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International Journal of Environment and Climate Change
Number of Followers: 28  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2581-8627
Published by SCIENCEDOMAIN international Homepage  [66 journals]
  • Biology of Maize Stem Borer Chilo partellus [Swinhoe] under Laboratory

    • Authors: Ravi Kumar Rajak , Pankaj Kumar , Ragni Devi , Umesh Chandra , Sameer Kumar Singh , Kamal Ravi Sharma , Ram Veer
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Maize is one of the main cereal crops that is grown worldwide for food, fodder, and raw materials. It's a great source of vitamins, carbohydrates, and proteins. Because of the daily attacks by over 250 insect species and mites, maize yield is declining. The most damaging insect pest to maize production is Chilo partellus, sometimes known as the maize stem borer. A laboratory setting was used to grow the corn stem borer, C. partellus, in Department of Entomology, Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Ayodhya, U.P. during 2023. The complete metamorphosis (egg, larva, pupa and adult) was recorded in C. partellus. The egg incubation period was 3.80 ± 0.79 days on average. There were six larval instar of C. partellus and total larval period was 29-37 days. The development phase of first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth larval instar was 3-4, 4-6, 6-7, 7-8, 7-8 and 2-4 days respectively on maize leaves. The average pupal period was 7.00±0.96 days. The female was long lived than male. The total developmental period from egg to adult was 37-51 days.
      PubDate: 2024-01-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23913
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Exploring the Role of Robotic Automation in Climate Vulnerability
           Mitigation: Towards Sustainable Horticulture

    • Authors: Anwesha Sharma , Shivam Kumar , Anand Singh , Sunil Kumar, Saurabh, Harish Chandra Yadav , Sanjay Hazarika , Rokibul Hasan
      Pages: 6 - 13
      Abstract: This paper investigates the potential of robotic automation in addressing climate vulnerability within the context of horticulture. As climate change intensifies, horticultural systems face increasing challenges, impacting crop yields, resource management, and environmental sustainability. The paper delves into the concept of leveraging robotic automation as an innovative solution to mitigate climate vulnerabilities in horticulture. It explores the benefits and challenges associated with the integration of robotic technologies in agricultural practices. By examining case studies and emerging trends, the paper highlights how robotic automation can contribute to sustainable horticulture practices. Ultimately, the study emphasizes the importance of aligning technological advancements with environmental resilience, paving the way for a more resilient and sustainable future for horticulture.
      PubDate: 2024-01-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23914
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Revolutionizing Guava Food Processing: A Fresh Perspective

    • Authors: Balaji Vikram , Dharmendra Kumar Gautam , Manjunath Sharanappa Tondihal , Shweta Chaturvedi , Sameer Verma , Harish Chandra Yadav , Abhishek Sonkar , Tekchand Nayak
      Pages: 14 - 22
      Abstract: This study investigates the contemporary shift in guava processing paradigms, capitalizing on technological advancements, sustainable practices and value addition. Exploring novel methods, the research aims to revolutionize traditional guava processing by enhancing efficiency, quality and sustainability. Through the integration of cutting-edge techniques, the article envisions a transformative era in guava processing, fostering advancements in production and product utilization. This innovative approach responds to consumer demands for healthier, sustainable choices, promising a future in guava processing that aligns with dynamic global culinary preferences.
      PubDate: 2024-01-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23915
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Nutri-Gardens: A Way to Manage Malnutrition and Ensure Food Security

    • Authors: Selvarani K., Subathra B.
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: Aims: This opinion article aims to discuss about the origin of Nutri-garden and different designs of Nutri-garden and its major contributions on eradicating malnutrition/under nutrition and ensuring food security and diet diversity in India. Origin: Nutri-garden is the advanced form of home/kitchen garden and the recent awareness on importance of Nutri-garden /Poshan Vatikas is created by Union Ministry of Women and Child Development and the Ministry of Ayush, Government of India. Nutri-Garden Layout and Model: Generally, circular and rectangle designs are followed in Nutri-garden. Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bengaluru, preferred rectangular shape Nutri-garden when compared to square shape garden. Impacts of Nutri-Garden on Nutritional/Health Disorders: Fruits and vegetable are the important sources of micronutrients needed for disease and disorder free life. Healthier diets can be maintained by consuming fruits and vegetables, the supplementation of macro and micronutrients from fruits and vegetables maintain healthy blood pressure, fiber content in fruits and vegetables reduces blood cholesterol and lowers the risk of heart diseases. Nutri-garden Design, Development and Dissemination: For individual family the Nutri-garden can be designed according to the family members requirements and the availability of land. If the garden designed and developed for particular location by KVKs and Research Institutes can be disseminated through various trainings and rural women and Self Help Groups (SHGs). Nutri-garden for Self-sustainability under Climate Change: Global development practitioners have attempted to capture the diverse coping mechanisms and adaptive tactics used by the farming community. Kitchen gardening is one such strategy that improves farm-family resilience in the face of climate change Conclusion: Nutri-garden is the efficient tool to combat against human malnutrition and health disorders. The low farm yield under climate change can be compensated through increasing number of self sustained Nutri-Gardens. Nutri-Garden shall be maintained also in School campus and public buildings. Nutri-garden ensures the house hold nutritional security and it is the cheapest strategy to maintain human health.
      PubDate: 2024-01-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23916
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Study of Correlation Analysis and Path Analysis in Different Genotypes of
           Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.)

    • Authors: G. R. Andhale, V. V. Bhavsar, M. B. Goykar , V. Y. Pawar, V. V. Thorat
      Pages: 30 - 44
      Abstract: The present investigation was carried out as a field experiment for the evaluation of fifty genotypes for various traits and multivariant analysis. The research aims to study correlation between grain yield and its yield-contributing characteristic. The investigation was carried out at the Bajara Research Scheme, College of Agriculture, Dhule in 2021. Correlation studies revealed that grain yield per plant showed a significant positive association with traits such as plant height, productive tillers, panicle girth, panicle length, and test seed weight. While iron and zinc showed a non-significant positive genotypic correlation; negative correlation with days 50 percent flowering, days to maturity, and protein content. Analysis of direct and indirect effects for effective selection.
      PubDate: 2024-01-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23917
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • An Economic Analysis of Gerbera Under a Climate Controlled Polyhouse

    • Authors: M. Vijayalaxmi , H. Srinivasarao
      Pages: 45 - 52
      Abstract: The study was carried out ten varieties of gerbera under naturally ventilated polyhouse during Department of Horticulture, College of Horticulture, SKLTSHU, Hyderabad during the year of 2015-2016. Gerbera cultivating area in India has been increasing gradually during the last decade due to its increasing demand in the market. Polyhouse cultivation of gerbera is used to protect plants from adverse climatic conditions. The freshness and long-lasting characteristics of this flower are delight to use it in the parties, wedding functions, flower arrangements, and flower bouquets in the form of ornamental flowers. Commercial value of this flower is very high in India. Among several cut flowers grown under controlled environments, gerbera has its importance because of its unique petal colors, long vase-life and market demand. In tropical and subtropical climate, gerbera is growing in greenhouses to produce quality flower. Present study was conducted to determine the cost and returns of gerbera cultivation in polyhouse. Benefit cost ratio is an important factor which decides the optimum level of inputs to be used for maximization of production and returns in any crop. The total cost of cultivation of gerbera when cultivated under polyhouse of 1000 m2 (0.10 ha) was Rs. 394223 with an income of Rs. 875000, resulting in a BCR of 2.22. The financial feasibility tests like NPV, BCR and IRR were also positive and proved that investing on gerbera under polyhouse condition was profitable.
      PubDate: 2024-01-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23918
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Climate's Imprint on America's Food Lifeline: A Critical Analysis of
           Supply Chain Adaptations in the Face of Environmental Shifts

    • Authors: Andrew Everton Raffington , Joseph Seun Adesiyan
      Pages: 53 - 68
      Abstract: In the unfolding narrative of climate change, its impact on the stability and resilience of food supply chains is becoming increasingly critical. "Climate's Imprint on America's Food Lifeline" delves into a comprehensive analysis of how the U.S. food supply chain is adapting to the challenges posed by environmental shifts. This research navigates through the intricate interplay between climate change and supply chain management, spotlighting innovative resilience strategies against emerging threats. Employing a mixed-method approach, the study integrates quantitative data with business case  insights from industry experts. It begins by dissecting the multifaceted impacts of climate change on agricultural production and logistics, including extreme weather events and their cascading effects like price volatility and supply shortages. This exploration extends to evaluating the socioeconomic repercussions that these supply chain disruptions entail. At its core, the research investigates adaptive measures ranging from diversification of sourcing to the adoption of sustainable practices and cutting-edge technologies. The efficacy of these strategies is critically assessed, focusing on their capacity to fortify supply chain resilience and promote sustainability. Further, the paper delves into the policy landscape, examining how governmental actions and regulations are shaping supply chain responses. It underscores the significance of public-private partnerships and policy support in steering the industry toward resilience. The findings reveal a paradigm shift towards more integrated and proactive risk management in the face of climate change. Despite formidable challenges, the paper identifies substantial opportunities for innovation and industry transformation. Concluding with actionable recommendations, this study serves as a vital resource for policymakers, industry stakeholders, and researchers. It underscores the imperative for collaborative efforts in tackling the multifaceted challenges climate change poses to the food supply chain, highlighting the need for robust, adaptive strategies to safeguard the future of America's food lifeline.
      PubDate: 2024-01-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23919
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Genetic Estimations of Available Quality Traits for Improved Growth Yield
           of Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch) in Kumarganj, India

    • Authors: Anjali, G. C. Yadav, C. R. Harshitha , Abinash Kumar Patel , Abhishek Gautam
      Pages: 69 - 73
      Abstract: Pumpkin is one of the most economically important and nutritious member of the  family Cucurbitaceae. The present investigation was conducted to evaluate genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in per cent of mean among the 30 genotypes including one check variety (Narendra Agrim) for 21 qualitative and quantitative traits. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with three replication ,the observations were recorded on the traits like days to 50% staminate flower anthesis , days to 50% pistillate flower anthesis, node no. to first staminate flower anthesis, node no. to first pistillate flower anthesis, vine length, no. of nodes, no. of primary branches, inter-nodal length, days to first fruit harvest, polar circumference, equatorial circumference, flesh thickness, cavity, average fruit weight, no. of fruits per plant, total soluble solids, reducing sugars, non reducing sugars, total sugars, fruit yield per plant. The analysis of variance for the design of experiments indicated highly significant difference among the genotypes for all 21 characters. The four genotypesviz.NDPK-17-12-1,NDPK-23,NDPK-P-6 and NDPK-32-1-2 were found significantly superior for fruit yield per plant over the check variety (NarendraAgrim).The PCV was higher than the GCV and was found highest for the trait fruit yield per plant, the presence of high heritability in broad sense along with high genetic advance in per cent of mean were observed for fruit yield per plant.Therefore,from the above obtained results it can be concluded that the characters will result in effective crop improvement for higher yield and yield contributing traits.
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23920
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Studies on Variability on Isolates of Neovossia indica Causing Karnal Bunt
           of Wheat and Screening of Wheat Varieties

    • Authors: Tanya Rathore , Kirti Vardhan Pandey , Rohit Kumar Singh , Deepoo Singh , Shwetank Singh , Ayush Kumar , Abhishek Tiwari , Mandeep Singh , Puskar Shukla
      Pages: 74 - 78
      Abstract: A basic meal consumed by people all over the world, wheat is traded more globally than all other crops combined. Tilletia indica is the cause of Karnal bunt, also known as "Partial bunt," which affects wheat and is one of the most significant seed-borne diseases. It has significant effects on the wheat trade because most importing nations require that there be no trace of Karnal bunt in wheat imported. To assess responses to disease, ten different genotypes of wheat were sown in matched rows. We planted K1006 and PBW343, two susceptible checks, following each genotype. An athichmist was established for a duration of thirty days, and all suggested agricultural practices were adhered to. The genotypes that demonstrated resistance to the pathogen (below 10% disease intensity) were PBW 343 and K-1006 (2 genotypes). The genotypes with a modest response were K-9107 and K-9162 (two genotypes with a score below 15%). The reactivity of the K793 and K 9006 2 genotypes was somewhat sensitive (below 40% score). The genotypes K9465 HD 2824, K0307, and C306 all showed extremely sensitive reactivity (score exceeding 40%).
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23921
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Association Studies in Red Rice Mutant Lines of IRGA-318-11-6-9-2B

    • Authors: Nachiketha; T. K., Shridevi A. Jakkeral, Dushyanthakumar, B. M., G. N. Thippeshappa, Jayashree, S
      Pages: 79 - 86
      Abstract: Rice is the important cereal food crop. It provides 20% of the world's dietary energy and predominant dietary energy source. It is estimated that the demand for rice will be 137.30 million tonnes by 2050. In order to achieve this, the production per unit area needs to be increased by mutation in turn creating variation. Induced mutants were grown in the field during Kharif 2022 at the Zonal Agricultural and Horticultural Research Station, Brahmavar, Udupi District, Karnataka the results showed grain yield had positive correlations with several traits including number of productive tillers, number of grains per panicle, panicle weight, spikelet fertility, flag leaf length and width but negative correlations with days to fifty per cent flowering, days to maturity, and plant height. Days to maturity, flag leaf length, plant height, panicle weight, number of productive tillers per plant per plant, number of grains per panicle, spikelet fertility and grain length showed a direct positive effect on grain yield. This indicated the effectiveness of direct selection for these traits in improvement of grain yield per plant. Days to fifty per cent flowering, flag leaf width, panicle length, test weight, number of filled grains per panicle, panicle length, and grain breadth had negative direct effects on grain yield per plant.
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23922
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Foraging Behavior and Pollination Efficiency of Honey Bee Species on Apple
           Ber (Z. mauritiana Lamk.)

    • Authors: Vishesh Yadav , Manoj Kumar Jat , Sunita Yadav , Harish Kumar , Sunny Maanju , Pooja Yadav
      Pages: 87 - 93
      Abstract: The foraging behavior and pollination efficiency of honey bee species on Apple ber (Z. mauritiana Lamk.) were carried out in the Apple ber orchard situated at the Horticulture Experimental Area and P.G. Laboratory of the Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during 2022. The maximum foraging rate was observed in Apis dorsata (19.47 flowers per minute) and lowest foraging rate was observed in Apis florea (8.29 flowers/minute). The maximum mean foraging speed was observed in Apis florea 6.22 seconds for nectar reward and it was lowest in Apis dorsata (2.33 seconds) for pollen reward. The loose pollen grains (LPG) carrying capacity was highest for Apis dorsata (109584) followed by Apis mellifera (71827) and it was lowest for Apis florea (42806). The maximum Relative Pollination efficiency (RPE) was recorded in Apis dorsata (16.21) followed by Apis mellifera (14.45) and it was lowest in case of Apis cerana (4.90). It was observed that pollen (13.18) and nectar+pollen (13.05) foragers exhibited maximum and second maximum RPE, respectively.
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23924
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Organic Farming at Eastern Ghat Hill: A Boon to Tribal Farmers

    • Authors: C. Sharmila Bharathi
      Pages: 94 - 99
      Abstract: Kollihills is a small mountain range located at the tail end of the Eastern Ghats in Namakkal District of Tamil Nadu. Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Namakkal is being implemented Paramparaghat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) scheme at Elangiyampatti and Ariyur Nadu villages of Kollihills, Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu since 2019. Local group formed in the name of KVK Masila PKVY Farmers group with 21 tribal farmers covering in an area of 20 ha. The crops covered under organic farming are Black pepper, Cardamom, Hill banana, Coffee, Vegetables, Tapioca and Millets. Initially 12 capacity building programmes were conducted to the tribal farmers on organic farm management, organic input production for soil fertility management, adoption of PGS standards in field practices and PGS certification. The tribal farmers started organic cultivation by using vermicompost, panchakavya, IISR Tricho capsules, bio fertilizers and waste decomposer application produced by their own. They did primary processing of organic spices and plantation crops by using primary processing unit established by KVK under TSP scheme and maintained by these farmers group. After completion of 3 years organic farming practices, all the tribal farmers got organic certification. They harvested 1370 kg of black pepper, 145 kg of Cardamom, 1700 kg of coffee beans, 625 bunches of hill banana, 9.1 tonnes of vegetables and 1.4 tonnes of millets per 0.4 ha area and sold the organic produce with brand name to nearby markets in Namakkal, Salem, Karur and Erode. They realized a net income of Rs.301500 from black pepper, Rs.317050 from caradamom, Rs.93700 from coffee, Rs.155400 from hill banana, Rs.112580 and Rs.23930 from Millets each in an area of 0.4 ha.
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23925
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Evaluation of Different Varieties and Genotypes of Aonla (Emblica
           officinalis Gaertn.) under Sodic Soil Condition of Eastern Uttar Pradesh,

    • Authors: Aman Kumar Maurya, Bhanu Pratap , Abhishek Sonkar , Saurabh Tiwari , Garima Yadav , Ravi Pratap , Brijesh Patel , Pradeep Kumar
      Pages: 100 - 105
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) varieties and genotypes for their growth and development of fruits (flowering and fruiting), physical attributes and yield under the sodic soil condition of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. The evaluated varieties and genotypes had a significant variation for the recorded parameters. The maximum flowering duration among the varieties was recorded in BSR-1 (27 days) whereas, the minimum duration of flowering was observed in NA-6 (23 days) and Chakaiya (23 days). Among the selected varieties and genotypes, fruit weight, fruit length, and diameter were recorded maximum in genotype NA-25, and the maximum fruit drop at the maturity stage was found in BSR-1 (80.60%). The maximum yield (kg/plant) was recorded in NA-26 (80.35 kg/plant). The maximum fruit volume was recorded in NA-25 (54.2) with the maximum pulp weight (55.02g) and the pulp: stone ratio was recorded highest in NA-25 (28.10). The maximum specific gravity was recorded in Anand-1 (1.07).
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23926
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Effect of Sulphur Application on Yield, Nutrient Uptake and Quality of
           Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    • Authors: S. S. Hadole , P. A. Sarap , Mayur Sarode , Y. A. Reddy, A. B. Aage , S. D. Nandukar, S.T. Dangore
      Pages: 106 - 120
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Pulse Research Station in Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, Maharashtra from the period of Rabi 2020-21 to 2022-23 to study the effect of sulphur application on yield, Nutrient Uptake and quality of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The experiment was laid out in Randomized block design (RBD) with 9 treatments and 3 replications. The study revealed that the application of sulphur application is significantly influenced the yield, Nutrient uptake and quality. The highest Grain yield in Kilograms per hectare (2418 kg ha-1) and straw yield (3016 kg ha-1) were recorded with the application of S @30 kg ha-1 through Bentonite sulphur along with Recommended dose of fertilizers and it was found significantly superior over all the treatments. Similarly maximum N, P, K, S and micronutrient uptake and improved quality were observed with application of @ 30 kg ha-1 through Bentonite sulphur along with Recommended dose of fertilizers followed by the treatment of application of S @ 30 kg ha-1 through Gypsum + RDF.
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23934
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Agronomic Response of System of Finger Millet Intensification Technique on
           Growth and Yield of Organic Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L.)

    • Authors: Victor Debbarma, Thomas Abraham , Vikram Singh , Rajendra B. Lal
      Pages: 106 - 120
      Abstract: The experiment was carried out during Kharif season 2016 and 2017 at Crop Research Farm, SHUATS Model of Organic Farm (SMOF), Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P.) to study the ‘Agronomic response of System of Finger millet Intensification technique on growth and yield of organic finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.)’. The pooled data recorded that SFMI technique has significant and highest plant height (86.12 cm), maximum number of tillers/ hill (13.08), higher plant dry weight (22.946 g/ hill), maximum number of effective tillers/ hill (12.14), longest spike length (4.01 cm), highest number of grains/ spike (1913.63), highest grain yield (3.23 t/ ha), highest straw yield (7.34 t/ ha) and higher harvest index (43.86%). The pooled data also recorded that CTFM has significant and highest crop growth rate (17.853 g/ m2/ day) at 75 to 90 DAS intervals. Considering poultry manure (16 t/ ha) pooled data showed significant and highest plant height (85.89 cm), maximum number of tillers/ hill (12.88), higher plant dry weight (22.946 g/ hill), maximum number of effective tillers/ hill (11.97), longest spike length (3.98 cm), highest number of grains/ spike (1908.46), higher grain yield (3.25 t/ ha), highest straw yield (7.38 t/ ha) and higher harvest index (44.01%). The data also recorded highest benefit cost ratio by System of Finger millet Intensification technique along with organic sources of nutrient by Poultry manure (1.7 t/ ha) during both the years and in average.
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23927
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Monitoring the Impacts of Artificial Recharge Structures on Water Table at
           Ambedkar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Sonveer Singh , Arpan Sherring
      Pages: 121 - 127
      Abstract: To study the groundwater recharge through rainfall and artificial recharge structures in selected dry well in different locations of UP was experimented. The data was recorded (1998-2017) to execute the artificial recharge structure at the appropriate locations with best geological condition to enhance the recharge rate at least cost for control of declining groundwater level. Study reveals that the stochastic auto regressive lime series model is an effective tool for management of ground water resource at pre and post monsoon. The variation of pre and post monsoon ground water level is maximum as the physical soil characteristics including hydraulic conductivity may enhance the recharge rate at least cost.
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23928
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Assessment of Capsicum (Capsicum annuum) Varietal Performance in Natural
           Ventilation Polyhouse Settings

    • Authors: Rahul Rathore , Vijay Bahadur
      Pages: 128 - 134
      Abstract: An experiment entitled, "Assessment of Capsicum (Capsicum annuum) Varietal Performance in Natural Ventilation Polyhouse Settings." was conducted at Horticulture Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, during the year 2022-23. Ten Capsicum Varieties, Names Sweet Pepper Nemalite, Sweet Pepper Cebrail, Sweet Pepper Bungi. Capsicum Varun, Sweet Pepper Volante, Shehzadi. Alpine 8510, Alpine 8248, Capsicum Orange and Capsicum IMP were evaluated at SHUATS, Prayagraj in randomized block design with three replications during winter season 2022-23 to evaluate best performing variety in terms of growth, yield and quality. The Sweet Pepper Volante was found maximum performance with the maximum fruit weight (154.20g), Fruit length (8.83cm), Fruit yield per plant (1.47 kg), Fruit yield (17.72 q/200 sq. m.). Sweet Pepper Volante was found superior based on overall performance in term of growth, yield and quality and highest cost benefit ratio (2.79) was found for capsicum in Sweet Pepper Volante variety under naturally ventilated polyhouse condition.
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23929
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Phenological Variation in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Varieties through
           Foliar Application of Cytokinin Analogs and Nutrients under Water Deficit

    • Authors: Madhana Keerthana S, R Shiv Ramakrishnan, Gangishetti Ranjithkumar, Bakeshwar Yadav, Anubha Upadhyay, R K Samaiya, Radheshyam Sharma, Ashish Kumar
      Pages: 135 - 148
      Abstract: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), a rainfed crop predominantly grown in temperate and subtropical climates, faces significant challenges in production due to terminal drought stress impacting various phenological stages. This study addresses the challenges posed by terminal drought stress on the phenological stage of chickpea varieties viz., JG 36 and JG 14. The experiment was conducted during the Rabi seasons of 2021-2022 and 2022-2023 at the Experimental Research Farm, Seed Technology Research Unit, JNKVV, Jabalpur (M.P), using a split-split plot design with three replications. This research also investigates the impact of foliar applications of cytokinin analogs viz., Thiourea, Thidiazuron, and Benzyladenine and nutrients viz., ZnSO4 and KCl on chickpea under water deficit stress conditions. The results revealed significant differences in days to pod formation, seed formation, physiological maturity, and harvest maturity among the irrigation levels, varieties, and foliar spray of plant growth regulators and nutrients. Under different irrigation levels, D1 (Irrigation at 30 DAS and flower initiation) exhibited delayed phenological stages of the crop, while D2 (Drought stress at flowering up to physiological maturity) showed an early onset of all the phenological stages. Under water deficit conditions, JG 14 exhibited accelerated maturity beyond its typical early maturation in comparison to well-watered conditions, highlighting the impact of environmental stress on varietal responses. With respect to the application of plant growth regulators and nutrients, treatment T12 (TDZ @ 10 ppm + 1% KCl) significantly delayed pod and seed formation, as well as physiological and harvest maturity as compared to untreated control (T1). Foliar application of TDZ @ 10 ppm + 1% KCl (T12) enhanced seed filling duration by 2.59 days compared to the untreated control. Further investigations are needed to identify the impact of Thidiazuron and KCl in enhancing seed yield and seed weight of chickpea under optimal and sub-optimal soil water conditions, to provide recommendations for chickpea growers.
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23930
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Global Climate Change and Its Effects on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: A
           Review Article

    • Authors: Saumya Shruti , Ashwin Trivedi , K. B. Chaudhary , Jatinkumar Ghadiali
      Pages: 149 - 160
      Abstract: Medicinal herbs have been used for a long time to cure health problems and prevent disease, including epidemics. Medicinal plants are used for different purposes and in diverse uses of human beings. People around them have a basic knowledge and using through their traditional medicine from the past several years. Natural and manmade calamities, such as rapid climate change, urban growth, industrial boom, overpopulation pollution, declining forest cover, habitat loss, over-harvesting, destructive harvesting, and floods, are the principal reasons of the reduction of wild medicinal plant species. The life cycles and distribution of the world's vegetation, especially wild medicinal plants, are being affected by climate change. The impact of global climate change on medicinal plants could have a huge influence, especially in terms of their utility in conventional medication systems and as economically useful plants. The current essay emphasises the importance of study to improve our understanding of climate influences on medicinal plants properties, phenology and metabolic responses. The purpose of this paper is to review the impact of abiotic variables on secondary metabolite formation and different adaptation measures as well as future research initiatives. Furthermore, such issues with global climate change will undoubtedly become more visible or immediate threats, putting further strain on medicinal plant species. The impact of global climate change on medicinal plants could negatively correlate with environment concerns parameters, especially in terms of their utility in conventional medication systems and as economically useful plants.
      PubDate: 2024-02-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23931
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Effect of Weather Parameters on Population Dynamics of Bihar Hairy
           Caterpillar [Spilarctia (Spilosoma) obliqua Walker] in Mungbean [Vigna
           radiata (L.) Wilczek]

    • Authors: Pradip Kumar Patel , Pankaj Kumar , Arvind Kumar , Vijay Kumar
      Pages: 161 - 166
      Abstract: The present investigation revealed that Bihar hairy caterpillar was first recorded during 32nd standard week (1.92 larvae/plant) which reached to its maximum during 41st standard week (11.93 larvae/plant) and there after gradually decreased up to 1.33 larvae/plant during 44th standard week. The maximum temperature showed non-significant positive correlation, minimum temperature and relative humidity showed non-significant negative correlation while rain fall showed significant negative correlation with the population buildup of Bihar hairy caterpillar.
      PubDate: 2024-02-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23932
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Chilli Leaf Curl Disease: An Emerging Threat to Chilli Cultivation in
           Maharashtra, India

    • Authors: K. A. Vedpathak, A. B. Mule, O. S. Deshmukh , P. P. Shinde, S. V. Madane, K. D. Jagtap, S. Palchoudhury , S. D. Deokar
      Pages: 167 - 173
      Abstract: Chilli leaf curl disease (ChiLCD) locally known as ‘Churda Murda’ is a most destructive disease of chilli (Capsicum annuum) in India. The ChiLCD is caused by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci)-transmitted Begomovirus, belonging to the family Geminiviridae. A study was conducted to investigate the current status of ChiLCD in Maharashtra. Survey was carried out in chilli growing districts of Maharashtra to study the disease incidence (DI) and percent diseases index (PDI) of ChiLCD. Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based application (App) ‘Plantix–your crop doctor’ was used to assess the diagnosis of ChiLCD. During the survey different symptoms of ChiLCD, leaf curling, leaf yellowing, crinkling, puckering, vein banding and stunting were observed in diseased chilli plants. In this study, ‘Plantix–your crop doctor’ App accurately diagnosed the ChiLCD and its pathogen Chilli leaf curl virus (ChiLCV). High ChiLCD incidence of 85-100% with PDI of 53.8-62.7% was observed at Kemwadi village in Osmanabad district and 80-90% with PDI of 42.3-45.7% at Ranmasle village in Solapur district of Maharashtra. The high incidence of ChiLCD in Maharashtra has been taken into consideration and this can be correlated with various factors such as weather conditions, insecticide resistance in whitefly populations, and the appearance of virulent strains of ChiLCV. Early detection of ChiLCV using the AI-based ‘Plantix–your crop doctor’ App and effective management of insect vector whitefly could prevent ChiLCV spread and minimize the crop yield losses.
      PubDate: 2024-02-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23933
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Releasing Patterns of Potassium and its Relationship with Different Forms
           of Potassium in Acid Alfisols Soils of Ranchi, Jharkhand, India

    • Authors: Asha Kumari Sinha , Madhuri Toppo , Ajay Kumar Upadhay , Dhirendra Kumar Shahi
      Pages: 189 - 198
      Abstract: A study was conducted during 2017-2018 at the Experimental Farm of Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India to assess the releasing patterns of potassium and its relationship with different forms of potassium in surface (0-15 cm) and sub-surface (16-30 cm) soils of acid alfisols from the selected 9 treatments under long-term nutrient management practices in maize-wheat cropping system. The releasing power of soil potassium is an index of the availability of the nutrient to the crops over a longer duration and in general, it indicates the sum of water-soluble K, exchangeable K, and a fraction of non-exchangeable K which is not immediately available to the growing plants, but will be slowly available over a longer period. Repeated extraction with boiling 1N HNO3 has been suggested as one of the methods to assess the potassium-releasing capacity of soils. In this context, cumulative K, constant rate K, and step K as a part of non-exchangeable potassium proposed by Haylock (1956) measure the potassium-releasing capacity of soils more effectively under intensive crop cultivation. The amount of K release in successive extraction with boiling 1N HNO3 decreased consistently and reached a plateau at the 8th and 9th extraction steps in both depths of soils. Cumulative K is highest in INM (T6) while constant rate K and step K are highest in Lime, FYM, P2O5, and K2O treated plots (T8). The lowest contribution of potassium release patterns is generally observed in the control plot (T1). Also, the K release was found to be maximum in surface soils than in sub-surface soils concerning various selected treatments. Cumulative K, Constant- rate K, and Step K had highly significant and positive correlations with different forms of potassium (Water soluble K, Exchangeable K, Non-Exchangeable K, Total K, and Lattice K) in both depths. The potassium-releasing patterns evaluated through cumulative K, constant rate K, and step K could be meaningful for making fertilizer recommendation programmes, especially in intensively cultivated areas. Hence, the importance of study in terms of the possible contribution to plant available pool of soil K through potassium release patterns in two depths of given soil has been pointed out.
      PubDate: 2024-02-03
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23935
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Coriander Yield Characteristics as Influenced by Varied Date of Sowing and
           Planting Geometry under Chhattisgarh Plain Zone

    • Authors: Sandeep Kumar Painkara , D. K. Chandrakar , P. M. Paraye, A. K. Verma, Golmei Langangmeilu , Anjali Patel
      Pages: 199 - 204
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out during the rabi season of 2020-21 and 2021-22 at Instructional farm, College of Agriculture and Research Station, IGKV, Raigarh, Chhattisgarh to find out the influence of different sowing dates and planting geometry on coriander. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with sixteen treatment combinations of main and sub plots, replicated trice. Four Dates of sowing viz. D1: 25th October, D2: 10th November, D3: 25th November and D4: 10th December were arranged in main plot and four planting geometries viz., S1: 30 x 5 cm, S2: 30 x 7.5 cm, S3: 30 x 10 cm and S4: 30 x 12.5 cm were taken as subplot treatments. Results revealed that coriander sown on 25th October registered significantly yield attributing characters viz., number of umbels plant-1, number of umbellets umbel-1, number of umbellets plant-1, number of seeds umbel-1, number of seeds umbellet-1, length of umbel, diameter of umbel, weight of umbels, test weight, seed yield plant-1 and seed yield ha-1. Among planting geometry, sowing of coriander at 30 x 12.5 cm spacing produced significantly higher values of aforesaid characters except for seed yield ha-1, which was maximum under 30 x 10 cm spacing. The interaction effect of 25th October coupled with the spacing 30 x 12.5 cm produced significant maximum seed yield plant-1.
      PubDate: 2024-02-03
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23936
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Increasing Water Use Efficiency of Irrigated Rice through Water Saving
           Techniques in Yobe Basin, North East, Nigeria

    • Authors: Ibrahim Ahmed Jajere , Ibraheem Alhassan , Ishaku James Dantata , Aminu Maidala
      Pages: 205 - 214
      Abstract: Increasing world population and dwindling water resources is exerting pressure to develop strategies for producing more food using less water. Aims: To investigate the effect of different irrigation schedules on grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of FARO 44 rice variety. Study Design: The research was laid out in a split plot arrangement. Twelve treatments replicated three time comprising of 3 irrigation intervals as main plot and 4 irrigation depth as sub plot. Place and Duration of Study: Gashua, Yobe State on the floodplains of river Yobe, Nigeria between March 2023 and July 2023. Methodology: Comprised of 3, 5 and 7 days irrigation intervals as main plot, with irrigation depth (amount) at 100% of crop water requirement (ETc), 85% of ETc, 70% of ETc and the farmers flooding practice as the sub plot treatments. Some growth, yield and components of the rice were determined. Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and Crop evapotranspiration (ETc) were computed using Cropwat model. Crop and irrigation water use efficiencies were also calculated. Results: The 3 days irrigation interval produced the maximum growth parameters of rice along with both application of 100% of crop water requirement and the traditional flooding type of irrigation. The interaction of 3 days irrigation interval and 100%ETc and 85% of ETc significantly produced the highest grain yield (6484.85 kg ha-1.) 3 and 5 days irrigation interval with 100% and 85% of ETc irrigation depths significantly produced the highest water use efficiencies. A well fitted linear relationship (R2 = 0.834) existed between the irrigation scenarios and the rice grain yield. Conclusion: It can be concluded that irrigation frequency and amount can be reduced to arrive at highly acceptable yield in the study area. High rice yield can be maintained with 3 days irrigation interval and 85% of the crop water requirement and also improve its water use efficiency.
      PubDate: 2024-02-03
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23937
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Robot-assisted Aquaculture and Sustainable Seafood Production for Enhanced
           Food Security

    • Authors: Shyam Lal , Shashi Bala Ahirwar , Seema Kanojia , Sumit Rai , Vidhya C. S., Swapnil Gupta , Chanda Thapliyal Nautiyal , Pankaj Nautiyal
      Pages: 215 - 220
      Abstract: This paper explores the integration of robotics in aquaculture practices to achieve sustainable seafood production, thereby enhancing global food security. With the increasing demand for seafood and the challenges posed by overfishing and environmental changes, innovative solutions are required to ensure a consistent supply of high-quality seafood. Robotic technologies offer promising avenues for optimizing various aspects of aquaculture, including monitoring, feeding, disease detection, and habitat management. Through a comprehensive review of recent advancements and case studies, this paper highlights the potential benefits, challenges, and future directions of robot-assisted aquaculture systems. By leveraging automation, data analytics, and artificial intelligence, the aquaculture industry can achieve greater efficiency, reduced environmental impact, and enhanced seafood availability, ultimately contributing to improved food security on a global scale.
      PubDate: 2024-02-03
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23938
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Improved Biomass Stoves in Rural Areas in Karnataka, India

    • Authors: Renuka S. Salunke, Hebbal Swati
      Pages: 221 - 226
      Abstract: Aims: the study aimed to quantify fuel wood consumption in traditional and biomass stoves as well asto estimate the Carbon dioxide (Co2) and carbon monoxide (Co) while cooking with different fuel wood. Study Design: exploratory and experimental. Place and Duration of Study: The duration of the Study was 2 years and the place of the study was Dharwad and Vijayapur districts of Karnataka state India. Methodology: Keeping this in view a study was conducted in two villages namely Timmapur Village of Dharwad district and Bhaganager Village of Vijayapur district Karanarak State India. From each village 60 households were selected randomly thus total sample size comprises 120 rural women. Results: About 80 per cent of the women were illiterate in Timmapur and 76.70 per cent of the women were illiterate in Bhaganagar. The quantity of ash, charcoal and smoke after food preparation was significantly varied in both villages. A reduction in the percentage of both carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide was found in biomass stoves compared to traditional stoves. The experimental research revealed that 58 per cent of the fuel wood was saved per year per 100 families when compared to traditional stoves. Whereas the traditional stove consumes 1200 kg /month/100 families. Conclusion: Improved biomass stoves should be promoted to encourage rural women to better use the stove.
      PubDate: 2024-02-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23939
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Perceived Barriers to the Adoption of Climate Smart Adaptive Livelihood
           Technology by the Farmers in Flood Prone Areas of Assam

    • Authors: Ajanta Borah, P. B. Gogoi , Britan Rahman
      Pages: 227 - 231
      Abstract: Flood is an annual major natural disaster of Assam. It causes a huge loss to human, animal, crop, infrastructures and natural resources. Since agriculture is the prime source of livelihood and majority of inhabitants resides in rural areas, the impact of flood has a vital role in the living conditions of Assam’s population. In the present study different kinds of barriers were identified which found to create resistance in the resilience building by the farmers in the studied area. Here the Garrett’s ranking technique was used to rank the barriers associated with the resilience building by the farmers in the study area. The problem of limited skills upon climate smart adaptive livelihood technology (CSALT) got the highest mean score of 65.55 and ranked 1st among all the identified problems. However, the last rank was given to the problem of limited resources with farmers to invest in CSALT having mean score 44.44. It was seen that after the extension problem the other key problems in descending order of value were economic problem such as unavailability of quality seeds and planting materials at right time, unavailability of labour in vital period of farming, in addition to which higher wage and lack of post harvest technologies and marketing facilities were also observed along with communication and information problems and socio-personal problem. Moreover reluctance to take up new project due to deprived risk taking ability, lack of awareness and skill on advanced farming technologies, lack of interest in cultivation due to poor return in short term with poor educational status of the farmers were some of the observed barriers.
      PubDate: 2024-02-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23940
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Nanomaterial-Induced Modifications in Plant Physiology and Genetics for
           Optimal Crop Production Strategies

    • Authors: Rose Meher , Bhavna Thakur , Surekha S, Kiran, Dheer Pratap , Sunil Kumar , Utkarsh Tripathi , Logeshwaran Jayakkannan
      Pages: 232 - 240
      Abstract: Nanotechnology has ushered in a new era in agriculture, offering transformative solutions to address the pressing challenges of feeding a burgeoning global population while adapting to a changing climate. At the forefront of this revolution are nanomaterials, characterized by their unique properties at the nanoscale. This article explores the intricate and dynamic relationship between nanomaterials and plants, unveiling how they induce profound changes in plant physiology and genetics. These changes, while complex, hold the key to unlocking novel approaches for crop improvement and sustainable agriculture. However, the core of this study delves into understanding how nanomaterials are taken up by plants and transported within their intricate biological systems. The mechanisms underlying nanomaterial uptake and distribution within plants are unveiled, offering possibilities for precise nutrient targeting and enhanced uptake efficiency. Subsequent sections meticulously dissect the consequences of nanomaterial exposure on plant physiology, including growth, development, and stress responses. The intricate genetic modifications and epigenetic changes that nanomaterials induce in plants are explored, revealing the potential for tailored crop improvement strategies. Notably, we demonstrate the practical implications of these nanomaterial-induced changes, showcasing their relevance for optimizing crop yields, resilience to environmental stressors, and nutritional quality. This article also takes a holistic approach by addressing the environmental and safety considerations that accompany the use of nanomaterials in agriculture. It emphasizes the necessity of responsible application, ecological impact assessment, and the establishment of regulatory frameworks to guide safe utilization. In conclusion, this article serves as an illuminating exploration of the nascent field where nanomaterials meet plant physiology and genetics, with implications that could reshape the future of agriculture.
      PubDate: 2024-02-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23941
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Enhancing Nutrition, Crop Resilience, and Food Security through

    • Authors: Dnyaneshwar Ambadas Raut , Syed Afrayeem , Vishal Singh, Anand Dinesh Jejal , Prashun Sachan, Sweta Sahoo , Shivam Kumar Pandey
      Pages: 241 - 253
      Abstract: Biofortification is a process of enhancing the nutritional quality of food crops through conventional plant breeding, genetic engineering, or agronomic practices. It has emerged as an important agricultural strategy to improve public health by increasing the micronutrient density in staple crops and vegetables. Biofortification provides a cost-effective and sustainable approach to combat micronutrient deficiencies, also known as hidden hunger, which affects over 2 billion people worldwide. This review provides an overview of biofortification efforts targeting major micronutrients such as iron, zinc, vitamin A, and folate. The genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying elevated micronutrient accumulation are discussed. The review also summarizes the impacts of biofortification in enhancing micronutrient intake, nutritional status, and health outcomes based on results from efficacy and effectiveness studies. The role of biofortification in building climate resilience and food security is also examined. Overall, biofortification has shown considerable promise in tackling malnutrition sustainably in developing countries. However, continued research and policy support are needed to maximize its impact on nutrition security worldwide.
      PubDate: 2024-02-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23942
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • AgriTech Revolution: Next-Generation Supply Chain in America's

    • Authors: Joseph Seun Adesiyan , Andrew Everton Raffington
      Pages: 254 - 272
      Abstract: With the advent of the 21st century, a novel era of technological advancement has profoundly impacted several sectors, with the inclusion agriculture. This paper examines the transformative task of evolving technologies in reorchestrating the agricultural supply chain during the revolutionary wave of AgriTech in American agriculture. As part of this research, we will analyze how cutting-edge technologies, such as the Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI), robotics, bigdata, and blockchain, are being integrated, and examine how these technologies have an impact on agricultural practices, supply chain efficiency, and sustainability in general. With a comprehensive literature review and case study analysis, the study explores AgriTech in the United States and its trajectory towards a more data-driven, automated, and interconnected agriculture industry. The paper determines how these innovations lead to increased crop yields, improved resource management, and extra transparent and robust supply chains. Furthermore, the research addresses the challenges, including the digital divide, investment barriers, and skill gaps, which could impede the widespread adoption of these technologies. Furthermore, our study reignites the opportunities presented by AgriTech, such as reduced environmental footprint, improved food safety, and the potential to meet the increasing global food demand sustainably. The future endeavor speculates on the evolving landscape of AgriTech, positing a scenario where advanced technologies not only dictate farming practices but also reshape the entire food supply chain, from farm to fork. Hence, the research presents a critical analysis of the next-generation supply chain in American agriculture, driven by AgriTech innovations. The result aims to provide valuable insights for stakeholders such as farmers, agribusinesses, technology providers, policymakers, and consumers, offering a comprehensive understanding of the dynamic interplay between technology and agriculture in the modern era.
      PubDate: 2024-02-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23943
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Digital Mapping of Soil pH and Electrical Conductivity Using Geostatistics
           and Machine Learning

    • Authors: Nalabolu Vandana , G. Janaki Rama Suresh, Tarik Mitran, S. G. Mahadevappa
      Pages: 273 - 286
      Abstract: This study investigates the spatial variability of soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC) in Suryapet district of Southern Telangana Zone through various digital soil mapping approaches. The 202 surface (0-15cm) soil samples were collected and analysed for pH and EC. The analysed data was further divided into calibration set and validation set in the ratio of 75:25. The geostatistical techniques like Ordinary Kriging, Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) and Regression Kriging and data mining technique like random forest technique were used to predict the spatial distribution of pH and EC (dSm-1) over the study area. The accuracy of these methods was assessed using validation data set by calculating RMSE, ME and R2 values. The results showed that among all the approaches, random forest (RF) technique performed better with lower RMSE, ME and higher R2 values for spatial prediction of soil pH (RMSE=0.014, ME=0.28 and R2=0.81) and EC (RMSE=0.134, ME=0.022 and R2=0.73). The RF predicted maps show that the pH of soils varied from neutral (6.5-7.5) to slightly alkaline (7.5-8.5) and the soils of Suryapet district were considered as non-saline (EC: 0-2 dSm-1). The findings of the current study shows that among digital soil mapping techniques, random forest model can be an effective tool for assessing spatial variability of soil pH and EC for further studies.
      PubDate: 2024-02-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23944
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems for Precision
           Agriculture: A Review

    • Authors: C. Sangeetha , Vishnu Moond , Rajesh G. M., Jamu Singh Damor , Shivam Kumar Pandey , Pradeep Kumar, Barinderjit Singh
      Pages: 287 - 309
      Abstract: Precision agriculture aims to optimize crop production and minimise environmental impacts by using information technology, remote sensing, satellite positioning systems, and proximal data gathering. This review paper examines current applications and future directions of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) for precision agriculture. Remote sensing provides data on crop health, soil conditions, water status, and yield which can guide variable rate applications within fields. Satellite and aerial platforms allow multispectral and hyperspectral imaging for vegetation indices analysis, crop classification, and stress detection. GIS technology integrates these data layers to model and map variations, develop prescription maps, and analyse spatial relationships. Key research frontiers include high-resolution satellite and drone data for within-field analysis, better integration of proximal and remote sensing, online nutrient and yield monitors, real-time prescription modelling, and predictive analytics using machine learning. Adoption continues to increase with better data analytics tools and greater economic returns realized. Remote sensing and GIS provide an integral platform for variable rate technologies, predictive modelling, and data-driven decision-making for precision agriculture.
      PubDate: 2024-02-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23945
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • MGNREGA-Assisted Afforestation for Climate Moderation in India: An

    • Authors: Prakash Yadav , Ramesh Kumar Jha , Rakesh Parasriya , Toushif P. K., Visha Jain, Yalal Mallesh
      Pages: 310 - 321
      Abstract: Although the influence of climate on the distribution, production, and operation of vegetation on earth is widely recognized, little is known about how local climate is impacted by forests and tree cover. Studies on climate-forest feedbacks are becoming more prevalent as a result of climate change. By analyzing previous scientific research on the effects of forests on climate, this study seeks to give an in-depth look at how forests, climate, and water interact. The MGNREGA is a programme that does not only reduces rural unemployment but also combats poverty. This flagship program improves not only the economic side at the grassroots level, but also the social and environmental aspects through various initiatives such as water harvesting, social forestry, flood management, drought proofing, land development, efficient rural connectivity, and so on. All of India's sustainable development objectives are being directly or indirectly achieved by the federal government-sponsored programme MGNREGA, which employs a decentralized strategy. It is a strategy for more efficiency using resources to meet the needs of the present while preserving them for use by future generations. It makes sense that it is founded on economic, social, and ecological principles to advance sustainable human development. The present article is focused on evaluating the effect MGNREGA-assisted afforestation program has on climate change over the past few years across India.
      PubDate: 2024-02-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23946
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Exploration of Soil Particle Size Diversity and Primary Nutrient Status
           Across the Rice Productivity Regions of Mahabubnagar, Telangana, India

    • Authors: Bhuvana K., Anjaiah T., Madhavi A., Laxminarayana P.
      Pages: 322 - 329
      Abstract: The current study involved a thorough field survey to assess particle size distribution and the availability of primary nutrients in rabi - grown rice soils (2022 - 2023) across three productivity regions: high (5923 - 6052 kg ha-1), medium (5793 - 5923 kg ha-1), and low (<5793 kg ha-1) in Mahabubnagar district, Telangana. A total of 225 surface soil samples (0 - 15 cm depth), with 75 samples from each productivity region, were collected before the transplanting of rabi rice crop using a stratified random sampling method and are further processed and analysed for soil texture, available nitrogen (Avl. N) available phosphorus (Avl. P) and available potassium (Avl. K). The sand, silt and clay content in high, medium and low productivity regions averaged 52.37%, 55.75%, 57.41%; 17.77%, 15.47%, 16.96% and 29.86%, 28.79%, 25.63% respectively. Low productivity areas had the highest mean sand content, negatively impacting soil particle aggregation thus affecting their rice productivity. Silt and clay content varied in three productivity regions, with the highest variation of clay content in high productivity regions. The respective Avl. N, Avl. P and Avl. K showed mean values of 257.88 kg ha-1, 253.61 kg ha-1 and 240.13 kg ha-1; 59.13 kg ha-1, 55.40 kg ha-1, 54.49 kg ha-1 and 304.96 kg ha-1, 301.25 kg ha-1, 300.19 kg ha-1 in high, medium and low productivity regions. Available N declined from high to medium and medium to low productivity regions. Fluctuations in available P and K showed wide distribution within each category, particularly in case of potassium emphasizing the inclusion of diverse soil conditions and factors influencing potassium availability. This variability study helped in identifying the fertility levels of three regions across the productivity regions.
      PubDate: 2024-02-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23947
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Biostimulants for Promoting Growth, Yield and Flower Quality in Anthurium
           andreanum Lind

    • Authors: Jewel Maria Thomas, Reshmi CR, Rafeekher M, Priyakumari I, Aparna B
      Pages: 330 - 339
      Abstract: The present study was carried out at the Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Kerala Agricultural University, during 2022-23 with an aim to evaluate the effect of foliar application of different biostimulants on growth, yield, and flowering attributes of Anthurium under naturally ventilated polyhouse condition. The experiment was laid out in CRD with ten replications. There were fifteen treatments including the control.  Fertilizers and manures were applied as per the Package of Practices Recommendations of Kerala Agricultural University (i.e., application of cow dung supernatant + 2 g L-119:19:19 weekly once) to all the treatments including the control (T1). In addition, for treatments T2 to T15, different biostimulants were applied as foliar sprays either alone or in combination fortnightly or monthly as per the treatment specifications. Being a popular cut flower, improvement in floral attributes is very much valued in Anthurium. The study concluded that the treatment T8 i.e., application of cow dung supernatant and 2 g L-119:19:19 weekly once as foliar spray along with foliar application of   2% humic acid - fulvic acid mixture and 100 mg L-1 salicylic acid at fortnightly intervals exhibited superior values for stalk length, spathe length, spathe width, number of flowers, flower longevity and vase life and it also recorded earliest flower bud initiation. The results revealed that growth and floral attributes of Anthurium can be improved through the foliar application of treatment T8.
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23948
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Synthesis and Characterization of Silica Nanoparticles Derived from Tea
           Factory Generated Wood Ash

    • Authors: C. Nivaethaa, S. K. Rajkishore, M. Maheswari , N. Sritharan, Pon. Sathya Moorthy, M. Prasanthrajan, P. Subramanian, M. Ravendran, Usha Rajamanickam , Rana Pratap Bhuyan, R. Raveena, V. Premalatha
      Pages: 340 - 352
      Abstract: India is the second most prolific tea producing nation in the world, which consumes 82% of its tea production, accounting for 19.5% of global tea consumption. Despite the improvement in technology, employing wood to produce heat has been a vital element of tea processing for generations. Many tea specialists experience that it adds a particular fragrant touch to the finished tea product. However, the management of wood ash generated by tea factories is a significant concern due to the large amount of wood burned during tea processing. Therefore, transportation and effective disposal of these large quantities of wood ash is a great challenge. Hence, this study aimed to effectively transform wood ash into a valuable product, nano silica particles so as to explore the scope for its better utilization in various applications. A series of experiments were carried out to optimize the parameters in the sol-gel technique for synthesizing silica nanoparticles from wood ash. Further, the synthesized nano silica particles were characterized by employing transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The standard operational protocol developed through this study demonstrated that wood ash can be effectively converted to silica nanoparticles in the size range of 20-50 nm, spherical in form with crystalline properties. Overall, the results of this work highlights the possibility of utilizing tea factory generated wood ash into silica nanoparticles with an immense potential for varied applications without environmental hazards.
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23949
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Effect of Auxin and Cow Urine as Nutrient Source on Pineapple Propagation
           through Crown in Soilless Culture under Protected Condition

    • Authors: Kishan J. Prajapati, Sharad K. Bhuva , Mansi B. Shingala, Pavan K. Patel
      Pages: 353 - 362
      Abstract: The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of auxin and cow urine on rooting, survival and growth of pineapple through crown propagation with soilless culture under protected condition. The research was conducted in 2020 at the High-Tech Horticultural Park, College of Horticulture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, employing a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) as the experimental design. Eight treatments were implemented, including Control (T1), IBA 400 ppm (T2), IBA 600 ppm (T3), IBA 800 ppm (T4), NAA 600 ppm (T5), NAA 800 ppm (T6), NAA 1000 ppm (T7) and Cow urine 15 % (T8). The results of this experiment revealed that IBA 600 ppm had a notable impact on various growth parameters. It exhibited the highest percentage of rooted crowns (94.44 %), length of root (5.58, 8.26 and 11.08 cm) at 15, 25 and 35 days, respectively, length of leaf (13.35, 16.27 and 19.67 cm) at 15, 25 and 35 days, respectively, no. of leaves (70.58, 80.28 and 91.06) at 15, 25 and 35 days, respectively. Furthermore, IBA 600 ppm significantly influenced the fresh root weight (16.46 g), dry root weight (7.77 g), fresh shoot weight (136.33 g), and dry shoot weight (57.67 g). Additionally, IBA 600 ppm demonstrated the highest survival rate (65.91%) and the lowest mortality rate (24.09%). While T6 gave maximum no. of roots (70.58, 80.28 and 91.06) at 15, 25 and 35 days, respectively. T8 gave minimum days required for root initiation (2.67 days). The use of IBA at 600 ppm for a brief dipping period, along with the utilization of NAA at 800 ppm for enhancing root formation, and Cow urine at 15% for accelerated rooting, can be recommended for promoting successful pineapple crown propagation.
      PubDate: 2024-02-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23950
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Study on Different Nectar Rich Flowering Plants of Few Butterfly Species
           at Different Habitats in Pjtsau Campus Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India

    • Authors: Shirisha; V., Sunitha, V., Ravinder Reddy, V., Srinivasa Chary, D.
      Pages: 363 - 373
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the different nectar rich flowering plants of few butterfly species at various habitats in PJTSAU campus, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during the period from October 2022 to March 2023. The study was conducted in agricultural fields (college farm, student farm and Agricultural Research Institute (ARI)), open scrub areas, Agri biodiversity park (ABP) and botanical garden. To record the nectar plants of few butterfly species, systematic field survey through transact walk was conducted by employing visual count method (VCM) in various habitats. A total of 37 flowering plant species belongs to 20 families were visited by butterflies during the study period. Interestingly, flowering trees found to have contributed more (27.03%) followed by weeds (24.32%), cultivable crops (16.22%), herbs and shrubs with same contribution (13.51%) and the least contribution was found to have recorded with climbers (5.41%). Among the 20 families, Asteraceae (6 plant species) and Fabaceae (6 plant species) families with Yellow, white and pink colored flowers were visited more often for nectar collection. It could help to understand the locally available flora with different flower colors as source of food for few butterfly species and emphasized the need of herbaceous flora conservation to restore native butterfly species in various habitats.
      PubDate: 2024-02-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23951
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Facultative Bacterial Diversity Associated with Silverleaf Whitefly,
           Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on Tomato Crop

    • Authors: Kishor Pujar, Jemla Naik D., Shivanna B.
      Pages: 374 - 381
      Abstract: The adults and nymphs of Bemisia tabaci were collected on tomato crop from different locations of Karnataka during 2021-2023. Bacterial colonies were isolated from adults and nymphs of B. tabaci using spread-plate technique and identified through 16srRNA sequencing. Nymphs showed high (55%) abundance of bacteria than adults (45%). 63.64% of the bacterial population in the nymphs belong to the phylum Bacillota followed by pseudomonadota (36.36%). In adults, Bacillota found dominant (100%). The class Bacilli was dominant in both nymphs and adults (63.64 and 100% respectively). In the nymphal stage, Bacillales was dominant order (54.55%). Similarly, in adults also Bacillales was found dominant (77.79%). Bacillaceae was abundant in nymphs (45.45%)and in adults same family accounted for 66.67%. The genus Bacillus was dominant in both nymphs (45.45%) and adults (55.55%). The species, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. safensis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were found common between adults and nymphs. The bacterial diversity varies with the different stages of the B. tabaci on same host.
      PubDate: 2024-02-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23952
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Spatio-temporal Variability of Reference Evapotranspiration and Trend
           Analyze of Crop Water Requirement

    • Authors: Ronald Mayengbam , Shraddha Rawat
      Pages: 382 - 391
      Abstract: The study was aimed to analyse the trend of Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo) for estimation of Crop Water Requirement (CWR) for Rice (Oryza sativum) cultivation in Manipur from 2011-2021 in 16 districts (Bisnupur, Churachandpur, Jiribam, Imphal East, Kamjong, Senapati, Imphal West, Tengnoupal, Ukhrul, Thoubal, Noney, Pherzwal, Chandel, Kakching, Tamenglong and Kangpokpi) ETo and CWR was estimated using CROPWAT. Spatial trends of climate variables were analysed using Mann– Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimator.
      PubDate: 2024-02-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23953
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Response of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Nutrient Content and
           Uptake by Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.)

    • Authors: Rahul Ranjan , Raghvendra Singh , Aneeta Yadav , Gajraj Yadav
      Pages: 392 - 397
      Abstract: A two-year field experiment conducted at Rama University's farm in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh during the kharif seasons of 2022 and 2023 aimed to assess the impact of different nutrient management strategies on nutrient uptake. Phosphorus, a crucial nutrient, is deficient in insoluble forms, causing low yields in mungbean. Biofertilizers offer a cost-effective, eco-friendly, and renewable alternative to chemical fertilizers. Inoculating pulse seeds with phosphorus-solubilizing agents boosts phosphorus availability for plant growth, enhancing mungbean productivity in the Central alluvial region of Uttar Pradesh. The study incorporated four varieties—PDM-139, IPM 2-3, Meha, and IPM 2-14—alongside varying levels of nutrient management practices. These practices involved N0 (Control), N1, N2, and N3, each with distinct combinations of nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc sulfate, seed treatment with rhizobium culture, and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). The experiment followed a factorial randomized block design with three replications. Findings indicated that the application of 20 kg N + 40 kg P2O5 + 25 kg ZnSO4.H2O ha-1, coupled with seed treatment involving rhizobium culture and PSB at 2.5 kg ha-1 in soil, significantly enhanced nutrient uptake in the Central alluvial tract of Uttar Pradesh.
      PubDate: 2024-02-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23954
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Growth, Yield and Quality of Rabi Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as
           Influenced by Sources of Calcium and Sulphur under Different Site -
           Specific Nitrogen Management in Rice-Groundnut Cropping System

    • Authors: Rozalin Nayak , Manoranjan Satapathy , Rabindra Kumar Paikaray
      Pages: 398 - 406
      Abstract: The injudicious and imbalanced fertilizer use under the existing farming system necessitates the adoption of amelioration methods and balanced use of nutrients especially nitrogen (N). There is lack of information on effects of various sources of calcium and sulphur in groundnut along with balanced nitrogen management which needs to be addressed. A field experiment was carried out during 2020-21 and 2021-22 at Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India to study the growth, yield and quality parameters of groundnut as affected by site specific nitrogen management in rice and various sources of calcium and sulphur in groundnut. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with six main plot treatments i.e. Soil test based nitrogen (STBN) (100 kg N/ha), 75% N through STBN + 25% N through farmyard manure (FYM), 75% N through STBN + 25% N through vermicompost, N @ 20kg at basal and at leaf colour chart (LCC) < 3, N @ 20kg at basal and at chlorophyll value determined by soil plant analysis development (SPAD) < 35 and no nitrogen to rice during Kharif and three sub plot treatments i.e. lime @ 0.2 LR, gypsum @ 250 kg/ha and lime @ 0.2 LR + gypsum @ 250 kg/ha to groundnut during Rabi each in three replications. Application of 75% N through STBN + 25% N through vermicompost to preceding rice and lime @ 0.2 LR+ gypsum @ 250 kg/ha to groundnut crop resulted in highest plant height at harvest, number of nodules per plant and dry matter accumulation at harvest. Yield attributing characters like pods/plant, kernel/pod and 100 - pod weight of groundnut were highest due to application of 75% N through STBN + 25% N through vermicompost to preceding rice (17.86, 1.87 and 67.2 g, respectively) followed by 75% N through STBN + 25% N through FYM. Application of lime @ 0.2 LR + gypsum @ 250 kg/ha to groundnut recorded more pods/plant (16.86), kernels/pod (1.78) and 100 - pod weight (66.39 g). The treatment receiving 75% N through STBN + 25 % N through vermicompost in rice and application of lime @ 0.2 LR + gypsum @ 250 kg/ha to groundnut resulted significantly maximum pod yield (2,596 kg/ha and 2,291 kg/ha), haulm yield (4,554 kg/ha and 4,343 kg/ha) and harvest index (36.30% and 34.38%) in groundnut. Oil yield (682.2 kg/ha) in groundnut was recorded highest in the treatment lime @ 0.2 LR + gypsum @ 250 kg/ha followed by only gypsum @ 250 kg/ha application to groundnut. Similarly, application of lime @ 0.2 LR + gypsum @ 250 kg/ha to groundnut recorded highest protein yield (424.6 kg/ha).
      PubDate: 2024-02-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23955
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Impacts of Climate Change on Teesta River Basin Char Lands: A Study of
           Livelihood and Ecosystem Dynamics in Bangladesh

    • Authors: Rozina Parvin , Md Shafiqul Bari , Noor Muhammad
      Pages: 407 - 422
      Abstract: This study anticipates identifying how does climate change affect the livelihood and ecosystem of char land of Teesta River basin char land. Structured questionnaire and related documents were used for both primary and secondary data collection. Survey was conducted in two districts (Rangpur and Nilphamari) and four unions (Lakhitari, Topa Madhupur, Shatibari, Gulmund) of four upazilas (Gangachara, Kaunia, Dimla, Jaldhaka). A total of 50 respondents from each selected char union was selected following a multistage random sampling procedure. Thus, there was altogether 200 respondents selected for this study. Data related to age, education level, occupation, knowledge about climate change of char inhabitants and perception of char dwellers regarding climate change was measured. A total number of 93% of the respondents clearly grasp that climate change refers to changes in long-term typical weather. It was observed that ongoing climate change has 78% impact on agriculture followed by health of peoples and other animals that is 20%. In the rainy season they observed increase in lightning from sun as the highest effect of climate change that has a WAI of 1.77. Teesta river basin people perceived dry spell frequency as the second highest extent of climate change that had a WAI of 1.74 followed by timing of rain offset, uneven distribution of rainfall and timing of rain onset. According to their perception it was found that great extent of loss was found in skills of char peoples (48.35%) followed by knowledge of char peoples (44.27%). It was also observed that a third great extent of loss was found in char peoples good health (41.67%) followed by ability to work (39.06%). Out of all the  respondents  166 (43.2%) observed that soil is becoming dry day by day due to climate change followed by rivers becoming dry (37.8%) (Table 8). They found that growing trees have become difficult (45.1%), due to drought underground water is decreasing (61.7%) and air became dry due to climate change, and these are small extent of loss. Char inhabitants observed that climate change impact on physical capital and great extent impact was perceived on people's migration to another place (41.4%). Teesta River basin char dwellers opined about 24 adaptation strategies to reduce the impact of climate change on livelihood and ecosystem in that area.
      PubDate: 2024-02-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23956
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Effect of Drip Fertigation on Growth and Quality Parameters of Summer
           Pearlmillet under North Gujarat Agro-climatic Condition

    • Authors: M. A. Chaudhary , D. M. Patel, H. N. Chaudhary , V. B. Gohil, K. V. Chaudhary
      Pages: 423 - 430
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during the two consecutive summer seasons of 2021 and 2022 at Agronomy Instructional Farm, Chimanbhai Patel College of Agriculture, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar to asses the effect of drip fertigation on growth and quality parameters of summer pearlmillet under North Gujarat condition. There were 18 treatment combinations comprising two irrigation intervals viz., One and Two days interval; three moisture regimes viz., 100, 80 and 60% ETc in the main plot and three levels of N fertigation viz., 100, 80 and 60% RDN in sub-plot were tested in split plot design with three replications. The pooled results of  irrigation interval, moisture regime and fertigation practice show that  application of irrigation at alternate day  under 100% ETc along with 100% RDN through drip fertigation had a significant effect on crop growth, yield and yield contributing characters and quality parameters and their values were significantly higher than other irrigation interval, drip irrigation regimes and fertigation levels. It also uptake significantly higher nitrogen and phosphorus in grain and straw of pearlmillet raised during summer season.
      PubDate: 2024-02-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23957
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Effect of Seed Biopriming on Germination & Seedling Attributes in
           Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    • Authors: Lella Naga Swetha , Abhinav Dayal
      Pages: 431 - 440
      Abstract: The Study was conducted during Zaid season of 2022-2023 with IPC-05-59 genotype of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Find out the Effect of seed biopriming on germination & seedling attributes in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L). The design of experiment was Completely Randomized Design comprising treatments [viz.T0-uninoculatedT1-Bacillus sp, T2- Mesorhizobium sp., T3- Pseudomonas sp, T4- Bacillus sp(0.5)+ Mesorhizobium sp.(0.5),T5- Pseudomonas sp.(0.5)+ Mesorhizobium sp.(0.5), T6- Bacillus sp.(0.5)+Pseudomonas sp(0.5).+ Mesorhizobium sp.(0.5), T7- Bacillus sp,T8- Mesorhizobium sp, T9- Pseudomonas sp, T10- Bacillus sp.(0.5) + Mesorhizobium sp(0.5),T11-Pseudomonas sp. (0.5)+ Mesorhizobiumsp(0.5),T12- Bacillus sp.(0.5) + Pseudomonas sp. (0.5) + Mesorhizobium sp. (0.5) . The treated seeds along with control were evaluated for their morpho-physiological, growth, yield, root parameters and biochemical parameters under laboratory conditions, The study revealed that seeds biopriming techniques with Bacillus sp.(0.5)+ Pseudomonas sp(0.5).+ Mesorhizobium sp.(0.5) concentration @ 1.0ml for 1 hours T6 recorded significantly higher germination percent (93%), rate of germination (5.38), mean germination time (11.16), root length (11.73cm),shoot length(13.27cm),seedling length(25.00cm), fresh weight (7.91gm),dry weight (1.62gm), vigor index-I (2324.91), vigor index – II (135.82), seed density (1.27), electrical conductivity (0.817), seed metabolic efficiency (1.018). which was followed by seedprimingwithT12- Bacillus sp (0.5) +Pseudomonas sp (0.5) +Mesorhizobium sp (0.5) @ 1.5ml for 2 hours and minimum was recorded in T0 (control).
      PubDate: 2024-02-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23958
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • The Efficiency of Black Soldier Fly Larvae with Vegetable, Fruit and Food
           Waste as Biological Tool for Sustainable Management of Organic Waste

    • Authors: T. Karthikeyani , K. Sivasubramanian , M. Maheswari , N. Chitra , S. Saravanan , P. Jothimani , S. Karthika
      Pages: 441 - 448
      Abstract: This study investigated the sustainable management of wet organic waste using Black Soldier Fly Larvae (BSFL) for an innovative biological approach to waste management. The organic wet wastes such as fruit, vegetable, and food wastes were processed and fed to BSFL larvae from day 5 and the bioconversion process was carried out at Black Soldier Fly Unit, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University for 21 days. Among the three wastes, the highest bioconversion efficiency was recorded in fruit waste with 67% Substrate Reduction, 10.8% Efficiency of Conversion of Digested feed, 5.7% Bio Conversion Rate, and 4.18 Waste Reduction Index after 21 days. Whereas vegetable and food waste achieved similar bioconversion efficiency. The results suggest that BSFL-based bioconversion can be an effective and eco-friendly waste management and resource recovery technique to significantly lower the volumes of organic wet waste while converting it into high-value biomass and leading to a circular economy model.
      PubDate: 2024-02-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23959
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Effect of Different Transplanting Dates on Performance of Different
           Varieties on Growth of Broccoli

    • Authors: Anshu Kamboj , Shallu, Ravi Parkash
      Pages: 449 - 462
      Abstract: The field trail was undertaken on the crop broccoli in the Rabi season of 2022-23 at Agriculture Research Farm, School of Agricultural Sciences and Technology RIMT University, Mandi Gobindgarh, Punjab to find out the “Effect of different transplanting dates on performance of different varieties on growth of broccoli”. The soil of the experimental plot had a slightly alkaline texture, a naturally occurring pH of 7.5, level of organic carbon (0.62%) and available amounts of N (430.32 kg/ha), P (17.54 kg/ha) and K (251.65 kg/ha). The experiment was designed in Factorial randomized block design (FRBD), replicated with three times and included nine treatments i.e. D1V1 (5th November + Rani Hybrid), D2V1 (15th November + Rani Hybrid), D3V1 (25th November + Rani Hybrid), D1V2 (5th November + Palam Samridhi), D2V2 (15th November + Palam Samridhi), D3V2 (25th November + Palam Samridhi), D1V3 (5th November + Bobby Hybrid), D2V3 (15th November + Bobby Hybrid) and D3V3 (25th November + Bobby Hybrid). The results indicated that significantly higher growth parameters viz., number of leaves per plant, plant height, leaf length, width and plant spread was observed  on the 15th November transplanting as compared to 5th November  and 25th November transplanting dates. In conclusion establishment of variety Palam Samridhi showed an excellent result on the 15th November transplanting date as compared to other transplanting dates.
      PubDate: 2024-02-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23960
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Biology of Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) on Maize under
           Laboratory Conditions

    • Authors: Ragni Devi , Umesh Chandra , Ravi Kumar Rajak , Pankaj Kumar , Sameer Kumar Singh , Ram Veer
      Pages: 463 - 469
      Abstract: Maize is a important cereal harvests developed for food, fodder and raw material throughout the country. It is rich source of proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins. Corn production is decreasing day by day due to attack of more than 353 insect species and mites. Among insect pests, Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda is best destructive pest for corn production. The rearing of Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda was conducted under laboratory conditions in Department of Entomology, Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Ayodhya, U. P. during 2023. The complete metamorphosis (egg, larva, pupa and adult) was certified in Spodoptera frugiperda. The average fecundity was 2.59 ± 0.40 days. There were 6th instar larval of Spodoptera frugiperda and total larval period was 15-20 days. The growth period of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th larval instar was 2-3, 2.5-3, 2.2-3, 2-2.5, 2.5-3, 4-6 days respectively on corn leaves. The average period of pupa was 10.33 ± 1.07 days. The female was long lived than male. The total evolved period from egg to adult was 45-47 days.
      PubDate: 2024-02-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23961
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Effect of Organic Farming Practices on Soil Chemical Properties

    • Authors: Manjunatha Bhanuvally, Sunitha N. H., Sharanabasava, Ravi S., Mahadevaswamy
      Pages: 470 - 481
      Abstract: A survey was conducted in the Bellary district Northern Dry Zone of Karnataka (zone-3). Only those farmers who had been practicing it for more than five years were selected and information on the type and quantity of organics used by them in different cropping systems viz., Groundnut, Ragi, Onion, Drumstick and Maize was collected, Soil samples from the selected 30 organic farms and the neighboring conventional farms under the same cropping system were also collected. The results revealed that organic farming approaches enhance the chemical composition of soil, augment the availability of macro and micronutrients, and elevate the soil's organic carbon status—all of which are critical for sustainable crop yields. It is possible to draw the conclusion that organic agricultural practices positively impact soil characteristics and sustainable yield, hence improving soil health.
      PubDate: 2024-02-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23962
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Evaluation of Genetic Parameters for Yield and its Attributing Traits in
           Green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]

    • Authors: Niyati Jain, R. S. Sikarwar, M. K. Tripathi, Sushma Tiwari
      Pages: 482 - 487
      Abstract: A study was conducted employing twelve quantitative traits viz., days to  50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height(cm),  number of branches per plant, number  of clusters per  plant, number of  pods per  cluster, pod  length(cm),  number of  seeds   per  pod,  100 seed  weight(g), harvest index, biological yield per plant  and  seed  yield  per plant  (g) on 40 green gram genotypes with the intent to uncover the genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance. Significant variance was found for each characteristic when using simple descriptive statistics. High PCV and GCV estimates was noticed for number of pods per plant, seed yield per plant, number of cluster per plant and number of pods per cluster. Days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length, number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight, biological yield per plant and seed yield per plant showed high heritability with high genetic advancement based on a study of genetic variability, suggesting that additive gene action predominates. It will be beneficial to select for these traits.
      PubDate: 2024-02-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23963
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Change Point Detection of Temperature in Karnataka State in India During
           the Period 1979-2019

    • Authors: Seedari Ujwala Rani, Pramod Kumar , Naveen P. Singh , S. K. Srivastava , Ranjit Kumar Paul, R. N. Padaria, Sirisha Tadigiri , M. Ravi Kishore , N. Sri Vidya Rani
      Pages: 488 - 518
      Abstract: This paper deals with study of exposure of Karnataka state to climate change for a period 1979-2019. The Mann Whitney Pettit’s homogeneity test (MWP) was analysed for 240 data sets for monthly data of minimum (MTmin) and maximum temperature (MT max) across ten agro climatic zones) to estimate the year of structural break or year of shift in mean monthly temperature from one level to next higher level during the forty years of study period i.e., 1979-2019. About 77 data sets were identified to show year of structural break The annual mean temperature recorded anupward shift in all the agro climatic zones of Karnataka except in hilly zone. The break year was chosen based on its frequent occurrence in data sets of minimum and maximum temperature.  It is observed to be 1998 for North Eastern Transition Zone and is 1997, 1994, 1996, 1995, 1996, 1999, 1999, 1999 and 1997 for North Eastern Dry Zone, Northern Dry Zone, Central Dry Zone, Eastern Dry Zone, Southern Dry Zone, Southern Transition Zone, Northern Transition Zone, Hilly Zone and Coastal Zone respectively. Therefore, it is a evidential picture reflecting the increase in temperatures across the zones. Researchers should develop crop varieties that are insensitive to temperature changes and should develop packages of practices which will mitigate adverse effect of fluctuations in climate parameters on crop productivity.
      PubDate: 2024-02-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23964
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Yield Predication by DSSAT Model of Wheat Crop: A Review

    • Authors: Devi Lal , Ram Niwas
      Pages: 519 - 524
      Abstract: The DSSAT model predicts crop productivity under different crop management scenarios and fluctuating climate circumstances, necessitating the identification of a crop cultivar's genetic coefficient. The precision with which various parameters are calibrated and validated is essential to the effective application of crop models. The model was calibrated using the data on irrigation and nitrogen's impact on wheat yield, and it was validated using the date of sowing. The closer estimation of crop growth time, grain yields, and biomass yields was demonstrated by the model findings. The percentage error discrepancy between the simulated and actual wheat variety grain yields was 8.70% to 10.98%, respectively. There is a substantial correlation with a higher R2 value between the simulated and observed grain yields and crop duration during both the calibration and validation processes.
      PubDate: 2024-02-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23965
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Study on Efficacy of Pyraclostrobin 10% + Thifluzamide 10% SC against
           Blast and Sheath Blight Diseases of Paddy Crop

    • Authors: S. B. Gowdar , Sujay Hurali , Narappa G., Gurunath Raddy
      Pages: 525 - 536
      Abstract: Rice diseases are considered the main constraint in rice production and cause both qualitative and quantitative losses. Blast and sheath blight diseases are major constrain of rice production reported to cause extensive damage in crop production. The following experiment was conducted to know the efficacy of Pyraclostrobin 10% + Thifluzamide 10% SC in different doses against blast (Pyricularia oryzae) and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) of paddy crop with 7 treatments and replicated three times in RBD design at ARS, Gangavati during Kharif 2021-22 and Kharif 2022-23 cropping season. In kharif 2021, at 10 days after second spray, the leaf blast of 17.10 and 18.45 PDI was recorded with Pyraclostrobin 10% + Thifluzamide 10% SC @ 90+90 g a.i./ha and Pyraclostrobin 10% + Thifluzamide 10% SC @ 80+80 g a.i./ha respectively. During summer 2022, at 10 days after second spray, Pyraclostrobin 10% + Thifluzamide 10% SC @ 90+90 g a.i./ha recorded the lowest PDI of 12.75 and untreated control recorded the highest PDI (43.50%). In kharif 2021, at 10 days after second spray, Pyraclostrobin 10% + Thifluzamide 10% SC @ 90+90 g a.i./ha and Pyraclostrobin 10% + Thifluzamide 10% SC @ 80+80 g a.i./ha were effective in reducing the panicle blast with minimum PDI of 3.00 and 3.50, respectively. Whereas, the maximum PDI of 23.50 was observed in untreated control. In summer 2022, lowest per cent panicle blast was recorded in Pyraclostrobin 10% + Thifluzamide 10% SC @ 90+90 g a.i./ha (1.50 PDI) and Pyraclostrobin 10% + Thifluzamide 10% SC @ 80+80 g a.i./ha (2.00 PDI). In kharif 2021, at 10 days after second spray, Pyraclostrobin 10% + Thifluzamide 10% SC @ 90+90 g a.i./ha and 80+80 g a.i./ha recorded lowest sheath blight PDI of 17.95 and 19.75, respectively. Similarly, during summer 2022, at 10 days after second spray lowest sheath blight of 11.75 PDI was recorded from Pyraclostrobin 10% + Thifluzamide 10% SC @ 90+90 g a.i./ha. During kharif 2022, Pyraclostrobin 10% + Thifluzamide 10% SC @ 90+90 g a.i./ha and Pyraclostrobin 10% + Thifluzamide 10% SC @ 80+80 g a.i./ha were recorded highest yield of 55.62 and 53.25 q/ha respectively as against 38.84 q/ha in untreated control. During summer 2022, Pyraclostrobin 10% + Thifluzamide 10% SC @ 90+90 g a.i./ha and Pyraclostrobin 10% + Thifluzamide 10% SC @ 80+80 g a.i./ha recorded highest yield of 58.20 q/ha and 57.50 q/ha respectively as against 40.40 q/ha in untreated control.
      PubDate: 2024-02-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23966
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Impact of Weather Parameters on Seasonal Incidence of Oriental Armyworm,
           Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) Infesting Maize Ecosystem in
           North Kashmir

    • Authors: Ab Ahad Bhat , Hidayatullah Tak , Ishtiyaq Ahad , Waseem Ahmad War , Wasim Muzamil Dass
      Pages: 537 - 544
      Abstract: The investigation on the seasonal incidence of oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, Wadura SKUAST-K during kharif  2021. Shalimar composite-6 maize variety was cultivated under the standard practices for Kashmir valley, recommended by SKUAST-K. The pest activity during the crop growth period was monitored by using light traps and visual observations. Findings revealed that adult M. separata on maize emerged in the 18th standard meteorological week (SMW) with its peak in the 24th week and remained active until the 37th week. Similarly, armyworm caterpillars appeared in the 19th to 37th SMW and reached their peak in the 29th week in the maize ecosystem during 2021. Moreover, the percentage of infestation during the Kharif season was found to be minimum of 10 per cent in the 19th SMW, reaching its peak of 63 per cent in the 29th SMW. The infestation gradually decreased and persisted for eight weeks, with 10 per cent infestation in the 37th SMW. The relationship between adult population and weather parameters showed a positive correlation with maximum temperature (r = 0.14) and a negative correlation with minimum temperature (r = -0.22), morning relative humidity (r = -0.52*) and evening relative humidity (r = -0.47*). However, M. separata adult populations showed a significant negative association with rainfall (r = -0.51*). Correlations drawn between important weather parameters and larvae of M. separata showed significant positive correlation with maximum temperature (r = 0.60**) and minimum temperature (r =0.56**), while morning RH (r = -0.36) and evening RH (r = -0.29) showed negative association and rainfall (r =-0.16) also exhibited negative association with the larval infestation of M. separata during Kharif 2021. The study on percentage infestation also demonstrated a significant positive correlation with maximum temperature (r = 0.47*) and minimum temperature (r = 0.53*), while morning relative humidity (r = -0.22) and evening relative humidity (r = -0.29) showed negative associations. Rainfall (r = -0.20) displayed a negative correlation with the per cent infestation of M. separata.
      PubDate: 2024-02-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23967
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Fields of Balance: An Extensive Analysis of Conventional and Organic
           Agriculture in the Contemporary Era

    • Authors: Vikas Gupta , Ritesh Bagora , Ranvijay Pratap Singh , Nirjharnee Nandeha , Duyu Monya , Harsh Nagar , Debesh Singh
      Pages: 545 - 554
      Abstract: By 2050, it is projected that there will be 10 billion people on the planet who need to be fed. Meeting these demands and maintaining environmental protection will be greatly dependent on the paradigms of conventional and organic agriculture. By following the historical origins of these two agricultural paradigms and examining their methods, effects, financial implications, and contributions to global food security, this review critically analyses them. We draw emphasis to the environmental footprints, paying special focus to biodiversity, greenhouse gas emissions, water management, and soil health. A deeper examination of consumer safety, community dynamics, and global market trends will be included in the discussion of the health effects of food produced in both systems and their societal ramifications. This review makes the case for an integrated approach to agriculture that makes use of best practices from both worlds by identifying the advantages and disadvantages of both farming systems. The goal of this harmonisation is to build a sustainable agricultural future that feeds people and maintains the planet's natural equilibrium.
      PubDate: 2024-02-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23968
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Influence of Different Culture Media on Growth and Sporulation of
           Colletotrichum capsici

    • Authors: Ranjana Joshi , Yenjerappa; S. T., Aswathanarayana, D. S., Sreedevi S Chavan , Kisan, B., Lakshmikant, M.
      Pages: 555 - 561
      Abstract: Aim: To know the best culture media for growth and development of Colletotrichum capsici causing chilli anthracnose. Study Design: Twelve different culture media were selected and three replications were maintained. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnatka, which was carried out in the year 2021-2023. Methodology: The laboratory study was conducted to know the best nutrient media for the growth and sporulation of the pathogen. The pathogen was isolated from infected chilli fruit using tissue isolation technique and pure culture was maintained. Twelve different nutrient media were selected and tested for the growth and sporulation of the pathogen in three replications. Results: Among twelve media tested, Red chilli dextrose agar have promoted the maximum growth of C. capsici (90.0 mm), which was followed by carrot dextrose agar and potato carrot agar (89.50 mm). Green chilli extract agar significantly promoted minimum growth of C. capsici (33.50 mm), which was followed by red chilli extract agar (48.00 mm) and Sarbouraud’s agar (48.50 mm). The cultural characters were varied among the media. Conclusion: Potato dextrose agar and carrot dextrose agar media were proved to be best media for growth and sporulation of Colletotrichum capsica.
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23969
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Growth and Biomass Models for Three Fast-growing Tree Species under
           High-density Plantation

    • Authors: Bijay Kumar Singh , Anita Tomar
      Pages: 562 - 570
      Abstract: Three fast-growing trees, viz., Populus deltoides, Eucalyptus spp. and Casuarina equisetifolia were studied, in high-density plantation at Padilla, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh with following treatments viz., T1: Poplar (1×1m), T2: Eucalyptus (1×1m), T3: Casuarina (1×1m), T4: Poplar (1.2×1.2 m), T5: Eucalyptus (1.2×1.2 m), T6: Casuarina (1.2×1.2 m), T7: Poplar (1.5×1.5 m), T8: Eucalyptus (1.5×1.5 m) and T9: Casuarina (1.5×1.5 m). The experiment was established in year July 2021 and data was collected in June 2022. The result indicate the maximum height was recorded in T2: Eucalyptus (1×1 m) 3.81 m followed by T5: Eucalyptus (1.2×1.2 m) 3.78 m, T8: Eucalyptus (1.5×1.5 m) 3.40 m which was at par with each other and minimum in T9: Casuarina (1.5×1.5 m) 2.42 m whereas the maximum girth was found in T4: Poplar (1.2×1.2 m) 6.91 cm followed by T2: Eucalyptus (1×1 m) 6.61 cm, T5: Eucalyptus (1.2×1.2 m) 6.16 cm, T1: Poplar (1×1 m) 5.91 cm which was at par with each other and minimum in T9: Casuarina (1.5×1.5 m) 3.22 cm after one year. Various linear function was attempted to predict biomass based on GBH (G) and Height (H). Prediction accuracy of Height, girth model was slightly better than the height and girth model. Linear model (Y=a + bH + cG), where Y denotes dependent variable (biomass) and H and G denotes independent variable (Height or Girth), performed better (than the remaining tested models) in terms of estimation precision and prediction accuracy. The AGB was maximum was found in T2: Eucalyptus (1×1m) 0.676 kg tree-1 followed by T5: Eucalyptus (1.2×1.2 m) 0.598 kg tree-1 and minimum in T9: Casuarina (1.5×1.5 m) 0.214 kg tree-1. After completion of one year Eucalyptus (1×1 m) showed best growth among all treatments.
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23970
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Studies on Sustainable Resource Management for Climate Smart IFS Model

    • Authors: B.M Mourya , Kunwar Mukund Singh , Kurmvanshi S.M
      Pages: 571 - 576
      Abstract: Studies on sustainable resource management for climate smart 0.4 ha IFS model was taken under all India coordinated research project on integrated farming system, College of Agriculture Rewa during 2021 to 2022 and 2022 to 2023. The study reveals that 0.4 hectares size of IFS model gave 131 .24 q rice equivalent yield, gross return Rs.271531, Net profit Rs.130090 And B:C ratio 1.91. The net profit from 0.36 hectares cropping systems was Rs.36727 and REY 41.80 q. The dairy component with two cows gave net profit Rs.86933 and B:C ratio 1.92. Among different cropping systems okra – garlic gave B:C ratio 2.23 and net profit of Rs.8066 from 0.02 ha area. The employment generation was 36 labour man days in June to 51 labour man days in October. Total employment generation was 513 labour man days per year. Flow of year-round income was varied from Rs.2501/ month in June to Rs.29913 in April. Self-reliance status from IFS model was 89%, green fodder ,27.39% dry fodder and 41.87% concentrates for cattle. Vermicompost and               compost unit gave 36.1% of total nitrogen ,46.26 %of total phosphorous and 95 % need of total Potassium.
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23971
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Biodiversity Conservation in Agricultural Landscapes: The Role of
           Integrated Farming Systems

    • Authors: Jayaraj M., A. Sangothari, H. A. Archana, A. Vasuki, R. Surya, T. Keerthana
      Pages: 577 - 583
      Abstract: Agricultural landscapes, while essential for food production, often come at the cost of biodiversity loss. The utilization of conventional farming practices has led to habitat degradation, reduced species diversity, and ecological imbalances. In response, Integrated Farming Systems (IFS) have emerged as a promising approach to reconcile agricultural production with biodiversity conservation. This review examines the pivotal role of IFS in mitigating the adverse impacts of agriculture on biodiversity within the context of five key subheadings: (1) Understanding Integrated Farming Systems, (2) Enhancing Habitat Heterogeneity, (3) Promoting Agroecological Practices, (4) Managing Landscape Connectivity, and (5) Evaluating Socioeconomic Implications. We delve into the theoretical underpinnings, practical applications, and scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of IFS in preserving biodiversity. Furthermore, we explore the challenges and opportunities associated with implementing IFS and the potential for IFS to contribute to sustainable agricultural landscapes. The findings emphasize the need for a holistic approach that integrates ecological, agronomic, and sociocultural dimensions to foster biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes.
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23972
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Evaluating the Antifeedant Effects of Andrographolide-based Formulations
           against Lampides boeticus L., under Laboratory Condition

    • Authors: Neethu G. Raj, Santhosh Kumar T.
      Pages: 584 - 589
      Abstract: Aims: To evaluate the antifeedant activity of Lampides boeticus (Linnaeus,1767), larvae exposed to various concentrations of Andrographolide-based formulations under laboratory conditions. Study Design:  Completely Randomized Design Place and Duration of Study: Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Vellayani and NCESS, Kerala during 2019- 2023. Methodology: The experiment was conducted with 9 treatments and 4 replications, treatments included various concentrations (1,3,5 and 7%) of formulations A (Andrographolide (70%) + Neem oil (20%) + Triton X-100 (10%)) and B (Andrographolide (70%) + Pungam oil (20%) + Triton X-100 (10%)). To assess the impact of formulations in the feeding behaviour of freshly moulted third instar larvae of L.boeticus L., no choice bioassay method was used. Each Petri plate lined with moist filter paper, confined a single larva with the treated pods of each specific concentration. The weight of the food consumed by the larvae was recorded at an interval of 24 hours after treatment and calculated percent feeding, per cent feeding inhibition, antifeedant activity (protection over control) and preference index of L. boeticus L., larvae against the formulations. Results: The results revealed that 7% of formulation A exhibits the highest larval feeding inhibition (93.05%), followed by 7% of formulation B (87.81%). Both formulations at 5% concentrations also demonstrate significant antifeedant effects. Preference index values categorize 7% of formulations A and B as extremely antifeedant.  The findings highlight the efficacy of these formulations in inhibiting larval feeding, with potential applications in pest management strategies. Conclusion: The present findings have demonstrated the notable efficacy of formulations A and B, particularly at the 7% concentration, in significantly inhibiting larval feeding of L.boeticus L., and the reduction in larval feeding percentages, coupled with high antifeedant activity and feeding inhibition rates, highlights the potential of andrographolide based formulations as potent biopesticides.
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23973
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Evaluation of Historic Trends for Monthly, Seasonal, and Annual Rainfall
           Series of Tenkasi, Tamil Nadu, India

    • Authors: M. Manikandan , M. Nagarajan , N. Anandaraj
      Pages: 590 - 600
      Abstract: Analyzing the variability and trends of rainfall plays a major role in water resource planning and management. Changes in rainfall patterns significantly influence the water availability in the irrigation structures and agronomical practices of crops.  This study aimed to investigate the trends and estimate the magnitudes of monthly, seasonal, and annual rainfall series in Tenkasi, Tamil Nadu, India, using 49 years of rainfall data from 1971 to 2019. Sen’s Innovative trend analysis (ITA) method, Mann-Kendall (MK), and Simple Linear Regression (SLR) test were applied to assess the trends at 5 and 10 % significance levels. Trend magnitudes were estimated by Sen’s slope estimator (SSE) and SLR method. Changes in rainfall magnitude with mean values in percentage were estimated for all three slope estimation methods. The results revealed that the ITA method detected more significant trends of rainfall series over other methods. Significant downward trends were exhibited by October and north east monsoon (NEM) rainfall series had a trend magnitude of -0.43 mm/year and -0.04 mm/year. The percentage change in magnitude of the trend from mean values for October and the NEM series was -11.5% and -0.39%. Sub-trends within the October and NEM rainfall series showed that the low rainfall sub-series exhibited no trend, medium and high rainfall sub-series showed a downward trend. This study concluded that, in comparison to traditional trend analysis methods, the ITA method demonstrated a more rigorous investigation of trends. The significant decrease in rainfall during the NEM necessitates greater attention to water resources planning and management, serving as valuable scientific information for both crop planning and water resource management.
      PubDate: 2024-02-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23974
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • An Investigation into the Impacts of Preparatory Tillage and Nutrient
           Management on Barley Yield and Economic Viability in the Context of Water
           Stress Conditions

    • Authors: Raghvendra Singh , Durgesh Kumar Maurya , Ravikesh Kumar Pal , Rahul Ranjan
      Pages: 601 - 607
      Abstract: A number of field tests were carried out at the Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology's Soil Conservation and Water Management Farm in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, during the successive rabi seasons of 2020–21 and 2021–22. The gangatic alluvial soil in the study area had a pH of 7.6, which was indicative of its light texture and moderate soil fertility. The study included three different treatments that included preparatory tillage techniques: T1 treatment was one cross plowing with a cultivator; T2 treatment was one disc harrow plowing followed by another cross plowing with a cultivator; and T3 treatment was one disc harrow plowing plus one rotavator pass. The experiment also looked into three different nutrient management strategies: N1, which involved applying 100% of the Recommended Dose of Fertilizers (RDF)—60 kg of N, 30 kg of P2O5, and 30 kg of K2O—through chemical fertilizers; N2, which involved applying 75% of the RDF through chemical fertilizers along with 25% of Farm Yard Manure (FYM); and N3, which applied 50% of the RDF through chemical fertilizers along with 50% of FYM. In addition to applying 50% RDF through chemical fertilizers combined with 50% FYM, the results of the two-year experiment showed that planting barley crops in plots that received one disc harrow plowing and one rotavator pass yielded the maximum values across growth factors, yield attributes (such as grain yield q ha-1, straw yield q ha-1, biological yield q/ha, as well as harvest index), net return, gross return, and the barley benefit-to-cost ratio. This was noted in both years in a consistent manner. The next best results were seen with preparatory tillage, which involved using a cultivator to plough a single cross and applying chemical fertilizers to achieve 100% RDF (N1: 60 kg N ha-1 + 30 kg P2O5ha-1 + 30 kg K2Oha-1).
      PubDate: 2024-02-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23975
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Role of Hydroponics in Improving Water-Use Efficiency and Food Security

    • Authors: Ram Naresh , Sagar K Jadav , Monika Singh , Abhimanyu Patel , Barinderjit Singh , Shreedhar Beese , Shivam Kumar Pandey
      Pages: 608 - 633
      Abstract: Hydroponic agriculture offers a soilless cultivation method that can enhance crop yields and sustainability. With decreasing arable land and water availability, hydroponics is positioned to complement conventional farming approaches to support global food security. This paper reviews the current status and future innovations in precision hydroponic technologies. Leading application crops, geographic adoption patterns, growth potential in developing countries, and technological advances are analyzed. Key challenges limiting widespread implementation are discussed, including infrastructural costs, lack of expertise, and inadequate research investments. Proposed legislation and standardization efforts in major markets are outlined. Ongoing improvements in automation, renewable energy integration, biocontrols and tailored crop varieties can further overcome limitations. The paper offers recommendations to promote hydroponics through targeted research initiatives, public incentives and localized equipment development. With appropriate regulatory support and sustained funding commitment, hydroponic systems can bolster food ecosystem resilience. The COVID-19 crisis has highlighted the interlinked risks in concentrated, centralized agriculture. More decentralized precision approaches can enhance stability. Hydroponics and vertical farming innovations can enable sustainable intensification to meet future nutritional demands. Adoption efforts to date have focused on profitable vegetable and herb markets in advanced economies, but expanding technical skills training and appropriate technologies globally would support wider implementation. With further commercial maturation and policy regulations keeping pace with innovations, hydroponics can be an integral strategy for sustainable crop production worldwide.
      PubDate: 2024-02-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23976
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Modeling Evapotranspiration Using SWAT for the Middle Narmada Catchment

    • Authors: Rajat Mishra , Praveen Vikram Singh , Anil Kumar , Pramod Kumar Singh, Pravendra Kumar
      Pages: 634 - 641
      Abstract: This study delves into the hydrological dynamics of a region by analyzing monthly and annual datasets that encompass the intricate interplay among rainfall, potential evapotranspiration (PET), and actual evapotranspiration (ET) using SWAT model for the Gadarwara watershed of middle Narmada catchment. The research identifies a distinct wet season characterized by escalating precipitation from January to June, peaking in July and August. Interestingly, despite heightened rainfall during these months a decline in actual evapotranspiration is discerned, hinting at potential environmental influences. The transition from the wet to the dry season reveals a cyclical pattern culminating in minimal ET values in December. The annual dataset unveils years marked by significant variability in rainfall, ET, and PET, underscoring the region's responsiveness to climatic fluctuations. These insights bear paramount importance for sectors such as agriculture and water resource management, facilitating strategic planning during periods of elevated water availability. Furthermore, the data contributes to the calibration and validation of SWAT, enhancing their reliability in simulating real-world processes. In sum, the comprehensive dataset enhances our understanding of regional hydrology, offering guidance for sustainable water management practices amid evolving climatic conditions.
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23977
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Investigating the Performance of Different Varieties of Cucumber under
           Prayagraj Agro-Climatic Condition

    • Authors: Mohd Salman, Vijay Bahadur
      Pages: 642 - 645
      Abstract: Nine cucumber varieties were evaluated at the vegetable research farm Department of Horticulture SHUATS, Prayagraj in randomized block design with three replications during rainy seson September -2022 for growth, yield and fruit qualities. The experimental design was Randomized Block Design consisting of   nine treatment with three replications, with a view to evaluate different cultivars of cucumber viz. KH10 GREEN LONG(T1), F999(T2), C4F9(T3), SS95(T4), CUCUMBER GREEN WONDER(T5), BH05(T6), PRIYA BARSATI(T7), ANUPRIYA(T8), GREEN 4 BARSATI(T9). Cucumber Green Wonder  gave maximum  mean value for  fruits per  plant  (5.20 kg) , fruit weight (174.33 g), fruit yield per plot  (39.33 kg), number of node per vine (15.33) yield   (42 q) , number of male  flower per plant (65.00) , number at which first female flower  (5.33) was observed in same varieties , maximum numbers of male flowers per plant  in variety  Cucumber Green Wonder (65.00) maximum length has been found in Cucumber Green Wonder (151.67) Minimum days were recorded for first Appearance of male flower in KH 10 Green Long  (51.67). The variety Green 4 Barsati has taken minimum (48.00) days to first harvesting followed by F999 (53.00). cucumber green wonder was found superior based on overall performance in terms of growth, yield, quality & Economic returns. The highest cost benefit ratio was found for cucumber variety Cucumber Green Wonder under PrayagrajAgroclimate condition.
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23978
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Productivity and Quality of

    • Authors: Hitendra Singh, Sudhir Pal , Dinesh Kumar , Ashok Kumar , Anupama Verma, Ravindra Sachan
      Pages: 646 - 651
      Abstract: The present field experiment was conducted at crop research farm Nawabganj of C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology Kanpur, under the Central Plain zone of Uttar Pradesh, during Kharif season of 2018. The experiment comprised of 9 treatment combinations in randomized block design with three replications consisted of T1: Control, T2: 100 % RDF(120:60:60), T3: 75 % RDF + 25 % N as FYM, T4: 75 % RDF + 25 % N as CWC, T5: 75 % RDF + 25 % N as PM, T6: 75 % RDF + 25 % N as FYM + CWC, T7: 75 % RDF + 25 % N as CWC+ PM, T8: 75 % RDF + 25 % N as FYM + PM, T9: 75 % RDF + 25 % N as FYM + PM + CWC. On the basis of the results emanated from present investigation, it could be concluded that application of 75 % RDF + 25 % N as FYM + PM + CWC applied in rice to significantly increases yield attributes, yield and protein content. Results showed that maximum among the different fertility levels, application of T7 [75 % RDF + 25 % N as CWC + PM] significantly enhanced productivity parameters i.e. grain yield and straw yield over the control.
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23979
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Modelling Soil Erosion Using RUSLE and GIS for Kadalundi River Basin in
           Kerala, India

    • Authors: Akhina P., Rema K. P., Anu Varughese , Divya Vijayan , Asha Joseph
      Pages: 652 - 667
      Abstract: The main objective of the study was to estimate the potential average annual soil loss from Kadalundi river basin using RUSLE model and to prepare the spatial distribution map of soil erosion hazard using GIS to suggest suitable soil conservation and management measures for the basin. The individual factor maps for each factor in the RUSLE equation were prepared and multiplied in raster calculator to obtain the spatial distribution map of soil erosion with the help of ArcGIS. The daily rainfall data, basic soil data, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and satellite imageries were used as the input data for the calculation of rainfall erosivity factor, soil erodibility factor, topographic factor, cover management factor and conservation practice factor. The results indicated an average annual erosion of 5.48 t·ha-1·yr-1 in the basin during the period of 2001 to 2021. The total quantity of soil washed away from the basin was 694836.60 t·yr-1. The estimated values of R-factor ranged from 938.97 MJ·mm·ha-1·h-1·yr-1 to 1102.65 MJ·mm·ha-1·h-1·yr-1, and the computed erodibility factor values varied between 0.0075 to 0.025 t·h·MJ⁻1·mm⁻1. The topographic factor value of the basin was found between 0 to 9.07. The basin had C-factor values of 0.08 to 1.10 and the P-factor values varied from 0.1 to 1. The spatial distribution map of erosion suggest that major part of the basin is under slight erosion class and only a minor part is under very severe erosion class. Areas in the very severe erosion class is characterised by moderate to steep slopes, or in other words areas with less slope is having slight erosion. As most of the area of the basin is having slight erosion, simple agronomical measures can be adopted for the mitigation purposes.
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23980
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Efficacy of Water Hyacinth as Growing Media for Amaranthus in Open Water
           Culture, Hydroponics and Land Cultivation in Kuttanad Ecosystem

    • Authors: Aiswarya K R, Devi V S, T Sajitha Rani, Jinsy V S, Binitha N K, Vishnu B
      Pages: 668 - 674
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted in farmer’s field in north Kuttanad during the kharif season during June-July 2023 and repeated consecutively during August-September 2023 to evaluate the efficacy of open water culture with respect to yield and growth attributes of amaranthus cultivation against deep water culture hydroponics with and without water hyacinth as medium. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Design (CRD), comprising six treatments with four replications. The treatments were T1: Open water culture without medium, T2: Open water culture with medium, T3: Hydroponics without medium, T4: Hydroponics with medium, T5: Land cultivation with a bed of water hyacinth alone as medium and T6: Control: soil culture-KAU-POP recommended dose of nutrients. The data revealed significant differences in plant height, number of leaves, leaf length and width, leaf area index, stem girth, root length and yield. Maximum plant height was recorded in T6 (Control- soil culture-Kerala Agricultural University (KAU) -POP recommended dose of nutrients) followed by T5 (Land cultivation with a bed of water hyacinth alone as medium). Highest leaf area index, stem girth and root length were in T6, but was on par with T5. The yield of the total harvest was significantly higher in T6, but was on par with T5, which proves the efficacy of water hyacinth as a growing medium for amaranthus cultivation. The lowest yield and growth attributes were recorded by T1 (Open water culture without medium) and T3 (Hydroponics without medium).
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23981
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Phytosociological Analysis of Functional Components in Silvipastoral Land
           Use Systems of Himachal Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Swaran Lata , Shiv Paul , Vivek Chauhan , Varsha
      Pages: 675 - 685
      Abstract: Phytosociological studies are important for devising suitable conservation strategies of the plant genetic resources. Himachal Pradesh is a north-western Himalayan state with diverse landscape having rich and unique floristic diversity. Silvipastoral systems are one among the most prominent agroforestry land use systems which contributes significantly in productivity, ecological balance and livelihood of local communities. Thus, to know the status of floristic and phytosociological diversity in these land use systems, the present study has been conducted from April 2018 to March 2022 in 12 selected villages in Himachal Pradesh. Total number of plant species recorded in study area was 1046 (including 114 tree, 170 shrub and 762 herb species), belonging to 108 families and 538 genera. Poaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae and Lamiaceae were the five most dominant families. Maximum tree density recorded for species Myrica esculenta (980 ind. ha-1) at site 3, Grewia optiva (660 ind. ha-1) at site 2 and Grewia optiva (640 ind. ha-1) at Site 1 Naun, Mandi, followed by Bauhinia variegata (630 ind. ha-1) at Site 2 Banalgi, Solan in zone-II. On the basis of IVI, Cedrus deodara (252.30) was most dominant species followed by Quercus oblongata (193.11), Pinus wallichiana (164.68) and Myrica esculenta (149.10). Among the shrubs Hippophae salicifolia (119.24) was most dominant species followed by Berberis lycium (96.14) and Berberis aristata (90.98). However, Achyranthus aspera (107.66) was most dominant herb species followed by Commelina benghalensis (97.50) and Sonchus asper (44.01). The lowest value of IVI was observed for Capsella bursa-pastoris (9.63) and Tanacetum dolichophyllum (10.54). According to CAMP (Conservation Assessment and Management Prioritization), 2013 nine species viz., Angelica glauca, Berberis aristata, Dioscorea deltoidea, Polygonatum cirrhifolium, Hyoscyamus niger, Bunium persicum, Ephedra gerardiana, Juniperus communis and Selinum vaginatum are threatened and requires conservation and management efforts. In past no study was conducted on floristic and phytosociology diversity of silvipastoral systems of Himachal Pradesh. Hence, present study will definitely act as base line data for further in-depth studies on restoration of degraded lands and silvipastoral system management and improvement programs. 
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23982
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Assessment of Trends of Food Crop Vulnerability to Climatic Fluctuations
           in the Santa Agro-basin of North-West, Cameroon

    • Authors: Nkemasong Nicasius Anumveh , Lemnyuy Melanie Berinyuy
      Pages: 686 - 705
      Abstract: Santa Subdivision like many highland areas in Cameroon has enormous agricultural potentials. However, climate which plays a vital role in crop production process continues to threaten this agricultural strength through its variability. The study therefore aimed to assess climate variability and its impacts on food crop production in Santa Subdivision. This study used the mixed method and the data collected was both quantitative and qualitative. Rainfall and temperature data for a period of 40 years alongside food crop output data coupled with field observations and interviews were used to assess the link between climatic variations and food crop output in 4 communities. Results showed significant variations in climate with gradual decreasing rainfall trends of -3.7485x and increasing temperature trends of 0.0185x. Regression analysis test showed that there is a direct relationship between climate variability and food crop outputs. This study therefore recommended the provision of climatic data/information and steady early warning systems, development of good techniques to multiply climate variability resistant seeds and the provision of adequate training on sustainable agricultural practices to help farmers cope with climate variability.
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23983
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Temperature Tolerance in the Five Field Strains of Trichogramma chilonis
           from Northern Districts of Tamil Nadu, India

    • Authors: B. Prabhu, Y. S. Johnson Thangaraj Edward , R. Vishnu Priya, A. Ramanathan, P. Jeyaprakash
      Pages: 706 - 711
      Abstract: The egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chilonis is a potential egg parasitoid in the agricultural ecosystem, reducing many lepidopteran pest incidences. The laboratory strains of T. chilonis was significantly inferior to the ecotypes collected from fields in their parasitisation potential and tolerance to temperature due to continuous exposure to temperature extremes in the field. Hence, a study was undertaken to evaluate the laboratory reared strain of T. chilonis with that of other ecotypes to identify a temperature tolerant ecotype for use in pest management programme. Five ecotypes of T. chilonis were collected from farmer's fields on sugarcane and citrus using sentinel egg technique by exposing egg cards of Corcyra cephalonica, mass reared on C. cephalonica for three successive generations and tested for their relative tolerance to temperature in comparison with the laboratory population. The emergence percentage of the parasitoid varied with the ecotypes tested and all the field collected ecotypes recorded increased emergence compared to the laboratory population. At 150 C, the emergence was significantly higher in Chitteri ecotype (83.44%) followed by Arungunam and Amirthapuram ecotype (78.65 and 75.57%). The performance of all the ecotypes were best at 200 C and Chitteri ecotype performed significantly better compared to other ecotypes and the laboratory population with an adult emergence of 95.66 per cent. It was followed by Arungunam ecotype (88.65%) at 200 C. While the laboratory population and other ecotypes failed to develop at 350 C, Chitteri and Arungunam ecotypes were able to develop with 9.66 and 7.25 per cent adult emergence from the parasitised eggs.
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23984
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Morphometric Analysis of Dachigam Drainage Basin Using Geo-Spatial
           Technology (GST)

    • Authors: Yogesh Pandey, Nifa Mehraj , Mahrukh Qureshi , Sushmita M. Dadhich, Rakesh Mohan Shukla
      Pages: 712 - 724
      Abstract: The examination of morphometric parameters through quantitative analysis proves highly valuable in assessing river basins, prioritizing watersheds for soil and water conservation, and natural resources management. In this study, an in-depth analysis of the Dachigam Catchment has been conducted, focusing on the quantification of various morphometric parameters. The research employs Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques to assess morphometric parameters in the micro-watersheds of the Dachigam Catchment. Linear and areal morphometric parameters were systematically derived and tabulated based on linear and shape characteristics of drainage channels, utilizing GIS and topographical maps (scale 1:50,000). The morphometric analysis conducted in the Dachigam catchment indicates that the basin has an elongated shape, suggesting that peak discharges would generally exhibit a flat profile and take time to rise. The drainage network within the basin is predominantly of the dendritic type, signifying a degree of homogeneity in texture. The slope analysis shows that the Dachigam watershed has a significant amount of steep terrain, ranging from 0 to 74.63%. The majority of the area falls within the 24 to 35% slope range. Examination of the aspect indicates that slopes oriented towards the south and southwest are the most prevalent in the basin. The watershed's mean bifurcation ratio is 1.71. This low ratio suggests that the watershed hasn't experienced significant distortion. In contrast, high bifurcation ratios exceeding 5 typically indicate distorted drainage patterns. The research illustrates how remote sensing and GIS methods can effectively analyze watershed morphometrics. These techniques offer valuable insights for planners and decision-makers involved in watershed-level planning and drainage basin management.
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23985
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Understanding the Knowledge Level of Farmers towards Climate Smart
           Agricultural Technologies in Agro-climatic Zones of Tamil Nadu, India

    • Authors: Sree Madhumitha; G, Murugan, P. P, Janaki Rani, A, Dheebakaran, Ga, Patil Santhosh Ganapathi , Nirmala Devi, M, Karthikeyan, C
      Pages: 725 - 739
      Abstract: Aims: Although farmers experience various technical, technological, production, labor-related and marketing constraints to carry out agricultural activities, climate change acts as the root cause of several other constraints. Climate change consequences drastically reduce agricultural yield by affecting critical changes of crop growth and questions food and nutritional security; additionally it also imposes economic loss to the country. Hence, to ensure food and nutritional security for the growing population and to ensure sustainable income for the farming community, a farmer has to tackle the consequences of climate change by adoption of CSA technologies Farmer’s knowledge level towards any technology, determine its rate of adoption. Hence, this study aims to assess the knowledge level of farmers towards CSA technologies in Agro-climatic zones of Tamil Nadu. Study design: Ex-post facto research design was employed in the study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in seven agro-climatic zones of Tamil Nadu viz., Villupuram district of North Eastern Zone, Namakkal district of North Western Zone, Coimbatore district of Western Zone, Tiruvarur district of Cauvery Delta Zone, Ramanthapuram district of Southern Zone, Kanyakumari district of High Rainfall Zone and the Nilgiris district of the Hilly Zone of Tamil Nadu during 2022-2023. Methodology: From each of Agro-climatic zones of Tamil Nadu, the vulnerable districts or the districts with NICRA project have been identified and the CSA technologies adopted by the farmers were documented. Thirty farmers who adopts CSA technologies from each agro-climatic zone were selected and interviewed personally to assess their knowledge level towards those technologies in a five point continuum ranging from ‘No knowledge’ (1), ‘Minimal knowledge’ (2), ‘Basic knowledge’ (3), ‘Adequate knowledge’ (4) and ‘Superior knowledge’ (5) respectively. The gathered responses were subjected to percentage analysis. Findings: The findings revealed that Villupuram, Coimbatore and Tiruvarur farmers had superior knowledge on precision based nutrient management, Namakkal farmers had superior knowledge on use of additives and supplements in livestock feed, Ramanathapuram farmers had superior knowledge on utilization of weather based agro-advisory services, Kanyakumari farmers had superior knowledge on adoption of moisture conservation practices and Nilgiris farmers had superior knowledge on adoption of improved seed varieties and use of biofertilizers. Conclusion: Villupuram, Coimbatore and Tiruvarur farmers had superior knowledge on precision based nutrient management; Namakkal farmers had superior knowledge on use of additives and supplements in livestock feed; Ramanathapuram farmers had superior knowledge on utilization of weather based agro-advisory services; Kanyakumari farmers had superior knowledge on adoption of moisture conservation practices and, The Nilgiris farmers had superior knowledge on adoption of improved seed varieties and use of biofertilizers. Thus, it can be concluded that farmers had superior knowledge on CSA technologies based on their perceived climatic change consequences and their accessibility to location specific technologies.
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23991
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Enhancement of Yield, Nitrogen use Efficiency, Production Economics of
           Fodder Oat through Selection of Appropriate Genotype and Nitrogen
           Fertilizer Application

    • Authors: Saikat Sarkar , Gangadhar Nanda , Devendra Singh , Sunil Kumar , Santosh Kumar Singh , Hrishikesh Nath
      Pages: 740 - 749
      Abstract: Growing fodder oat (Avena sativa L.) genotype with high yielding potential with adequate nitrogen could enhance the fodder yield and quality to bridge the gap between demand and supply of green fodder. Therefore, an experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of different genotypes and nitrogen levels on yield, nitrogen use efficiency, production economics, and agro-meteorological parameters of fodder oat at Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar. Six oat genotypes, viz., Kent, JO-07-28, OS-403, OS-6, HFO-904 and HFO-906, were sown with 40, 80 and 120 kg of nitrogen per hectare. The experiment was set up using a split-plot design, with three replications of the genotypes in the main plots and N levels in sub-plots. Results revealed that genotype JO-07-28 was significantly superior to Kent (check) with respect to green fodder yield whereas both were comparable to each other with respect to dry matter yield, crude protein content and yield. Kent showed maximum N, P and K uptake and heat use efficiency, helio-thermal and photo-thermal unit efficiency. However, genotype JO-07-28 yielded the highest net returns (Rs. 27421/ha), B:C ratio (1.85), and economic efficiency (Rs. 271/ha/day). Among other nitrogen levels, application of 120 kg N/ha recorded the maximum yields of green fodder (371 q/ha) and dry matter (91 q/ha), crude protein content and yield, N uptake, net returns (Rs. 23096/ha), B:C ratio (1.71) and economic efficiency (Rs. 231/ha/day) and  heat use efficiency (7.60), helio-thermal and photo-thermal unit efficiency which were statistically equivalent to 80 kg N/ha. Genotype JO-07-28 and HFO-904 were the most N efficient genotype in terms of partial factor productivity of N fertilizer and nitrogen utilization efficiency, respectively. Enhancement in level of N application reduced the nitrogen use efficiency.
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23986
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Standardization on Effect of Storage and Packaging Materials on Shelf Life
           and Quality of Ridge Gourd (Luffa acutangula L.)

    • Authors: K. Sushma, M. Padma , M. Rajkumar , Ch. Raja Goud , B. Naveen Kumar , P Gouthami
      Pages: 750 - 770
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted on ‘‘Standardization on effect of storage and packaging materials on shelf life and quality of ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula L)’’ during Kharif 2021 and Summer 2022 on shelf life and quality of ridge gourd at PG laboratory, College of Horticulture, Rajendranagar. The experiment design is factorial completely randomized design with eight packaging materials as factor-1 and three elite treatments as factor-2 with a total of twenty four (24) treatments replicated thrice. The results revealed that, the Polyethylene 200 gauge with 2% vent and Vermicompost 12 t/ha + Arka microbial consortium recorded lowest physiological loss in weight, titrable acidity and highest shelf life, TSS, ascorbic acid, firmness, chlorophyll content with increase in days of storage.
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23987
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Analysis of Historical and Future Rainfall Projections in India's
           Lower Godavari Basin

    • Authors: A. Sravani , N. Sujatha , L. V. Rao , V. Lakshmana Rao
      Pages: 771 - 782
      Abstract: Changes in evaporation and precipitation in the climate are precursors to changes in the water cycle due to the increase in temperatures due to climate change. In recent years, enormous changes in precipitation patterns have led to an increase in extreme rainfall events, reflecting flash floods in smaller areas. To understand this, you must study the rainfall patterns of the district and the smaller watersheds. In the present study, we have observed the trend of rainfall in the lower Godavari basin, which was part of the Godavari River from 1970 to 2019, using IMD 0.25X0.25 ° gridded rainfall data. According to the study, during the winter season and before the monsoon, there is no significant increasing or decreasing trend. In the post-monsoon season they are showing a negative and decreasing trend with a magnitude of 4 mm/year. But in the monsoon season, one end (the right end near the river mouth) of the basin or watershed is showing an increasing trend, while the left part is showing a significantly decreasing trend. In addition to that, future projections of the CMIP5 two scenarios data from 2000 to 2100 to understand the precipitation patterns in future projections. Lower Godavari basin from 2020–2040 and 2040-2100 with the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. With the RCP 4.5 scenario, the first 40 years (2020–2040) of the future projected mean seasonal rainfall are 4.5 mm/year higher in the western part of the sub-basin than in the eastern and river mouth regions.
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23988
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Studies on Chemical Weed Management Practices on Growth and Yield of
           Blackgram [Vigna mungo (L.)]

    • Authors: S. Anusha, D. H. Patil , P. S. Rathod , K. Basavaraj , B. M. Dodamani
      Pages: 783 - 790
      Abstract: An investigation was carried out at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Kalaburagi, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur during kharif 2021-22 entitled studies on chemical weed management practices on growth and yield of blackgram [Vigna mungo (L.)].  The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with nine treatments and three replications. Among all the treatments, hand weeing at 25-30 DAS, recorded significantly lower weed density, higher weed control efficiency that favoured higher growth and yield parameters. Whereas, among the chemical weed management practices, application of sodium acifluorfen 16.5% + clodinafop propargyl 8% EC @ 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 at 20-25 DAS as post emergent recorded significantly lower weed population (2.71/0.25 m2), lower weed dry weight (1.53/0.25 m2) and higher weed control efficiency (90.31 %) compared to other chemical weed management treatments. The treatment sodium acifluorfen 16.5% + clodinafop propargyl 8% EC @ 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 at 20-25 DAS as post emergent also recorded significantly higher growth parameters viz., plant height (40.18 CM), number of branches (9.18),  and dry matter production at harvest (23.50 g plant-1)  and  yield components viz., number of pods plant-1 (46.69 ), number of seeds pod-1 (7.89), 100 seed weight (4.7 g), seed yield (1059 kg ha-1) compared to other treatments. Significantly higher net returns (Rs.48,406) were recorded in hand weeding at 25-30 DAS and intercultivation at 45 DAS, which was on par with application of sodium acifluorfen 16.5% + clodinafop propargyl 8% EC @ 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 at 20-25  DAS (Rs.45,066 ha-1). The higher benefit cost ratio was recorded with application of sodium acifluorfen 16.5% + clodinafop propargyl 8% EC @ 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 at 20-25 DAS (3.08) followed by hand weeding at 25-30 DAS and intercultivation at 45 DAS.
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23989
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Effects of Climate and Weeds on the Establishment of Thyme-Based Living
           Mulch Systems in Drylands of Cyprus

    • Authors: Sofia Matsi , Dimitrios Sarris , Maria Konstantinou
      Pages: 791 - 803
      Abstract: Background: Mulching systems are at the spotlight of sustainable soil management as nature-based solutions for combating desertification. Aims: We tested how living mulch systems based on rainfed Thymbra capitata [(L.) Cav.], can be established under different pressure from drought and weeds in dryland carob plantations. Study design: 10 thyme plots in semi-arid climate (SKR); 11 plots in arid climate (VRY); different weed competition intensity (60 thymes per plot). Place and Duration of the Study: South-eastern Cyprus, between December 2019 and 2022. Methodology: Survival and soil cover for 1260 T. capitata seedlings (3-5 cm tall, 16 seedlings per m2) was assessed at the end of 3 dry seasons (d.s.) together with weed community composition, weed abundance (w.a.) and biomass. Climate data and De Martone’s Aridity Index (DMAI) were used to assess drought severity. Results: Around 80% of the thymes survived at the end of the first d.s, that followed a very rainy year (ca. 600 mm annual precipitation; P; ca. +50% than normal; ca. 19 DMAI). Thyme survival appeared unaffected by w.a. in both sites. After a severe drought that occurred the second year (ca. 300 mm P; ca. -22% than normal; ca. 9.5 DMAI) thyme survival rates dropped at the end of the d.s. to ca. 20% at the site with 3 times higher w.a./ biomass (mostly from Avena sp.). However, they were unaffected under low w.a. creating a 29% soil cover (vs.7% in VRY). These results remained till the end of the third d.s. Conclusions: To combat desertification and drought intensification under climatic change, rainfed T. capitata as living mulch appears unaffected by weeds during wet years, or in very dry years under low w.a. However, under high w.a., a weed management system is required if climate is arid.
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23990
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Influence of Zinc and Boron on Growth and Yield of Rice

    • Authors: Pappala Vasu , Shikha Singh , Anu Nawhal
      Pages: 804 - 808
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during Kharif 2022 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P). The treatments consist of three levels of zinc and three levels of boron and one control was used. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with ten treatments each replicated thrice. The results showed that growth parameters viz., plant height (116.77 cm), number of tillers per hill (31.13), dry weight (106.07 g/hill) and yield attributes viz., number of effective tillers per hill (9.53), number of filled grains per panicle (129.33), test weight (15.87 g), grain yield (5.57 t/ha) straw yield (8.77 t/ha) and harvest index (38.44 %) were recorded significantly higher with the application of zinc 15 kg/ha along with boron 6 kg/ha. Maximum gross returns (155166.77 INR/ha), Net returns (102889.22 INR/ha) and benefit cost ratio (1.97) were also recorded in treatment-9.
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23992
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Vanilla: A Review of Powerful Herb with Ayurvedic Medicinal Properties

    • Authors: Purnima Singh Sikarwar, Balaji Vikram, Jaipinaky Dilip Sengupta, Amrita Singh, Narendra Kumar, Akash Mishra, Dharmendra Kumar Gautam, Vikas Kumar
      Pages: 809 - 817
      Abstract: Vanilla, derived from the beans of the Vanilla planifolia orchid, is a globally cherished spice known for its sweet aroma and flavor. Beyond its culinary applications, this review delves into the Ayurvedic medicinal properties of vanilla, unraveling its potential as a powerful herb in traditional medicine. Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine, recognizes vanilla for its diverse therapeutic attributes. The active compounds in vanilla, such as vanillin, contribute to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. These qualities align with Ayurvedic principles, emphasizing the balance of bodily functions and prevention of diseases. Vanilla has been historically employed to alleviate digestive disorders, respiratory ailments and stress-related conditions. Ayurvedic practitioners harness its calming effects on the nervous system, promoting mental well-being. Moreover, vanilla is explored for its potential antimicrobial properties, adding a layer of significance in the context of Ayurveda where natural remedies play a pivotal role. The herb's use in Ayurvedic formulations underscores its adaptability across diverse health concerns. This review consolidates current scientific research alongside traditional Ayurvedic wisdom to provide a comprehensive understanding of vanilla's medicinal potential. As consumer interest in holistic well-being grows, the integration of vanilla into Ayurvedic practices not only expands its applications but also exemplifies the synergy between traditional and contemporary approaches to health. Unveiling the multifaceted nature of vanilla as a potent herb, this exploration encourages further investigations and applications of its Ayurvedic medicinal properties in modern healthcare.
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23993
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • An Insightful Exploration of Protected Cultivation in Horticultural Crops:
           A Comprehensive Review

    • Authors: Dharmendra Kumar Gautam, Omkar Warang, G. Ranganna, Sameer, Vikki, Harish Chandra Yadav, Budhesh Pratap Singh , Satyendra Verma
      Pages: 818 - 827
      Abstract: The survey starts by examining various sorts of protected cultivation, encompassing a variety of techniques such as greenhouses, polytunnels, modern nurseries, high passages, and shade houses, as well as their benefits and constraint has emerged as a pivotal component in horticultural practices. It then, at that point, features the significance of protected cultivation in tending to worldwide food security challenges by guaranteeing all year crop creation and decreasing dependence on occasional varieties. This comprehensive review delves into the multifaceted aspects of protected cultivation in horticultural crops, aiming to provide a nuanced understanding of its impact on crop yield, quality, and resource efficiency. The audit further investigates the effect of protected cultivation strategies on the development and advancement of plant crops, including further developed crop morphogenesis, precipitation the board, and the streamlining of natural factors like temperature, moistness, and carbon dioxide levels. Besides, the usage of cutting-edge innovations like aquaculture, aeroponics, and vertical cultivating inside protected cultivation frameworks is inspected, with an accentuation on their true capacity for amplifying crop efficiency while limiting asset utilization. The article synthesizes recent advancements, challenges, and future prospects in this field, shedding light on the dynamic interplay between environmental factors, crop physiology, and technological interventions. By critically evaluating the existing literature, we present a synthesis of knowledge that can inform both researchers and farmers in optimizing protected cultivation for sustainable and resilient horticultural production systems.
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23994
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Assessment of Groundwater Availability for Rice Farming in Tuban Regency,
           East Java in 2018-2022

    • Authors: Ketut Putra, Winardi Baskoro , Nyoman Ratini , Nyoman Wendri, Agung Widagda
      Pages: 828 - 836
      Abstract: A study has been carried out on deficit, surplus, percentage of groundwater availability and Oldeman climate type classification in Tuban Regency, East Java in 2018-2022 with the aim of increasing the productivity of rice plants in the area. This process begins with data collection, including rainfall, air temperature, coordinates and height of rain posts, as well as physical soil data which is used to calculate rice ETC (Evapotranspirasi Tanaman/Plant Evapotranspiration), deficit, surplus and ATS (Air Tanah Tersedia/Groundwater Available). The method used in this calculation is the Thornthwaite and Mather method. From data analysis, it was found that the smallest deficit of 0.1 mm occurred in Medalem in June, while the largest deficit occurred in Ngimbang in November amounting to 279.6 mm. The smallest surplus of 0.9 mm was recorded in Sumurgung in April, while the largest surplus of 313 mm occurred in Jenu in January. Groundwater availability reaching 100% generally occurs in November-April, while 0% ATS occurs in June-September. and the Oldeman climate patterns in Tuban Regency are C3, D3, D4, and E3 respectively.
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23995
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Standardization of Formulation and Application Approaches for Field
           Implementation of EPNs

    • Authors: Babita Kumari, Anil Kumar , Sujata, Deepak Mourya
      Pages: 837 - 846
      Abstract: Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) live parasitically inside the infected insect host, and so they are termed as endoparasitic. They infect different types of insect living in the soil like the larval forms of moths, butterflies and beetles as well as adult forms of beetles, grasshoppers and crickets. The present experiment was conducted under both laboratory and field conditions at CCS Haryana Agriculture University, Hisar. Two most virulent strains of EPNs, Metarhabditis amsactae strain HAR-St-II and HAR-Ht-III were taken and their formulations were standardized using six different media i.e. cadaver based formulation, water, alginate gel, foam chips, clay chips and water dispersible granules. Among these formulations, cadaver based formulation was found to be best. Maximum numbers of active IJs after 90 days were obtained from this formulation were 3370 and 2728 /Petri plate in strain HAR-St-II and HAR- Ht-III of M. amsactae, respectively. Further this, experiment was conducted at field level for EPNs suspension was standardized using different size of nozzle opening i.e. 25 µm, 50 µm, 75 µm and 100 µm on knapsack sprayer. Spodoptera litura was selected as a test insect in okra crop for foliar application of EPNs and results revealed that 100 µm nozzle opening size gave maximum larval mortality of S. litura. Per cent mortality of S. litura was increased with increase in size of nozzle and period of observation
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23997
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Sustainable Management of Land, Water and Crop in Hills of North East

    • Authors: Krishna Bharadwaj, Prakshipta Boruah , Manha Bathari , Mercydi Maibangsa , Hunmili Terangpi
      Pages: 847 - 855
      Abstract: Hill agriculture in Northeast India has tremendous potential to grow and contribute towards improving productivity, enhancing food and nutrition security, reducing rural poverty and accelerating the overall economic condition of the region due to its rich land, abundant water resources and favorable climate. The North-eastern region lying between 21.5oN - 29.5oN latitudes and 85.5oE - 97.3oE longitudes comprises eight states - Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim. The growth potential of hill farming has remained under-exploited due to various reasons like lack of system-specific production technologies, poor infrastructure (transport, markets, processing) and underdeveloped institutions (credit, extension, information, insurance), inaccessible habitations, diverse socio-cultural and fragmented land holdings. In hilly areas, jhum cultivation provides a basis for subsistence farming, maintenance of cultural values and social stability at low population density. But in the present context, this system cannot sustain increased demographic pressure. Moreover, shifting cultivation also causes problems of land degradation, accelerated deforestation, out of control forest fires ultimately affecting climate change. Therefore, adoption of various agro techniques as an alternative to jhuming may prove to be a boon for the overall growth of the region. Cultivation of plantation crops and orchards established on hill slopes will prevent soil erosion. Watershed development also plays an important role in sustaining the natural resource base and improving the productive potential of hill states. The hill states have the potential for production of vegetables in off-season that has greater demand in neighboring plains when there is scarcity of supply as this region is bestowed with the most congenial climatic conditions for the production of under-exploited agricultural and horticultural crops that provides many fold employment opportunities in agro-based industries, packaging, storage, preservation, canning and transportation.
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23998
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
  • Influence of High Temperature Stress on Morpho-physiological and Yield
           Traits of Blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) Genotypes

    • Authors: N. Pavithra , K. Jayalalitha, T. Sujatha , N. Harisatyanarayana , N. Jyothi Lakshmi, V. Roja
      Pages: 856 - 866
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at College farm, Agricultural College, Bapatla, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University during summer, 2022 and 2023 to study the influence of high temperature stress on morpho-physiological and yield traits of blackgram genotypes. The experiment was carried out in randomized block design with 30 treatments and 2 replications. The study revealed that among the thirty blackgram genotypes screened for their tolerance to high temperature stress at flowering stage, the genotype, TBG-129, LBG-1015 and PU-1804 were found to withstand high temperature stress and maintain higher SPAD chlorophyll content, and higher seed yield per plant indicating tolerance to high temperature stress during both the years. These blackgram genotypes can be further used as donors in the pulse breeding program for development of heat resilient varieties.
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23999
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
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School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
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