammonium Molybdenum 4500 ppm T4: Iron Sulphate 3000 ppm + Ammonium Molybdenum 3000 ppm T5: Iron Sulphate 3000 ppm + Ammonium Molybdenum 4000 ppm T6: Iron Sulphate 3000 ppm + Ammonium Molybdenum 4500 ppm T7: Iron Sulphate 3500 ppm + Ammonium Molybdenum 3000 ppm T8: Iron Sulphate 3500 ppm + Ammonium Molybdenum 4000 ppm T9: Iron Sulphate 3500 ppm + Ammonium Molybdenum 4500 ppm T10: Control  (N:P:K-60:40:30 Kg/ha) are used. Results obtained that the higher plant height (55.68 cm), plant dry weight (21.73 g/plant), number of branches (9.44), number of pods/plant (54.61), number of seeds/pod (7.92), test weight (8.57g), seed yield (10.23 q/ha) and stover yield (17.41 q/ha) were significantly influenced with application of Iron Sulphate 3500 ppm + Ammonium Molybdenum 4500 ppm. Higher gross return (1,07,800.00 INR/ha), net return (71,766.00 INR/ha) and B:C ratio (1.99) were also recorded in treatment-9 (Iron Sulphate 3500 ppm + Ammonium Molybdenum 4500 ppm).
      PubDate: 2023-09-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102858
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Biology of Fruit Borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) on Tomato under
           Laboratory Conditions

    • Authors: Reetesh Pratap Singh , Rajendra Singh , Gaje Singh , D. V. Singh , Gopal Singh
      Pages: 2007 - 2016
      Abstract: The experiment on biology of fruit borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) was carried out in the Bio-control Laboratory, Department of Entomology, S.V.P.U.A.&T., Meerut. Results showed that the mean pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition period of fruit borer on tomato lasted for 2.46 ± 0.29, 6.33 ± 0.14 and 1.67 ± 0.14 days, respectively. A female laid on an average 329.40 ± 68.17 eggs. The incubation period was observed to be 3.08 ± 0.32 days on tomato. The first instar larva was very active with body length of 1.54 ± 0.81 mm and body breadth of 0.46 ± 0.05 mm. The larval development completed within 22.45 ± 0.44 days. The duration of each instar on tomato was found to be 2.58 ± 0.26, 3.50 ± 0.14, 3.42 ± 0.26, 3.71 ± 0.28, 4.38 ± 0.16 and 4.83 ± 0.14 days, respectively. The mean pre-pupal period lasted for 2.00 ± 0.24 days on tomato. The mean pupal period lasted for 12.33 ± 0.62 days. Longevity of adult ranged from 8 to 11 days with an average of 9.30 ± 1.25 days in males, while the longevity of female moths ranged from 10 to 14 days with an average of 11.30 ± 1.34 days. The male moth measured 17.79 ± 0.41 mm in length, 35.55 ± 0.92 mm in breadth and the female moth measured 19.76 ± 0.58 mm in length, 40.08 ± 0.99 mm in breadth on tomato. The sex ratio for male and female was 1: 0.76 on tomato. The generation from egg to death of male and female i.e., total life cycle was found to be completed within 39 to 60 days with an average of 50.3 ± 7.51 days and 41 to 63 days with an average of 53.5 ± 7.93 days, respectively.
      PubDate: 2023-09-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102859
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Management Practices of Diseases and Insect Pest in Marigold and Gladiolus
           Flower in Punjab State, India

    • Authors: Amrit Singh , Lakhwinder Kaur , Ranjit Singh
      Pages: 2017 - 2022
      Abstract: Gladiolus and marigold being important commercial flowers are fetching high returns to the growers in national and international markets. The occurrence of diseases and insect pest attack in devastating form, has become a limiting its production. The present study was planned with objective to study management of common diseases and insect pest in marigold and gladiolus flower. A total of 80 farmers were selected for this study. Data were collected personally with the help of interview schedule. The findings revealed that 55 percent of the respondents adopted recommended fungicide to control disease in marigold and all the respondents treated the corms before planting in gladiolus. Also 10 and 15 percent of the respondents used recommended pesticides in marigold and gladiolus to control the attack of insect-pest respectively.
      PubDate: 2023-09-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102860
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Study on Shifting Cultivation Cycle (Jhum Cycle) in Mokokchung District of
           Northeast India Using Multi Temporal Satellite Data

    • Authors: H. C. Kalita, S. K. Baishya, P. Dutta, S. Borah, Vishram Ram
      Pages: 2023 - 2031
      Abstract: Shifting cultivation has a long history that predates the development of agriculture as a whole. Locally known as jhum farming in Northeast India, this system's farmers are referred to as jhummias. The strategy is based on crop planting during the wet season and cutting and burning vegetation during the dry season. After growing crops for two to three years, the land is left fallow for a number of years before being further cultivated. The locations and area under various jhum cycles are currently inadequate. This was the first attempt to use GIS and remote sensing tools to generate data on various shifting cultivation fellow cycle periods in Mokokchung district of Northeast India between 1991 and 2012. To locate moving farmed areas, IRS sensor data for the year 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2012 were used. While for the years 1991, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1999, and 2000, Land-sat TM satellite imagery was used. ERDAS envision and Arc GIS 10.0 software tool were used to determine the area under different jhum cycles, namely 20, 10, and 5 years, and to create the map. For the purpose of determining the spatial extent of the current shifting agricultural areas over the course of 20 years, visual interpretation of the images has been carried out and verified with field checking. Our findings indicate that the Northeast Indian district of Mokokchung's jhum lands declined from 8.99% to 6.31% of its overall geographic area. The highest jhum area in the research region was likewise estimated to be under 20 years cycle (817.23 ha), followed by 5 years cycle (783.02 ha), 10 years cycle (591.9 ha), and 15 years cycle (684.55 ha). A correct fallow cycle of shifting agriculture may help to increase watershed conservation while maximizing crop productivity, according to the fundamental concept of our work.
      PubDate: 2023-09-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102861
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Different Rootstocks and Scions Compatibility Study on Rosa sp

    • Authors: D. Nivedha, M. S. Aneesa Rani, P. Irene Vethamoni, D. Keisar Lourdusamy, K. Vanitha
      Pages: 2032 - 2039
      Abstract: An investigation entitled, “Effect of different rootstocks and scion compatibility study on Rosa sp.’’ was conducted to study the graft compatability and growth performance of grafted rose plants and the experiment was conducted in Vegetable Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Palur, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu during the year 2022. It was carried out using completely randomized design (CRD) with fifteen treatments (T1- Andhra red rose + Dog rose, T2-Andhra red rose + Button rose, T3-Andhra red rose + Ebb tide rose, T4- Andhra red rose +Fairy rose, T5- Andhra red rose + Edward rose, T6- Edward rose+ Dog rose, T7-Edward rose + Button rose, T8-Edward rose+ Ebb tide rose, T9-Edward rose + Fairy rose,  T10-Edward rose+ Edward rose, T11-Damask rose + Dog rose,  T12-Damask rose + Button rose, T13-Damask rose + Ebb tide rose, T14-Damask rose+ Fairy rose, T15-Damask rose+ Edward rose)   and two replications. The results indicated a significant difference between the different treatment combination for graft union, success percentage, survival percentage, plant height (cm), leaf length (cm), leaf width (cm), days taken for leaf initiation. The experiment data revealed that the   maximum graft success (90) and graft survival percentage (80), length of leaves (3.9 cm) and plant height (67.6) was recorded in the treatments T7 (Edward rose + Button rose). It can be concluded that the combination of rootstock as Edward rose and scion as Button rose is said to be most compatible and can be recommended for commercial cultivation.
      PubDate: 2023-09-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102862
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Seed Treatment with Bioinoculants on Seed Yield and Quality
           Parameters in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    • Authors: Siddalinga Taradi , Bineeta Michael Bara
      Pages: 2040 - 2045
      Abstract: The field experiment, was conducted during Rabi 2022 at the field experimental center, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, SHUATS,  Prayagraj, (U.P). The soil of the experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.1), low in organic carbon (0.36%), available N (171.48 kg/ha), available P (15.2 kg/ha) and available K (232.5 kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with thirteen treatments including control which were replicated thrice. The treatments are as follows, T0- Control, T1 - Bacillus subtilis – 20 g/kg seeds, T2 – Rhizobium – 20 g/kg seeds, T3 – P.S.B – 20 g/kg seed, T4 - T. harzianum – 20 g/kg seed, T5 - T. viridae – 20 g/kg seed, T6 – B. subtilis + Rhizobium – (10 g + 10 g/kg seed), T7 - Rhizobium + P.S.B – (10 g + 10 g/kg seed), T8 - P.S.B + T. harzianum – (10 g + 10 g/kg seed), T9 – T. harzianum + T. viridae – (10 g + 10 g/kg seed), T10 - T. viridae + B. subtilis – (10 g + 10 g/kg seed), T11 - B. subtilis + Rhizobium + P.S.B – (10 g + 10 g+10 g/kg seed), T12 - P.S.B + T. harzianum + T, viridae – (10 g + 10 g+10 g/kg seed) respectively. The experiment results revealed that seeds treated with T7 – Rhizobium + P.S.B – 10 g + 10 g gave better than other treatments viz, days for 50% flowering (60.00), Days to 50% pod setting (75.00) and has matured earlier (99.00), Plant height (74.90 cm), number of pods per plant (52.33), number of seeds per pod (3.00), Seed yield per plot (522.80 g), Biological yield per plot (613.58), Seed index (32.24 gm). Were recorded significantly higher compared to other treatments.
      PubDate: 2023-09-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102864
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Impact of El-Nino and La-Nina Episodes on Rainfall Variability and Crop
           Yield

    • Authors: Devi Lal , Sompal Singh
      Pages: 2046 - 2051
      Abstract: El Nino and La Nina events have an impact on the Indian monsoon in terms of less rainfall than average and more rainfall in La Nina years. El-Nino events are more likely to see rainfall variability during the monsoon and depressions over the Bay of Bengal (July-August). ENSO is a disruption in ocean surface temperatures and atmospheric circulation over the Pacific Ocean leading to wide spread changes in rainfall/precipitation regimes around the world. El Nino years' effects on crop production in India as a result of lower rainfall during the south-west monsoon. In the kharif season (June to September), crops suffer from moisture and have lower yields in El-Nino years, but the opposite in La-Nina years. The El Nino is associate with the possibility of drought like situation at many occasions and La Nina is the opposite of El-Nino events.
      PubDate: 2023-09-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102865
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Mapping Asian Elephant Habitat Suitability Index in Alur Taluk, Central
           Western Ghats: A GIS, Remote Sensing, and Analytical Hierarchy Process
           (AHP) Approach for Conservation Assessment

    • Authors: Vipul Kumar , S. Raghevendra , G. M. Devagiri , Vanita Rani
      Pages: 2052 - 2062
      Abstract: Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing are geospatial technologies that have been used for decades in environmental science, including the collection and analysis of data on the physical disabilities of animals, and modelling of wilderness and site assessment. In this study, remote sensing technology was used. GIS and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) methods were used to assess the habitat index of Asian elephants. Use of satellite imagery and topographic maps to create environments and habitats, including land use cover (LULC), vegetation (NDVI), water, and elevation models (DEM). Next comes the use of AHP to determine the location, select the location's priority and distribution pattern. This study used to evaluate Asian elephant habitat preference in the Central Western Ghats region of Alur taluk in Hassan district of Karnataka .The results show that 30 percent of the land is covered with forests and 59 percent of the land with population. Most places have an altitude of 8° to 25° and an altitude of 900 m and 1000 m. The amount of water in the region is not limited to the habitat of the elephants. Habitats inhabited by elephants highlight the need for good management inside and outside protected areas to protect these elephants, especially in areas of translocation, to ensure that habitats are compatible. This information will assist those involved in protecting Asian elephants and their environment in the central Western Ghats region.
      PubDate: 2023-09-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102866
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Reviving the Resilient: Exploring Pre-Dormancy Breaking Treatments for
           Acacia nilotica (L.)

    • Authors: Umesh V. Kashid , Nelson Navamaniraj K. , Umarani R. , Umesh Kanna S. , Masilamani P.
      Pages: 2063 - 2070
      Abstract: Acacia nilotica plays an important ecological role in its native habitats and has great relevance for restoration as well as in terms of economic worth. Acacia nilotica species frequently exhibit seed dormancy, which makes planting and seed testing difficult. In the present work, we examined the degree of dormancy and the impact of various pre-treatments on the dormancy breaking of Acacia species. Several tests were carried out against this backdrop to standardize the mechanical scarification, seed priming, and coating techniques. The results showed that mechanical scarification of Acacia nilotica seeds with @6 min scarification improved the seed germination percentage and vigour index percentage by 117 and 184 percent over the control. Correspondingly, the application of the TNAU seed coating formulation on Acacia nilotica seeds at 2g kg-1 increased the germination percentage and vigour index percentage by 129 and 186 percent, respectively, over the control. Also, humid priming of Acacia seeds (12 h soaking in water + 2 days humid incubation) resulted in a gradual increase in the seed germination percentage and vigour index percentage by 181 and 263 percent over the control. The seeds were not harmed by any of these treatments, which all reduced hard seeds to zero and improved germination percentages.
      PubDate: 2023-09-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102867
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Influence of Phosphorus and Sulphur Application on Sesame Yield in High P
           Soils of Telangana, India

    • Authors: A. N. Jhansi , T. Srijaya , A. Madhavi , P. Spandana Bhatt
      Pages: 2071 - 2079
      Abstract: The present study in pot experiments was conducted on “Influence of phosphorus and sulphur application on sesame yield in high P soils of Telangana”. The experiment was conducted in two different levels of high phosphorus status soils with 67.29 kg P2O5 ha-1 in soil 1 (S1) and 83.46 kg P2O5 ha-1 in soil 2 (S2). The treatments were taken in factorial completely randomized design in combination of five levels of phosphorus (P0-0, P25- 5, P50-10,P75-15 and P100-20 kg ha-1 of soil) four levels of sulphur (S0-0,S1-10,S2-20 and S3-30 kg ha-1 of soil). A significant increase in seed yield of sesame crop could be achieved by combined application of P75 (15 kg P2O5 ha-1) + S20 (20 kg S ha-1) in high available phosphorus soils. Among the various treatments tested within two high P soils, in S1 maximum seed (11.89 g pot-1) and stalk yield (21.98 g pot-1) was obtained with combined application of P75 (15 kg P2O5 ha-1) + S20 (20 kg S ha-1) while in S2 maximum seed (11.92 g pot-1) and stalk yield (21.89 g pot-1) was obtained with combined application of P50 (10 kg P2O5 ha-1) + S20 (20 kg S ha-1).
      PubDate: 2023-09-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102868
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Studies on Genetic Variability, Correlation Analysis in Mithipagal
           (Momordica charantia var. muricata) Genotypes

    • Authors: P. Agalya , P. Irene Vethamoni, S. Pazhanivelan , S. Praneetha , S. Haripriya
      Pages: 2080 - 2087
      Abstract: The present investigation was carried out in Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to study the “Genetic variability and correlation analysis in Mithipagal (Momordica charantia var. muricata) genotypes”. Observations on vine length, days to male flower inflorescence, days to female flower inflorescence, node of first male flower appearance, node of first female flower appearance, sex ratio, number of fruits per vine, fruit weight, fruit length, fruit girth, number of seeds per fruit, yield per vine, ascorbic acid, protein content, iron content and total soluble solids were recorded. Variability and correlation analysis among genotypes were examined. The results, showed that yield per plant had high positive and high significant correlation with fruit weight, fruit girth, number of seeds per fruit, vine length and fruit length. High genotypic co-efficients of variation (GCV) were found for fruit yield per vine, fruit weight, TSS, fruit length, vine length, fruit girth, node of first female flower, number of fruits per vine, number of seeds per fruit, iron, protein content when genetic characteristics were taken into account, However low GCV was found for days to the first male and female flowering. Phenotypic variants were always greater than genotypic variances. For traits such asyield per vine, fruit weight, TSS, fruit length, vine length, fruit girth, number of fruits per vine, number of. seeds per fruit, node of first male flower appearance, node of first female flower appearance, sex ratio, vitamin C, protein, iron content high heritability was found together with high genetic advance in percent of mean, indicating that these features are under additive gene control and hence selection for genetic improvement would be successful. Node of first male flower appearance showed low heritability combined with low genetic advance as a percentage of the mean indicating that non-additive gene effects were involved in the expression of this trait and hence selection for such a trait could not be beneficial. The knowledge of these statistical factors would be useful in identifying genotypes with greater yield potential that might be used in the improvement of mithipagal.
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102869
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Soil Health and Sustainability in the Age of Organic Amendments: A Review

    • Authors: Mausmi Rastogi , Shikhar Verma , Sushant Kumar , Saurabh Bharti , Gaurav Kumar , Kamaran Azam , Vikash Singh
      Pages: 2088 - 2102
      Abstract: Organic amendments have emerged as a pivotal component in the trajectory of sustainable agriculture, given their multifaceted contributions to soil health, crop yield, and environmental conservation. This comprehensive review delves into the intricacies of organic amendments, spanning their historical context, types, sources, nutrient profiles, and their interplay with soil and plant health. Special emphasis is laid on the integration of modern technological advancements with traditional amendment practices, exploring the synergistic potential of digital agriculture and precision farming in enhancing the efficacy of organic inputs. The review also sheds light on the economic, social, and environmental ramifications, emphasizing the role of organic amendments in smallholder versus large-scale agricultural systems and their influence on farmer resilience and consumer perceptions. Crucially, this review addresses the challenges and limitations inherent in organic amendment practices, including concerns related to quality variation, scalability, over-application, and regulatory nuances. Concomitantly, the work culminates with a forward-looking perspective, highlighting emergent trends and innovations that portend the future of organic amendments in global agriculture. The findings underscore the significance of organic amendments not merely as soil additives but as integral elements in the blueprint for a sustainable, resilient, and food-secure future.
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102870
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Root Microbial Inoculants and Chitosan on Growth of Aglaonema
           (Aglaonema commutatum) Cuttings

    • Authors: Bashaboina Sunil , P. Prasanth, Lakshminarayana, Praneeth Kumar
      Pages: 2103 - 2111
      Abstract: The present study highlights the effect of root microbial inoculants and chitosan on growth of Aglaonema (Aglaonema commutatum) cuttings. During October to April 2020-2021, a field investigation was conducted at Floriculture Research Station, (Agricultural Research Institute) Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. The experiment consisted of two factors. The treated cuttings were put in polybags with Red soil, sand, and FYM (2:1:1) medium. Psuedomonas liquid formulations and VAM powder form were employed for treatment of cuttings. Treated cuttings were placed in polybags, and the soil surrounding the cuttings was tightly compacted. In solitary polybags, a single cutting was planted. Among the different treatments P1 (Top cutting) with S5 (VAM - 5 g / kg media + IBA - 1000ppm) recorded best results in least number of days taken for sprouting (27.70 days), number of leaves per cutting (4.54), fresh weight of leaf (3.10 g), shoot length (28.96 cm) and shoot girth (13.00 mm) and days taken to finishing stage (125 Days). Whereas, P1 - (Top cutting) with S6 - (Pseudomonas fluorescence - 5 ml / kg media + IBA – 1000 ppm) recorded best results in growth rate (0.054 g).
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102871
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • A Study on Problems Faced by the Permaculture Farmers of Paddy Based Agro
           Forestry System in Sub-Tropical Hill Agro-Climatic Zone of Meghalaya

    • Authors: Ravi G. , Singh R. J. , Devarani L. , Ram Singh , Hemochandra L.
      Pages: 2112 - 2122
      Abstract: Permaculture, a holistic approach to sustainable agriculture, has gained significant attention worldwide for its potential to address environmental, economic, and social challenges in agriculture. In the context sub-tropical hill agro-climatic zone of Meghalaya, permaculture practices have gained traction, especially in the cultivation of paddy-based agro-forestry systems. Within this backdrop, the adoption of permaculture practices in paddy cultivation has been promoted as a sustainable solution that not only enhances food security but also contributes to ecosystem preservation, soil health improvement, and rural livelihoods. Since the study was taken with the objective of studying problems faced by farmers in the adoption of permaculture practices. This paper focused on appraising the problems faced by the permaculture farmers of paddy based agro forestry system by adopting diagnostic research design with a sample of 60 farmers, covering Sub-Tropical Hill Agro-Climatic Zone of Meghalaya. Major problems and their priorities expressed by the paddy- based agro-forestry farmers in the adoption of permaculture were analysed by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP analysis), it was revealed that unforgiving topography and limited arable land for production and diversification of agroforestry, as the most important problem followed by, Lack of knowledge on permaculture practices such as soil building, water conservation and pest management, Lack of interest in branding and advertisement of the permaculture produce, High initial cost of investment due to transitioning from conventional farming, Permaculture implementation requires change in mentality and level of commitment and lack of supportive and subsidiary policies for permaculture were the major problems under different domains of permaculture. The judgement given by the farmers were found acceptable with inconsistency ratio below 10%. The consensus among seasoned farmers highlights a valuable opportunity to address the permaculture challenges in the region. By pinpointing and prioritizing these bottlenecks, we can effectively target efforts for the successful implementation of permaculture practices in the area.
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102872
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Abiotic Factors on Population Fluctuation of Gram Pod Borer,
           Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) in Chickpea

    • Authors: Bhupendra Singh , Hem Singh , Gaje Singh , D. V. Singh, Ramesh Singh
      Pages: 2123 - 2131
      Abstract: The field experiment was conducted to determine the population fluctuation of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) larval population in relation to abiotic factors on chickpea for two seasons during (Rabi, 2021-22) at Crop Research Centre (CRC), Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut. The present study revealed that the Gram pod borer larval population were first observed from 50th and 51th standard meteorological week till harvesting the crop i.e. 15th standard meteorological week during Rabi, 2021-22 and 2022-23, respectively. The highest peak larval population (4.20 and 3.80 larvae per plant) was observed in 12th and 11th standard meteorological week during Rabi, 2021-22 and 2022-23, respectively. The data recorded were subjected to correlation with various meteorological parameters on population fluctuation of H. armigera on chickpea. The correlation analysis showed that both minimum and maximum temperature were positively correlated during both years. Relative humidity of both morning and evening showed negative correlation with population of gram pod borer. However, the larval population showed non-significant negative correlation with rainfall both seasons during Rabi, 2021-22 and 2022-23. The information generated in present investigation may be used for the insect pest prediction and sustainable management strategies of H. armigera (Hubner) in chickpea crop.
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102873
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Phosphorous and Mulching on Growth and Yield of Zaid Green gram
           (Vigna radiata L.)

    • Authors: Geedipally Srinivas Reddy , Victor Debbarma , Pallepati Ravinder Rao
      Pages: 2132 - 2140
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during Zaid 2022 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P) on the topic “Effect of Phosphorous and Mulching on Growth and Yield of Zaid Green gram (Vigna radiate L.)”, to study the response of green gram under various mulching techniques such as, Saw dust mulching, Paddy mulching and Without mulching along with combination of Phosphorus (20, 40 and 60 kg/ha). The results revealed that significant and higher plant height (43.24 cm), higher plant dry weight (5.32 g) and also, significantly higher number of pods/plant (30.8), maximum number of seeds/pod (11.73), higher test weight (31.2 g), higher seed yield (1.29 t/ha), higher stover yield (2.89 t/ha), Maximum gross return (90,300.00 INR/ha), maximum net return (58,915.00 INR/ha) and higher B:C ratio (1.88) were recorded in treatment 7 [Phosphorous (60kg/ha) + Sawdust mulching (22.5kg/ha)].
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102874
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Constraints Experienced by the Paddy Farmers in Three Agroclimatic Zones
           of Telangana State, India

    • Authors: Akula Latha Rani , V. Ravinder Naik , M. Jagan Mohan Reddy , G. E. CH. Vidya Sagar , D. Srinivasa Chary
      Pages: 2141 - 2150
      Abstract: The present investigation was conducted during 2021-22 to assess the constraints experienced by the paddy farmers in three agroclimatic zones of farming sustainability in Telangana state. Findings revealed that, constraints such as high cost of seed varieties (I), lack of knowledge and skill for determining economic threshold level of pests and diseases (II), labour scarcity due to Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (I), labour scarcity during peak operations (II), insufficient finance with farmers (I), high rental charges for farm machinery (II), lack of new technologies and uneconomically viable solutions for residue management (I), lack of knowledge about input management (II), lack of information about government schemes  (I), lack of information about recent pest-management strategies (II) were the first and second priority constraints under ecological, social, economical, technical and institutional dimensions respectively. Accordingly, Government organisations, NGO’s, ATMA, KVK’s, DAATC’s, SAU’s should look after certain issues such as providing seeds at affordable cost , Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme must give prioritize to agricultural field operations along with other activities, crop loan must be sanctioned to every farmer by considering crop yield assurance and bring out new technologies like happy seeder to remove residues but also allows the farmer to seed the new crop without involving manual labour, which saves time and money for the farmers. Extension education functionaries and line departments experts must use the Situation Based Extension with Participatory Approach (SBEA) in order to effectively overcome constraints and get feedback, which act as source for ATMA action plans to implement at grass root level.
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102875
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Variability in Chrysanthemum species (Dendranthema grandiflora) under
           Prayagraj Agro-climatic Conditions

    • Authors: Shivangi Mishra , Samir E. Topno , Anita Kerketta
      Pages: 2151 - 2159
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in the Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj. During rabi season (2022-2023). This study aimed to evaluate different varieties of Chrysanthemum in terms of growth, yield and quality characteristics. The experiment was laid out in Randomized block design (RBD) with 15 treatments and each treatment replicated thrice. The treatments consist of different combinations of varieties. Treatment T4 (Red Baby) was  statistically significant compared to other treatment combination, which recorded highest plant height (33.9 cm), No. of branches (31.8), Plant Spread (20.3cm)] , Stalk Length (22.3 cm) , Flower weight (3.8 g) , Self – life (25 days)  , Vase life (7.4 days) and quality in comparison to other varieties. The highest Benefit Cost Ratio was found in variety V4 (Red Baby) with 2.32.
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102876
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • CaO Nanoparticles Seed Invigoration on Germination and Seedling Growth of
           Rice var. TRY 3

    • Authors: S. Gopinath , K. Raja , V. Manonmani , P. Jeyaprakash , T. Ramesh , C. Vanniarajan , S. Kavitha
      Pages: 2160 - 2167
      Abstract: Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a vital cereal and staple food crop in South East Asia. It faces significant challenges in cultivation worldwide, due to soil salinity. Seed enhancement techniques like priming have shown resilience against salt stress. In this study, the potential of nano-priming with calcium oxide nanoparticles (CaO NPs) to enhance rice seed germination and growth was investigated. CaO NPs were synthesized from organic waste (eggshells) using a sol-gel technique and characterized using Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Paddy seeds were primed with varying concentrations of CaO NPs, and their germination and seedling growth were assessed. The results showed that nano-priming with 40 ppm of CaO NPs significantly improved germination, root and shoot length, dry matter production, and seedling vigour as compared to the control. However, higher concentrations of CaO NPs had a detrimental effect on germination. The study suggests that CaO NP seed priming has the potential to enhance rice germination and seedling development.
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102877
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Nutrio - Hormonal Consortia on Growth and Yield in Groundnut

    • Authors: Tatiparthi Praisy , R. Sivakumar , D. Vijayalakshmi , R. Sasikala , R. Karthikeyan
      Pages: 2168 - 2174
      Abstract: This study addresses a knowledge gap in understanding the interaction effect of nutrient-plant growth regulators on groundnut which plays a vital role in morpho-physiological processes for achieving enhanced productivity. The main goal was to evaluate how different nutrio-hormonal combinations affect groundnut traits. The experiment was conducted in pot culture at glasshouse, Department of Crop Physiology, TNAU, Coimbatore, utilizing a factorial completely randomized design. Two genotypes, BSR 2 and VRI 8, received five treatments with four replications: T1 - control (foliar water spray), T2 - Nutrio hormonal consortia 1, T3 - Nutrio hormonal consortia 2 (T2 + K2SO4), T4 - Groundnut booster 1 (FeSO4, K2SO4, MgSO4, Borax), and T5 - Groundnut booster 2 (T4 + Salicylic acid + NAA-Naphthalene Acetic Acid). Application of T5 to VRI 8 showed significant results, with higher leaf area (2297.83 cm²) and specific leaf weight (19.87 mg/cm²) where as BSR 2 had smaller leaf area (872.86 cm²) and higher specific leaf weight (51.55 mg/cm²). VRI 8 had fewer pods but higher yield (8.16 g/plant) than BSR 2 (7.07 g/plant). In conclusion, the foliar application of T5 - Groundnut booster 2 with the VRI 8 variety holds promising potential for enhancing groundnut yield.
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102878
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Mitigation of Salinity Stress by Application of Plant Growth Promoting
           Substances in Rice

    • Authors: S. Selvamani , A. Senthil , V. Ravichandran , M. Djanaguiraman , K. Anitha , P. M. Shanmugam , N. Manikanda Boopathi
      Pages: 2175 - 2185
      Abstract: Aim: Salt stress adversely affects plant growth and development. Various mitigating strategies have been employed to enhance the adaptability of plants to salt stress. The present study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the recently developed CO55 rice variety's ability to withstand salt-induced stress during seedling growth. This evaluation included foliar spraying of plant growth promoting substances like melatonin, salicylic acid, silicon, and selenium, along with the identification of effective plant growth-promoting substances that exhibit tolerance to salinity. This study is required to develop salt-tolerant varieties capable of withstanding salinity stress during the seedling stage. The seedling stage is more susceptible to salinity, and also to increase the growth and yield of rice, thereby satisfying the country's agricultural needs. Study Design: Completely randomized design. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Crop Physiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore; March-April 2023. Methodology: In the hydroponics experiment, the CO55 rice variety was subjected to foliar spraying of various plant growth promoting substances such as melatonin, salicylic acid, orthosilicic acid, and sodium selenate. Parameters like leaf drying score, osmotic potential, osmotic adjustment, sodium content, potassium content, and Na+/K+ ratio were assessed. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Results: Specific pairwise differences between means were assessed at the 0.05 significance level using Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) test. Among the treatments applied, salicylic acid recorded the highest potassium content (3.94%), and the lowest potassium content (2.60%) was found in orthosilicic acid. On the other hand, from the standard evaluation score, it was observed that CO55 rice variety seedlings were found to be tolerant when treated with salicylic acid, whereas it was susceptible under orthosilicic acid treatment. Conclusion: Observations indicated that foliar application of salicylic acid at the concentrations of 50µM and 100µM exhibited higher tolerance towards salinity during the seedling growth stages.
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102879
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Growth Promoting Trait of Yeasts Isolated from Tomato in Relation to IAA
           Production

    • Authors: N. Aswiny , K. Eraivan Arutkani Aiyanathan , I. Yesuraja , P. Chandramani , R. Subhashini
      Pages: 2186 - 2196
      Abstract: Yeasts are the useful microorganism widely present in nature and are the common inhabitants of soil, vegetation, and other environments. Through this study, thirty yeast isolates were isolated from phylloplane, fructoplane and as endophyte from leaves and fruits of tomato plant. The most effective one in promoting plant growth and IAA production was recorded in the isolate PY 15 (11.35±0.495 µg/mL) and it was followed by PY14 (10.38±0.452 µg/mL) and least recorded in the FY1 (0.53±0.03 µg/mL) isolate. Among the various isolates tested in vitro for the promotion of growth, the highest root and shoot length of 7.56±0.007 cm and 31.79±0.802 cm was recorded in the effective isolate PY15. The effective isolate (PY15) was identified as Meyerozyma guilliermondii (QR485249) based on morphological and molecular characterization. This study result concluded with statement that yeast strains found to promote plant growth by IAA production and could be considered for the development of biological products to enhance plant growth and to replace/reduce the use of synthetic fertilizers in the market.
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102880
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Progression of Powdery Mildew of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in
           Relation to Weather Parameters

    • Authors: Pradeep Kumar Verma , H. S. Negi , G. Kaur , Rohit Kumar
      Pages: 2197 - 2203
      Abstract: The work entitled “Progression of powdery mildew of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in relation to weather parameters” was carried out in Agriculture Research Farm, Banda University of Agriculture & Technology, Banda, Uttar Pradesh, India during Rabi 2020-21 season. As infection and development of a disease depends on the favourable environmental conditions hence, relationship between powdery mildew of Indian mustard and weather factors was evaluated in Ganga, Varuna, Giriraj and RH-0749 varieties of Indian mustard in which maximum temperature between 25-30°C, minimum temperature >10°C with minimum relative humidity (RH) <50% favoured the development of powdery mildew in all the four varieties Indian mustard varieties. Individual and combined effects of different weather parameters on development of powdery mildew was evaluated using correlation and regression analysis. Percent disease index (PDI) of powdery mildew was positively correlated with the maximum and minimum temperature whereas, it was negatively correlated with maximum RH, minimum RH and rainfall in Indian mustard varieties Ganga, Varuna, Giriraj and RH-0749. Coefficient of determination (R2) explained that 96, 96, 95 and 96 % powdery mildew development was influenced by the maximum temperature, minimum temperature, maximum relative humidity, minimum relative humidity and rainfall in Indian mustard varieties Ganga, Varuna, Giriraj and RH-0749, respectively. Multiple linear regression equation was developed to find out the expected PDI of the disease based on the predictor weather variables. Correlation analysis explained that warmer temperature and lesser humidity favoured the development of powdery mildew in Indian mustard. Multiple linear regression model developed in current investigation may be utilized for development of powdery mildew prediction model in Indian mustard.
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102881
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Correlation and Path Analysis for Growth, Yield, Quality and Incidence of
           Shoot and Fruit Borer in Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)

    • Authors: K. Gangadhara, Mareen Abraham, A. K. Verma, V. H. Ashvathama, Raj Kumar , Vikas Yadav
      Pages: 2204 - 2210
      Abstract: The study was conducted using sixty brinjal genotypes to evaluate yield quality and incidence of shoot and fruit borer with an objective to study the correlation and path coefficient analysis. The majority of the time, genotypic correlations were higher than phenotypic correlations, indicating that the attribute is highly heritable. At the genotypic level, fruit yield per plant significantly correlated positively with the number of fruits per plant, the weight of infested fruit, the girth of fruit, the height of the plant, the number of primary branches per plant, the proportion of medium-styled flowers, the proportion of long-styled flowers, and the length of fruits. It an exhibited significant negative correlation with SFB fruit infestation as well as SFB shoot infestation both at phenotypic and genotypic levels. Path coefficient revealed that fruits per plant showed a high and positive direct effect on yield followed by fruit weight, long -styled flowers, medium -styled flowers, and days to first harvest. Direct selection for these traits would be rewarding for improvement in the fruit yield per plant.
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102882
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Genetic Variability Analysis for Growth and Yield Parameters in Cluster
           Bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) under Rainfed Conditions

    • Authors: Gangadhara K., L. P. Yadav, V. V. Appa Rao, A. K. Singh, A. K. Verma, Vikas Yadav
      Pages: 2211 - 2217
      Abstract: The experiment was carried out to study the genetic variability among 56 genotypes of cluster bean at Central Horticultural Experiment Station (ICAR-CIAH), Godhra, Gujarat during the year 2020, 2021 and 2022. Significant inter- genetic differences were recorded for all the plant characters. The highest estimates of genotypic co- efficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic co- efficient of variation (PCV) were observed in case of pod yield per plant (86.50 and 86.30), pods per plant (65.27and 64.98) followed by pod weight (51.34 and 50.90), pods per plant (65.27and 64.98) and pod length (31.14 and 31.00) indicating that a greater amount of genetic variability which allow greater scope for selection in these traits. High heritability was recorded all the character under study viz., for plant height (98.60%), number of pods plant (99.10%), pod length (99.60%), pod girth (95.10%), pod weight (98.40%), days to first flowering (99.30), days to first harvest (95.60) and pod yield per plant (99.60%). High genetic advance as per cent mean was observed for plant height at (31.98%), number of pods per plant (133.30%), pod length (63.88%), pod girth (27.81%), pod weight (104.08%) and pod yield per plant (177.45%) whereas, the moderate genetic advance as  per cent of mean was observed for days to first flower (14.83%) and  days to first harvest (11.38%). Both high heritability (broad sense) and genetic advance were high for pod yield/ plant (99.60% and 177.45%), number of pods/ plant (99.10% and 133.30%) followed by pod weight (98.40% and 104.08%). Such high heritability, followed by such rapid genetic advancement, suggests that selection may be beneficial for such qualities.   High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean traits were under the strong influence by additive gene action and hence simple selection based on phenotypic performance of these traits would be more effective and genetic improvement for these characteristics might be considered.
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102883
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Assessment of Maize Crop Evapotranspiration Using Eddy Covariance Flux
           Tower Weather Data

    • Authors: Charan Babu A., T. L. Neelima , K. Avil Kumar , Chandrasekar K.
      Pages: 2218 - 2226
      Abstract: The study conducted at the Maize Research Centre, Agriculture Research Institute, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University (PJTSAU), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, from November, 2022 to March, 2023 aimed to compute the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) of maize crop under two different irrigation treatments using the weather data generated from the Eddy Covariance (EC) flux tower. The two treatments comprise of scheduling irrigation at certain Depletion of Available Soil Moisture (DASM) viz., T1:  20% DASM and T2: 40% DASM.  The maize crop was sown and cultivated as per the recommended practices.  The bio-physical parameters like plant height and LAI were recorded at 15 days interval.  These parameters were statistically analysed by two sample T-test with equal variance. The plant height increased from 35 to 198 cm in 20% DASM and 36 to 180 cm in 40% DASM during the crop growth period (30 to 100 DAS). Similarly, LAI increased from 0.72 to 3.9 and 0.77 to 3.2 in 20 and 40 % DASM treatments till 90 DAS, respectively and later on decreased till harvest.  The findings emphasize a positive influence of optimum moisture availability in the root zone on plant growth parameters. The amount of irrigation given was measured to compute ETc using Soil Water Balance (SWB) method and the crop parameters like plant height, LAI, stomatal resistance values etc., were used for computing the Penman-Monteith equation using the weather parameters generated from the EC flux tower.  Seasonal ETc estimated from the Soil Water Balance (SWB) method (340 & 280 mm) and FAO Penman-Monteith method (350 & 295 mm) in 20 and 40% DASM treatments showed a deviation of +10 and +15 mm, respectively. Furthermore, the study concludes that FAO Penman-Monteith method can accurately estimate ET by using EC flux tower measured weather data, with minor deviations from the SWB method.
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102884
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Rhizobium Coating on Physical and Engineering Properties of
           Chickpea Seed

    • Authors: Raghavendra Veerammanavara , Prakash K. V. , H. Manjunath , Siddesh Marihonnappanavara , Mareppa H. , Murali M., Santosh, Vinayaka Niranjan
      Pages: 2227 - 2233
      Abstract: The Rhizobium bio fertilizer coating may influence on the physical and engineering properties of chickpea seed. The metering mechanism, hopper design and hose pipes of seed drill was designed based up on the physical and engineering properties of Rhizobium coated   seeds.  The study was conducted to determine the physical and engineering properties viz., length, breadth, thickness, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, seed weight, bulk density, angle of repose and coefficient of static friction of uncoated, and bio-fertilizer coated chickpea seeds for design of Aqu-ferti seed drill. The hopper of seed drill was designed based up on the angle of repose and coefficient of static friction of biofertilizer coated chickpea seeds.  The physical properties of chickpea seeds plays very important role in design of hopper, hose pipe and metering mechanism of seed drill  The physical properties  viz., Length, breadth and thickness of the uncoated and bio-fertilizer coated chickpea seeds were 9.01±0.62 mm, 7.059±0.69 mm, 6.57±0.54 mm and 9.06±0.44 mm, 7.144±0.90 mm, 6.9±0.22 mm, respectively. Roundness and sphericity of uncoated and bio-fertilizers coated chickpea seeds were 87.23 ±2.13%, 87.36±2.72% and 81.6±3.07%, 82±4.15%, respectively. Bulk density of uncoated and bio fertilizer coated seeds were 0.629±0.02 g/cc and 0.641± 0.03 g/cc, respectively. Geometric mean diameters of uncoated and coated seeds were 7.32±0.45 mm and 7.33±.45 mm, respectively. The hopper of seed drill was designed based up on the angle of repose of mild steel which influences on free flow of sesds. The angle of repose for mild steel surface was observed as 26.9±5.61 and 29.51±4.23 degree for uncoated and bio-fertilizer coated chickpea seeds, respectively.
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102885
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Nutrient Status and Oil Yield of Grain Amaranthus species

    • Authors: S. Maanchi, S. Praneetha, S. Parveen, D. Uma, M. Kavitha
      Pages: 2234 - 2244
      Abstract: Amaranth grain is an underutilized crop known for its vegetative parts as vegetable and grain as food. The grain of the crop contains high amount of iron, magnesium, calcium, potassium and other minerals. However, there are gaps in our understanding and technology on the nutritional diversity of different kinds of vegetables grown in India. The aim of this study was to analyse the nutritional value of amaranth grains from different genotypes (A. hypochondriacus, A. cruentus, and A. caudatus) and to select elite genotype for varietal development. Randomized block design with three replication was carried. Evaluation studies were carried out by planting different amaranthus genotypes in the orchard at Tamilnadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore in the year 2022-23. The nutrient composition of the grains was determined using standard methods. The genotype EC- 198122 recorded highest nutritional quality followed by IC–37156. Among the thirty six genotypes EC- 198122 genotype were found to be rich in proteins (20.85%), fat (6.32%), carbohydrate (71.59%), fiber (5.65%), energy (426.64 Kcal), and sugar (1.12g). EC- 198122 genotype contain a high amount of iron (22.74 mg/100g), magnesium (157.3 mg/100g), calcium (199.67mg/100g), potassium (309.77 mg/100g) and other minerals. The anti-nutrients composition also found to be low in grains were oxalate (194mg/100g) and nitrate (87.34μg/g) which are within levels that can be tolerated by the body system. The genotype EC- 198122 (5.20%) posses high oil content. The oil extracted from amaranth grain contained mainly unsaturated fatty acids. The primary acids in the oil were oleic, linoleic and palmitic. Oil was a major component present in the grain amaranthus. This suggests that consuming amaranth grain could be an effective way for mitigating the macro- and micronutrient deficits in the diet.
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102886
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Varietal Evaluation of Single Petalled Tuberose (Agave amica Medik.)
           Germplasm for the Growth and Flowering Attributes

    • Authors: Harshavardhan S., Karthikeyan S., Chitra R., Kalaiyarasi R., Rajagopal B., Rajamani K.
      Pages: 2245 - 2251
      Abstract: The present experiment was to evaluate eight single petaled tuberose germplasm for growth and flowering attributes. All the tuberose germplasm showed a significant variation in the results. In vegetative parameters, the maximum plant height (79.3 cm) was observed in ‘Mexican Single’, while maximum leaf length (35.1 cm) and leaf width (3.4 cm) was observed in ‘Arka Keerthy’ and ‘Bidhan Rajani’, respectively, then high number of leaves seen in the germplasm ‘Mexican Single. In flowering parameters, ‘Nilakottai local” found superior in days taken for spike emergence (64.7 days), spike length (90.9 cm) and rachis length (31.4 cm) respectively. While, floret length (7.28 cm) and Single floret weight (1.57 g) was observed in ‘Bidhan Rajani’.
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102887
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Growth and Yield Attributes of Bt Cotton (Gossypium hirusutum L.)
           Attributed to Plant Growth Regulators and Defoliants under High Density
           Planting System

    • Authors: Marka Priyadrashini, G. Santoshkumar , U. Nagabushanam, K. Pavan Chandra Reddy
      Pages: 2252 - 2260
      Abstract: A field trial to determine the effect of different dosages, application time of plant growth regulators and defoliators on growth and yield of cotton under high density planting system was conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Warangal during kharif-2022. The experiment consisted of eleven treatments laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. The treatment details were T1: Application of Mepiquat chloride (MC) 25g a.i ha-1 @40&55 DAE+ Etherel 2000ppm @40% boll burst, T2: MC 25 g a.i ha-1 @40&55 DAE+ Etherel 2000ppm @60% boll burst, T3: MC 20g a.i ha-1 @40DAE, MC 30g a.i ha-1 @60DAE+ Etherel 2000ppm@ 40% boll burst T4: MC 20g a.i ha-1 @40DAE, MC 30g a.i ha-1 @60DAE+ Etherel 2000ppm@ 60% boll burst T5: MC 20 g a.i ha-1 @40,55 & 75 DAE+ Etherel 2000ppm @40% boll burst, T6: MC 20 g a.i ha-1 @40,55 & 75 DAE+ Etherel 2000ppm @40% boll burst, T7: MC 25 g a.i ha-1 @4 0,55 & 75 DAE+ Etherel 2000ppm @40% boll burst, T8: MC 25 g a.i ha-1 @40,55 & 75 DAE+ Etherel 2000ppm @60% boll burst, T9: 20g a.i ha-1@ 40DAE, 25g a.i ha-1@55DAE & 30g a.i ha-1@70DAE +Etherel 2000ppm@ 40% boll burst, T10: 20g a.i ha-1@ 40DAE, 25g a.i ha-1@55DAE & 30g a.i ha-1@70DAE +Etherel 2000ppm@ 60% boll burst and T11: Control. Results revealed that foliar application of MC @ 20 g a.i ha-1@ 40,55 & 70DAE in conjunction with Etherel 2000ppm @60% boll burst recorded higher seed cotton yield. Plant growth, dry matter accumulation and stalk yield were recorded highest in control plot and lowest with spraying of : 20g a.i ha-1@ 40DAE, 25g a.i ha-1@55DAE & 30g a.i ha-1@70DAE +Etherel 2000ppm@ 40% boll burst. Among Mepiquat chloride treatments with similar doses, all the agronomic traits of cotton crop are positively influenced with application of 2000ppm of etherel @60% boll burst. The spraying of M.C @ 20 g a.i ha-1 at 40,55 and 70 DAE + Etherel 2000ppm @ 60% boll burst would be economically ideal to the farming community.
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102888
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Integrated Disease Management (IDM) Modules against Karnal Bunt (Tilletia
           indica) of Wheat

    • Authors: Vishwakarma S. K., Singh R., Khilari K., Mishra P., Singh H. , Yadav M. K.
      Pages: 2261 - 2267
      Abstract: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) belonging to family “Gramineae” and genus “Triticum”, is one of the world’s most widely cultivated food grain crop, due to its wider adaptability to different agro-climatic and soil conditions. Karnal bunt (Tilletia indica) is an important wheat disease with implications for wheat grain quality and inflicts changes in chemical composition of infected grains. IDM modules evaluated under pot and field condition revealed that all the thirteen modules were significantly effective and observed lower disease incidence of karnal bunt. Module M11 andM8 recorded nil (0.00%) disease incidence in both condition. The maximum incidence was recorded (0.425%) and (0.81%) in M12 followed by M5 (0.395%) and (0.68%) whereas minimum incidence was observed in M9 (0.002%) and (0.05%) under pot and field respectively. However, in the field maximum yield (44.65 q/ha) and test weight (36.04 g) was recorded in module M11, followed by (44.30q/ha) and (35.91g) in M8, while, minimum yield (40.35q/ha) and test weight (35.30g) was observed in M12.
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102889
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Productivity of Sesame on Growth and Yield as Influence by Plant Spacing
           and Weed Management Practices

    • Authors: Puja Roy, Umesha C.
      Pages: 2268 - 2276
      Abstract: Field experiment was conducted during zaid-2022 at the Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P.) India, to investigate on the productivity of sesame on growth and yield as influence by plant spacing and weed management practices. The soil of experimental plot was sandy loamy in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.8), low in organic carbon (0.35%). The treatments consist of three levels of spacing 20 x 10cm, 30 x 10 cm, and 40 x 10 cm and three types of weed managements (Two hand weeding at 21 and 42DAS, Pendimethalin 0.7 5kg/ha at 1 DAS + one hand weeding at 21 DAS, and + Quizalofop ethyl 0.05 kg/ha on 25 DAS + one hand weeding at 42 DAS).The experiment was laidout in randomized complete block design with nine treatments each replicated three times. The results obtained indicated that the higher plant height (129.99 cm), higher number of branches (3.77), higher plant dry weight (15.63 g/plant), higher crop growth rate (12.13 g/m2/day) higher number of capsules/plant (31.91), higher number of seeds/ capsules (47.48), higher test weight (3.48 gm), higher seed yield (1177.07 kg/ha) and higher stalk yield (1610.41 kg/ha) were significantly influenced at a plant spacing of 40 x 10 cm along with the application of Quizalofop ethyl @0.05 kg/ha on 25 DAS + one hand weeding at 42 DAS. However higher gross return (92,164.84 INR/ha), higher net return (65,840.84 INR/ha) and higher B:Cratio (2.50) were also recorded in treatment-9 at a spacing of 40 x 10 cm along with the application of Quizalofop ethyl @0.05 kg/ha on 25 DAS + one hand weeding at 42 DAS.
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102891
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Bioagents Induced Resistance to Ceratocystis fimbriata in Pomegranate

    • Authors: Raja, Gururaj Sunkad, Amaresh; Y. S.
      Pages: 2277 - 2287
      Abstract: Pomegranate is the most important fruit crop consumed in the world. In India the plant is cultivated in almost all agroecological areas, however, yields remain low due to attacks by various pathogens and insects. Among the pathogens, wilt caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata is an important disease and its soil-borne pathogen is difficult to manage. To contribute to the control of this microbial pathogen, the stimulatory effect of the Pomegranate defense system of bioagents in the pomegranate interaction was evaluated. Resistance-inducing rhizobacteria offer an excellent alternative in providing natural, effective, safe, persistent, and durable protection. Plants have endogenous defense mechanisms that can be induced in response to the pathogen and bio-agents. The increased activities of the defense enzymes, viz. peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalamine ammonia lyase (PAL), and phenolic compounds in the bio-agents treated plants of pomegranate challenged with C. fimbriata were recorded in the present studies. The maximum activity of defense enzymes viz., peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and total phenol was recorded in diamond (T. viride) followed by T. harzianum (Th-R) and Platinum (P. fluorescens) indicating the role of bio-agents in increasing the role of defense enzymes in suppression of wilt.
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102892
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effects and Consequences of Nano Fertilizer Application on Plant Growth
           and Developments: A Review

    • Authors: Razauddin, Jigyasa Ninama, Kushal Sachan, Sulochna, Babita Yadav, Satya Narayan Satapathy, Jogendra Kumar, Bal Veer Singh
      Pages: 2288 - 2298
      Abstract: Nano fertilizers have emerged as a cutting-edge innovation in agricultural practices, poised to redefine nutrient delivery and management at the plant-soil interface. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the effects and consequences of nano fertilizer application on plant wellness. The inherent properties of nanoparticles allow for enhanced nutrient absorption, precise delivery, and increased bioavailability, potentially revolutionizing traditional fertilization methods. The results, as evidenced by multiple studies, indicate significant improvements in growth parameters, seed production, and overall plant health. Moreover, plants treated with nano fertilizers have shown heightened resistance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. However, while the benefits are promising, concerns arise regarding the ecological persistence of nanoparticles, potential bio-magnification, and implications for human health. A comparative analysis with conventional fertilizers revealed nano fertilizers' superior efficiency, but also brought forth economic considerations and environmental footprints. The current regulatory landscape is dynamic, with policies adapting to the rapid advancements of nanotechnology in agriculture. As research continues to bridge existing gaps, technological advancements are concurrently shaping the future prospects of nano fertilizer application. This review underscores the need for a balanced understanding of the potential and challenges, emphasizing collaborative efforts to harness nano fertilizers' full potential while ensuring ecological and human health safety.
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102893
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Nitrogen, Calcium and Nano Fertilizers on Growth Yield and
           Quality of Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.): A Review

    • Authors: Shilpi Gupta, Anusree T., Korani Harini, Dhanesh Kumar, Vimal Kumar, Shubham Kr. Kulshreshtha, Durgesh Kumar Maurya, Satyarath Sonkar
      Pages: 2299 - 2307
      Abstract: Strawberry cultivation represents a significant sector within the agriculture industry. The use of nitrogen (N), calcium (Ca), and nano fertilizers has emerged as an essential practice to improve both the yield and quality of strawberries. This comprehensive review aims to explore the multifaceted influence of these fertilizers on Fragaria × ananassa Duch, encompassing growth, quality, and environmental considerations. The study begins with an examination of historical perspectives and existing research, identifying gaps in the literature. The methodology includes a rigorous selection process for studies, with data extraction, quality assessment, and statistical analysis. The effects of N, Ca, and nano fertilizers on growth yield are thoroughly examined, considering their combined and individual contributions. The quality of strawberries is assessed based on physical appearance, nutritional content, and sensory characteristics, highlighting the role of these nutrients in color development, size, texture, vitamin content, sugar-acid balance, flavor, and aroma. The environmental impact is another critical aspect, exploring the effect on soil quality, including nutrient leaching, soil structure, microbial activity, and long-term health. The impact on surrounding ecosystems considers aquatic and terrestrial effects, biodiversity considerations, and the associated sustainability considerations. These encompass resource efficiency, environmental compliance, life cycle analysis, and integration with sustainable agricultural practices. Findings indicate that while N, Ca, and nano fertilizers significantly enhance growth and quality, careful management is essential to mitigate potential environmental concerns. The application of nano fertilizers presents promising opportunities for precise nutrient delivery, promoting efficiency, and sustainability. The review concludes by emphasizing the importance of continued research, innovation, and responsible management of these fertilizers in achieving a harmonious balance between productivity, quality, and environmental stewardship. The insights provided in this review contribute valuable knowledge to both scientific and agricultural communities, offering guidance for future research and best practices in strawberry cultivation.
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102894
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Phosphorus Levels on Growth and Yield of Maize Hybrids

    • Authors: Pooja Kumari, Umesha C.
      Pages: 2308 - 2313
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at the Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj during Rabi season 2022 on Maize crop. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with ten treatments and three replication. The treatment consisted of Maize hybrids (Govinda 111, Hybrid corn 4226, DKC 9133) with soil application of phosphorus (40 kg/ha, 60 kg/ha and 80 kg/ha) and a control (120:60:40 kg NPK/ha). The results of the experiment showed that, plant height (125.65 cm), dry weight (96.59 g/plant), crop growth rate (39.91 g/m2/day), No. of cob/plant (1.33), No. of grains/row (21.36), seed index (23.44 g), grain yield (5.90 t/ha) and stover yield (9.91 t/ha) and harvest index (37.12%) were significantly highest recorded in ‘Hybrid DKC 9133’ with the application of phosphorus 80 kg/ha. Maximum gross returns (1,32,865.00 INR/ha), net returns (89,392.55 INR/ha), and B:C (2.06) were also obtained with the same treatment.
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102895
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Standardization of Screen Aperture Size for Grading of Dhaincha Seeds

    • Authors: Shivakumar; B. Bagli , Basave Gowda, S. R. Doddagoudar, N. M. Shakuntala, Gururaj Sunkad, M. K. Meena
      Pages: 2314 - 2320
      Abstract: To standardize the sieve size for seed grading in dhaincha during Kharif, 2019–20 and 2020–21, an experiment was carried out. The native dhaincha species was processed using slotted perforated metal sieves with CRD design ranging S1 - 1.4 mm (S), S2- 1.6 mm (S), S3- 1.8 mm (S), S4 - 2.0 mm (S), and S5- 2.2 mm (S). The study realized that 2.0 mm and 2.2 mm sieves recorded highest seed quality standards and yielded larger-sized seeds. the results revealed that the seed recovery per cent in the 1.4 mm screen was maximum, whereas, the seed quality, nevertheless was better when seeds were graded using 2.0 mm and 2.2 mm sieves.  From the combined average data of the two years, the highest quality seeds were retrieved by grading the seeds using 2.0 mm screen with good seed recovery per cent viz., SR (92.99%), PP (98.46%), PLS (90.37%), TW (26.16 g), SG (81.63 %), TSL (25.2 cm), SDW (14.4 mg), SVI-I (2103) and SVI-II (1174). Hence, the 2.0 mm screen can be used to obtained highest quality seeds with economical seed recovery.
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102896
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Delineation and Mapping of Ground Water Quality in Kanchipuram District of
           Tamil Nadu Using GIS Techniques

    • Authors: K. Chitra Devi, M. Baskar, R. Jagadeeswaran, S. Meena, V. Dhanushkodi, S. Rathika
      Pages: 2321 - 2331
      Abstract: Agriculture relies heavily on irrigation especially with groundwater which is a significant source in many countries. However, excessive use of groundwater can lead to a decrease in groundwater levels and cause scarcity of water. Irrigation requires good-quality water which is governed by dissolved ions.  The groundwater quality is greatly influenced by global population growth, climate change and human activities including mining, agriculture, industrial effluents, seawater intrusion, household usage, etc., A study was conducted to evaluate the quality of groundwater for agriculture in various blocks of Kanchipuram district in Tamil Nadu. The sampling was done during March 2023 and about one hundred and fifty groundwater samples were collected from different blocks of the Kanchipuram district viz., Sriperumbudur(32 Nos), Kundrathur (28 Nos), Walajabad (34 Nos), Uthiramerur (29 Nos) and Kanchipuram (27 Nos). The physio-chemical (pH and EC) and chemical characteristics of the groundwater samples, including the cations Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+, as well as the anions CO32-, HCO3-, Cl-, and SO42-, were analyzed and the resulting properties were computed (SAR and RSC). The pH and EC values ranged from 3.29 to 8.49 and 0.09 to 5.22 dS m-1, respectively. The Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) ranged from nil to 32 meq L-1, while the Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) ranged from 0.19 to 34.78 mmol L-1. According to the CSSRI, Karnal Water Quality Classification about 38 percent of the samples falls in the good quality category, alkali water was about 57.33 percent and Saline water was 4.67 percent in Kanchipuram district. The Good quality water was dominant in Uthiramerur block followed by the Sriperumbudur block. The Saline and Alkali water was dominant in Sriperumbudur and Kanchipuram blocks respectively.
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102897
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of Silage Quality of Forage Maize (Zea mays L.) and Sweet
           Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Varieties at Different Phenophases

    • Authors: E. Pooja Sree, R. V. T. Balazzii Naaiik , K. Bhanu Rekha, T. Sukruth Kumar
      Pages: 2332 - 2338
      Abstract: Aim: To evaluate the green fodder production potential of forage maize and sweet sorghum varieties at different phenophases. Experiment Design: Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD). Place and Duration of Study: AICRP on Forage Crops and Utilization, Agricultural Research Institute. Duration from July 2022 to Nov 2022. Methodology: Field experiment was conducted at AICRP on Forage Crops and Utilization, Agricultural Research Institute (ARI), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during kharif 2022. The treatments consisted of four maize varieties (African tall, J –1006, TSFM 15-5 and DHM-117) and two sweet sorghum varieties (CSH-22SS and CSV-49SS) and three harvest stages (S1: Milky stage, S2: Soft dough stage and S3: Dent stage) laid out in randomized block design with factorial concept with two factors. Factor (A) as six varieties and factor (B) as three harvest stages (phenophases) with three replications. Texture of the soil was sandy loam with the pH of 7.0, low in available nitrogen (199.3 kg ha-1), medium in available phosphorous (39.12 kg ha-1) and potassium (195.30 kg ha-1). Results: Fodder maize variety African tall recorded significantly higher plant height (265.8 cm) at dent stage, leaf-stem ratio (0.36) at milky stage, green fodder yield (438 q ha-1) at soft dough stage and dry fodder yield (122.7 q ha-1) at dent stage of harvest. while J-1006 recorded significantly highest dry matter content (29.8%) at the dent stage of harvest. CSH 22SS recorded significantly higher crude protein content (10%) in the milky stage. Conclusion: African tall variety has recorded significantly higher green fodder yield (438 q ha-1) at soft dough stage and dry fodder yield at the dent stage (122.7 q ha-1).
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102898
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Nano Fertilizers on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Uptake and Soil
           Microbiology of Kharif Sorghum

    • Authors: S. A. Chinnappa, D. Krishnamurthy, M. Y. Ajayakumar, Y. M. Ramesha, S. Ravi
      Pages: 2339 - 2348
      Abstract: Aims: Foliar nutrition is aimed to eliminate the problems of fixation and immobilization of nutrients. Hence, foliar nutrition is being recognized as a significant way of fertilizing modern agriculture, especially under rainfed conditions. Nano fertilizers because of smaller size and higher surface area are efficient as compared to conventional and produce better results when used in combined form. Study Design: The experiment was laid out in Randomized complete block design with three replications. Place and Duration of Study: A field experiment was conducted in medium black soils at Agricultural Research Station, Hagari, during Kharif 2022. Methodology: There were ten treatment combinations, consisting of different doses of RDF (50 % RNP, 75 % RNP and 100 % RDF and absolute control) with different doses of nano urea and Dap sprayed at 30 and 45 DAS for CSH-16 hybrid of sorghum. Results: Application of 75% RNP as basal + nano urea & DAP spray @ 1.5 ml l-1 each at 30 and 45 DAS recorded significantly higher number of leaves, leaf area and leaf area index. It also produced higher earhead length (35.9 cm), number of grains earhead-1 (2207), grain weight (57 g plant-1) and test weight (29.3 g 1000 grains-1). Nutrient content and uptake also showed higher values for the same treatment along with the nutrient use efficiency indices. Whereas, significant reduction in soil microbes was noticed by the application of treatment. Conclusion: Combined application of conventional and nano fertilizers helped to increase growth, growth attributes like number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index, yield attributes, nutrient content, nutrient uptake and nutrient use efficiency of sorghum.
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102899
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Improving Yield of Tomatoes Grown in Greenhouses Using IoT Based Nutrient
           Management System

    • Authors: Vinayak Paradkar, Santosh Kumar Ray, Adarsha Gopalakrishna Bhat, Murtaza Hasan, Love Kumar, Lakshminarayana S. V.
      Pages: 2349 - 2365
      Abstract: Aims: This paper discuss, a study conducted to evaluate the developed automated IoT based fertigation control system for greenhouse for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crop. Study Design: Different nutrient and irrigation water levels were used to evaluate developed system using three replications in a factorial randomized block design (RBD). Methodology: An automated fertigation scheduling system was implemented in a greenhouse with soil moisture sensors at three depths (15, 30, and 45 cm) within the tomato root zone. R2, RMSE, NSE and MAE values were used to establish the correlation between sensor values and actual soil moisture. Tomato crop biometric parameters were collected and analyzed to evaluate the system's performance. Results: The results indicated strong correlation between sensor and observed soil moisture with R2 (0.8642 to 0.9528), RMSE (1.0786 to 1.8328), NSE (0.8438 to 0.9463), and MAE (0.9729 to 1.7043) values. Highest plant height (255 cm), girth (2.29 cm), number of leaves (21), number of flowers (23.1), fruit length (8.05 cm), fruit weight (110 g), yield/plant (2.75 kg), yield (68.77 t/ha) and sugar (5.1°Brix) were observed with drip irrigation at the rate of 100% ETc and 100% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), while minimum values of these parameters were noted in the control treatment. Conclusion: Using sensor-based drip irrigation at 100% ETc and 100% RDF led to a 62.92% increase in tomato yield and water saving of 14.84% compared to the control treatment. For tomato crop, the system required 2.27 l/plant/day water at 100% ETc. The developed automated fertigation system found suitable for greenhouse vegetable crops with the use of sensor based drip irrigation at 100% ETc and 100% RDF.
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102900
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Detection of True Hybrids in Pearl Millet Cross Combinations by Employing
           SSR Molecular Markers

    • Authors: Vinod Patel , M. K. Tripathi , Rakesh K. Shrivastava, Sushma Tiwari , Shailja Chauhan , Niraj Tripathi , R. K. Pandya , Prerana Parihar , Vikas Khandelwal , C. Tara Satyavathi
      Pages: 2366 - 2377
      Abstract: Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. R. Br.), a crucial staple food and significant cereal crop, is gaining prominence due to its versatile applications as feed, food, and fodder. Heterosis of this crop has been extensively harnessed to increase productivity. Hybrid variants exhibit superior grain and stover yields compared to open-pollinated varieties.Top of Form The primary aim of this investigation was to evaluate and confirm authentic hybrids within three resultant F1 progenies. The assessment of parents and F1 hybrids was carried out during the Kharif 2021for the purpose of accurate discrimination and rapid verification of true hybrids by employing 20 SSR molecular markers. The experimental materials consisted of three distinct cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines including ICMA 843-22, ICMA 04999, and ICMA 02333, used as female parents along with three fertility restorers, viz., ICMR 01004, ICMR 20233, and ICMR 20342, were utilized as male parents. The analysis of SSR profiles was based on distinctive banding patterns, resulting in unique profiles for the hybrids. The amplified fragment sizes ranged between 90 to 300 base pairs (bp), effectively enabling the differentiation of authentic hybrids. Within the specific crosses, the percentage of polymorphism was determined 75% for the cross ICMA 843-22 × ICMR 01004, 80% for the cross combination  ICMA 04999 × ICMR 20233, and 75% for the cross ICMA 02333 × ICMR 20342. The true hybrids were calculated using hybrid purity percentage formula using heterozygous banding patten among total plants evaluated. Among a total of 100 F1 plants, 85, 86, and 88 plants were accurately identified as true hybrids in the respective crosses i.e., ICMA 843-22 × ICMR 01004, ICMA 04999 × ICMR 20233, and ICMA 02333 × ICMR 20342. The identified markers hold significant potential for applications such as hybridity test, genetic purity assessments, diverse germplasm identification, and DNA fingerprinting endeavors in future.
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102901
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Sublethal Effects of Chitosan-O-Arginine, a Chitosan Based Insecticidal
           Compound against Green Lacewing Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi
           (Esben-Petersen)

    • Authors: Sushma K. , Shanthi M. , Murugan M. , Vellaikumar S. , Uma D. , Ramasubramanian T.
      Pages: 2378 - 2385
      Abstract: The widespread application of synthetic chemicals leads to the unintended negative impact to non-target organisms both directly or indirectly, as these chemicals can infiltrate new environments, disrupting established ecological niches. Laboratory experiments explored the effects of sublethal doses of Cs-O-Arg to the third instar grubs of Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi when fed with treated and untreated larvae of diamondback moth (DBM). The results showed that when the untreated third instar C. zastrowi sillemi grub was fed with treated P. xylostella larvae at LC25, LC35 and LC45 concentrations, there was 6.67 per cent mortality of C zastrowi sillemi grub at all the concentrations, after 48 and 72 hours of exposure. but, when the treated C. zastrowi sillemi grubs (LC35 and LC45) were fed with untreated P. xylostella, there was only 3.33 and 10.00 per cent mortality of C. zastrowi sillemi grubs, respectively. Whereas, Cs-O-Arg caused 33.33 per cent mortality when LC45 treated grubs were provided with LC45 treated DBM larvae as feed, whereas the treatment with LC25 concentrations of Cs-O-Arg resulted in the highest pupation percentage (76.67%) and adult emergence rate (73.33%) in C. zastrowi sillemi grubs when fed with DBM larvae treated with the same concentration. Chitosan derivative insecticide causes a mild adverse impact on the survival of the economically significant insect predator C. zastrowi sillemi, which hold valuable implications for guiding decisions regarding the compatible utilization of insecticides alongside C. zastrowi sillemi or other natural predators within integrated pest management strategies.
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102902
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Dynamics of Nutrient
           Availability at Various Intervals in Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) Crop

    • Authors: Ili Venkatesh, Krishna Chaitanya Anantha, B. Raju, P. Revathi
      Pages: 2386 - 2396
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at College Farm, Agricultural College, Polasa, Jagtial, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University. The study was aimed at identifying the effect of integrated nutrient management on nutrient availability in soil. The field experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with nine treatments replicated thrice. The treatments includes T1: 100% Recommended dose of Fertilizer (RDF), T2: 100% RDF + FYM (Farm Yard Manure), T3: 100% RDF + FYM + Biofertilizer consortium, T4: 75% RDF, T5: 75% RDF + FYM, T6: 75% RDF + FYM + Biofertilizer consortium, T7: Soil Test Based (STB) NPK, T8: 75% STB NPK + FYM and T9: 75% STB NPK + FYM + Biofertilizer consortium. The results of the experiment revealed that integrated nutrient management significantly influenced the availability of various nutrients at different stages of the crop.  Significantly higher nitrogen and its inorganic fractions, phosphorous, potassium and sulphur availability was recorded with the integrated application of 75% STB + FYM + Biofertilizer consortium which was comparable with an application of Soil Test Based NPK, 100 % RDF + FYM + Biofertilizer consortium, and 75% STB NPK + FYM. The lower available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur, ammonical and nitrate nitrogen were recorded under the treatment of 75 % RDF.
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102903
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Proximate Assessment and Pasting Properties of Gluten-Free and Refined
           Wheat Flour

    • Authors: Shivbilas Maurya, S. S. Shukla, K. C. Mahajan, B. L. Sahu
      Pages: 2397 - 2402
      Abstract: The present study focused on the nutritional evaluation and pasting properties of gluten-free and refined wheat flour. Gluten-free kodo and kutki flour and refined wheat flour were used as raw materials for the experiment. Nutritional content was estimated using an Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) approved method of analysis. The pasting properties of flour samples were determined with a Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA). Results of the nutritional analysis of gluten-free flours indicated higher mineral content in kodo, followed by kutki and refined wheat flour, while ash content was highest for kodo flour and lowest for wheat flour among the investigated flours. The higher amount of protein, minerals, biomolecule components, and high fiber content in millet flour makes it a good alternative among other flours to develop millet-fortified, healthier food products. The higher peak viscosity observed for kutki compared to kodo and wheat flour may be due to the lower protein content and higher ash content present in kodo flour. The final viscosities ranged from 2186 to 6453 cP, with the highest for kutki flour, followed by kodo and refined wheat flour. FV increases significantly with an increase in protein and fat content. The greater breakdown viscosity was found for kutki flour, followed by kodo and refined wheat flour, indicating that kutki flour has a low ability to withstand shear stress and heat. Lower setback values indicate a low rate of starch retro gradation and synerisis in refined wheat flour. The greater pasting temperature was shown by kutki flour, depicting the higher energy and time required for cooking and correlating with higher amylose content.
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102904
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Hydroponic Cultivation: Factors Affecting Its Success and Efficacy

    • Authors: Kailashkumar B., Priyadharshini K., Logapriya M.
      Pages: 2403 - 2410
      Abstract: Hydroponics or soilless method of cultivation, has revolutionized modern agriculture by offering a sustainable and efficient alternative to traditional soil-based farming. However, the success of  hydroponic cultivation relies heavily on various factors that influence plant growth and overall system performance. This review study aims to investigate the effects of different factors on hydroponic cultivation. Factors such as light intensity, quality, and duration; nutrient composition and balance; water quality; temperature and humidity; air circulation and ventilation; growing medium; pH and electrical conductivity; plant variety and genetics; system design and maintenance; and monitoring and control were discussed. By understanding the impact of these factors, farmers and researchers can optimize their hydroponic cultivation to achieve higher yields, healthier plants, and sustainable agricultural practices. The discussion of this study will contribute to the advancement and implementation of hydroponics as a viable solution for future food production.
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102905
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Precise Methods for Single Spore Isolation and Controlled Sporulation in
           Magnaporthe oryzae Isolates

    • Authors: K. Aravind, T. Kiran Babu, B. Rajeswari, S. N. C. V. L. Pushpavalli
      Pages: 2411 - 2418
      Abstract: The present investigation focuses on enhancing the understanding of Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast disease, by developing simple and cost-efficient protocols for single spore isolation and controlled sporulation with minimal equipment. In pursuit of this objective, various natural hosts were evaluated for their sporulation potential at different time intervals. The results revealed the significant differences in sporulation of M. oryzae among different hosts at different time intervals, showing higher sporulation at 14 DAI compared to 10 DAI. Notably, rice leaves from TN-1 and HR-12 cultivars exhibited robust sporulation at 14 DAI under a 14-hr light + 8 hr dark conditions. Validating these findings, twelve isolates from various locations in Telangana State consistently confirmed that rice leaves from cultivar TN-1 supporting the highest mean sporulation rate, followed by the HR-12 cultivar. The implications of these findings extend to aiding researchers and rice breeders in comprehending disease dynamics, formulating effective control strategies, and developing rice cultivars resilient against rice blast.
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102906
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Soil Science and Sustainable Farming: Paving the Way for Food Security

    • Authors: Deepak Kumar Meena, Hanumanta D. Lamani, Ronak Yadav, R. K. Saikanth, Omkar Singh, Sumithra Yerasi, Sumit Rai
      Pages: 2419 - 2424
      Abstract: The review titled "Soil Science and Sustainable Farming: Paving the Way for Food Security" explores the critical role of soil science in achieving sustainable agriculture and ensuring global food security. The review focuses on key aspects of soil science that contribute to sustainable farming practices, including soil health assessment, soil management practices, soil conservation strategies, soil amendments and nutrient management, and soil-water interactions. Each subheading delves into specific topics within soil science, highlighting their importance in promoting soil fertility, preventing erosion and land degradation, balancing crop nutrition, and optimizing irrigation and water use efficiency. By understanding and implementing these soil science principles, farmers can adopt sustainable practices that enhance soil productivity, preserve natural resources, and support long-term food security.
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102907
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Weather-Based Rice Crop Yield Forecasting using Different Regression
           Techniques & Neural Network Approach for Prayagraj Region

    • Authors: Nilesh Kumar Singh, Shraddha Rawat, Shweta Gautam
      Pages: 2425 - 2435
      Abstract: Rice crop yield data and weather data were considered in this study, covering the past twenty-nine years (1991-2019) in Prayagraj District, Uttar Pradesh. The data was sourced from DACNET and the College of Forestry, SHUATS Prayagraj. The analysis comprised a calibration period of 26 years (90% of the dataset) and a validation period using the remaining data (10%). In this study, 75.9% of the data were utilized for training the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, while the remaining 24.1% were allocated for testing and validation, ensuring comprehensive model assessment. The primary evaluation metric employed for model efficiency was the Normalized Root Mean Squared Error (nRMSE), with a focus on achieving the lowest values. Both a Stepwise Linear Regression technique and a Neural Network were employed for rice yield prediction. Notably, the regression-based model exhibited superior performance compared to the ANN model, as indicated by the nRMSE values. This conclusion was drawn from the observation that the regression-based model yielded the best-fitting results. The study's findings highlight the significance of Bright Sunshine Hours in relation to nRMSE and the coefficient of determination, which were recorded at 0.00025 and 0.94, respectively. This underlines the importance of this meteorological factor in accurately predicting rice crop yield.
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102908
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Scenario of Wilt Incidence of Chickpea in Major Chickpea Growing Regions
           of Northern Karnataka, India

    • Authors: Ashwini S., M. S. L. Rao, B. S. Patil, S. A. Ashtaputre , Spurthi N. Nayak
      Pages: 2436 - 2443
      Abstract: The chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the important pulse crops grown in India. Chickpea wilt complex is one of the most devastating crop diseases in northern Karnataka. Because of abundant inoculum in the soil and suitable environment circumstances, infected plants die, resulting in full loss of yield. A random roaming study was done in important chickpea farming districts of northern Karnataka, namely Dharwad, Belagavi, Haveri, Gadag, Bagalkot, Kalaburgi, and Vijayapur, during Rabi 2021-22 and 2022-22, to establish disease incidence and its in severity in different places. The survey results demonstrated a link between three pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri, Rhizoctonia bataticola, and Sclerotia rolfsii. Dharwad district has the highest illness incidence (30.20%), followed by Kalburgi district.with 29.85 per cent.
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102909
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Standardization of Softwood Grafting in Avocado (Persea americana Mill.)
           var. TKD1

    • Authors: B. Subash , S. Muthuramalingam, R. Balakumbahan, K. Venkatesan, T. Anitha
      Pages: 2444 - 2451
      Abstract: In recent years, Hass avocados (Persea americana Mill.) have become more widely cultivated in Colombia. One of the difficulties facing the nation is boosting orchard output by ensuring graft plants have the best agronomic, genetic, and phytosanitary criteria. In this study, the growth and development of avocado rootstocks derived from seeds of various weight ranges will be monitored for 90 days. Four weights of avocado seeds (S1, S2, S3, S4) (30–40 g, 40–50 g, 50–60 g, and 60-70 g) and four scion maturity of (D1, D2, D3, D4) (60 days old, 70 days old, 80 days old, 90 days old were used as treatments in a factorial completely randomized experimental design. The outcome showed that the best germination rate of 75% for S4 and the highest survival percentage (94.98%) for S4D4. After 90th DAG the maximum number of new shoots per plant (5.75), number of leaves/plants (18.15), leaf area (20.83 cm2), and carbohydrate content (6.57%) were reported. Based on the results of the experiment, it was determined that the optimum method for propagating avocados was softwood grafting using 60–70 g seed size (rootstock) and 90-day-old scion. These plants had better vigor and faster germination rates, all of which could reduce the length of time spent in the nursery while still ensuring the quality of the material, which is influenced by improved seedling growth.
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102910
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Development of Tomato and Pumpkin Blended Puree for Value Addition and
           Shelf Life with Different Levels of Preservatives

    • Authors: Smriti Mishra, Yash Kumar Singh, V. M. Prasad, Pragya Shrivastava, Gaurav Singh Vishen
      Pages: 2452 - 2457
      Abstract: The lab experiment was conducted in the year 2021-2022 at Post Harvest Lab, Department of Horticulture, Nani Agriculture Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh to analyse the physico-chemical properties and shelf life of the puree during storage at refrigerated condition and overall acceptability with different treatment combinations of preservatives. The Experiment was laid out in Completely randomized design (CRD) with 9 treatments.
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102911
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • A Comprehensive Review on Seasonal Incidence of Fall Army Worm, Spodoptera
           frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and Their Management

    • Authors: Pramod Kumar Mishra, Akshay Kumar, Ashutosh Singh Aman, Shravan Kumar Verma, Arun Kumar, Jony Kumar, Durgesh Kumar Maurya, Pankaj Kumar Rajpoot
      Pages: 2458 - 2467
      Abstract: The Fall Armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, represents a formidable challenge to global agriculture due to its rapid spread and significant impact on crop yields. This comprehensive review focuses on providing an in-depth exploration of FAW's biology, its seasonal dynamics, and the multifaceted strategies employed for its management. Leveraging datasets from multiple geographical regions, we examined the patterns of FAW infestations and their correlation with various climatic and environmental factors. The research emphasized the criticality of predictive modeling tools in forecasting pest incidence and highlighted the potential of machine learning and big data analytics in enhancing the accuracy of these predictive tools. Innovative management solutions, spanning from genetic interventions to the application of nanotechnology, were also discussed, underlining their potential in mitigating FAW damage. Central to our findings was the recurrent theme of international collaboration; the need for globally coordinated efforts in research, monitoring, and the sharing of resources emerged as a pivotal component in the fight against this pest. By incorporating diverse perspectives, including field insights from farmers and advancements in modern technology, this review aims to provide a holistic overview of the present scenario and proffers strategies for future action against the FAW threat.
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102912
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of Soil Fertility Status of Research Farm, College of
           Agriculture and Research Station, Katghora, Korba, Chhattisgarh

    • Authors: Divya Sahu, L.K. Srivastava, S. S. Porte, G.K. Jatav, Somi Baghel
      Pages: 2468 - 2473
      Abstract: Total 102 soil surface samples (0-15) were collected from each field of research farm, College of Agriculture, and Research Station Katghora, Korba, (C.G.) to evaluated the soil fertility status, The soil samples were analysed by standard procedures with respect to pH, EC, OC, macronutrients (N, P, K, S) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B). The results showed that soil pH varied from 4.31 to 5.42 with mean 4.79 and indicated that the soils were found to be moderately acidic to strongly acidic in soil reaction. The electrical conductivity of soil water suspensions ranged from 0.04 to 0.11with mean 0.07 indicated that soils of study area were suitable for all crops. The OC varied from 2.8 to 6.4, with mean value 4.3 g kg-1 and found that about 80 percent soils were under low organic carbon content. Most of the soil samples were found low in available N content, it ranged from 150.53 to 263.16, with mean 224.28 kg ha-1. The available phosphorus varied from 20.51 to 93.32 with mean 49.66 kg ha-1. The available potassium varied from 103.86 to 233.55 with mean 148.81 kg ha-1. The available sulphur varied from 5.99 to 51.55 with mean 22.25 kg ha-1. Micronutrients Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn varied from 6.01 to 44.40 mg kg-1 with mean 20.87 mg kg-1, 4.10 to 16.95 with mean 10.82 mg kg-1, 0.38 to 3.58 with mean 1.82 mg kg-1 and 0.48 to 1.29 with mean 0.82 mg kg-1, respectively. The available B varied from 0.14 to 0.91with mean 0.48 mg kg-1. All the soil samples were found to be high with respect to Fe, Cu and Mn whereas Zn and B were found deficient as 12.75 and 41.19 percent, respectively. According to NIV, the soils of study area were classified in low fertility class for nitrogen, Potassium, Boron, and sulphur, medium fertility class for phosphorus and zinc, and high fertility class for Fe, Mn, Cu.
      PubDate: 2023-09-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102913
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Tillage Management and Soil Slope on Annual Soil Loss under
           Cereal Crops in Central India

    • Authors: Urwashi Manekar , S. K. Sharma , S. K. Trivedi , Harimohan Meena
      Pages: 2474 - 2480
      Abstract: The negative impacts of soil erosion on productivity are mainly attributed to the decline in soil fertility and water availability. Continuous tillage practices combined with removal of crop residue from the soil surface greatly increase the risk of soil erosion and nutrient depletion. Soil erosion creates many adverse impacts on the environment and soil health which influence the food security and the quality of life. In present study the effect of three tillage management (conventional tillage, ridge and furrow system and no tillage system) and soil slopes (1%, >1% to < 3%, >3 to <5% and >5%) on soil loss in twelve different soil series under cereal cropping in central India has been studied. The results of the study indicated that the tillage management plays an important role to reduce soil loss. No tillage system found showed minimum annual soil loss whereas the conventional tillage practice recorded the most. The soil loss found decreased with decrease in slope and vice-versa. The Bararia soil series found most vulnerable to the soil loss whereas the Dhodar soil series found resistant to soil loss across the slopes and tillage management practices studied under cereal cropping in central India.
      PubDate: 2023-09-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102914
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Exploring the Nutritional Landscape: A Review of Fodder Options for
           Livestock

    • Authors: D. R. K. Saikanth , Giggin T. , Deepjyoti Roy , Narendra Kumar, Khuban Buch , Poonam Sharma , Gaurav Dubey, Bal Veer Singh
      Pages: 2481 - 2493
      Abstract: Livestock nutrition plays a crucial role in ensuring the health and productivity of animals. Fodder are key component of livestock diets, providing essential nutrients for growth, reproduction, and overall well-being. The application of inorganic nutrients with the combination of organic nutrients leads to improve crop yield with improvement in soil health and its productivity without deteriorating the environmental conditions. This review aims to explore the nutritional landscape of fodder and forage options for livestock, examining their composition, availability, and potential benefits.
      PubDate: 2023-09-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102915
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Determinants of Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in the
           Hyper-Arid Partially Irrigated Western Plain of Rajasthan, India

    • Authors: Tarun Gandhi, V. Saravanakumar , S. Senthilnathan , N. K. Sathyamoorthy , Patil Santosh Ganapati
      Pages: 2494 - 2503
      Abstract: Climate change is a global environmental threat to all economic sectors, mainly the agricultural sector is highly vulnerable to the negative impact of climate change. Using cross-sectional data of 120 farmers collected from three blocks of the Jaisalmer district of the hyper-arid partially irrigated western plain of Rajasthan, this study investigates farmers' adaptation measures to climate change and their determinants of adaptive strategies. The study used a logistic model to analyze the relationship between binary dependent variables and other explanatory variables. According to logistic regression results, factors such as land area, farming experience, and household income are positively related to climate change adaptation strategies. The marginal effects for the land area (0.040), farming experience (0.004), and household income (0.00). Further, the result of the study also shows the basic adaptation measures adopted by the farmers are mulching, changing in the crop, changing in sowing date, changing in cultivation practices, changing in water management and changing in input management. According to the study's findings, farmers' well-being will be improved by more significant investment in farmer education, farmers’ training through Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), and financial inclusion through Kisan Credit Card (KCC) for climate change adaptation.
      PubDate: 2023-09-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102916
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Analysis of Historical Monthly and Annual Rainfall and Temperature
           Variability (1980–2020) in Baringo Couny County, Kenya

    • Authors: Indiatsy Christopher Masinde, Dennis Mamboleo, Daniel Nyantika
      Pages: 2504 - 2527
      Abstract: Climate variability entails the mean fluctuations in climatic elements and other observable characteristics on temporal or spatial scales. Assessing climate variability is a frequent practice in climatology based on its impact on social - economic aspects. Climate is subject to variations in many parts of world, exhibited mainly by rainfall and temperature fluctuations. The variability in Africa has resulted in the spread of desert conditions in the Sahel. Kenya experiences great variations of climate annually and considerable uncertainty when rains are expected, impacting negatively on farming activities. The study objective was to establish the historical trends of variability patterns in rainfall and temperature in Baringo County between 1980 – 2020. The study adopted a longitudinal study design as it involved a time series analysis of the trends and variability patterns of rainfall and temperature. Secondary data on rainfall and temperature was collected from Kenya Meteorological Services headquarters in Nairobi. Rainfall variability was determined and measured using the following techniques; Mean ( ), Standard deviation (SD), Precipitation concentration index (PCI), Relative variability (RV), Drought Intensity (DI) and Coefficient of variability (CV). Temperature variability was determined and measured by analyzing the County temperature distribution tables. Results indicated Baringo South to have a higher variability than Baringo North, marked with its higher CV, DI, RV and PCI. Pre-drought planning to cope up or overcome the droughts were highly recommended and measures provided. The study findings are expected to help farmers, the government and economic planners to focus on effective mitigation areas, formulate alternative policies on mitigating the effect of rainfall and temperature variability on activities of farming in Baringo County.
      PubDate: 2023-09-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102917
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Influence of Integrated Nutrient Management on the Productivity of kharif
           Redgram (Cajanus cajan L.)

    • Authors: Sagarla Sowmyasri, C. Sudha Rani, C. Sudhakar, S. Triveni
      Pages: 2528 - 2532
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2021-22 at Agricultural Research Station, Tandur, Vikarabad, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University (PJTSAU) under deep black soils to study the effect of integrated nutrient management on the growth and yield of kharif redgram (Cajanus cajan L.). The experiment was laid out in Randomized block design with 9 treatments in 3 replications. Treatments comprised of T1: Control, T2: 50% RDF (10:25:0 NPK kg ha-1) + 50% FYM (2.5 t ha-1), T3: 75% RDF (15:37.5:0 NPK kg ha-1) + 25% FYM (1.25 t ha-1), T4: 100% RDF (20:50:0 NPK kg ha-1), T5: 50% RDF + FYM @ 5 t ha-1 + Rhizobium (Seed treatment) + PSB (Seed treatment), T6: 75% RDF + FYM @ 5 t ha-1 + Rhizobium (Seed treatment) + PSB (Seed treatment), T7: 100% RDF + FYM @ 5 t ha-1 + Rhizobium (Seed treatment) + PSB (Seed treatment), T8: 100% RDF + Rhizobium (Seed treatment) + PSB (Seed treatment) and T9: FYM @ 5 t ha-1 + Rhizobium (Seed treatment) + PSB (Seed treatment). Among the treatments, application of 100% RDF, FYM @ 5 t ha-1, Rhizobium and PSB recorded significantly higher seed yield (1898 kg ha-1) and stalk yield (6275 kg ha-1).
      PubDate: 2023-09-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102918
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Genetic Studies for Yield Components and Screening for Drought Tolerance
           at Seedling Stage of Maize (Zea mays L.) Genotypes

    • Authors: G. Gayathri, Vaidurya Pratap Sahi, S. Shanmukha Saikumar, L. Gangadhar
      Pages: 2533 - 2543
      Abstract: A field experiment involving 30 genotypes of maize was carried out under the field condition during Rabi 2021-2022 to study the association of yield contributing characters among themselves along with direct and indirect effects on grain yield per plant and identify the genotypes which are highly efficient with respect to different PEG induced drought stress. The results of the study revealed that plant height, leaf length, ear height, number of grain rows per cob, number of grains per row, cob girth, cob weight, biological yield per plant, 100 grains weight and harvest index showed positive significant association with grain yield per plant both at genotypic and phenotypic levels. Plant height showed positive significant association with leaf length, ear height, number of grain rows per cob, cob girth, cob weight, 100 grains weight, biological yield per plant and grain yield per plant. Days to fifty per cent silking, anthesis to silking interval, days to maturity, number of grain rows per cob exhibited negative direct effect while number of cobs per plant, leaf width, cob length, cob weight, biological yield per plant and harvest index exhibited positive direct effect on grain yield per plant. For improvement of seed yield, attention should be given for traits such as cob weight, biological yield per plant and harvest index which showed high positive correlation coefficients with a considerable direct and indirect effect on grain yield. MGC-192 has shown high root length, shoot length, seedling length, seedling dry weight, seedling vigour index 1, seedling vigour index II, germination percentage and MGW-392 has shown high relative water content under PEG induced stress condition, hence this genotype is suggested for future selection.
      PubDate: 2023-09-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102919
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Unveiling the Impact of Integrated Nutrient Management on Soil Health and
           Microbial Dynamics in Mustard Cultivation

    • Authors: Ili Venkatesh, Krishna Chaitanya Anantha, B. Raju, P. Revathi
      Pages: 2544 - 2551
      Abstract: During the Rabi season of 2020-21, an investigation was carried out at College Farm, Agricultural College, Polasa, Jagtial, under the supervision of Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University. The primary aim of the research was to assess the influence of integrated nutrient management on the organic carbon content, enzyme activity and microbial population in the mustard (Brassica juncea L.) crop. The experiment was conducted in soil with a sandy clay loam texture and followed a randomized block design, consisting of nine distinct treatments, each of which was replicated three times. These treatments includes: T1: 100% Recommended Dose of Fertilizer (RDF), T2: 100% RDF + FYM, T3: 100% RDF + FYM + Biofertilizer consortium, T4: 75% RDF, T5: 75% RDF + FYM, T6: 75% RDF + FYM + Biofertilizer consortium, T7: Soil Test Based NPK, T8: 75% STB NPK + FYM and T9: 75% STB NPK + FYM + Biofertilizer consortium. The results revealed that the organic carbon, dehydrogenase activity and microbial population of soil were significantly enhanced by the application of combined use of organic, inorganic fertilizers and biofertilizers. All the parameters were recorded higher with the integrated application of 75% STB NPK+ FYM + Biofertilizer consortium which was on par with 100 % RDF + FYM + Biofertilizer consortium, 75 % RDF + FYM + Biofertilizer consortium, 75 % STB NPK + FYM, 100 % RDF + FYM, 75 % RDF + FYM.  The population of bacteria and fungi, organic carbon content and dehydrogenase were recorded lower in the treatments receiving sole application of inorganic fertilizers.
      PubDate: 2023-09-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102920
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Prevalent Variability among Jackfruit Genotypes: An Assessment on Fruit
           and Flake Characteristics

    • Authors: D. Snehaa, K. R. Rajadurai , S. Saraswathy, T. Anitha, S. Rajesh
      Pages: 2552 - 2564
      Abstract: Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) belongs to the family Moraceae is a tropical climacteric fruit and known to be the world’s largest edible fruit. Tropical Asia is regarded as origin of jackfruit. India is considered as the mother land of jackfruit with the production of 1.4 million tonnes per year. All parts of jackfruit is consumable, the flesh of jackfruit in unripen stage can be used as vegetable and in fully ripen stage can be used as fruit. Seeds can be used for making curries. Jackfruit bulbs are rich in sugars and contain fair amounts of carotene, protein and minerals. Jackfruit is rich in dietary fiber, which makes it a good bulk laxative. Jacalin content present in seeds has anti-cancer abilities. Finding a jackfruit genotype with high nutritional composition is highly recommended. An experiment was conducted during the year 2022-2033 at Department of Fruit Science, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Periyakulam. Biometric parameters of 25 jackfruits genotypes, collected from diverse locations were evaluated for variations observed in their morphological features and sensory attributes. The results showed that AH 2, AH 7, AH 11 genotypes sampled from Theni, Cuddalore, Pondicherry district exhibited impressive results with high recovery percentage and proved to be economical   in comparison to other genotypes. Based on flake quality AH 2 found to be suitable for table purpose and AH 7, AH 11 for culinary purpose. These findings will come handy in studying the variation among genotypes for future hybridization programme to develop superior varieties.
      PubDate: 2023-09-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102921
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Exploration of Exopolysaccharide Producing Bacterial Cultures from Various
           Drought Affected Region

    • Authors: N. Niranjani, K. Kumutha, R. Subhashini, P. Kannan, M. L. Mini
      Pages: 2565 - 2572
      Abstract: Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are extracellular macromolecules secreted by microorganisms play a vital role in improving soil aggregation as well as enhancing the water holding capacity of the soils.  This study focuses onto the isolation and characterization of bacterial strains capable of producing Exopolysaccharides (EPS) from drought-affected soil regions across different districts of Tamil Nadu. The core objective revolves around the molecular identification of elite cultures and pivotal genes, responsible for EPS production namely dex (dextransucrase) by using the primer pair WConDex fw and WConDex rev at an amplification size of 1037 bp size. A total of 72 bacterial cultures were isolated from 67 soil samples that are capable of secreting EPS using specific medium.
      PubDate: 2023-09-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102922
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Subsoil Acidity Amelioration for Improved Soil Productivity

    • Authors: Akhila Merin Mathew , Rani B.
      Pages: 2573 - 2580
      Abstract: Subsoil is the layer (stratum) of earth immediately below the surface soil (below 20 cm), consisting predominantly of minerals and leached materials such as iron and aluminium compounds. A favourable condition of subsoil is important for improved productivity of deep-rooted crops like maize, sorghum, soybean etc. Any physical, chemical or biological characteristic of the soil located below the seedbed that limits the ability of crops or pasture to access water and nutrients is considered as a constraint to the subsoil. Subsoil acidity characterized by low Ca and high Al at depths below the plough layer, constrains crop productivity all over the world, especially in the highly weathered acid soils of the humid tropics. Yield reduction due to subsoil acidity results from high concentrations of soluble Al, Mn etc. or low plant-available calcium or magnesium in the root zone, inhibiting physiological and biological activities, root development and uptake of nutrients as well as water. Aluminium toxicity in the subsoil is the major growth limiting factor associated with subsoil acidity. Research findings suggest that conventional surface liming has very little effect on subsoil acidity. Therefore, successful amelioration of acidity in the subsoil requires specialised management practices involving application of soluble sources of calcium or magnesium or improving the solubility and downward movement of liming materials by the application of organic amendments like biochar. This paper attempts to analyse the impacts of subsoil acidity on soil productivity and its mitigation strategies.
      PubDate: 2023-09-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102923
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Crop Health Monitoring through Remote Sensing: A Review

    • Authors: Mrinali Gajbhiye , K. K. Agrawal , A. K. Jha , Narendra Kumar , Monika Raghuwanshi
      Pages: 2581 - 2589
      Abstract: Agriculture is basis of livelihood for a major portion of world population. It provides food to humans. With the increasing population and climate change there is need to enhance production to fulfil the demand of growing population. Remote sensing technology has potential to predict nutrient requirement by providing various information related to plant and soil in quantitative terms thereby increasing productivity. It plays important role in monitoring crop health, crop growth and development, nutrient management, pest and disease management, water management and weed management. Evaluation of crop canopy provide various information regarding agronomic parameters. The data obtained from remote sensing provides a better alternative for natural management than traditional methods and this kind of management enhances efficiency of various resources by avoiding their overuse. By using this technology, we can improve traditional methods of agriculture and bring out changes in the field of agriculture. This paper reviews remote sensing technology for crop health monitoring, highlighting its importance with new ideas for agriculture.
      PubDate: 2023-09-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102924
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Role of Biofertilizers in Chickpea: A Review

    • Authors: Dilip Choudhary , Surgyan Rundla , Ravindra Jadhav , Indar Raj Naga , Kiran Kumawat , Pavan Kumar Sharma
      Pages: 2590 - 2595
      Abstract: Compared to when both rhizobium and the bacteria that solubilize phosphate are inoculated separately, the interaction effect between the two inoculations gradually increases the growth parameters and yield production. Rhizobium and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) had shown advantage in enhancing chickpea productivity, cost effective, ecofriendly and renewable sources of plant nutrients. Biofertilizers have the ability to improve the growth and nodulation of chickpea enables it to withstand the periods of drought. Utilising Rhizobium's symbiotic properties to increase the nitrogen supply to agricultural plants.
      PubDate: 2023-09-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102925
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Bio-Intensive Disease Management Strategy as a Way to Control Pomegranate
           Wilt Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. and Halst

    • Authors: Raja, Gururaj Sunkad , Amaresh Y. S.
      Pages: 2596 - 2609
      Abstract: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the important fruit crops cultivated all over the world, particularly in the tropical and sub-tropics. It is affected by several diseases of which one of the most important diseases is Ceratocystis fimbriata. In the present study, we aimed to the management of pomegranate wilt. The management, under in vitro studies, captan, mancozeb, ziram, thiram, and zineb recorded maximum inhibition of mycelial growth at all concentrations (0.10%, 0.20%, and 0.30% respectively). Out of nine systemic fungicides tested, carbendazim, hexaconazole, thiophanate methyl, propiconazole, and tebuconazole showed 100 per cent inhibition at all concentrations (0.05%, 0.10% and 0.15% respectively). In case of combi-fungicide molecules, hexaconazole + zineb, carbendazim + mancozeb, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole and captan + hexaconazole were found highly effective. Among bio-agents tested, T. harzianum (Th-R) and Diamond (T. viride) were found more effective as compared to other bio-control agents and inhibited maximum fungal growth (100%) of C. fimbriata. The fungicides and bio-agents which showed superior performance in vitro were selected and treatment combinations were made to develop a bio-intensive integrated management strategy against pomegranate wilt under field conditions. Field evaluation over two years indicated that three drenching of propiconazole (0.2%), Diamond (T. viride) (0.7 g/l) and T. harzianum (5g/l) at an interval of 15 days showed maximum disease control.
      PubDate: 2023-09-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102926
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Perceptions and Adaptation Practices of Agropastoralists to Rainfall and
           Temperature Changes in Mali

    • Authors: Assa Tapily , A. A. Olufayo , Anlauf; Rudiger , Mamadou Diarra
      Pages: 2610 - 2635
      Abstract: Many people in African countries derive their livelihoods from agriculture and livestock. Therefore, unfavourable environmental and climatic conditions render them more vulnerable to increasing food insecurity and poverty rates. However, few studies have investigated how farmers’ adaptation strategies affect farm productivity and household food security in the Sahelian region, notably Mali. This study aims to examine the impacts of climate change agro-pastoralists and to analyse the adaptation strategies in Mali. For this purpose, an analysis of daily rainfall and temperature data from 1960 to 2020 over Bamako, Ségou and Sikasso station was carried out using Instat+ v3.36, Rstudio, XLSTAT and Rclimdex software. Field surveys were conducted among 355 agropastoralists in three regions of Mali to assess the impacts and adaptation strategies of agropastoralists. The analysis of climate data showed a downward trend in overall rainfall. As for the temperature, it shows an upward trend over the series from 1960 to 2020 at the station of Ségou, Sikasso and Bamako. Agropatoralists use adaptation strategies such as organic fertilizers, changing planting dates and growing of short duration maize varieties to mitigate against the negative effects of climate change. The use of organic fertilizers and short-duration use of improved varieties promotes agricultural productivity and food security. We conclude that building agropastoralists adaptive capacity tends to reduce their vulnerability to climate change by increasing crop yields and food security.
      PubDate: 2023-09-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102927
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Plant Growth Regulator (GA3 and NAA) on Growth, Yield and
           Quality of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    • Authors: Vijay Kumar , Devi Singh , C. John Wesley
      Pages: 2636 - 2643
      Abstract: A trial was conducted at the Vegetable Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences,Prayagraj (UP) during 2022. This study investigates the “Effect of Plant Growth Regulators (GA3 and NAA) on growth, yield and quality of Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.).” The purpose of the study is to evaluate the plants in terms of various parameters such as plant height, survival percentage, days to first flowering, days to 50% flowering, number of flower clusters per plant, number of fruit set per cluster, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, fruit yield per plant, fruit yield per hectare, total soluble solids (TSS), ascorbic acid, and benefit-cost ratio. The results of thestudy indicate that the application of increased percentage of NAA and GA3 significantly improvedthe growth and yield tomatoes. The highest fruit yield, fruit weight, TSS, and ascorbic acid contentwere observed in the plants treated with GA3 @60ppm + NAA @60ppm. The benefit- cost ratio wasalso found to be higher in the treated plants compared to the control. Overall, the study suggests thatthe application of GA3 @60ppm + NAA @60ppm can be an effective and sustainable method for enhancing the growth, yield, and quality of Tomatoes.
      PubDate: 2023-09-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102928
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Assessing the Effect of Irrigation Levels and Hydrogel on Growth and Yield
           of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    • Authors: Dade Cholavardan , Jaya Krishna V. V. S. , Sushant
      Pages: 2644 - 2649
      Abstract: One of the most essential inputs for agriculture is water. Moisture stress at critical growth stages in wheat severely effects the growth and yield. Hydrogel (water-absorbing polymer) can keep the appropriate moisture level at the root zone depth and protects the crop from adverse effect of moisture stress. The present trial was conducted during rabi season of 2020-21 to assess the performance of different hydrogels under different levels of irrigations on growth, yield, and water use efficiency of wheat. Results revealed that application of 3 irrigations recorded significantly maximum number of tillers per m2 at 90 Days After Sowing and at harvest. The application of Nano hydrogel @ 20 kg ha-1 significantly increased the number of tillers per m2 at 90 DAS and at harvest over control. Significantly maximum grain (26.1%) and straw (24.5%) yield were obtained with 3 irrigation levels over one irrigation. The Nano hydrogel increased grain (33.6%) and straw (22.9%) yield significantly over control. Water use efficiency significantly improved with one irrigation over 3 irrigation levels, application of Nano hydrogel @ 20 kg ha-1 significantly increased WUE.
      PubDate: 2023-09-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102929
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Growth Parameters of Vegetable Cowpea
           (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    • Authors: U. Atchaya , A. Sankari , R. Kalaiyarasi, B. K. Savitha , K. Vanitha , A. Thanga Hemavathy
      Pages: 2650 - 2657
      Abstract: Aim: The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the growth parameters of cowpea variety Paiyur-1.Seeds were irradiated with physical mutagen viz., gamma irridation. The doses of radiation used were control, 50 Gy, 100 Gy, 150 Gy, 200 Gy, 250 Gy, 300 Gy, 350 Gy, and 400 Gy.Finding the LD50 and GR50 value for the physical mutagen dosages is the study's major goal. Cs137 is exposed to gamma radiation, and the observation were recorded in the M1 generation. Study Design: The regression method by applying Probit analysis based on rates of fatalities was utilised to estimate the Lethal Dose (LD50). Simple Linear Regression on the dose-response curve was adopted to evaluate the GR50 incorporating all of the vegetative parameters using R software. Place and Duration of Research: The study was carried out at Horticulture orchard, Department of Vegetable Science, Horticulture College and research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during 2022-2023. Methodology: In this study, the paiyur-1 variety of cowpea was sown with two replications, those mutagenized seeds were planted individually in germination paper using the roll towel method and dry seeds that weren't irradiated served as the control. To find the lethal dose 50 and to observe the shoot length, root length, germination percentage, mortality rate and seed vigour. Results: Among the 9 gamma irradiated treatments, 50Gy and 100 Gy exhibited superior germination percentages, despite the fact 50 Gy treated seeds were having appealing shoot length, root length, and plant height. The linear relationship have given that shoot length and root length are the two parameter that are highly susceptible to gamma irradiation than plant height and seed vigour.
      PubDate: 2023-09-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102930
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Identifying F. oxysporum Strains Causing Wilt in Southern Indian Chickpeas

    • Authors: Katravath Srinivas , Mamta Sharma , Gali Umadevi , C. V. Sameer Kumar , Vanama Sowmya
      Pages: 2658 - 2669
      Abstract: Fusarium oxysporum (Schletend: Fr) f. sp. ciceri (Padwick), referred to as Foc, is a soil-borne fungus that poses a constant threat to chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) by causing wilt disease. Typical wilt symptoms were observed in chickpea plants collected from 24 different locations across three southern Indian states. The process involved isolating Fusarium species from the roots of these wilted plants, resulting in the identification of various strains exhibiting diverse cultural and morphological characteristics on potato dextrose agar medium. All twenty four isolates were subjected to Koch's postulates using the standard method, which yielded varied responses in terms of disease incidence. After analyzing cultural, morphological, molecular traits, and conducting pathogenicity tests, the fungus was definitively identified as F. oxysporum Schlechtend. Fr. f. sp. ciceri (Padwick) Matuo and K. Sato. Among the 24 isolates tested on the chickpea wilt susceptible cultivar JG-62, one was non-pathogenic with zero percent disease incidence (PDI), while one isolate was highly pathogenic showed 100 percent PDI. Highly pathogenic four isolate was further used for molecular identification with secreted in xylem primers (SIX). Comparative studies of cultural traits and conidial morphology among different isolates revealed variations in growth patterns, pigmentation, sporulation, and the size and structure of macro and micro conidia, as well as chlamydospores.
      PubDate: 2023-09-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102931
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Enhancing the Shelf Life of Palak and Coriander through Modified
           Atmosphere Packaging under Diverse Storage Environments

    • Authors: P. S. Swetha , M. Kavitha , S. Praneetha , G. Amuthaselvi , P. Janaki , Balaji Kannan
      Pages: 2670 - 2677
      Abstract: Aim: Green leafy vegetables are renowned for their rich vitamin and mineral content as well as their nutritional value. However, these vegetables are highly perishable due to their accelerated rates of respiration and transpiration. The process of packing and the choice of packaging materials play a crucial role in extending their shelf life. The main aim of this study was to prolong the shelf life of two prominent leafy greens, Palak (Beta vulgaris L. var. bengalensis) and Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), using Modified Atmospheric Packaging (MAP) and various packaging materials. Study Design: The study employed an FCRD experimental design with 12 treatments and 3 replications. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Department of Vegetable Science, HC&RI, TNAU, Coimbatore during the year 2023. Methodology: Freshly harvested Palak and Coriander were collected, sorted, and prepared as 250-gram samples. Two packaging materials (LDPE and PP) and three gas compositions (G1, G2, G3) was employed. The vegetables were stored under both ambient (35±5°C) and refrigerated (5°C) conditions and their physiological loss in weight (PLW %) was monitored. The observations were taken every day up to the spoilage of the produce. Results: According to the research findings, vegetables could remain fresh under ambient storage for up to 4 days and under refrigeration for up to 15 days. In ambient storage conditions, Palak exhibited the longest shelf life in treatment T3 - G3M1 (4% O2, 5% CO2, LDPE), followed by T5 - G2M2 (6% O2, 5% CO2, PP). Meanwhile, Coriander showed better shelf life in treatment T2 - G2M1 (6% O2, 5% CO2, LDPE), followed by T6 - G3M2 (4% O2, 5% CO2, PP). Under refrigerated storage conditions, Palak exhibited an extended shelf life in treatment T9 - G3M1 (4% O2, 5% CO2, LDPE), followed by T12 - G3M2 (4% O2, 5% CO2, PP). For Coriander, the best results were achieved with treatment T12 - G3M2 (4% O2, 5% CO2, PP), followed by T8 - G2M1 (6% O2, 5% CO2, LDPE). Conclusion: Proper packaging and gas composition significantly increased the shelf life of these leafy greens, offering potential benefits for both producers and consumers. Palak had a longer shelf life when stored under refrigerated conditions, up to 14 days, while Coriander could be kept fresh for up to 12 days in the refrigerator. Gas composition G3 (4% O2, 5% CO2) was found to be effective and LDPE was generally the preferred packaging material in extending the shelf life of the vegetables.
      PubDate: 2023-09-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102932
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Diversity and Abundance of Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) in Sethu
           Bhaskara Agricultural College and Research Foundation, Karaikudi, Tamil
           Nadu, South India

    • Authors: A. Narmadha , R. Ravinasree , S. R. Sakthi Kayalvizhi , M. Mathialagan , Kishan Tej Mitta , R. Meena , V. Sarathkumar , S. Kumaravel , S. Lekha Priyanka , S. Mangayarkarsi , U. Ganesh
      Pages: 2678 - 2698
      Abstract: Butterflies play a vital role in the ecosystem, acting as pollinators, pollution indicators, pests, predators, weed killers, a good source of food and being of aesthetic, economic and ecological importance. World-wide butterfly populations are on the decline due to habitat destruction and deforestation. This study was taken with the prime objective of preparing the checklist of butterflies at Sethu Bhaskara Agricultural College and Research Foundation, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, from April 2023 to July 2023. A total of 976 individuals of 76 species belonging to 5 families have been recorded in the survey. For this study, the college was mapped into four different habitats: botanical garden area, agricultural field area, horticultural field area and grassland area. Results revealed that the family Nymphalidae showed the maximum number of species (22.0 species) from 12 genera (29.0%), followed by Lycaenidae (20.0 species) from17genera (26.5%), Pieridae (18.0 species) from 9 genera (24.0%), Hesperiidae (12.0 species) from 11 genera (16.0%) and the least being Papilionidae (4.0 species) from 2 genera (5.5%). Among the four sites, the botanical garden area ranks first with the highest number of butterflies (140 species, N =280), followed by the horticultural field area (129 species, N = 258), the agricultural field area (115 species, N = 230) and the grassland area (104 species, N = 208). According to the monthly distribution of butterflies, the maximum number of species and abundance were recorded in the months of July (307 species, N = 332), followed by June (141 species, N = 282), April (112 species, N= 224) and least in May (69 species, N = 138). The overall Shannon-Weiner diversity index was H = 1.50, Pielou’s evenness index was E = 0.60 and Margalef’s index was R = 13.30. This study illustrated useful information on butterfly diversity in the study region, which serves as a baseline for future monitoring programs.
      PubDate: 2023-09-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102933
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Harnessing the Antifungal Potential of Seed Bacteriome against Major Seed
           and Soil-borne Pathogens in Blackgram

    • Authors: Chandana K. C. , S. Lakshmi , T. Anand , S. Kavitha , C. Sharmila Rahale
      Pages: 2699 - 2708
      Abstract: Blackgram is an important pulse crop in India. One of the major constraints on blackgram production is the attack of pathogens, which leads to yield loss. Nowadays, with the understanding of harmful effects of chemical fungicides, biocontrol methods are gaining more importance. One such method is biopriming with endophytes to control pathogens and enhance yield. In the present study, the endophytes of blackgram seeds was explored and tested for its biocontrol potential against major seed- and soil-borne pathogens and growth promotion in blackgram. A total of 14 bacterial endophytic isolates were obtained and screened against Macropomina phaseolina and Fusarium oxysporum. Among them, BSE5 isolate was proven to be more efficient in inhibiting the mycelial growth of M. phaseolina and F. oxysporum, with per cent inhibition of 22.5 and 50.6, respectively, following BSE9. Both the isolates showed improved plant growth parameters like germination percentage, root length, shoot length, dry matter production and vigour index. Molecular characterisation of BSE5 and BSE9 confirmed that the isolates are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus xiamenensis.
      PubDate: 2023-09-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102934
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Standardization of Length of Cuttings and Auxin Levels on Root and Shoot
           Growth of Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus undatus L.)

    • Authors: J. Dharani , J. Rajangam , A. Beaulah , K. Venkatesan , A. Vijayasamundeeswari
      Pages: 2709 - 2717
      Abstract: Dragon fruit as the "Wondrous Fruit" of the twenty-first century is a cactus-like vine with great economic and nutritional potential as exotic fruit crops in domestic and foreign markets. One of the biggest issues with commercial fruit production is the development of high-quality planting materials. Considering that it is a cross-pollinated crop, true-to-type plants could not be obtained through seed propagation. Hence, standardization of vegetative propagation protocol is necessary for commercial production. Therefore the experiment was conducted at Department of Fruit Science, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Periyakulam, to assess different length of stem cuttings (viz., C1 -10cm, C2 – 15cm, C3 – 20cm and C4 - 25 cm) with various concentration of auxin level (viz., G1 – IBA 2000 ppm, G2 – IBA 4000 ppm, G3 - IBA 6000 ppm, G4 – NAA 50 ppm, G5 - NAA 100 ppm, G6 – NAA 150 ppm) for achieving growth and rooting of dragon fruit. According to the experimental findings, among the different treatments 25cm cuttings treated with IBA 6000ppm showed noticeably superior results in early root initiation (12.11 DAP) and sprout initiation (8.26 DAP), highest shoot length (75.52cm) and root length (17.64cm), Average number of roots per cutting (20.17), Average number of shoots per cutting (3.7), maximum survival percentage (93.42%) than other treatments.
      PubDate: 2023-09-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102935
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of Tabernaemontana divaricata Accessions for Loose Flower
           Production

    • Authors: S. Niranjana , M. Visalakshi , M. Ganga , P. Irene Vethamoni , N. Manikanda Boopathi
      Pages: 2718 - 2725
      Abstract: Crepe jasmine or East Indian rosebay or pinwheel flower, Tabernaemontana divaricata originated from India is a popular large shrub or a small tree grown in tropical and sub-tropical gardens for its beautiful glossy foliage and mild fragrant waxy white, ornamental flowers. It produces flowers throughout the year, except in winter but profusely during summer season. Rather than the opened flowers, the unopened flower buds are commonly used as an alternate to Jasminum sambac buds in off-season. The present investigation was carried out at the Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, Horticulture college and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu agriculture university, Coimbatore during 2022-2023. Randomized Block Design was used with three replications with the objective of investigating promising genotypes of Tabernaemontana divaricata, collected based on the type of petals from different locations for loose flower production.  In the study totally 12 accessions were collected and named from Acc. No. 1 to 12. They are evaluated for their vegetative and floral parameters such as plant height, leaf length, leaf width, no. of branches, plant spread in EW & NS direction. Floral parameters include bud length, bud diameter, stalk length and no. of petals/flower. Out of the collected accessions, Acc. No. 2 & 5 are suitable for veni arrangement and Acc. No.10 & 11 are suitable for garland making. Buds of acc. No.4 & 6 are similar to Jasminum sambac and J. auriculatum buds.
      PubDate: 2023-09-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102936
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Regression Equation Model for Brinjal Pests (Solanum melongena L.) in
           Maharashtra Plain Zone

    • Authors: Katkar M. G., Kharbade S. B., Wankhede S. Y., Shaikh A. A., Sthool V. A.
      Pages: 2726 - 2735
      Abstract: An experiment “Effect of weather parameters on growth, yield and insect pest infestation on brinjal varieties under different planting windows” was carried out at Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agricultural Meteorology Farm, Centre for Advanced Agricultural Meteorology, College of Agriculture, Pune during Kharif seasons of 2014 and 2015. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The treatment comprised of three brinjal hybrids viz., V1:Phule Arjun, V2: Krishna, V3: Panchganaga as main plot and four planting windows viz., P1: 31st MW (30 July-5 August), P2: 32ndMW (6-12 August), P3:33rdMW (13-19 August) and P4: 34thMW (20-26 August) as sub plot treatments. The correlation of meteorological parameters with incidence of brinjal shoot and fruit borer was studied in 2014. The correlation of shoot and fruit borer on brinjal (0.764*and 0.796*) and (0.784* and 0.704*) with the weather parameters are presented. Whereas morning relative humidity, rainfall and bright sunshine hours showed positive correlation with shoot and fruit borer population Average number of aphids/ jassid/ whiteflies plant showed highly significant negative correlation with minimum temperature(r= -0.702*,-0.710* and 0-.800*,) respectively. During 31stMW planting windows maximum temperature showed significant negative correlation with shoot and fruit borer population(r= -0.796*).It was observed that the infestation of shoot and fruit borer started increasing from October to November and its decreased onwards meteorological week. Amongst all the brinjal hybrids, Phule Arjun hybrids found significantly superior under extended planting windows followed by Krishna and Panchganga. Planting during 31st MW (1st week of August) was observed to be most suitable and optimum for brinjal considering the growth and yield attributes. This planting window was at par with 32nd MW planting window. Linear correlation analysis for brinjal fruit yield with weather parameters was significantly positively correlated with maximum temperature and minimum temperature. Timely planting during 31st MW (P1) and 32nd (P2) recorded lower incidence of shoot and fruit borer, aphids, jassid and whiteflies. Whereas, crop planted during 34thMW (P4) recorded maximum incidence of all pests. Among the brinjal hybrids, higher incidence was recorded with Panchganaga and minimum was recorded on Phule Arjun. Among the brinjal hybrids lower incidence of shoot and fruit borer, aphids, jassids and whiteflies was recorded on hy. Phule Arjun, which was found to be tolerant. This was followed by hy. Krishna. The higher incidence of all pests was recorded hy. Panchganga, which was found to be susceptible. Pest population on brinjal shoot/fruit/Aphid/Jassid/Whiteflies had significant negative correlation with minimum temperatures, whereas, morning and evening relative humidity, wind speed, pan evaporation and bright sunshine hours showed positive correlation pests population.
      PubDate: 2023-09-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102937
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Performance of Gladiolus Genotypes for Growth and Flowering under Gangetic
           Region of Bihar, India

    • Authors: Kajal Kumari , Paramveer Singh , Deepti Singh , Mainak Ghosh , Subrat Keshori Behera , Ajay Bhardwaj , R. B. Verma
      Pages: 2736 - 2741
      Abstract: An evaluation experiment on performance of gladiolus genotypes was conducted at Botanical Garden, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour during 2021-2022 for the identification of suitable genotype for the cultivation in Bihar. Twenty genotypes of gladiolus were evaluated for vegetative, floral and vase life parameters under Gangetic region of Bihar conditions. The best genotypes identified in present investigation based on mean performance were White Prosperity (79.73 cm), Red Majesty (79.27 cm), Nova Lux (73.47 cm) and Rose Supreme (73.40 cm) for spike length. Earliness in flowering was observed in Rose Supreme (83.53 days) which was at par with Punjab Dawn (83.60 days). Genotype Kum Kum responded well for number of spikes per plant (2.73), whereas Pusa Shubham for corms production (3.33). Genotype White Prosperity (30.27 days) and Rose Supreme (28.47 days) were recorded long flowering duration.
      PubDate: 2023-09-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102938
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Understanding Agriculturists' Perception and Adaptation to the Current
           Climate Patterns in Jaman South Municipality, Ghana

    • Authors: Jacob Kwakye
      Pages: 2742 - 2755
      Abstract: This paper examines agriculturists’ perception and adaptation to climate change in Jaman South Municipality of Ghana, utilizing a mixed research approach. The study engaged 150 farmers from five farming communities, alongside 10 local agricultural extension officers. Data were collected through questionnaires and structured interviews administered via face-to-face interactions. The data underwent analysis involving calculations of frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviations, and utilization of the probit regression model. Respondents identified significant changes in rainfall patterns, including shortened planting seasons, reduced rainfall amounts, extreme dry spells, heavy rainfall, erratic patterns, and shifts in onset and cessation. Temperature changes were also reported, with increased daytime and nighttime temperatures. These changes were perceived to have adversely affected crop production in the study area. To this effect, farmers have employed diverse adaptation strategies, such as crop diversification, cover cropping, mulching, crop rotation, composting and use of organic fertilizers, adjusting planting time, land rotation, and use of drought-tolerant crop varieties to tackle these climatic changes. Age, level of education, engagement with extension services, and farmers' experience in farming emerged as the most influential factors for predicting the selection of strategies to adapt to climate change. This study contributes insights to policymakers and practitioners striving to bolster adaptive capacity in the face of climate change.
      PubDate: 2023-09-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102939
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Phosphorus and Potassium on Growth and Yield of Black Gram
           (Phaseolus mungo L.)

    • Authors: Kunwar Kunal Singh , Victor Debbarma
      Pages: 2756 - 2763
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during Zaid season 2023 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India. The soil of the experimental field was sandy loam in texture, slightly alkaline in soil reaction (pH 8), low level of organic carbon (0.28%), available N (219 kg/ha), P (11.6 kg/ha) and K (217.2 kg/ha). The experiment was conducted in randomized block design consisting of 10 treatments with 3 different levels of phosphorus 40 kg/ha, 50 kg/ha, 60 kg/ha and different levels of potassium 25, 30 and 35 with three replications and the treatments were allocated randomly in each replication. On the topic “Effect of phosphorus and potassium on growth and yield of black gram (Phaseolus mungo L.)”. The results showed that T9 with the application of phosphorus (60 kg/ha) + potassium (35 kg/ha) recorded significantly higher plant height (43.81cm), higher plant nodules (40.11), higher plant dry weight (8 g), maximum crop growth rate (8.5 g/m2/day), maximum number of pods/plant (36.61), higher seed yield (1115.62 t/ha) compared to other treatments. The maximum gross returns (98297.69 INR/ha), maximum net returns (64701.09 INR/ha) and benefit ratio (1.93) was recorded in T9 with the application of phosphorus (60kg/ha) + potassium (35 kg/ha) as compared to other treatments. Minimum parameters were recorded in treatment 10 control plot with RDF 20:40:20 kg/ha NPK.
      PubDate: 2023-09-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102941
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Response of Sugarcane Cultivars to Different Irrigation Regime under
           Peninsular Zone of Maharashtra, India

    • Authors: A. S. Patil, G. R. Pawar, B. S. Thorat
      Pages: 2764 - 2772
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during the years 2019-20, 2020-21 and 2021-22 suru seasons with eight sugarcane cultivars and two irrigation regimes were evaluated in the strip plot design with three replications. The impact of water stress on various morphological characters such as plant height, leaf area, leaf area index and tiller count was recorded at 0.3 and 1.0 IW/CPE irrigation regime. Drought treatment caused an average reduction of 11.10, 33.47, 29.08, 15.33, 22.14 and 18.78 % in plant height, leaf area index, specific leaf weight, dry matter, root dry matter at 200 DAP and cane yield respectively. Cultivar VSI 08005 and CoM 0265 transpired less water and showed relatively higher photosynthetic rate with significant improvement in growth attributes, viz., plant height, leaf area index, specific leaf weight, dry matter accumulation and root dry weight as well as single cane weight and cane yield.  Yield and its parameters showed remarkable changes due to inadequate water availability during the formative phase. Water stress led to a reduction in cane and sugar yield to the tune of 23.00 and 29.05 percent.
      PubDate: 2023-09-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102940
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Enhancing Crop Resilience through CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Development of
           Disease-Resistant Cultivars

    • Authors: Ajeet Kumar Gupta , Govind Mishra , Harikant Yadav , Rishabh Gupta , Abhay Singh , Jay Singh , Piyusha Singh
      Pages: 2773 - 2783
      Abstract: A major issue in agriculture is the protection of crops against diseases and pests. Plant breeding has been primarily responsible for the growth of disease-resistant cultivars. The use of gene editing techniques in plant breeding is essential for obtaining desired features. Clustered Regular Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPER)/Cas9 (CRISPR-related protein) is a new advancement in gene editing technology. It can be utilised in plant defence mechanisms against pathogen attack by recognising the bacterial immune system and destroying invasive pathogen genes. Advances in plant breeding through CRISPR/Cas9 integration have helped develop cultivars including hereditary resistance to bacterial and viral diseases. Future crop generations can acquire CRISPR/Cas9-mediated transgene resistance if the Cas9/sgRNA transgene has been isolated in the F1 generation. Cas9/sgRNA transgene separation makes CRISPR/Cas9 safe for use in plant breeding. Although CRISPR/Cas9 has proven to be a wonderful tool to revolutionize plant breeding and develop various disease resistant varieties, its effect on many plant physiological processes remains to be thoroughly investigated.
      PubDate: 2023-09-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102942
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • In vitro Potency of Chemical Fungicides over Alternaria lini (Dey) Growth
           Inhibition Causing Black Bud Disease of Linseed

    • Authors: Usharani Sahoo, Umakant Tripathi , Puskar Shukla, Ajay Kumar Patel
      Pages: 2784 - 2790
      Abstract: Linseed, the only economically significant species of family Linaceae is a dense plant with sound branches that gives rise to more production of seed per plant. It is a significant oilseed and fibre crop that grows in diverse range of climate from temperate to tropical regions of India. So, it is crucial to preserve the excellence and yield of such an oilseed crop due to its commercial significance. Linseed cultivation is impacted by a variety of fungal and bacterial diseases. Alternaria blight or often called as Black Bud Disease is one of the most important fungal diseases of this oilseed crop which causes yield loss ranging from 28-60%. The present study emphasized upon two objectives. First one is the survey of different cultivars that was conducted in various parts of Uttar Pradesh during the month of March-April, 2021-22 to assess the disease prevalence and severity of Black Bud Disease which revealed that cultivar Neelum had the highest disease intensity of 45%, while the variety Rashmi had the lowest disease intensity of 10%. Second one involves the study regarding in vitro potency of chemical fungicides that revealed the potency of three fungicides i.e. Tilt, Vitavax and Matco over 11 fungicides examined at 0.2 % concentration in fully inhibiting the growth of corresponding fungal pathogen, Alternaria lini. Rovral, Thiram, Folpet, Captan, Ridomil, Companion, Mancozeb, Zineb, Sulfex, Topsin-M, and Bavistin were the remaining fungicides in order of their inhibitory activity against the pathogen.
      PubDate: 2023-09-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102943
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Overview of Seed Production in Floriculture Crops

    • Authors: Laxmi Patil , V. K. Deshpande , Umesh Chimmalagi, D. Jeevitha
      Pages: 2791 - 2802
      Abstract: Floriculture, one of the potential components of horticulture industry, deals with cultivation, processing and marketing of ornamental plants and maintenance of garden and it includes annuals, biennials and perennial ornamentals. Worldwide demand for flowering annuals is high to beautify our landscape. The majority of annuals can only be propagated by seeds. The flowering annual seed business has developed into a significant industry as a result of the demand for these plants in the global floricultural trade. The majority of the flower seeds are imported into India. Eventually, flower seeds are very expensive and difficult to obtain for farmers. Every species of flower raised for seed has its own planting period, culture, difficulties and harvesting processes. A mild environment with little rain during growth and harvest seasons is a vital requirement for good seed production. Hybrid seeds of these plants have high vigour and superior quality. Hybrid seed production for the export market is very crucial. The production of seeds in flower crops is covered in this review.
      PubDate: 2023-09-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102944
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Integrative Molecular Approaches to Plant Disease: A Review

    • Authors: Prashanth Kumar A., Nikhil B. S. K.
      Pages: 2803 - 2812
      Abstract: Modern molecular and bioinformatics technologies have made understanding host-pathogen interactions easier. Plants have many ways to protect themselves from microbial diseases, such as physical barriers, PAMP detection, and R genes that recognize pathogen-effector proteins and turn on effector-triggered immunity. Plant pathogen genome databases provide genomic and phenotypic data on plant pathogen species and information on plant-pathogen interactions. Map-based or positional gene cloning is improving our understanding of plant-pathogen interactions, with R genes being used to develop resistance to pathogens. Plant genomes typically contain several hundred nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeats (NLRs), with their number, arrangement, and domain combinations varying by species. Bacterial blight (BB) severely impacts rice production, and about 37 of 44 resistance genes have been mapped and 15 cloned. Many disease-resistant wheat cultivars have been developed using powdery mildew leaf rust (Lr) resistance genes from wild relatives of T. aestivum. Over 140 genes are linked to powdery mildew resistance in T. aestivum and MutChromSeq have found new target genes. Cloning Arabidopsis resistance genes is essential for developing resistant cultivars and understanding R gene evolution. Some R genes encode proteins with nucleotide-binding site (NBS) motifs, and an LRR protects against Erysiphe cruciferarum powdery mildew. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing is a major tool in plant genome editing, efficiently introducing target site mutations and improving plant immunity. High-throughput sequencing can identify and clone candidate resistance genes in different plant species, and gene editing technologies like CRISPR/Cas have illuminated site-specific mutagenesis and durable resistance.
      PubDate: 2023-09-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102945
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Optimizing Nursery Trays for Minimizing Seedlings per Pick of Transplanter
           in SRI

    • Authors: Rajesh Gund , P. Dhananchezhiyan , R. Kavitha, A. Surendrakumar , K. Thirukumaran
      Pages: 2813 - 2824
      Abstract: The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) revolutionizes rice cultivation through innovative practices. It is a methodology that enhances rice yields by optimizing plant growth and resource utilization. This study, conducted in 2023 at TNAU, Coimbatore, India, focuses on the optimization of nursery tray configurations for enhanced seedlings per pick during rice transplantation, contributing to more efficient SRI cultivation. The selection of nursery trays plays a crucial role in determining seedling distribution, impacting crop yield and agricultural efficiency. Through the manipulation of seed density, depth of filling, and tray configuration, the research aims to improve the seedlings' per-pick outcome during mechanized transplantation. The investigation involves 12 tray combinations with varying seed density (40 gm, 60 gm, 80 gm, and 100 gm) and depth of fillings with different heights in tray (15 mm, 20 mm, and 25 mm). Seedling growth parameters are meticulously assessed, including shoot length and root length to evaluate tray efficacy. The study also analyzes transplanter compatibility and the influence of seed density and depth of filling on seedling growth. Results highlight the tray configuration with an 80 gm seed density and 25 mm soil height as optimal, offering 1-3 seedlings per pick and minimal missing hills less than 1%. The endeavor to minimize picks per hill through precise tray combinations represents a crucial step in addressing the challenges of modern agriculture and shaping a more sustainable and productive future.
      PubDate: 2023-09-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102946
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Comparative Performance of Planting Materials and Standardization of
           Nutrient Requirement for High Yield, Quality and Early Spike Development
           in Tuberose (Agave amica Medik.) cv. Arka Prajwal

    • Authors: Kiruthika A., Irene Vethamoni P., Aneesa rani M. S., Keisar Lourdusamy D., Maragatham S.
      Pages: 2825 - 2834
      Abstract: The study was carried out at Vegetable Research Station, TNAU, Palur, Tamil Nadu during 2021to2022. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) with eight treatments and three replications. Planting materials used for the study were bulbs and bulblets. The eight nutrient combinations were tried with foliar application of micronutrient like zinc sulphate (0.2%), Ferrous sulphate (0.5%), Copper sulphate (0.4%) and Boric acid (0.2%) on 30, 60 and 90 DAP, individually and in combination with 25 t ha-1 FYM and recommended dose of fertilizer (200:200:200 kg ha-1 NPK). The control was maintained with RDF. Various biometric observations on growth and flowering attributes of tuberose were observed for all the treatments at different stages. The result of the present investigation revealed that among the interaction effects,B1N8[RDF + ALL 19 (NPK) + GA3@ 200 ppm (2 spray at 30 days intervals) + ZnSO4 (0.2%) + FeSO4 (0.5%) + H3BO3 (0.2 %) + CuSO4 (0.4 %)] recorded the highest plant height (95.12 cm), leaf length (51.85 cm), leaf width (2.4 cm), number of leaves per plants (42.67), rachis length (34.87cm), number of floret/spikes (46.66), flower duration (18.12 days), floret length (6.92 cm) and floret diameter (4.39cm) followed by the treatment B2N8 which recorded the highest height (90.44 cm), leaf length (48.48 cm), leaf width (2.2 cm), number of leaves per plants (39.78), rachis length (30.42 cm), number of floret/spikes (44.95), flower duration (19.93days), floret length (6.45cm) and floret diameter (4.21cm). From the interaction effect, the treatment combinationB2N1 [control (RDF) 200:200:200 NPK] recorded the lowest plant height (72.36 cm), leaf length (42.81 cm), leaf width (1.12 cm) and number of leaves per plants (43.00), rachis length (25.11cm), number of floret/spikes (37.00), flower duration (15.23days), floret length (5.04 cm) and floret diameter (3.02 cm).
      PubDate: 2023-09-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102947
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • A Study on Agricultural Mechanization Status under Paddy and Wheat Crop
           Production in Central Region of Uttar Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Anand Chaudhari , Sheen C. Moses
      Pages: 2835 - 2841
      Abstract: The technological progress in agricultural machinery since the mid-1960s has led to a revolutionary increase in crop yield in India. Northern states like Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh (especially the western and central region have experienced rapid growth in the adoption of mechanized farming practices. A study was conducted to evaluate the present state of farm mechanization in four districts of Uttar Pradesh. The average farm power accessible in this area was recorded at 2.05 kWha-1, surpassing the national average (1.9 kW/ha). The lowest mechanization index in wheat crop was observed in plant protection operations (20.6%) whereas highest mechanization index was observed in harrowing operation (94.2%). Similarly, in paddy crop, the lowest mechanization index was observed in transplanting operations (0%) whereas highest mechanization index was observed in harrowing harrowing and puddling operations (99%).With the exception of tasks like transplanting paddy and ensuring pest control in rice and wheat cultivation, almost all stages of crop production employed tractor-driven machinery. The primary obstacle observed in farm mechanization in the region was the lack of timely access to farming equipment.
      PubDate: 2023-09-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102948
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Assessment of Integrated Pest Management Modules against Fall Army Worm
           and Its Economic Impact in Maize

    • Authors: V. Lakshmi Narayanamma , V. Ratnakar , M. Ram Prasad , B. Shiva , R. Vishwatej , G. Veeranna , R. Uma Reddy
      Pages: 2842 - 2848
      Abstract: Aim: The present study was undertaken to assess the IPM modules and their economic impact against Fall Armyworm in maize through on farm trail (OFT). Place and Duration of Study: The present study was carried out in the farmers’ fields of Bhadradri Kothagudem district of Telangana during Rabi 2019-20, 2020-21 and 2021-22. Methodology: The main objective of on farm trail is to test and evaluate the findings of the research stations at the farmer's field and to refine and modify the technologies, if required for better adoption by farmers. The KVK, Bhadradri Kothagudem conducted on farm trail for the management of fall armyworm in maize during Rabi 2019-20, 2020-21 and 2021-22, as part of technical programme of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bhadradri Kothagudem in KVK operational area of adopted villages. Results: In technology assessment plot (On farm trail) the treatments followed were avoiding staggered sowing of maize, installation of pheromone traps @ 8-10 per acre, clean cultivation, balanced application of fertilizers, erection of bird perches @10/acre, spraying of Azadiractin (1500ppm) to repel the egg laying and need based whorl application of Emamectin benzoate @ 0.5g/l and Metarrhizium anisopliae @ 5g/l of water, if more than8 adult moths were trapped in the pheromone trap for three consecutive days. It was compared with the farmers practice plots i.e application of Carbofuran 3G granules @ 3kg/acre and indiscriminate usage of fertilizers and insecticides. The experiment was conducted in five locations. The benefit cost ratio (BC Ratio) was higher in technology assessed plots with 2.78, 2.63 and 2.75 whereas BC ratio was comparatively lower in farmers practice plots with 2.43, 2:21 and 2.25 in corresponding Rabi 2019-20, 2020-21 and 2021-22 respectively.  Conclusion: Technology assessed package proved its effectiveness among maize farmers with increased net returns, lower per cent of FAW incidence and high yield and BC ratio compared to the farmers practiceduring Rabi 2019-20, 2020-21 and 2021-22, respectively. Hence, this on farm trial proved to be feasible for demonstration in wide scale to farming community of Bhadradri Kothagudem district.
      PubDate: 2023-09-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102949
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Sterilization and Substrate Level Optimization for Improving Yield and
           Biological Efficiency of Paddy Straw Mushroom

    • Authors: Gopinath V., M. Elangovan, Nisha Thakur , M. K. Biswas
      Pages: 2849 - 2856
      Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the impact of surface sterilization techniques and different quantity of bed substrate on yield and biological efficiency in paddy straw mushroom cultivation. Among the various combinations of sterilization methods i.e., Plain water, Plain water + Calcium oxide @ 2%, Plain water + Bavistin 75 ppm & Formalin 500 ppm and steam sterilization 55  for ½ hour respectively tried on paddy straw substrate, Maximum yield and biological efficiency (1966 g & 15.2%) was obtained. To evaluate the biological efficiency of different layers and quantity of straw in bed method of cultivation i.e., 5 layers (4.0 kg), 4 layers (3.2 kg), 3 layers (2.4 kg) and 2 layers (1.6 kg) were tested. on biological efficiency four layers bed proved its superiority among all the number of substrate layers experimented, and gave highest biological efficiency (17.6%) followed by three layers and five layers (15.2%) and (14.5%) respectively. Two layers of bed (1.6 kg) were found to be less suitable and gave 13.8% biological efficiency of paddy straw. Maximum average weight of sporophores (24.21 g) was observed from four layers of beds followed by three layers and five layers (20.88 g) and (19.98 g) respectively. Smaller size sporophores were noticed in two layers of beds (14.18 g).
      PubDate: 2023-09-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102950
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Cultivation of Hybrids Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in the Pedo- Climatic
           Conditions of paryagraj Sangam Region (U.P), India

    • Authors: Shree Ram Ranjan , Vikram Singh , Sujit Kumar
      Pages: 2857 - 2862
      Abstract: The field experiment was carried out at the Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj during Rabi season 2021-22 on Mustard crop. The experiment was performed in randomized block design with ten treatments and three replication. The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.1), low in organic carbon (0.36%), available N (171.48 kg/ha), available P (15.2 kg/ha) and available K (232.5 kg/ha). The maximum plant height (171.76 cm), primary branches (6.5/plant), secondary branches (16.20/plant), plant dry weight (43.43 g/plant) at 100 DAS in hybrid ADV 4029 was recorded. Maximum Crop growth rate (CGR) recorded at 40-60DAS (20.32 g/m2 /day), number of siliqua/plant (457.27), number of seeds/siliqua (13.55), test weight (4.73 g) and seed yield (2.51 t/ha) were observed in hybrid ADV 4029. In terms of economics, highest gross returns (Rs 136660.90/ha), net returns (Rs 87347.93/ha) and B:C ratio (1.77) were observed in hybrid ADV 4029.
      PubDate: 2023-09-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102951
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • A Comprehensive Review on Post Harvest Physiological Disorders in Citrus
           Fruit Crops (Citrus spp.)

    • Authors: Shubham Jain , Harpal Singh , Deepak S. Kore , Abhishek Sonkar , Shivani, Saransh Saxena , Satyam Mishra , Rohit Sharma
      Pages: 2863 - 2873
      Abstract: Post-harvest physiological disorders in citrus fruit crops (Citrus spp.) present significant challenges that impact both the economic and environmental aspects of global agriculture. This comprehensive review explored various dimensions of the subject, ranging from the description and classification of major disorders, such as chilling injury, rind staining, water loss, and mold, to the innovative detection and diagnostic techniques being employed in the industry. Through an extensive examination of prevention and management strategies, the review sheds light on pre-harvest factors, post-harvest treatments, and the role of modern technologies and agronomic practices in mitigating these disorders. It also delves into the economic losses and environmental consequences linked to different management approaches, underlining the need for sustainability and eco-friendly solutions. A particular focus is given to the emerging trends and technologies in the field, including nanotechnology, artificial intelligence, and natural treatments, all of which signal a shift towards a more integrated and sustainable management approach. By identifying current research gaps and the necessary future research direction, the review highlights opportunities for innovation and collaboration among growers, researchers, and policymakers. In addition, it emphasizes the broader implications of these disorders and their management on global trade, labor markets, and regulatory landscapes. This review serves as a valuable reference for stakeholders in the citrus industry, providing insights and guidance on best practices, technological advancements, and future perspectives. It represents an essential step towards aligning the citrus production with global sustainability goals and fostering a resilient industry capable of adapting to the ever-changing demands and challenges of the modern world.
      PubDate: 2023-09-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102952
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Seed Hardening on Seed Germination and Morphological Parameters
           in Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L)

    • Authors: Kolli Venkateswara Reddy , Bineeta M. Bara , G. Roopa Lavanya
      Pages: 2874 - 2881
      Abstract: Seed hardening refers to different processes that involve treating seeds to enhance their resilience, break seed dormancy and improve their chances of successful germination and plant establishment during harsh conditions. Seeds are soaked in the solutions of KCl, NAA, KNo3 and CaCl2 to break dormancy increase the germination percentage and improve plant morphological parameters in linseed. The experiment was carried out for “Effect of seed hardening on seed germination and morphological parameters in Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L),, during Rabi season in the year 2022 at Field Experimentation Centre, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology And Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh on linseed crop. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 13 treatments and 3 replications. T0-Control, T1-NAA-25 ppm, T2-NAA-50 ppm, T3-NAA-150 ppm, T4-KCl-25 ppm, T5-KCl-50 ppm, T6-KCl-150 ppm, T7-KNo3-25 ppm, T8-KNo3-50 ppm, T9-KNo3-150 ppm, T10-CaCl2-25 ppm, T11-CaCl2-50 ppm, T12-CaCl2-150 ppm were the treatments. Linseed seeds were treated with NAA, KCl, KNo3 and CaCl2 with different concentrations (25 ppm,50 ppm and 150 ppm) for 5 hours and after sowing growth, yield and yield parameters were observed. The main objectives are to determine the effect of seed hardening on seed germination and morphological characteristics of Linseed and to find out the suitable concentration for seed hardening in Linseed. It was noticed that T9-KNo3-150 ppm treatment performed better significantly different at a 5% level of significance, when compared with other treatments where a minimum was observed in control. The highest germination percentage (92.20%), plant height (74.34 cm), number of primary branches (3.87), number of secondary branches (23.53), seeds per capsule (8.13), seed yield per plant (3.42) and harvest index (25.38%) showing better results when treated with treatment (T9)-KNo3-150 ppm for 5 hours and followed by Treatment(T11) CaCl2-50 ppm. Very less days (72) required for 50% flowering and maturity (111.67) were observed in treatment T9 when compared with other treatments. It concluded that T9(KNo3-150 ppm) was superior in all the growth and yield parameters in linseed. So we recommended that treatment T9 is the best seed hardening treatment for linseed according to this experiment.
      PubDate: 2023-09-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102953
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Seaweed Extracts on the Growth, Flower Yield and Quality of
           Dahlia (Dahlia variabilis) C.V. Aditya Birla

    • Authors: Shivangi Badgujar , Samir E. Topno , Anita Kerketta
      Pages: 2882 - 2889
      Abstract: An experiment entitled “Effect of seaweed extracts on the growth, flower yield and quality of Dahlia (Dahlia variabilis) c.v. Aditya Birla” was conducted to evaluate the response of dahlia to different growth regulators, Kelp @ 2ml and 4 ml and Biovita @ 2ml and 4 ml. Thirteen different treatment combinations were replicated thrice in a Randomized Completely Block Design. The investigation revealed that Biovita was very effective and recorded maximum days to seed germination, plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter, secondary branch number. Leaf area Significant influence of growth regulators was observed on various vegetative parameters. Flower diameter, flower number, diameter and fresh weight increased Significant influence of growth regulators was observed on various foral parameters. Highest flower numbers per plant and flower yield per ha was recorded treatment T11 (4 ml L-1Biovita, 5 days interval). Treatment T11 recorded higher net realization Rs. 506700 which was followed by treatment cost of cultivation with of Rs.170500.. Furthermore, highest Cost benefit ratio was recorded under treatment T11 (1:2.97).
      PubDate: 2023-09-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102954
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • A Review on Soil and Phytomicrobiome for Plant Disease Management

    • Authors: Prashanth Kumar A., Murali V.
      Pages: 2890 - 2904
      Abstract: Pests and pathogens significantly reduce crop yields and cost the global economy USD 540 billion annually. The phytomicrobiome is becoming a cornerstone of a comprehensive rethink of agricultural management practices, with microbiome-assisted plant breeding focusing on three principles: minimal soil disturbance, continuous soil cover with crops, cover crops, or a mulch of crop residues, and crop rotation. Plant diseases, phytomicrobiomes, and agricultural practices can all affect plant health. Conservational agricultural practices like minimum tillage and no-tillage have been implemented to reduce anthropogenic activity and preserve microbial diversity. Mulching is a common practice in agriculture to stop moisture loss, maintain soil temperature, control weed growth, and stop soil erosion. Monoculture farming is the practice of cultivating a single crop continuously over several growing seasons on the same field. Intercropping systems encourage the growth of beneficial fungi, such as mycorrhiza, endophytes, saprophytes, decomposers, and bioprotective fungi, and can benefit forest ecosystems by creating disease-suppressive soils. By combining conservation tillage and crop rotation, farmers can reduce disease pressure by disrupting the life cycles of soil-borne pathogens linked to particular crops or genotypes. Composed manure and plant residues can control plant pathogens like Pythium, but the effect is thought to be due to microbial competition or plant host resistance. Green manure can control plant diseases brought on by pathogens in Rhizoctonia, Verticillium, Sclerotinia, Phythophthora, Pythium, Aphanomyces, and Macrophomina, but manure-derived fertilizers may contain antibiotic resistance genes and mobilomes, which could pose risks to both human and animal health. Climate change impacts crop yields by reducing crop physiology and productivity, increasing pathogen diversity, and affecting pathogen genetic traits and speciation. The state of the environment and the availability of suitable hosts significantly impact the ability of these pathogens to survive and spread. However, PGPRs are unpredictable and soil warming can interfere with their effectiveness. Interdisciplinary collaborations between plant biologists, microbiologists, climatologists, and agronomists are required to create effective strategies to reduce the effects of climate change on plant health, crop production, and ecosystem stability.
      PubDate: 2023-09-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102955
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Sustainable Biofuel Production from Agricultural Residues an Eco-Friendly
           Approach: A Review

    • Authors: Apoorva Guddaraddi , Anita Singh , Amrutha G., D. R. K. Saikanth , Ramkishor Kurmi , Gurinder Singh , Manojit Chowdhury , Bal Veer Singh
      Pages: 2905 - 2914
      Abstract: Biofuel production from agricultural residues presents an innovative solution to the global energy challenge. This study delves into the potential of using such residues as a renewable feedstock, addressing the pressing need to transition from conventional fossil fuels. By evaluating various agricultural residues' types and characteristics, a comprehensive assessment of their worldwide availability and potential yield was undertaken. Emphasizing sustainable and eco-friendly approaches, the research underscores closed-loop systems, efficient utilization of co-products, and the imperative of a holistic life cycle assessment (LCA) for biofuel production. The LCA revealed a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, emphasizing water conservation and waste reduction during the process. Despite the evident potential, there are identifiable challenges, primarily technological research gaps, economic constraints, infrastructural limitations, and regulatory hurdles. Yet, the undeniable benefits include a notable reduction in carbon footprint, effective resource management, and a bolstered economy, especially for agrarian communities. Policies promoting sustainable farming practices, incentivizing research and development, and fostering collaborations are recommended. Such a framework can enhance biofuel infrastructure, necessitate regular monitoring, and optimize the biofuel production process. Conclusively, while challenges persist, with cohesive policy recommendations and technological innovations, agricultural residues can pivot as the linchpin in a sustainable energy future.
      PubDate: 2023-09-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102956
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Factors Influencing Adoption of Precision Farming Technologies in
           Watermelon Cultivation

    • Authors: S. Sangeetha , K. Parameswari , V. Dhanushkodi
      Pages: 2915 - 2920
      Abstract: Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is one of the important fruit crops cultivating in India. Adoption improved production technologies in watermelon cultivation is not followed by majority of the farmers. Tamil Nadu Irrigated Agriculture Modernization and Water Bodies Restoration and Management (TN IAMWARM) is a unique World Bank funded project implemented with the prime motive of increasing the productivity of irrigated agriculture in the state of Tamil Nadu. Accordingly the TNIAMWARM project was implemented in Villupuram district through Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Tindivanam with one of the interventions that dissemination of precision farming technologies in watermelon cultivation to improve its productivity. The present study analysed the factors influencing adoption of Precision farming technologies in Watermelon cultivation. Most of the respondents gave first preference to the higher yield (Mean score - 72.2) as their reason of adoption of precision farming technologies in tomato cultivation followed by yield increase, provision of subsidy. Under external factors, the respondents gave first rank to TNAU scientists (Mean score - 79.42) as the influencer to adopt the precision farming technologies in watermelon cultivation. Further, the respondents expressed that the influence of executing TNIAMWARM project (79.25) exerted some compulsion on them which was deemed as a social factor in the adoption of Precision Farming technologies.
      PubDate: 2023-09-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102957
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Studies on Symptomatology, Morphological and Molecular Characterisiation
           of Erysiphe cichoracearum Causing Powdery Mildew of Okra

    • Authors: Ashwini; R., Y. S. Amaresh , S. T. Yenjerappa , Sunil Kulkarni , D. S. Aswathanarayana
      Pages: 2921 - 2928
      Abstract: Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) is a globally important annual vegetable belongs to family malvaceae, it is most broadly distributed vegetable all over the world. Among the fungal diseases affecting okra crop, powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. is the most important disease causing considerable yield losses. The disease was characterized by the appearance of small white powdery specks on upper surface of the lower leaves which enlarged and coalesced forming bigger patches. Later on the disease spread to the upper leaves, coalescing of the white powdery specks and enlargement in their size ultimately resulted in complete coating of white fungal mass on the leaves. The morphological studies of the pathogen in the laboratory revealed, that the mycelium is septate, ectophytic, hyaline and adjacent to the mycelium, basal septum of the conidiophores was seen. The conidiophores were erect, on which conidia were produced either singly or in short chains. The conidia were found cylindrical or barrel in shape, hyaline, non-septate and measured 75.23 µm x 40.65 µm. Molecular characterisation of the native isolate resulted in the DNA amplicon at the region 531 bp. Further, DNA sequence was obtained for ITS Rdna and was deposited in NCBI gene bank. Accession number ‘MW774352’ was obtained and it was confirmed that the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew of Raichur region is Erysiphe cichoracearum.
      PubDate: 2023-09-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102958
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Recent Advances in Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.) Cultivation: A Review

    • Authors: Asangi H., Ravi Y., Ashoka N., Kavan Kumar V., Harisha C. B., Arvind K. Verma
      Pages: 2929 - 2938
      Abstract: Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.), also known as carom seed, belongs to the family Apiaceae, a native from Egypt. It is a popular seed spice crop in India. It is an annual herbaceous plant bearing small egg shaped greyish brown fruits. Seeds contain medicinal values, especially for curing indigestion, stomach pain, and elements concerning the digestive system. Thymol (30-35%), γ-terpinene (23.92%), and p-cymene (22.9%) are the major constituents present in the seeds. The essential oil extracted from Ajwain seeds is being used in minor quantities in perfumery, food flavouring as preservatives, and most extensively in folk medicines, especially for remedies of stomach disorders. Dry and hot fruit fermentation is externally applied on the chest to cure asthma, and a crushed fruit paste is applied for colic pains. Evaluation and characterization of seed spices germplasm is required for their documentation and cataloging crop wise for further use by plant breeders and biotechnologists to improve yields, quality, and resistance against biotic as well as biotic stresses. There is an urgent need to enhance the productivity and quality of the crop by adopting suitable agronomic practices such as population densities per hectare and the nutritional status of the soil. Major research is needed on pesticide residue management to earn better foreign exchange. Recent available advanced research and development have been described in this article.
      PubDate: 2023-09-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102959
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Estimation of Runoff Using USDA SCS-Curve Number and Autoregressive Time
           Series Model Parameters for Kachhinda Watershed, Morena District, Madhya
           Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Shiv Singh Basediya , Mahesh Tripathi , Rishi Pathak
      Pages: 2939 - 2948
      Abstract: Hydrological modeling is an influential method for examining hydrologic systems, serving as a valuable tool in investigating these systems for both present studies involving two hydrologic runoff models viz. Soil Conservation Service Two methods, namely the Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) method and the Autoregressive Time Series model, were utilized in the Kachhinda watershed to estimate surface runoff, CN, and AMC conditions. The study area covers 600 hectares and is sited in Morena district of M.P. in Chambal division. The SCS-CN technique was employed to determine the curve number and estimate surface runoff by using the potential maximum retention. The CN of the watershed was calculated and compared to observed and estimated surface runoff, which were found to be in close agreement with each other. Additionally, an Autoregressive Time Series model was developed to establish the correlation between observed and estimated runoff, resulting in a correlation coefficient of 0.974. Different orders of AR time series models (0, 1, and 2) were tested to predict annual stream flow, and the model goodness of fit was evaluated using the Box-Pierce Portmanteau test and the Akaike Informations Principle. The Akaike Information Criterions value for the Autoregressive (1) model for runoff was found to be 0.919158, which is within the range of the values obtained for Autoregressive (0) (0.207433) and Autoregressive (2) (5.9767) models.
      PubDate: 2023-09-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102960
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Laboratory Studies on Chromatographic Profile, Toxicity and Repellent
           Activity of Custard Apple (Annona squamosa L.) Seed Extract

    • Authors: Ilakkia M. , Premalatha K., Vellaikumar S., Shanmugam P. S., Harish S., Jayarajan Nelson S.
      Pages: 2949 - 2955
      Abstract: Plant extracts have toxic substances that can kill termites and other insect pests. Many plant extracts including Annona squamosa have been identified for their anti-termiticidal activity. This study aims to determine the chemical profile, toxicity, and repellent activities of petroleum ether extract against Odontotermes anamallensis and Microcerotermes fletcheri. The GC-MS/MS findings of petroleum ether extract of Annona showed the presence of 9-octadecenoic acid (Z)- as the predominant compound followed by Octadecanoic acid, n-Hexadecanoic acid, 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester. The probit analysis revealed LC50 values of 2.38 per cent and 3.06 per cent for O. anamallensis and M. fletcheri, respectively. Petroleum ether extract showed repellency with the repellency percent of 48.33 and 31.67 by O. anamalensis and M. fletcheri respectively.  These findings suggest that Annona seed extract is a viable source of natural insecticides against termites.
      PubDate: 2023-09-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102961
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Soil Erosion Estimation of Kunthippuzha Watershed Using GIS and RUSLE
           Model

    • Authors: Fathima Farsana , Anu Varughese , Asha Joseph
      Pages: 2956 - 2967
      Abstract: Soil erosion is an environmental crisis in the world today that threatens the natural environment and also agriculture.  Erosion removes the top fertile soil, degrades soil fertility, water quality and soil productivity. The soil erosion risk assessment is helpful for land evaluation in the regions where soil erosion is a major threat for sustainable agriculture. Modelling can provide a quantitative and consistent approach to estimate soil erosion and sediment yield under a wide range of conditions.  The soil erosion and erosion prone areas in the Kunthippuzha sub-watershed of Bharathapuzha river basin, Kerala, India was estimated using RUSLE. The study area is having a drainage area of 950 km2 up to the gauging station. The estimation was done for 1990 to 2021. The estimated rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, Slope length and slope steepness factor and crop management factors range from 929.36 and 980.38 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1, 0.01387 to 0.0385 t ha h ha−1 MJ−1 mm−1, 0 to 9.77 and 0.057796 to 1.0999. The results indicate that the estimated total annual potential soil loss of about 842175 t/y is comparable with the measured sediment of 845500 t/yr during the years 1990-2021. The soil erosion rate categorized into six classes based on the erosion severity, the major portion (60%) of the study area comes under very slight erosion zone and only a small portion (14%) comes under severe and very severe erosion zone. Result suggests the area of the north-eastern part suffers from a high soil erosion risk due to steep slope. The results can certainly aid in implementation of soil management and conservation practices to reduce the soil erosion in the Kunthippuzha sub-watershed.
      PubDate: 2023-09-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102962
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Growth and Yield of Barley
           (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    • Authors: Anchal Karol, P. K. Sharma , Akarsha Raj , Kehokhunu, Anjali Rawat , Ashline Shaji
      Pages: 2968 - 2976
      Abstract: During the Rabi season of 2018-19, a field experiment was undertaken at Vivekananda Global University's Research Farm in Jaipur to investigate the "Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Growth and Yield of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)." The experiment followed a randomized block design with three replications. The treatments consisting of nine treatment combinations viz., 100% RDF (T1), 100% RDF + vermicompost 2.5 t ha-1 (T2), 100% RDF + vermicompost 2.5 t ha-1 + Azotobacter (T3), 75% RDF (T4), 75% RDF + vermicompost 2.5 t ha-1 (T5), 75% RDF + vermicompost 2.5 t ha-1 + Azotobacter (T6), 50% RDF (T7), 50% RDF + vermicompost 2.5 t ha-1 (T8) and 50% RDF + vermicompost 2.5 t ha-1 + Azotobacter (T9) were applied to the barley var. RD-2035. The experimental results demonstrated that several integrated nutrient treatments greatly boosted barley growth, yield characteristics and yield, quality, and economics. With the application of 100% RDF + vermicompost 2.5 t ha-1 + Azotobacter (T3), the maximum plant height at 60 DAS and 90 DAS, total number of tillers at 60 DAS and 90 DAS, effective number of tillers, ear length, number of grains ear-1, grain yield, straw yield, biological yield, and nitrogen content in grain and straw of barley were obtained. However, the application of 100% RDF yielded the significantly largest net returns and B: C ratio of barley (T1).
      PubDate: 2023-09-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102963
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Organic Manure on Growth and Yield of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum
           L.) Varieties

    • Authors: Prajwal Dipak Chavan , Umesha C., Purnanand Embadwar
      Pages: 2977 - 2983
      Abstract: The field experiment was conducted during Rabi 2022, at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with ten treatments and three replications viz. T1: Radhey + Panchgavya 3%, T2: Radhya + vermicompost 2.5 t/ha, T3: Radhya + Panchgavya 3% + Vermicompost 2.5 t/ha , T4: Pragati + Panchagavya 3%, T5: Pragati +Vermicompost 2.5 t/ha, T6: Pragati + Panchagavya 3% + Vermicompost 2.5 t/ha, T7: Avrodhi + Panchgavya 3%, T8: Avrodhi + Vermicompost 2.5 t/ha, T9: Avrodhi + Panchgavya 3% + Vermicompost 2.5 t/ha and T10: Control: 100% RDF. The results of the experiment obtained that application of Panchgavya and Vermicompost along on the Pragati variety significantly increased the growth parameters viz. plant height (58.24 cm), number of nodules (62.60), plant dry weight (65.60 g/plant) and yield parameters viz. number of pods per plant (35.05), seed index (22.71 g), seed yield (3.41 t/ha) and stover yield (4.83t/ha). This treatment also showed higher gross returns (1,70,500 INR/ha), higher net returns (1,15,102 INR/ha) and B:C (2.08).
      PubDate: 2023-09-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102964
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Influence of Nitrogen and Foliar Application of Nano Zinc on Growth and
           Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    • Authors: Paritosh Singh, Umesha C.
      Pages: 2984 - 2991
      Abstract: The field experiment was conducted to find out the effect of Phosphorus and Iron on growth and yield of Wheatduring Rabi2023 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P). Totally there were ten treatments which were replicated thrice along with control plot. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design. Results that observed that Significant and higher plant height (91.47 cm), number of tillers / hill (7.60), plant dry weight (25.31 g), number of effective tillers/hill (6.00), grains/spike (49.80), test weight (43.40g), grain yield (5.90 t/ha) and straw yield (7.02 t/ha) and also maximum Gross returns (1,15,460.00INR/ha), Net returns (79,447.00INR/ha) and Benefit cost ratio (2.21) was also recorded in treatment 6 (Nitrogen 125% + Nano zinc 4ml).
      PubDate: 2023-09-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102965
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Genotype x Environment Interaction and Yield-Stability Analysis of Rice
           (Oryza sativa L.) Grown in Salt Affected Soil

    • Authors: Birendra Kumar Chaudhary, O. P. Verma, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Arvind Patel, Riju
      Pages: 2992 - 2999
      Abstract: This study was conducted during Kharif, 2019 At the Students Instructional Farm, MES and Agronomy Farm of A.N.D.U.A.T., Kumarganj, Ayodhya, the trials were set up in RBD with three replications. The experimental material comprised of 25 genotypes of rice were evaluated for 11 quantitative traits under three different environmental locations. High significant mean squares were found for all eleven research characteristics in the environment-specific analysis of variance and the pooled analysis of variance for three environments encompassing one crop season. T-3, Kavery Sampoorna, NDRK-11-27, Moti Gold, and NDRK-11-29 under irrigated circumstances were the genotypes demonstrating high mean performance for grain yield per plant and some of its significant components when considering the mean performance of genotypes under various environmental situations. Out of 25 genotypes tested in three conditions, T-3, Kavery Sampoorna, and NDRK-11-27 had the maximum grain yield per plant.In path coefficient analysis highest positive direct effects on grain yield per plant was exerted by L/B ratio (0.281), followed by panicle length (0.167), number of fertile spikelet per plant (0.092) and days to 50% flowering (0.037). On the other hand, negative direct effects on grain yield per plant was exerted by plant height (-0.255), leaf area index (-0.195), spikelet fertility (-0.187), biological yield per plant and harvest index (-0.126) and productive tillers / plant (-0.049). Positive indirect effects on spikelet fertility was recorded via biological yield per plant (0.040) followed by panicle length via biological yield per plant (0.264), productive tiller per plant biological yield per plant (0.021) and plant height via biological yield per plant (0.011). Considering the mean performance and stability parameters, three high yielding genotypes T-3, Kavery Sampoorna and NDRK-11-27 merit due consideration for recommending their exploitation as cultivars or varieties for commercial cultivation and/or as donor for hybridization programme for wide range of environments pertaining especially to different environments. In addition to these genotypes, several other genotypes exhibiting high or average mean performance, desirable non- linear response and stable nature for different characters may also be useful for exploitation as parents in hybridization programme as donors for characters for which they showed superiority even if they had average or low grain yield per plant.
      PubDate: 2023-09-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102966
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Influence of Sulphur and Molybdenum on Growth, Yield and Economics of
           Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    • Authors: Sachin Kundu, Biswarup Mehera, Prateek Kumar, Ajeet Jakhad
      Pages: 3000 - 3006
      Abstract: A research trail was conducted in Kharif 2022, at Crop research form, SHUATS, Prayagraj. To study the “Influence of Sulphur and Molybdenum on Growth, Yield and Economics of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)” The treatments consist of three levels of Sulphur (30. 35 and 40 kg/ha) and three levels of Molybdenum (0.5 %, 1% and 1.5 %). Experiment were laid out in randomized block design with 10 treatments each replicated thrice. The result showed that viz: higher plant height (52.17 cm), No. of nodules/plant (68.50), Plant dry weight (50.67 g), No. of branch/plant (9.05), No. of pods/plant (15.80), No of grain/pod (3.00), Higher Seed yield (2.71 t/ha), Stover Yield (4.30 t/ha), Gross returns (1,46,255.73 INR/ha), Net return (98,838.73 INR/ha) and Benefit cost ratio (1.91) recorded in treatment 9 Sulphur 40kg/ha + Molybdenum (1.5%).
      PubDate: 2023-09-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102967
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Biosynthesis of Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles from Coconut Fronds

    • Authors: G. Kaviyarasan, C. Sharmila Rahale, R. Shanmugasundaram, V. Palaniselvam, N. Saranya
      Pages: 3007 - 3014
      Abstract: To address the ecofriendly approach for the nano graphene oxide (nGO) synthesis, “Wealth from waste” idea utilized in this study. The synthesis process involves the controlled reduction and manipulation of nGO sheets to achieve nano-scale dimensions, resulting in nGO with improved structural integrity and enhanced surface area. Characterization of the synthesized nGO is conducted using advanced analytical tools, including Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) and Particle Size Analyser (PSA). The PSA analysis revealed, a predominantly monodisperse distribution with a peak size of approximately 314 nanometers with indicative of good dispersion uniformity. The UV-Visible spectroscopy displayed a significant absorption peak at 234 nanometers, elucidating the material’s optical characteristics. TEM images unveiled the structural features such as wrinkles, folds and nanoscale dimensions. The XRD diffractogram suggested the presence of both GO and rGO phases with unique intensity peaks at 10.33° and 32.35° shown the interlayer spacing of 3.72 and 1.11 nm respectively. These analyses provide valuable insights into the morphology, size and crystallinity present in the nGO, aiding in its structural elucidation. These findings affirm the successful conversion of coconut fronds waste into GO nanoparticles and open avenues for sustainable nanomaterial production. The unique properties of GO are utilized for water purification, oil spill cleanup, energy storage, sensors, composite materials, photodetectors, anticorrosive coatings, and so on. The biosynthesis of nano graphene oxide particles offers exciting opportunities for the development of next-generation materials with enhanced performance characteristics.
      PubDate: 2023-09-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102968
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Influence of Boron and Molybdenum on Growth, Yield and Economics of Kabuli
           Chickpea (Cicer kabulium L.)

    • Authors: Shivam Prakash Padol, Umesha C., Ridhi Das Nayak , V. Uday Kiran
      Pages: 3015 - 3022
      Abstract: A Field experiment titled “Influence of Boron and Molybdenum on growth, yield and economics of Kabuli chickpea (Cicer kabulium L.)” was conducted during Rabi 2022-2023 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P). The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.4), low in organic carbon (0.58%), available N (225 kg/ha), available P (32.30 kg/ha) and available K (350 kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with ten treatments each replicated thrice. The result showed that growth parameters of Kabuli Chickpea viz., Higher plant height (68.49 cm), dry weight (24.34 g), number of nodules per plant (41.03) and the yield attributes namely pods per plant (14.29), seeds per pod (2.00), seed yield (3.29 t/ha), stover yield (3.36 t/ha) and harvest index (43.80%) were recorded significantly higher with application of treatment 9 Boron 2 kg/ha + Molybdenum 1.5 kg/ha. The higher net returns (122,782 INR/ha), gross return (165,977 INR/ha) and B:C ratio (2.84) was recorded with application of Boron 2 kg/ha + Molybdenum 1.5 kg/ha.
      PubDate: 2023-09-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102969
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Influence of Sulphur and Zinc on Growth, Yield Attributes and Economics of
           Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

    • Authors: Anju Kundu, Biswarup Mehera, Prateek Kumar
      Pages: 3023 - 3030
      Abstract: The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with nine treatments each replicated thrice on the basis of one year of experimentation. The treatments which are T1: 2% Sulphur+0.5% zinc, T2: 2% Sulphur+ 1% Zinc, T3: 2% Sulphur + 1.5% Zinc, T4: 3% Sulphur + 0.5% Zinc, T5: 3% Sulphur +1% Zinc, T6: 3% Sulphur +1.5% Zinc, T7: 4% Sulphur + 0.5% Zinc, T8: 4% Sulphur+ 1% Zinc, T9: 4% Sulphur +1.5% Zinc, T10 N:P: K 20:40:40 kg/ha. The results showed that application of 4% Sulphur+ 1.5% Zinc was recorded significantly higher plant height (79.17 cm), nodules/ plant (30.93), Plant dry weight (22.83 g/plant), No. of pods/ plant (12.14), Test weight (100.23 g), maximum crop growth rate (8.82g/m2/day). However, higher Seed yield (1.32 t/ha), Stover Yield (3.48 t/ha) gross returns (INR84971.50/ha), net return (INR60594.40/ha) and benefit cost ratio (1.28) were obtained with application of 4% Sulphur+1.5% Zinc as compared to other treatments.
      PubDate: 2023-09-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102970
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Potassium Solubilizing Bacteria (KSB) on the Performance of
           Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. saccharata) in Potassium Sufficient Soils of
           Semi-arid Tropic

    • Authors: Santanu Kundu , Kasbe Sudhanshu Sudhakar, P. Laxminarayana, Kiran Reddy Gade
      Pages: 3031 - 3038
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted on potassium sufficient sandy loam soil (Alfisols) to evaluate the impact of potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) on the performance of rabi sweet corn. The study consisted of 10 treatments with different doses of potassium with and without KSB treatment [Seed treatment (ST) + Soil drenching (SD) at Knee height (KH) stage]. Result of this experiment indicated that sweet corn yield was gradually reduced with reduction of recommended dose of potassium (RDK) irrespective of KSB treatment. Amongst all treatments, application of 100% RDK in 2 equal splits at sowing and KH stage + KSB (ST + SD) (T10) resulted in highest growth, yield (19.7 t ha-1) and yield attributes. However, T10 was on par with the result of [100% RDK + KSB (ST) + KSB (SD) at KH stage], (50% RDK at basal + 50% RDK at KH stage), [100% RDK+ KSB (ST) +KSB (SD) at KH stage] and [75% RDK at basal + KSB (ST) +KSB (SD) at KH stage] treatments. Whereas, implication of 25% or 50% reduction of RDK was significantly inferior to 100% RDK. The study revealed that KSB could substitute 25% of RDK supplied to nutrient exhaustive crop like rabi sweet corn without compromising the economic yield in potassium rich alfisols of semi-arid tropic.
      PubDate: 2023-09-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102971
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Effect of Elevated Temperature Interaction with Elevated Carbon Dioxide on
           Physiological Quality of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Genotypes under
           Fate Condition

    • Authors: Manjunath; S., Shakuntala, N. M., Vanaja, M., Basve Gowda, Doddagoudar, S. R., Prabhuraj, A.
      Pages: 3039 - 3048
      Abstract: Four genotypes of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) viz., K-6, Naryani, Darani and K-9 were raised under Free Air Temperature Elevated (FATE) condition. The plants were raised in open rings with elevated temperature (+3°C) and carbon dioxide (550ppm) during rabi 2016 to investigate the effect of increased temperature and its interaction with CO2 on various seed quality parameters. The physiological parameters decreased under elevated CO2 and temperature. The results revealed that germination ranged from 81.5 to 90 per cent between four genotypes i.e., K-6, Naryani, Darani and K-9. Similarly speed of germination 49 to 83.02, shoot length 14.73 to 7.70, root length ranges from 20.80 to 9.50, and seedling vigour index 123.47 to 98.53 and seedling dry weight 0.919 to 0.100 g. Further, biochemical parameters like SOD, MDA and α amylase content increased at eT + eCO2 as compared to control treatment. Limited evidence suggests that only short periods of high-temperature stress at critical seed development stages are required to reduce seed vigour, but further research is required. The predicted environmental changes will lead to losses of seed quality particularly for seed vigour and possibly germination. The present study shows that temperature impacts the groundnut crop’s physiological and quality parameters.
      PubDate: 2023-09-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102972
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Assessment of Various Variability Parameters and Correlation of
           Quantitative Characters in Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines

    • Authors: Srikanth Oruganti, Neelam Sunil , G. K. Chikkappa , M. V. Nagesh Kumar, S. Vanisri
      Pages: 3049 - 3056
      Abstract: The present research problem was carried out to assess the variability parameters, heritability, genetic advance and correlations among various quantitative traits in maize inbred lines. A total of 69 inbred lines were evaluated in alpha lattice design with 2 replications at Winter Nursery Centre, Hyderabad. ANOVA results displays genotypes were significantly different from each other. From the results it was depicted that Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV) was higher than Genotypic Coefficient of Variation (GCV) indicating the influence of environment. The traits, No. of kernels per row, Cob weight, Grain yield per cob showed high GCV and PCV values likewise Days to 50% tasseling, Days to 50% silking and Days to 75% dry husk showed low GCV and PCV values. Most of the characters showed high heritability and traits such as Plant height, Tassel length, Ear length, No. of kernels per row, Cob weight and Grain yield per cob showed high GAM and its values ranged from 21.5% to 101.30%. So, the traits such as No. of kernels per row, Cob weight and Grain yield per cob can be used for further crop improvement in the breeding programme. Of all the traits under study except, Days to 50% tasseling, Days to 50% silking and Days to 75% dry husk showed positive significant correlation with grain yield per cob indicating selection for the traits will enhance the grain yield whereas the excepted traits showed negative significant association with grain yield per cob indicating selection for these traits is also essential as it reduces duration of crop.
      PubDate: 2023-09-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102973
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Impact of Climate Resilient Technology on Growth and Yield of Paddy (Oryza
           sativa L.) under Submergence Condition

    • Authors: Rajeev Singh, Pavan Singh, Hemant Kumar Singh, Kevin Christopher , Prakash Singh, Amrendra Kumar, Anjani Kumar
      Pages: 3057 - 3065
      Abstract: The submergence of rice fields is a significant issue in India's rice production, which is further aggravated by the unpredictable monsoon rain patterns and the impact of climate change. Larger variation in rainfall patterns affected by the timing of nursery raising and transplanting later in the main field therefore, we adopted Climate Resilient Technology (CRT) for rice production, Extended seedbed durations for rice seedlings allow for adequate rainfall during the monsoon season. So that the experiment was conducted at 30 farmer’s fields of NICRA village, Khana Bari, Kishanganj, Bihar, India, in 2022 under the supervision farm science Center, Kishanganj, the experiment was framed in randomized block design with ten replications. All plots received the recommended dose of fertilizers (120:60:40 kg ha-1 N.P.K.) in equal amounts. Urea, di-ammonium phosphate, and muriate of potash were used as the sources of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, respectively. To determine the growth characters i.e., plant height (cm) at harvest stage, number of effective tillers hill-1, LAI, Chlorophyll concentration (SPAD) and days to 50 per cent flowering were recorded at 90 days. Yield attributes viz., After the completion of the harvest, various observations were recorded, such as the number of panicles/m2, the number of grains per panicle, the number of filled and unfilled grains per panicle, the test weight in grams, and the yield. This encompassed grain yield, straw yield, biological yield in quintals per hectare, and harvest index percentage. During the field experiment, both the climate-resilient technology Swarna Sub1 and Sabour Sampans paddy varieties were tested. Swarna Sub1 was found to be significantly superior in terms of plant growth, yield attributes, and yield characteristics. under submergence conditions. The significant maximum grain yield (48 q ha-1), straw yield (84 q ha-1), biological yield (153 q ha-1), and harvest index (45%) were recorded in Swarna Sub-1.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102974
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Enhancing Growth and Yield of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Varieties
           through Foliar Application of Micronutrients under Field Condition

    • Authors: Deepak Kumar Rawat , C. B. Verma , Sunil Kumar Prajapati, Janki Prasad, Pushpendra Kumar , Bimlesh Kumar Prajapati, Budhesh Pratap Singh
      Pages: 3066 - 3078
      Abstract: Extensively, it is imperative to address the pervasive issue of nutrient deficiencies among humans and animals in numerous underdeveloped regions. To tackle this challenge, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of foliar applications of Zinc, Boron, and Iron on the growth, yield attributes, and overall yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties during the Rabi seasons of both 2018-19 and 2019-20. The field experiment was meticulously designed using a Split Plot Design, wherein three distinct chickpea varieties (V1-KGD-1168, V2-Radhey, and V3-KWR-108) were assigned to the main plots. The subplots were dedicated to seven micronutrient treatment combinations, namely (M1-Control), (M2-Zinc @ 0.5%), (M3-Boron @ 0.2%), (M4-Iron @ 0.1%), (M5-Zinc @ 0.5% + Boron @ 0.2%), (M6-Zinc @ 0.5% + Iron @ 0.1%), and (M7: Zinc @ 0.5% + Boron @ 0.2% + Iron @ 0.1%). Consequently, a total of 21 treatment combinations were meticulously replicated three times. The findings of the experiment unveiled that the Radhey variety significantly influenced various parameters, including plant height, the number of branches per plant, fresh plant weight, 100-seed weight (17.21, 17.25g), seed yield (2118, 2228 kg ha-1), gross return (112396, 113628 INR ha-1), net return (83154, 83616 INR ha-1), and the benefit-to-cost ratio (B: C ratio) (2.84, 2.79) of chickpea for both the years 2018-19 and 2019-20, respectively. Regarding the micronutrient treatments, the foliar application of Zinc @ 0.5% + Boron @ 0.2% + Iron @ 0.1% exhibited a notably positive impact on plant height, the number of branches per plant, fresh plant weight, 100-seed weight (16.94, 16.97g), seed yield (2162, 2276 kg ha-1), gross return (114634, 116076 INR ha-1), net return (85041, 85712 INR ha-1), and B: C ratio (2.87, 2.82) of chickpea during both the years 2018-19 and 2019-20, respectively. Based on these compelling results, farmers are strongly advised to cultivate the Radhey variety of chickpea while implementing foliar applications of Zinc @ 0.5% + Boron @ 0.2% + Iron @ 0.1% for enhanced growth and higher yields.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102975
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Assessing the Knowledge and Attitude of Farmers towards Climate Change in
           Kishanganj District, Bihar, India

    • Authors: H. K. Singh , Pavan Singh, Niraj Prakash , Rajeev Singh , Kevin Christopher
      Pages: 3079 - 3084
      Abstract: Climate change is viewed as the main problem of agriculture development in India. High dependence on agriculture and allied sectors makes the Indian state of Bihar vulnerable to climate change. Farmers' perceptions of climate change and their preferences for adaptation strategies must be understood in order to improve policies for addressing the issues that climate brings to farmers. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to understand farmer’s perception of awareness of the climate change and their perception towards coping mechanism for changing climate. A total of 240 respondents were selected using purposive sampling in the % villages of Kishanganj district from March to May 2023. A descriptive research design was used in the study. Data was collected through face to face interview method using a semi structured interview schedule and analyzed using suitable statistical tools and techniques. It was found that the majority of farmers had a medium level of socio-economic characteristics. From the study result it was found that farmers were aware of about the climate change. Farmers agreed that the peak time of seasons has changed and there is a change in the onset of monsoon. Farmers exhibited resilience to changing climate through various local adaptation practices such as Switch to timely weather forecasting information, Climate-resilient practices, etc. The findings will help to refine and enrich the knowledge among the stakeholders to provide an effective framework for decisions and policy making.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102976
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Assessment of CI Engine Performance Utilizing Palm Oil Biodiesel Blend

    • Authors: M. N. Gajera , K. P. Jishna , A. L. Vadher , N. B. Parmar , Sarman Gaadhe
      Pages: 3085 - 3093
      Abstract: Experiment was explores vegetable oils as potential future fuels for internal combustion engines, particularly compression ignition engines designed for diesel. However, these oils have distinct properties from diesel, requiring modifications for direct use. Integration approaches include adjusting oil properties or adapting engines. Commonly, transesterification aligns oil properties, but using biodiesel often affects engine performance. In this study palm oil biodiesel as a diesel substitute, evaluating engine performance and emissions. In a short-term test, engine performance and emission traits by employing biodiesel blends of 0, 20, and 50 % with diesel at full load. Findings indicated that B20 and B50 exhibited 2.40% and 3.88% lower brake power than pure diesel. Volumetric efficiency percentages were 82.44 for B20, 81.64 for B50, and 82.93 for diesel. Notably, B20 and B50 showed 9.35% and 10.70 % decreased brake thermal efficiency compared to diesel. Interestingly, B20 and B50 displayed 1.09 and 2.44 % higher mechanical efficiency than diesel. Exhaust gas temperature was notably elevated in B20 and B50 blends. Nitric oxide concentrations were 98.74 ppm for diesel, 105.48 ppm for B20, and 111.78 ppm for B50. Carbon dioxide levels decreased by 4.14% for B20 and 7.86% for B50 relative to diesel. Carbon monoxide concentrations were 0.082% for B20 and 0.080% for B50, in contrast to diesel's 0.10%.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102977
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Study of Genetic Diversity in Indian Barnyard Millet Genetic Resources
           [Echinochloa frumentacea (L.)]

    • Authors: G. Nehru , A. Trivikrama Reddy, C. V. Chandra Mohan Reddy , K. N. Sreenivasulu
      Pages: 3094 - 3110
      Abstract: Sixtyfour Indian barnyard millet genetic resources were studied to assess the extent of genetic divergence for 18 quantitative traits using Mahalanobis D2 Statistic. Sixtyfour genetic resources of Indian barnyard millet were evaluated during kharif, 2020 in a lattice square design, replicated twice at Regional Agricultural Research. Based on Tocher’s method, the entire genetic materials were separated into eight distinct and non-overlapping clusters suggesting availability of genetic diversity. Cluster I has highest number of accessions (57) and the remaining were mono genotypic clusters II, III, IV, V, VI, VII and VIII containing only one accession each indicating high degree of heterogeneity among the genotypes. The widest inter-cluster distance was recorded between clusters IV and VII. Therefore, it is concluded that the genotypes to these clusters has to be intercrossed in order to create more diversity and improving grain yield in barnyard millet. The traits, grain yield per plant and panicle weight contributed maximum towards total divergence has scope of crop improvement through those traits. Diversity of parent paly main role for the successful of any breeding programme. So the crosses can be made among the parents having widest divergence would more likely to yield desirable recombination in segregating generations.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102978
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Influence of Organic Manures and Organic Sprays on Productivity and
           Economics of Summer Greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]

    • Authors: K. Bhargavi , V. Sumathi, G. Krishna Reddy , V. Umamahesh
      Pages: 3111 - 3116
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of organic fertilizers and organic sprays on the productivity and economic parameters of summer greengram (Vigna radiata) cultivation. The experiment was designed as a split-plot design with three replications. The primary plots encompassed four organic fertilizer treatments: Control (M1), Farm yard manure (M2), Vermicompost (M3), and Poultry manure (M4). The sub-plots included three organic spray treatments: Control (S1), Panchagavya (S2), and Jeevamrutha (S3). The results of the experiment revealed that the combination of poultry manure as the organic fertilizer in conjunction with the application of Panchagavya spray had the most significant impact on both seed yield (779 kg ha-1) and haulm yield (1909 kg ha-1) for summer greengram cultivation. Furthermore, this specific combination demonstrated notably higher gross returns (₹48,648 ha-1), net returns (₹30,125 ha-1), and a favourable B C ratio of 2.60.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102979
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Impact of Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Ground Air Temperature (Tair)
           on Land Use and Land Cover (LULC): An Investigative Study

    • Authors: Duda B. Balas, Mukesh Kumar Tiwari, Mukesh Trivedi, Gautam R. Patel
      Pages: 3117 - 3130
      Abstract: The Land Surface Temperature (LST) is the fundamental concept of measuring the temperature of the ground or soil using remote sensing technologies. LST is an essential environmental parameter that has several uses in meteorology, climatology, agriculture, urban planning, and environmental monitoring. Remote sensing instruments, such as thermal infrared sensors aboard satellites, provide the means to capture LST data on a global scale. LST and ground air temperature ( ) are two related but distinct measures that provide valuable insights into different aspects: LST refers to the temperature of the Earth's surface, and it provides information about the temperature of the soil or crop canopy, which can impact plant growth and development, on the other hand  measures the temperature of the surrounding air, which influences the rate of evaporation, transpiration, and photosynthesis in plants. In this study, a linear regression equation was developed to correlate the LST and  using air temperature data of 19th March 2017, and 14th March 2021 from the two meteorological stations namely Veganpur and Main Maize Research Station (MMRS) of the Godhra region. The Landsat 8 thermal and optical bands were used to estimate LST, whereas Sentinel 2 optical data was used for the Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) purpose. To correlate LST with , eight ground truth (GT) points were collected from both stations, namely the minimum and maximum air temperatures in 2017 and 2021. The satellite derived LST data and the maximum ground air temperature ( ) were found to strongly concur, with an R2 value of 0.97. It was noted that a temperature difference of 2.9°C was found between the maximum ground air temperature  and the Land Surface Temperature (LST).  Study showed that from 2017 to 2021, the area used for agriculture, forestry, water bodies, and barren land decreased from 75.62 to 71.51%, 15.17 to 14.30%, 1.60 to 1.38%, and 0.03 to 0.02%, respectively, however the area used for build-up increased from 7.59 to 12.79%.  During a five-year period, the study identified an enhancement in Land Surface Temperature (LST) due to an increase in built-up area. A temperature change was also seen throughout the course of the five-year period as a result of variations in LULC. Overall, it came to light that, under specific conditions and speculation, LST estimated using thermal data from Landsat 8 can be closely associated with ground air maximum temperature. 
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102980
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Influence of Specific Gravity Grading Using Floatation Technique on seed
           and Seedling Quality Characteristics in Amaranthus CV. PLR 1

    • Authors: N. Tharani, V. Vijaya Geetha, V. Manonmani, M. S. Aneesa Rani, E. Parameswari
      Pages: 3131 - 3137
      Abstract: Study was undergone to evaluate the efficacy of floatation grading on the seeds of Amaranthus Cv. PLR 1 using organic solvents in Department of Seed Science and Technology, TNAU, Coimbatore during March 2023.The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design with four replications in each five treatments. We considered four organic solvents viz., Acetone, Methanol, Dichloromethane and Petroleum Ether along with water and observed the seed recovery percentage, germination percentage, root length, shoot length and vigour index of all the treatments. The results showed that sinker fraction regardless of organic solvent and water performed better than floater fraction. The grading ability of Dichloromethane was greater among the assessed organic solvents. The sinkers seed recovery percent of dichloromethane (93%) was higher than sinkers recovered by water (63%). Also, the sinkers of dichloromethane recorded higher germination percent(77%) and vigour index(304) than the sinkers of water whose germination percent is 55% and vigour index is 272.This specific gravity grading using dichloromethane can be adopted to segregate well filled and ill filled seeds in a seed lot of Amaranthus. This method of floatation grading is a good substitute for sieve grading which requires skilled labour and availability of specific size sieve to properly segregate seeds. So, this can be used as an alternate method for grading Amaranthus seeds.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102981
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Performance Assessment of Japanese Mint Varieties for Growth under Open
           Field and Vertical A-Frame Structure

    • Authors: Aneesha J., Muthulakshmi S., Nageswari K., Venkatesan K., Venkatesan K.
      Pages: 3138 - 3144
      Abstract: Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L.), is a member of the family Lamiaceae which is a perennial herbaceous aromatic plant but cultivated as an annual for culinary purpose as leafy vegetable and as natural menthol extraction. It is a major source of raw material for flavours and fragrance industry. Urban regions are losing cultivable land every day and it has become extremely difficult to produce fresh vegetables of high quality. By using vertical structures, vertical space can be utilized while increasing the quality of vegetable production. This experiment was conducted at Department of Vegetable Science, Horticultural College & Research Institute, Periyakulam during 2022-2023 to evaluate the performance of nine varieties viz., Kosi (V1), CIM-Kranti (V2), Himalaya (V3), Kalka (V4), MAS-1 (V5), Saksham (V6), Gomti (V7), Seelayampatti local (V8) and Bangalore hybrid (V9) under open field (G1) and vertical A-frame structure (G2) condition. One vertical A-frame structure is used in this study which contain 516 holes for planting. Among the nine varieties, Saksham (V6) showed increase in growth parameters in both conditions. The observations on growth parameters were recorded for plant height(cm), number of leaves, root length(cm), fresh weight of roots(g) and dry weight of roots(g). Saksham variety in vertical A-frame structure yielded maximum plant height (53.05 cm), number of leaves (112.73), root length (39.92 cm), fresh weight of roots (3.204g) and dry weight of roots (0.874g) followed by the variety CIM-Kranti in vertical A-frame structure (48.83cm, 77.61, 37.75cm, 2.582g and 0.648g). As a result, the interactive action of G2V6 showed maximum growth due to the availability of nutrients in the root system and timely application of water and nutrient helped in better plant parameters.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102982
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Enhancing Yield and Biological Efficiency of Volvariella volvaceae through
           Non-Conventional Cultivation Methods

    • Authors: Gopinath V., M. Elangovan, Nisha Thakur, M. K. Biswas
      Pages: 3145 - 3151
      Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the impact of Different Non- Conventional methods of Cultivation on yield and biological efficiency of Volvariella volvaceae. Among the different methods viz., bed method, partial compost method (3 days), partial compost method (6 days), partial compost method (9 days), intact straw + partial compost, Chopped paddy straw in polythene bags, Rolled paddy straw in polythene bag were experimented on yield and biological efficiency. However, the bed method of cultivation proved its well suitability among all the methods tested and gave highest yield and biological efficiency (1920 g and 15.0%) followed by partial compost method (3 days), single layer of straw + partial compost, partial compost (6 days) which exhibited (1025 g and 10.25%), (840 g and 8.40%) and (720 g and 7.20%) respectively.  Maximum average weight of sporophore (24.6 g) was observed from bed method of cultivation which was significantly superior amongst all the methods evaluated followed by partial compost (3 days), single layer of straw + partial compost, partial compost (9 days) at 18.30 g, 16.15g and 15.5 g respectively. Smaller sizes of sporophores were noticed on partial compost (6 days) at average weight of 15 g. Average weight of sporophores noticed in chopped paddy straw and rolled paddy in polythene bag method were 12.2 g and 10 g respectively. Considering the major drawback of Volvariella that it has very low biological efficiency, bag method of cultivation was aimed to increase the biological efficiency of paddy straw mushroom.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102983
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Seed Treatment Effects on Seed Quality and Longevity of Soybean Seed
           Collected from Different Locations in Telangana State, India

    • Authors: Pavan Kumar Gaddam, Bharathi Y. , Jagan Mohan Rao P., Rajender Reddy M.
      Pages: 3152 - 3163
      Abstract: The soybean seed (JS 335) was collected from 8 different seed production locations in Telangana state and were treated with different seed treatment chemicals. The seed quality parameters of soybean seed kept at ambient conditions in gunny bag were recorded at monthly intervals during storage. The results revealed that, among the various seed treatments chemicals, the seeds treated with Xelora (Thiophanate Methyl 45% + Pyraclostrobin 5% FS) @ 2 g kg-1 recorded significantly high seed quality parameters viz., seed germination per cent, seedling vigour index-II, field emergence, moisture per cent, seed infection per cent and low electrical conductivity compared to all other treatments. Among the seeds collected from different seed production locations the seed collected from Nirmal location had shown better seed quality parameters.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102984
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Comparative Studies on Nutritional and Phytochemical Composition of Three
           Milky Mushroom Varieties

    • Authors: Prameela M., Kumari A. J.
      Pages: 3164 - 3169
      Abstract: Milky mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C) is a tropical potentially new species gaining popularity and demand by the mushroom growers especially in South India.As biochemical composition of milky mushrooms are influenced by the growing environmental conditions, research pertaining to these aspects is very meagre and also to compare the nutritional and biochemical composition of three milky mushroom species so that the best species can be selected by the growers, hence the present research work has been taken up to estimate the concentration of proteins, carbohydrates and phytochemical compounds like phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins in three varieties of milky mushrooms namely Calocybe indica, Calocybe gambosa and APK-2 in Mushroom Cultivation Scheme, Department of Plant Pathology, Hyderabad. The results revealed the presence of highest protein and carbohydrates content in Calocybe indica (15.9g, 2.7g) followed by APK-2 (11.2g and 2.1g) and C. gambosa (10.0g and 1.6g) and highest fats in APK-2 (2.0g), followed by C. gambosa(1.4g) and least in C. indica (1.3g) respectively. The secondary metabolites phytochemicals like phenols and tannins were highest content in C. indica (2.3 gm, 1.9mg) followed by C. gambosa (2.2gm, 1.6 mg) and next followed by APK-2 (2.1 gm, 1.5mg). Highest flavonoid content was recorded in C. indica and APK-2 of 1.5mg and least was recorded in C. gambosa of 1.4mg. Highest content of alkaloid was recorded in C. indica of 1.8mg, followed by APK-2 (1.6mg) and C. gambosa (1.5mg).
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102985
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Carbon Sequestration in Low Land Paddy Soils: Effect of Certain Cultural
           and Nutrient Management Practices: A Review

    • Authors: Senthilvalavan P., M. V. Sriramachandrasekharan, R. Manivannan, C. Ravikumar, M. Lalitha, U. Surendran, Pritpal Singh
      Pages: 3170 - 3190
      Abstract: Carbon(C) is the only key to running in this worldly life and without carbon, nothing can be ensured, but the amount and form of C in different spheres of the earth make numerous changes. Changes in the carbon levels cause the lives of all living things. Soil carbon flux directly or indirectly affects the global climate and thus agriculture productivity. To ensuring the human rations, protection is intended for the rising populace worldwide, where the critical challenges in the agriculture sector are inevitable. Improved soil and nutrient supervisions and cultural practices are very imperative to tackling these troubles. Augmenting the productivity of various agro-ecosystems, soil productiveness, and carbon accretion via certain approaches become a must concern towards sustainable food production. “Paddy soils form the huge area of artificial swamplands on the earth, and serves as food basket for the world population also responsible for sequestering soil organic carbon potentially”. Rice accounts for around 9-10 % of the total cropland area globally, and their environmental conditions are responsible for storing organic carbon in soil, methane (CH4) production, and emit nitrous oxide (N2O) in meager amount. The present review signifies the present and future potential agricultural management practices, particularly soil and plant nutrition and their effects on soil organic carbon storage (SOCS) and carbon sequestration (CS) by paddies grown under submerged conditions compared to other crops. Increasing carbon inputs and reducing SOC losses in low land paddy soils need attention as its concern with GHGs that implies direct causes of global climate. As future direction, life-cycle assessments of certain practices in low land paddy soils helps in assessing the carbon footprints and sustaining the crop productivity consequently mitigating climate change. With this view, this review study was taken to the life of carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem and its accumulation in low land paddy soils moderated by cultural and nutrient management practices adapted for rice production in low lands.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102986
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Selective Isolation and Characterization of Phytophthora infestans from
           Potatoes Using Rye Agar Media in India

    • Authors: Lingareddy Usha Rani, G. Senthilraja, P. Parameshwari, V. Paranidharan, D. Jeya Sundara Sharmila, M. Raveendran, Sanjeev Sharma, Priyank Hanuman Mhatre
      Pages: 3191 - 3199
      Abstract: Phytophthora infestans is a pathogen that causes late blight, a major disease of potatoes. The isolation of P. infestans from infected potato plants using agar media has been challenging. This study investigated the use of Rye A and Rye B agar media for the isolation of P. infestans from infected potato tubers collected from the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu during 2022. The media were evaluated for hyphal growth, sporangial production, oospore formation, and long-term storage of P. infestans. Phenotypic diagnosis based on cultural and morphological characteristics confirmed the identity of P. infestans. The results were confirmed by a molecular identification test using primers specific to P. infestans. Pathogenicity tests were carried out to assess the virulence of the isolates. This study provides a useful protocol for the selective isolation and characterization of P. infestans, the potato late blight pathogen.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102987
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Impacts of Sodium Hypochlorite on Humans and Environment

    • Authors: Satyajeet Arya, Sonam Gupta, Sunidhi Thakur, Ajay Kumar Mishra
      Pages: 3200 - 3217
      Abstract: Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) usage is increased extraordinarily after COVID-19. After lockdown, NaOCl is used as a disinfectant at every possible public and private place. Hospitals and Institutions were using it for the same purpose. In this study, NaOCl chemistry is investigated. Its impact on humans and the environment is also analyzed from the available literature. Although, some immediately recent research papers are also considered and mentioned in this paper. This paper also encapsulates information about NaOCl usage, advantage, comparison with other disinfectants, importance, precautions, etc. This study concludes the standardized use of NaOCland also recommends the policy required for its use.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102988
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)
       
  • Micro-plastics in Aquatic Environment: Source, Fate, Emerging Threats, and
           Regulatory Effort

    • Authors: Moses Kamau , Mwakio Tole , Mohamed K. Timamy
      Pages: 3218 - 3225
      Abstract: Presences of plastics in aquatic environment, and their possible cascading along the food chain are an environmental concern. To understand the current setup in plastics pollution, we submit the evolution of the plastics industry, the production process, and the magnitude of plastics produced and plastic waste generated. In the second section, we give an over view of sources of micro plastics in aquatic environment including; domestic, leisure, aquaculture, maritime activities and horticulture. Thirdly, we address the behavior and distributions of micro plastics in aquatics system (rivers, estuaries, lakes and ocean) and their matrixes (surfaces, water column, and sediments). In fourth section, we raise the insidious natures of micro plastics pollutions, as a threat to life, and, in the fifth section we identify the developments in policies that targets to mitigate plastic pollution.
      PubDate: 2023-09-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102989
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2023)