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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Climate Change and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 150)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Nīvār     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Oxford Open Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change
Number of Followers: 24  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2581-8627
Published by SCIENCEDOMAIN international Homepage  [65 journals]
  • Performance of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes their Growth and
           Yield under Irrigated Condition of Prayagraj

    • Authors: S. Prashanth, C. Umesha, S. P. Vikas
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out during Rabi season, 2021 at Wheat Breeding experimental Field, Naini Agricultural institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design and nine genotypes were replicated fourfold. Study revealed that the genotype G2 i.e., NETS-102 recorded significantly higher plant height (112.02 cm), number of tillers/hill (7.7/hill), plant dry weight (31.41 g/hill), length of the spike (12.79 cm), number of grains per spike (63.41/spike), grain yield (4.26 t/ha) and Straw yield (6.04 t/ha). It was evident that the performance of genotype NETS-102 was proved to be viable and productive.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130936
  • Impact of Nitrogen and Zinc Levels on Growth and Yield of Desi Chickpea
           (Cicer arietinum L)

    • Authors: Maila Nagaraju, Victor Debbarma
      Pages: 8 - 13
      Abstract: Background: Chickpea is the largest produced food legume in south Asia and the third largest globally, after common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and field pea (Pisum sativum L.) Chick pea is widely appreciated as health food. It is a protein-rich supplement to cereal-based diets, especially to the poor in developing countries. Objectives: Effects of nitrogen and zinc levels on growth and yield of Chick pea. Methods: A study was conducted to determine the effect of nitrogen and zinc levels on growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) var Pusa-362 under a Randomized Block Design with 9 treatments each replicated thrice. The results reported that the application of 30 kg/ha Nitrogen+15 kg/ha Zinc (treatment -9) recorded significantly higher plant height (58.40 cm), maximum number of nodules/plant (12.10), higher plant dry weight (24.0 g/plant), Maximum number of pods/plant (71.10), higher seeds/pod (1.80), higher seed yield (3.21 t/ha) and higher stover yield (4.31 t/ha) were recorded in (treatment -9) that is with 30 kg/ha Nitrogen+15 kg/ha Zinc. Conclusion: Based on the above findings of the investigation it may be concluded that treatment with 30 kg/ha Nitrogen and 15 kg/ha Zinc in all growth and yield parameters and in obtaining higher grain yield of chickpea These results are based on a single season, therefore additional testing may be necessary for further validation.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130937
  • The Dynamics of Rain Pattern in East Kalimantan

    • Authors: Akas Yekti Pulihasih, Akas Pinaringan Sujalu
      Pages: 14 - 18
      Abstract: Climate includes rain is the most dynamic and highly diverse component of the ecosystem, but because the rotation of the earth is a relatively persistent recurring occurrence, the elements of the climate are still likely to be suspected or interpreted.The study aimed to find out the pattern of rainfall on the 2 periods based on historical rain data of 1975-2019 years with a descriptive and authoritative analysis. The annual rainfall rate of East Kalimantan province generally forms an open upward curve, has a value of Q = 0 for both periods, the rainfall pattern tends to change from the C pattern (double wave pattern) in the period 1975-1980 became pattern A (single or single wave) in the period of 2010-2019.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130938
  • Performance Evaluation of Drip Irrigation System in Grapes Field

    • Authors: A. Valliammai, Martha Sravani, N. Satheeshkumar, S. Pazhanivelan
      Pages: 19 - 24
      Abstract: A commercial drip irrigation system was evaluated at farmer’s field under grapes to study the various parameters viz emission uniformity, emitter flow variations and statistical uniformity during the year 2019. The soil characteristics of the experiment field at different profile depths was analyzed and sandy loam soil is available at 0 to 15 cm depth and sandy clay loam is available from 15 cm to 60 cm depths,  Irrigation was given daily  based on potential evaporation. The soil moisture status during the crop growth period at various depths under the emitter was studied. The soil moisture in the field was maintained in a range of 21 to 23% under drip irrigation in the 60 cm depth irrespective of the duration. During the rainy season when no irrigation was given, the soil moisture fluctuated depending upon the intensity of rainfall. The system performance was good as indicated by high uniformity coefficient (93%) which indicates that the field is irrigated in a highly uniform manner. The yield was estimated as 27500 kg/ha and water use efficiency was found to be 566 kg.ha/cm The study revealed that superiority of drip irrigated soil regime and moisture content in the soil in 60 cm depth was more or less maintained constantly during the irrigation period.
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130941
  • Influence of Soil Amendments on Growth Parameters and Economics in Maize
           (Zea mays L)

    • Authors: P. Laxman Rao, G. Jayasree, G. Pratibha, T. Ram Prakash
      Pages: 25 - 32
      Abstract: Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of different soil amendments on plant growth parameters and economics in maize (Zea mays L). Place and Duration of Study: Maize variety 900-M-GOLD was cultivated during rabi 2014-15 at College Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, PJTSAU, Hyderabad, Telangana state, India. Methodology: The Experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 6 treatments replicated four times. Treatments consist of T1- vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 ,T2-FYM @ 10 t ha-1 , T3-tanksilt @ 50 t ha-1 , T4- biochar @10 t ha-1 ,T5- control (without any fertilizer),T6- RDF (NPK-200, 60, 50 kg ha-1). Recommended Dose of Fertilizers was commonly applied from treatment T1 to T4. Results: There were no significant difference in plant population with the application of all the treatments. At harvest, significantly higher leaf area index recorded with application of tanksilt (1.67) which was on par with vermicompost (1.66), biochar (1.65), FYM (1.65), RDF (1.51) and significantly higher than control (0.80). Maximum gross returns (INR 1,31,283 ha–1), net returns (INR 85,533 ha–1) and BC ratio (2.87) were recorded with the application of tanksilt and minimum gross returns (INR 51,431 ha–1), net returns (INR 24,781 ha–1) and BC ratio (1.93) were recorded in the control.  Conclusion:  It was determined that growth parameter viz., leaf area, leaf area index recorded significantly higher with tanksilt application which is on par with the application of vermicompost, biochar, FYM.  Maximum gross returns (INR 131283 ha–1), net returns (INR 85533 ha–1) and BC ratio (2.87) were recorded with the application of tanksilt.
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130942
  • Mapping, Inventory and Change Detection of Wetlands of Thavanur Grama
           Panchayath using Multispectral Satellite Imagery

    • Authors: M. R. Chithra, Asha Joseph, S. Jane Mithra, Anu Varughese
      Pages: 33 - 50
      Abstract: Wetlands are the submerged or waters saturated lands, both natural and man-made, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water, the depth of which at low tide does not exceed 6 meters. Effective wetlands management and protection are critical. Accurate and comprehensive wetland classification maps as well as spatiotemporal change information are essential for ecological protection and local government decisions. Wetland mapping and classification help to preserve and improve wetland quality. A study was conducted on wetland mapping, inventory and change detection wetlands of Thavanur Grama Panchayath in Malappuram district of Kerala using multispectral satellite imageries of high resolution (2.4x2.4m) during the year 2020-2021. The image processing was carried out by Visual Interpretation Technique. The accuracy of mapping was assessed by kappa coefficient. The various wetland classes found in Thavanur Grama Panchayath were Aquaculture, Marshy land, River and other ponds and small waterbodies. The major wetlands identified in the Panchayath were Ayankalam kayal, Maravanchery kaayal, Varo kaayal, Thavanur kaayal (marshy type wetlands), Bharathapuzha River, Ayankalam aquaculture, Mathur aquaculture and several other ponds. The change detection analysis showed that the percentage change in wetland during the decade was found maximum for pond and well (-33.18%). The major land use changes during the period 2008 and 2018 were that coconut plantation increased by 70.79 ha, paddy land decreased by 61.62 ha and marshy land decreased by 7.04 ha. The kappa coefficient of mapping was obtained as 0.93 which indicted good accuracy.
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130940
  • Growth in Area, Production and Productivity of Cotton Crop in India: A
           State Wise Analysis

    • Authors: M. N. Shwetha, I. Shakuntala Devi, T. Lavanya, K. Suhasini, A. Meena
      Pages: 51 - 57
      Abstract: Aim: To analyze the dynamics of area, production, and productivity of the cotton across different states of India to understand the impact of Bt cotton on the same. Methodology: The present study is based on the secondary data. Time series data were analyzed for two sub period viz., Period Ⅰ (1987-88 to 2001-02) before the introduction of Bt cotton and period Ⅱ (2002-03 to 2019-2020) after the introduction of Bt cotton for India and for major cotton growing states in India. Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of area, production and productivity was computed by using semi-log growth model (Log-Lin model). Result: The result revealed that growth rates of area, production and productivity of cotton crop marked a significant increase after the introduction of Bt cotton across the major cotton growing states. Conclusion: There is an increased growth rate in area, production and productivity of cotton after the introduction of Bt Cotton. However, the cotton growing farmers still facing constraints related to quality of seeds, pest and disease attack, lack of awareness about new technology etc. The study therefore recommends to strengthen the extension system.
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130944
  • Effect of Nano Zeolite, Nano Micronutrients and Biocapsules on Plant
           Growth, Head Yield and Quality of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var Italica)

    • Authors: Teegala Sharon Priyanka, Anita Kerketta, Samir E. Topno, Shaik Gouse Mohiddin, Pratyasha Tripathi
      Pages: 58 - 65
      Abstract: The present investigation was conducted at the Vegetable Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences (SHUATS), Prayagraj (U.P.), during the Rabi season of the year 2020–21. The experiment was laid out in a randomised block design with three replications and 15 treatments. T15 N P K (RDF) + Nanozeolite 50 ppm (Soil drenching)+ Biocapsule 500 ppm+ folia application of ZnO and FeO nano particles & T13 N P K (RDF) + Biocapsule 500 ppm (soil drenching) + foliar application of ZnO and FeOnano particles was found to be the best in Plant height, leaf area, and no of leaves. Again In terms of yield parameters, the treatment T15 N P K (RDF) + Nanozeolite 50 ppm (Soil drenching) + Biocapsule 500 ppm+ folia application of ZnO and FeO nano particles performed best in Head diameter (cm), Marketable Head Yield/plot (kg), Marketable Head Yield/hectare (q/ha), Harvest Index (%) (18.68 cm, 3.15 kg, 212.86 qh, 90.65%).
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130945
  • Evaluation of Different Genotypes of Sponge Gourd (Luffa cylindrica M.
           Roem.) for Growth Yield and Fruit Quality in Prayagraj Agro-climatic

    • Authors: Shaik Gouse Mohiddin, Anita Kerketta, Vijay Bahadur, Samir E. Topno, T. Sharon Priyanka, Shaik Abdul Khuddus Mohiddin
      Pages: 66 - 72
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to find out the best suitable genotypes of Sponge gourd in Prayagraj Agro-climatic conditions in the Vegetable Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences (SHUATS), Prayagraj (U.P.), during Zaid season of the year 2021. 22 genotypes including one check genotypes which are procured from Indian Institute of Vegetable Research center(IIVR),are evaluated and the experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The observations were recorded on growth, yield and Fruit quality. The results revealed that among all the IET/2020 SPGVAR-7 and AVT I/2019 SPGVAR-3 performed well in earliness parameters viz. Days to germination (6.69days),Days to first male flowering (51.533days), appearance of first male flower on node(3.6) and appearance of first female flower on node (7.81). In terms of vine Length maximum was recorded in AVT I/2019 SPGVAR 4 (4.9m). Fruit length was maximum in IET 2020 SPGVAR 3(25.7cm), Fruit Diameter was maximum in AVT I/2019 SPGVAR-5 (3.24cm). Weight of 5 fruits was maximum in IET/2020 SPGVAR-6 (129.4 grams). And among all the genotypes IET/2020 SPGVAR-4 performed will in yield parameters viz. Yield per plant (1.48kg) and yield per hectare (66.88 Quintals/hac).
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130946
  • Effect of Organic Manures on Growth and Yield of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum
           glaucum L.)

    • Authors: Somarowthu Akhil, C. Umesha
      Pages: 73 - 78
      Abstract: This experimental study was conducted during kharif 2021 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (Uttar Pradesh). The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.6), low in organic carbon (0.51%), available N (230 kg/ha), available P (17.80 kg ha-1) and available K (245.10 kg ha-1). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with nine treatments each replicated thrice on the basis of one year experimentation. The treatments which are T1: Farm Yard Manure 5 t-ha-1 + vermicompost 3 t-ha-1, T2: Farm yard manure 5 t-ha-1 + poultry manure 2 t-ha-1, T3: Farm yard manure 5 t-ha-1 + vermicompost 1.5 t-ha-1 + poultry manure 1 t-ha-1, T4: Farm yard manure 7.5 t-ha-1 + vermicompost 3 t-ha-1, T5: Farm yard manure 7.5 t-ha-1 + poultry manure 2 t-ha-1, T6: Farm yard manure 7.5 t-ha-1 + vermicompost 1.5 t-ha-1 + poultry manure 1 t-ha-1, T7: Farm yard manure 10 t-ha-1 + vermicompost 3 t-ha-1, T8: Farm yard manure 10 t-ha-1 + poultry manure 2 t-ha-1, T9: Farm yard manure 10 t-ha-1 + vermicompost 1.5 t-ha-1 + poultry manure 1 t-ha-1, are used. The results showed that application of Farm yard manure 10 t-ha-1 + vermicompost 1.5 t-ha-1 + poultry manure 1 t-ha-1 was recorded significantly higher Plant height (174.21 cm), Plant dry weight (45.67 g). Whereas significantly highest crop growth rate (16.72 g m-2 day-1) and relative growth rate (0.0411 g/g/day) was recorded with the treatment Farm yard manure 7.5 t-ha-1 + vermicompost 1.5 t-ha-1 + poultry manure 1 t-ha-1. Significantly maximum Number of earheads-m-2 (44.67), Number of grains/earhead (1976.67), Test weight (9.05 g), Grain yield (2.59 t-ha-1), Straw yield (3.64 t-ha-1), Gross returns (Rs.1,55,400), Net returns (Rs. 94600) and Benefit Cost ratio (1.56) were obtained with application of Farm yard manure 10 t-ha-1 + vermicompost 1.5 t-ha-1 + poultry manure 1 t-ha-1 as compared to other treatments.
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130947
  • Laboratory Germination Experiment for Assessing the Phytotoxic Effect of
           Arsenic on the Growth Attribute of Different Crops

    • Authors: R. Megala Devi, P. Kalaiselvi, E. Parameswari, V. Babu Rajendra Prasad, M. Maheswari
      Pages: 79 - 88
      Abstract: Arsenic (As) pollution is a major environmental and agricultural issue across the world. Due to industrialization and over exploitation of ground water are the two most important factors for the occurrence of arsenic in the water. The irrigation of arsenic contaminated water poses threat not only to the plant system ultimately it affects all the living forms on the global. Early germination of seedlings is affected by the concurrent increase in As exposure in agricultural fields. The arsenic in very low levels also brings damage to the plant system phenotypically and metabolically. This study was carried out to evaluate the germination performance, initial growth characteristics and chlorophyll content of different crops viz., rice, maize, black gram, groundnut and tomato in response to the different level of As concentration (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mgL-1) in the growing solution. Growth metrics in all crops were reduced as As content was increased. Among these crops rice was most tolerant to the level of 60 mgL-1 of As concentration compared to other crops. The current study's findings revealed that tomato was most susceptible to As concentrations, whereas rice was the most resistant to As stress.
      PubDate: 2022-07-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130950
  • Dynamics of Area Change under Commercial Crops in Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: T. Sharumathi, R. Gangai Selvi, Patil Santosh Ganapati, V. Karthick
      Pages: 89 - 99
      Abstract: The area under commercial crops has been fluctuating over the years in Tamil Nadu. However, the change in area is not same for all the crops. Hence the present study was conducted to assess the growth rates and the dynamics of area change of cash crops in Tamil Nadu by using the secondary data for the period of five decades from 1971 to 2020. Among cash crops oilseeds had highest area under production followed by coconut, sugarcane and vegetables. All commercial crops, with the exception of sugarcane, tea, coffee, and vegetables, have a negative growth rate. The transitional probability matrix for area under cash crops was obtained using Markov chain analysis. By simulating this transitional probability matrix, the area under major cash crops in Tamil Nadu for the next decade has been projected. Sugarcane is the only crop with a positive trend for the projected area, while cotton, spices, coffee, and vegetable group exhibit a declining over the period.
      PubDate: 2022-07-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130949
  • Morphometric Analysis of Chilenahalli Micro-watershed in the North-eastern
           Dry Zone of Karnataka using GIS and Remote Sensing Techniques

    • Authors: . Adarsha, . Murukannappa, H. G. Ashoka
      Pages: 100 - 113
      Abstract: The structure and landform of watershed and their associated stream networks are described mainly by their morphometric parameters and Watershed analysis based on morphometric parameters is very important for watershed planning, since it gives an idea about the basin characteristics regarding slope, topography, soil condition, runoff characteristics, surface water potential and quantify the linear, areal and relief aspects of watershed. Geographic information system and remote sensing techniques were employed for the identification of morphological features, drainage pattern and its planning in basin area. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) 30m resolution was used to digitize study watershed and generate drainage pattern and analysis done using GIS software and excel spreadsheet. The study reveals that Chilenahalli micro-watershed designated as 4thstream order and drainage indicate dendritic pattern with mature geomorphic stage and stream order verifies the Horton’s law of stream number. The Mean Bifurcation Ratio was found to be 4.46, which indicates low rainfall, shallow weathering and low dissection of the valley and it shows low to medium relief aspect during investigation of the basin. This can be visualised using DEM, relief ratio, ruggedness number, and slope maps of the study area. The drainage density was found to be 2.13 km/km2which indicate a low class Dd value, thereby indicating a poorly drained watershed with low response to hydrological parameters. The texture ratio of the micro-watershed is 3.52, which indicated coarse texture of drainage basin and the values of Form Factor, Circulatory ratio and Elongation ratio may imply an oval shape of the basin with a slightly elongated main stream and the length of overland flow values in this study is 0.23 km which shows moderate infiltration and percolation characteristics of soil. The study which also helps in planning erosion control strategy, prioritization of watershed and management practices for soil and rainwater conservation. The research study helps to formulate the selection and adoption of crop management practices by preparing soil map of the watershed in future.
      PubDate: 2022-07-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130951
  • Generating Synthetic Monthly Net Radiation Data Conditioned on Wind Speed

    • Authors: Agada; Inikpi Ojochenemi, Sombo Terver, Utah Effiong Utah
      Pages: 114 - 124
      Abstract: Aims: This study aimed at generating synthetic monthly net radiation data conditioned on wind speed over Port Harcourt, Benue, Kano and Enugu in Nigeria. Duration of Study: The daily maximum and minimum Relative-Humidity, maximum and minimum air temperature, solar radiation and wind speed data was obtained from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan, Nigeria for the period of thirty-four (34) years (1977-2010). Method: The Penman-Monteith (FAO-56) step by step method was used to compute the daily net radiation. The autocorrelation function was used to establish the fact that net radiation and wind speed exhibit the Markov property. Lastly, a two – state Markov Chain model and an indicator function of energy balance and imbalance was developed and used in the course of this work. Results: The finding reveals that net radiation is surplus over the study areas. The Lag one autocorrelation coefficient confirms the fact that an actual day net radiation and wind speed state depends on the previous day’s state. The monthly steady state probabilities of surplus net radiation conditioned on low wind speed is higher compared to monthly steady state probabilities of surplus net radiation conditioned on high wind speed. The indicator function of energy balance or imbalance reveals that there is energy imbalance over study areas. Conclusion: The generated synthetic net radiation data conditioned on wind speed preserved the characteristics of actual net radiation data when compared as observed in the study. This data is essential in the study of climate change, weather monitoring, agricultural meteorology and estimation of evapotranspiration.
      PubDate: 2022-07-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130952
  • Impact of Precipitation over the Productivity of Sugarcane in Major
           Agro-climatic Zones of Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: P. Dinesh Kumar, Tufleuddin Biswas
      Pages: 125 - 130
      Abstract: Sugarcane is one of the traditional crops grown abundantly across the state of Tamil Nadu due to the lengthening of the period of monsoon and its diversified uses in different agro-based industries. Precipitation, a significant factor for sugarcane cultivation, has an impact on its productivity differs for different agro-climatic zones. A secondary data of district wise precipitation and sugarcane productivity of Tamil Nadu for the 30 years (1985 - 2014) were also collected. The impact of precipitation over the productivity of various crops can be explained by using the Standard Precipitation Indices (SPI) data and applying Principal Component regression (PCR) technique. Initially, SPI, A drought monitoring index, represents a Z-Score, was calculated seasonally for different agro-climatic zones. As there was a severe collinearity between the SPI values of seasons, Principal component regression analysis was used to study the impact of precipitation on the sugarcane productivity by considering the SPI values of four seasons along with time as regressor variables. The study showed that the productivity of sugarcane in Cauvery Delta zone and Western Zone mainly depended upon the precipitation during South west monsoon and North East monsoon periods. However, the productivity of sugarcane in North East zone was mostly dependent on the precipitation of Cold Weather period when compared to all other seasons. Unlikely, North west and Southern zones are not significantly influenced by the precipitation.
      PubDate: 2022-07-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130953
  • Terminal Heat Stress and Its Mitigation Options through Agronomic
           Interventions in Wheat Crop: A Review

    • Authors: Nesar Ahmad Nesar, Atal Hameedi, Meenakshi Attri, Rakesh Kumar, Ranjeet Singh Bochalya, Rahmat Gul Stanikzai, Hritik Srivastava
      Pages: 131 - 139
      Abstract: Climate change will be one of the most critical dangers to agriculture in the coming years. On average, abiotic stresses account for 50% of the production losses in agricultural production. Terminal stress is a major environmental issue limiting wheat production in the majority of wheat-growing regions across the world. The term "terminal heat stress" refers to a rise in temperature (> 30°C) after anthesis during grain development which impairs the process of grain filling in wheat. Rising temperatures shorten the vegetative and reproductive periods of the wheat crop, but the reproductive stage is more vulnerable than the vegetative. The major portion of India, including the north-eastern plain zone, the central zone, and the peninsular zone, experienced terminal stress over the summer. There are numerous solutions available for mitigating the harmful effects of terminal heat stress on wheat crops. Adjusting sowing time is one of the most impactful agronomic techniques. Wheat planting methods such as conservation tillage, bed sowing, conventional tillage plus mulch, and surface residue preservation are considered suitable alternatives for mitigating terminal stress. Moreover, irrigation at a critical period reduces terminal heat stress and boosts wheat grain development. Foliar spraying of osmoprotectants such as KNO3, Thiourea, Zn, and many others during anthesis and post-anthesis can also help in alleviating the effects of high-temperature stress on wheat crops.
      PubDate: 2022-07-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130955
  • Assessment from Drought Perspective for Bundelkhand Region, India

    • Authors: Vineeta Singh, Pradeep Kumar Singh Bhadauria, P. S. Kashyap, Ramesh Verma
      Pages: 140 - 152
      Abstract: The Bundelkhand region in Madhya Pradesh state poses many issues related to water resource availability and is under grip of frequent drought like situation. The drought condition in the region is continuously worst than before due to climate change which intimate increased drought intensity and magnitude. The region mainly consists of 7 district of Uttar Pradesh and 6 district of Madhya Pradesh. The present study aims to investigate drought characteristics in Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh using departure analysis and prioritization of which is carried out using Relative Departure Index (RDI) for planning immediate mitigation strategies. The impact of climate change was assessing using Mann-Kendell test and its magnitude of change using Sen’s slope estimator. For assessment of drought characteristics and evaluation of climate change 45 years (1970-2014) monthly rainfall data is analyzed. The average annual rainfall in Bundelkhand region in M.P is computed as 1071.1 mm. In 1970, 1974, 2002, 2006, 2007 and 2010 the region was under grip of widespread drought condition.  Prioritization using RDI indicated that Sagar district is at the highest priority and was followed by Chhatarpur and Panna. The trend analysis reveals the decrement of seasonal rainfall patterns except in Damoh and Chhatarpur districts. The annual rainfall trends assessment showed quite similar changing patterns among the districts, except in Chhatarpur and Panna district.
      PubDate: 2022-07-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130956
  • Effect of Graded Levels of Nitrogen Application on Yield and Yield
           Attributes in Different Rice Varieties

    • Authors: B. Srikanth, D. Subrahmanyam, S. Narender Reddy, V. Jaldhani, C. N. Neeraja, D. Sanjeeva Rao, K. Supriya
      Pages: 153 - 167
      Abstract: As the application of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture is increasing day by day which is leading to environmental pollution and increasing the cost of cultivation, a field experiment was conducted at IIRR farm, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during three consecutive seasons (Kharif-2020, Rabi-2021 and Kharif-2021) to study the effect of different nitrogen levels application on yield and yield attributes in rice. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with four nitrogen levels as main plots, fourteen varieties as sub plots and replicated thrice. Among the nitrogen treatments N150 recorded highest number of panicles, more panicle length and higher grain yield which is on par with N100. N0 recorded lowest number of panicles, less panicle length, lowest grain yield and harvest index. Among the varieties highest 1000 grain weight was noticed in Birupa while N-22 in Kharif-2020 and Kharif-2021 and, Nidhi in Rabi-2021 recorded the lowest value. Birupa showed least reduction in grain yield with N50 compared to N100 in all three tested seasons. MTU-1010 recorded highest grain yield whereas lowest grain yield was noticed in N-22. Higher harvest index was observed in MTU-1010 in Kharif-2020 and Rabi-2021 and, IR-64 in Kharif-2021 while lowest value was recorded in N-22 in Kharif-2020 and Rabi-2021 and, Nidhi in Kharif-2021.
      PubDate: 2022-07-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130957
  • Study on Stability Parameters for Yield and Compact Plant Type Characters
           in Hybrids Derived from Multiple Cross Derivatives of Upland Cotton
           (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and Amenable for HDPS

    • Authors: K. G. K. Murthy, T. Pradeep
      Pages: 168 - 179
      Abstract: Stability of 42 F1 hybrids derived by crossing six lines and seven testers in line x tester mating design was studied by planting in three different locations for yield and compact plant traits. Analysis of variance showed significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits when tested against pooled deviation and pooled error. The mean squares due to environments (E) was found significant for all the characters except for days to 50% flowering, length of the sympodial branches, boll weight and ginning outturn. Significant interaction of G x E was exhibited by all traits except for days to 50% flowering, number of monopodial branches, leaf area and ginning outturn when tested against pooled deviation, indicating differential behaviour of genotypes in changing environments. The study also revealed the importance of both linear and non-linear components in determining the interaction of genotypes with environment. The cross combinations viz., MC 17-6 x MC 3-2 , MC 4-3 x MC 3-2, MC 16-3 x MC 17-2, MC 23-2 x NH 630, MC 23-2 x MC 3-2 and MC 17-6 x MC 22-2  had shown stable performance over locations for yield along with few compact plant type characters based on stability parameters and could be subjected for further evaluation to develop hybrids amenable for HDPS.   
      PubDate: 2022-07-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130959
  • Correlation and Path Analysis in Early Maturing Sugarcane: Climate Change
           and Environmental Impact

    • Authors: Rajvinder Singh, D. N. Kamat, Pooja Kumari, R. G. Zala, Bansa Singh
      Pages: 180 - 190
      Abstract: An investigation was undertaken to identify early maturing sugarcane genotypes for higher sugar yield at the Research Farm of DRPCAU, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar during the spring season of 2018, the experiment was carried out in Randomized Block Climate change is expected to have important consequences for sugarcane production in the world, especially in the developing countries because of relatively low adaptive capacity, high vulnerability to natural hazards, and poor forecasting systems and mitigating strategies. Sugarcane production may have been negatively affected and will continue to be considerably affected by increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme environmental conditions due to climate change. Design with three replications. Correlation and path analysis in twelve genotypes of sugarcane for twenty one different morphological and juice quality characters were studied in relation to the checks viz. CoLk94184 and CoSe95422. Analysis of correlation revealed that the character sugar yield had highly positive genotypic correlation with traits number of millable canes at harvest (0.977), followed by cane yield at harvest (0.963). However, it was negatively correlated with purity percentage at the 8th month stage (-0.491), cane diameter at harvest (-0.363), number of internodes at harvest (-0.263), length of internodes at harvest (-0.081) and fibre percentage at harvest (-0.039). The trait cane yield at harvest (0.955**) was found to have a highly significant and positive phenotypic association, followed by single cane weight at harvest (0.820**) and germination percentage at 45 DAP (0.510**).On the other hand, it was found that the traits cane diameter at harvest (-0.236), number of internodes at harvest (-0.151) and length of internodes at harvest (-0.099) had non-significant negative phenotypic associations with sugar yield. Positive direct effect on sugar yield at phenotypic level was exerted maximally by cane yield at harvest (t/ha) (1.51) followed by CCS percentage at 10th month stage (0.29) and pol in juice at 10th month stage (0.21), germination Percentage at 45 DAP (%), cane diameter (cm) and length of internode (cm), whereas at genotypic level maximum positive direct effect was observed in the case of pol percentage in cane at harvest followed by single cane weight (kg) and brix percentage at 10th month.
      PubDate: 2022-07-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130960
  • Effect of Different Concentration of Water Soluble Fertilizers on Growth,
           Yield and Quality Attributes of Cherry Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var.
           cerasiformae) cv. Pusa Cherry Tomato-1 In Grow Bags under Polyhouse

    • Authors: Kumari Neha Sinha, Samir E. Topno, Vijay Bahadur, Sumit Singh, Gaurav Singh Vishen
      Pages: 191 - 205
      Abstract: An experiment was carried out in naturally ventilated polyhouse where the seedlings were transplanted in grow bags in Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P.) during year 2020–2021 to find out the effect of water-soluble fertilizer on growth, yield and fruit quality parameters and to estimate the economics of various treatment of water-soluble fertilizer in cherry tomato. The experiment consisted of nine different treatments combination which was laid out in a completely randomized block design (RBD) with three replications. The result of present investigation revealed that among distinct treatments, the treatment T4 NPK (20:20:20)15% outstands in all the aspects recorded. The highest plant height was (108.92 cm at 90 DAT) with maximum stem girth (10.41 cm). The maximum fruit weight was found to be (9.08 g). The maximum net return of Rs 103470.8 and the maximum Cost: Benefit (C:B) ratio was recorded to be 4.18, this might be due to the more yield, average fruit weight and fruit size.
      PubDate: 2022-07-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130961
  • Alternative Uses of Rice Straw in North-Western Regions of India: A Review

    • Authors: Aditya Shukla, Mukesh Kumar, Himanshu Tiwari, Akanksha Shukla
      Pages: 206 - 216
      Abstract: After sugarcane bagasse and maize straw, rice straw (RS) is globally the third largest form of agricultural residue while, in India, it is the largest form of agricultural residue. In the north-western states of India wheat is taken as a rabi crop and surplus rice straw is a focal issue associated with storage of rice straw, removal of entire straw from the field, and very little time between the cultivation of the crop hence rice straw burning becomes cheap, quick and efficient way for preparing bed for sowing of wheat. Open burning of crop residue kills beneficial soil microflora, degrades soil, and adds to detrimental greenhouse gases such as SO2, NO2, CH4, N2O, CO, and hydrocarbons and particulate matter in the atmosphere. As a result, burning rice straw is a major source of pollution in the environment. This review looked into rice straw alternatives that were less harmful to the environment, such as RS biochar production, RS as industrial waste adsorbents, RS based bio-methanation, heavy metal amelioration, RS bricks and RS based bioethanol production.
      PubDate: 2022-07-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130962
  • Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Growth and Yield Attributes of
           Maize (Zea mays L.) Intercropping System with Green Gram under Island
           Ecosystem, A&N Islands

    • Authors: Sanjay Kumar Pandey, Vikram Singh T. P. Swarnam, Viveka Nand Singh, Suraj Kashyap
      Pages: 217 - 223
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted during Rabi season of dry months (January to April) of 2016 and 2017 at Field crops Experimental Research Farm Bloomsdale, Chouldhari, ICAR- CIARI, Port Blair, Andaman and Nicobar Islands to study the Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on growth and yield attributes of Maize (Zea mays L.) Intercropping System with green gram under Island Ecosystem. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with three replications each consisting of two intercropping 1:1 and 2:2 ratios and eight nutrient sources. The main plots treatments include maize, green gram inter cropping ratio, with 8 nutrient applications. The results indicated that the intercropping of (Maize + Green gram (2:2) + 25% RDN through Urea + 75% N through Poultry Manure + 25% Gliricidia+ Azotobactor) series was found to be the most effective under experimental conditions, gave best result in term of growth yield and character which is statistically at par with N8(25% RDN through Urea + 50 % through PM + 25% Gliricidia + Azot), N7(25% RDN through Urea + 50% N through VC + 25% Gliricidia + Azot.) and N6(25% RDN through Urea +50% N through FYM + 25% Gliricidia + Azot.), gave the maximum net returns and maximum benefit: cost ratio.
      PubDate: 2022-07-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130963
  • Study on Crop-weather Calendar of Wheat for Eastern Plain Zone of Uttar

    • Authors: Anushka Pandey, A. K. Singh, A. N. Mishra, S. R. Mishra
      Pages: 224 - 230
      Abstract: An investigation entitled “Study on Crop-weather calendar of wheat crop for eastern plain zone of Uttar Pradesh” was carried out at the Department of Agricultural Meteorology, ANDUA&T, Kumarganj, Ayodhya. Crop weather calendar for wheat crop has been prepared for district Sultanpur through the collection of historical weather data of last 20 years (2000- 2020). Crop weather calendar of wheat was formulated by combining the weekly climatic averages and phenological calendar for the crop along with optimum weather criteria needed at different phenological stages of the crop. Climatic normal for wheat crop has been taken form 46th Standard meteorological week to 14th Standard meteorological week (from sowing to harvesting).  From the crop weather calendar of wheat crop it was observed that for during seed emergence, T max 25-270C, T min 11.5-130C, RHm 92.5-92.8% and RHe 42-49%, at CRI, T max 24-260C and T min7.5-110C, and during milking stage of the crop, T max 30-330C, T min 12.3-140C, RHm 88-91%, RHe 43% were found conducive for better yield at district Sultanpur. Conducive weather conditions for infestation of army worm were T max 20-290C and T min 14-80C, RHm 90-94% and RHe 49-65% and rainfall of 1.5- 11 mm from met. no. week 46th to 4th met. week and for leaf blight T max 20-28.50C, T min 12-170C, RHm 88-91% and RHe 42-52% from 1st to 10th met. week at booting and milking stage of the crop.
      PubDate: 2022-07-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130965
  • An Economics Analysis of Super Compost Production and Marketing under
           Godhan Nyay Yojna in Chhattisgarh of India

    • Authors: Sneha Pandey, Sumit B. Wasnik, Mamta Patel, Pradip Kumar Patel, Jwala Parte
      Pages: 231 - 236
      Abstract: The General objective of this study is to find out the cost and returns and marketing of super compost production of Gothan under Godhan Nyay Scheme. The Study was based under primary data; conducted in three districts of Chhattisgarh plains viz. Bilaspur, Raigarh and Janjgir-Champa. From each district four Gothans and from each Gothan one self help groups were selected randomly. Thus, a total number of 120 respondents were selected. Criteria of Gothan selection is as follows; Model Gothan, Non-Model Gothan, Village Gothan and City Gothan. The study revealed that Total cost of production of super compost in Model Gothan was lowest 4.24 Rs./Kg and Net Return from super compost production  was highest 1.77 Rs./Kg followed by City Gothan, Non-Model Gothan and Village Gothan. Largest consumer of Supercompost was Farmers followed by Nursery and Agriculture department.
      PubDate: 2022-07-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130966
  • Response of Different Biofertilizers and Zinc Levels on Growth and Yield
           of Maize (Zea mays L.)

    • Authors: Sudarsanam Sai Sasank, Joy Dawson
      Pages: 237 - 243
      Abstract: The study aims to highlights the effect of different biofertilizers and zinc levels on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays. L). The study was conducted during Rabi 2021 at crop Research farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj, (U.P), India. The soil of this experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.1), in low organic carbon (0.36%), available N (171.48 kg/ha), available P (15.2kg/ha), available K (232.5 kg/ha). This experiment was performed in Randomised Block Design with nine treatments each replicated thrice on the basis of one-year experimentation. The treatments which are T1: Azospirillum+ZnSo4 10 kg/ha, T2: Azospirillium­+0.1% ZnSo4, T3: Azospirillum+0.2% ZnSo4, T4: Azotobacter + ZnSo4 10 kg/ha, T5: Azotobacter + 0.1% ZnSo4, T6: Azotobacter + 0.2% ZnSo4, T7: Azotobacter + Azospirillum + ZnSo4 10 kg/ha, T8: Azotobacter + Azospirillum + 0.1% ZnSo4, T9: Azotobacter + Azospirillum + 0.2% ZnSo4. The results showed that application of Azotobacter + Azospirillum + 0.2% ZnSo4 was recorded significantly higher Plant height (195.29 cm), Plant dry weight (183.65 g/plant), Whereas significantly highest crop growth rate (5.31 g/m2/day) was recorded with the treatment Azospirillum + ZnSo4 10 kg/ha. Significantly maximum Cobs/plant (2.60), Cob length (27.17 cm), Rows/cob (15.19), Grains/cob (30.16), weight of grains/cob (140.88 g), seed index (230.66), Cob yield (6.33 t/ha), Stover yield (14.30 t/ha), Harvest index (30.67%), Gross returns (Rs.107553.00/ha), Net returns (Rs.71570.00/ha) and Benefit cost ratio (1.99) were obtained with application of Azotobacter + Azospirillum + 0.2% ZnSo4 as compared to other treatments.
      PubDate: 2022-07-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130967
  • Determination of Soil Parameters and Pulling Force Requirement of Tapioca

    • Authors: N. L. Kalyan Chakravarthi, P. R. Jayan
      Pages: 244 - 251
      Abstract: Aims: This paper aims to explore the soil parameters and pulling force requirement of tapioca root for the design and development of tractor operated tapioca harvester. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted to investigate the soil parameters and pulling force requirement of tapioca roots at farmer’s field in the year 2021-22. Methodology: The soil parameters viz. moisture content, bulk density, cone index and shear strength and pulling force requirement of tapioca root were studied using standard test procedure that plays an important role in design of soil engaging components and conveying unit of the tuber harvester. Results: The results showed that soil moisture content varied from 13.11 to 16.08 per cent, whereas bulk density ranged from 1483.07 to 1729.56 kg m-3. The cone index varied from 0.33 to 0.98 N mm-2 with an average value of 0.637 N mm-2 and shear strength ranged from 1.34 × 10-3 to 3.48 × 10-3 N mm-2 with the mean value of 2.46 × 10-3 N mm-2. The average value of pulling force requirement for tapioca roots was 103.4 kgf. The root depth and root yield per plant of tapioca roots has an average value of 250.30 mm and 7.82 kg. Conclusion: The study shows that bulk density of soil increased with increase in soil moisture content and had a linear relationship. The coefficient of determination (R2) for the regression model was 93.20 per cent by revealing the linear relationship between shear strength and cone index. Thus shear strength and cone index are related with each other and have an indefinite effect on the design parameters of soil engaging components of tuber harvester.
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130969
  • Applied Genetics and Plant Breeding in 21st Century for Crop Improvement
           – Status and Prospects

    • Authors: C. Dutta, P. P. Behera, R. N. Sarma
      Pages: 252 - 264
      Abstract: The foundation for molecular plant breeding is an interdisciplinary science that has revolutionized the 21st century with incorporation of genomic research, biotechnology and molecular marker applications with conventional plant breeding practices. To meet the food demand of the ever-increasing population of the 21st century, conventional breeding methods like ideotype breeding, participatory plant breeding with combination of recent breeding approaches like Genetically Modified crops, Marker Assisted Selection, Next Generation Sequencing play a demanding role. Co-operation among farmers, plant breeders, researchers should exist to develop quality crops with increased nutritional value. The challenge to feed the ever-increasing population can be met by integrating different research disciplines and activities that form the core of molecular plant breeding. Success of genomics depends on the ability to improve crop phenotypes and reduce the phenotype gap which will be a major concern of the 21st century.
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130970
  • Toxicity Study of Nanoselenium on Seed Germination, Bacterial Growth and
           Fish Survivability

    • Authors: A. S. Priyanka, M. Djanaguiraman, M. K. Kalarani, S. Haripriya
      Pages: 265 - 273
      Abstract: Aim: The use of nanoparticles in agriculture has recently increased to sustain crop productivity. Therefore, the effect of nanoparticles on the different ecosystems must be quantified before their use. This study aimed to examine the toxicity potential of nanoselenium on the germination of sorghum seed, growth of soil microorganisms viz., Bacillus subtilis and Rhizobium species, and survival of zebrafish. We hypothesize that nanoselenium could be non-toxic to sorghum seed germination, bacillus and rhizobium growth, and zebrafish survival up to 20 mg L-1. Study Design: Completely randomized design with four or five replications with respect to the experiments. Place and duration of the Study: Department of Crop Physiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore Methodology: Sorghum seeds BTx 623 were soaked in different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L-1) of nanoselenium for 24 h and then sown in Petri-dish to quantify germination potential and seedling growth. The growth medium of microorganisms was challenged from 0 to 20 mg L-1 of nanoselenium, and the growth of microorganisms was assessed. Similarly, the survival of zebrafish from 0 to 20 mg L-1 of nanoselenium was recorded. Results: The results showed that nanoselenium up to 20 mg L-1 did not cause toxic effects on all organisms representing soil, water and terrestrial ecosystems. Conclusion: Hence, this study concluded that nanoselenium up to 20 mg L-1 is not harmful to organisms representing soil, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130971
  • Impact of Drone Spraying of Nutrients on Growth and Yield of Maize Crop

    • Authors: K. Kaniska, R. Jagadeeswaran, R. Kumaraperumal, K. P. Ragunath, Balaji Kannan, D. Muthumanickam, S. Pazhanivelan
      Pages: 274 - 282
      Abstract: This study aimed at utilizing unmanned aerial vehicle in place of a conventional hand sprayer for the smart delivery of agricultural inputs especially crop nutrients. A field experiment was conducted in the farms of Agricultural Research Station, Bhavanisagar, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. There were nine treatments which were replicated thrice in a randomized block design. The treatments include NPK 19:19:19 along with liquid micronutrient, humic acid, and TNAU Maize maxim at two intervals viz., 50% Tasselling, and Cob filling stage. These nutrients were applied as foliar spray through battery operated and fuel operated drones and were compared with knapsack hand sprayer. Biometric observations such as plant height, leaf area, dry matter accumulation and yield parameters such as cob yield and number of grains per cob were observed during the critical crop growth stages. Foliar application of nutrients through drones had a significant influence on the growth and yield of maize crop. TNAU Maize maxim applied using the fuel-operated drone with an atomizer nozzle (T7) @ 30 lit/ac spray fluid recorded the maximum biometric and yield attributes than other treatments. Improved biometric attributes like plant height of 261.2 cm and 270.32 cm, LAI of 4.14 and 5.15, and DMP of 12354 kg/ha and 18564 kg/ha at 60 DAS and 90 DAS, respectively was recorded with drone spray. It also resulted in a grain and stover yield of 7195 kg/ha and 10942 kg/ha, respectively than hand sprayer.
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130972
  • Studies on Cultural, Morphological and Pathogenic Variability among the
           Isolates of F. verticillioides Associated with Maize Stalk Rot in
           Telangana State, India

    • Authors: Mamatha Ch., B. Mallaiah, Nandappa Chorgasti, D. Bhadru
      Pages: 283 - 294
      Abstract: Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the important cereal crops of the world and world’s third most leading cereal crop, after wheat and rice. Maize is affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Among the biotic stresses, fusarium wilt of maize caused by Fusarium verticillioides is most serious disease of maize. Tweleve isolates of F. vericillioides were studied for its cultural, morphological and pathogenic variability. Microconidia were hyaline, oval to club shaped with a flattened base and measured 5.12-7.11 μm X 2.04-3.18 μm (L×W). Macroconidia were sickle shaped with 3-5 septa and measured 20.01-31.12 μm X 2.01-3.21 μm (L×W). The radial mycelial growth of test isolates ranged from 4.32 mm to 8.65 mm at 10 days after inoculationon on PDA medium. However, maximum mycelial growth was recorded by the isolate F-ISO-5 in all the three mediums and mean maximum growth of isolates were observed in CMA. The fungal colony of Fusarium isolates on PDA were initially white, floccose which turned  purple to dark brown after 7 days of incubation at 28 ± 2ºC. Cultures developed pigmentation like pink, light purple, dark violet which varied with age. All the tested isolates were pathogenic on tested maize cultivar (kaveri- 50). However, the disease severity was varied among the isolates. Fusarium isolates F-ISO-7 was highly virulent which caused severe disease upon inoculation with disease score of 8.0 on 1-9 scale followed by  F-ISO-1, F-ISO-3, F-ISO-4, F-ISO-5, F-ISO-6 and F-ISO-8.
      PubDate: 2022-07-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130973
  • Assessment of Fate and Transport of Mixed Contaminants in Soil: An
           Incubation Experiment

    • Authors: J. Dharani, E. Parameswari, K. Suganya, P. Malathi, R. Sunitha
      Pages: 295 - 305
      Abstract: A study on fate and transport of mixed contaminants (Cr, Cd and PFOA- Perfluorooctanoic acid) in soil was studied through incubation experiment. The study was carried over in Department of Environmental Sciences, Tamilnadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore between February 2022 and April 2022. The experiment includes 10 treatments with 3 replications and studied for 60 days of incubation. The contaminants (Cr, Cd and PFOA) and amendments (Biochar and humic acid) were spiked in known concentration in the unpolluted soil and analytical methods (physical and chemical properties) carried over to know their degradability, mobility, availability in soil. After 60 days of incubation period, the concentration of chromium, cadmium and PFOA was reduced to 31.5 per cent, 27.5 per cent and 30 per cent respectively. This was due to the addition of organic amendments (Biochar and humic acid). These amendments act as a sorbent in accumulating the contaminants within their pore spaces. Hence the concentration of the contaminants reduced in the soil during the incubation period.
      PubDate: 2022-07-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130974
  • Effect of Partial Root Drying and Deficit Irrigation on Yield and Water
           Use Efficiency of Tomato Grown Under Greenhouse

    • Authors: Chavan Anil, G. Thiyagarajan, S. Selvakumar, M. Velmurugan, Balaji Kannan
      Pages: 306 - 313
      Abstract: Water conservation strategies are becoming increasingly important as a result of the shortage of water and climate change. The purpose of this study is to address water-saving irrigation strategies by evaluating the effect of partial root drying irrigation (PRD) and Deficit Irrigation (DI) practice on the yield and water use efficiency of tomatoes (Shivam variety). The treatments were partial root drying (PRD) at 75% and 50% crop evapotranspiration, ETc (PRD25 and PRD50, respectively), and deficit irrigation (DI) at 75% and 50% of ETc (DI25 and DI50, respectively). The PRD practice requires wetting one half of the root zone and keeping the other half dry, consequently using less amount of irrigation water that was applied. In the successive irrigations, the wet and dry sides were alternated. Over a growing season after transplanting, the highest fruit yield was obtained under FULL irrigation (225 t ha-1). In comparison to deficit irrigation that received the same quantity of water, the PRD treatments produced an increased yield of 5–10%. PRD and DI irrigation improved WUE considerably, and that was 30.35% and 25.71% respectively higher than FI. Results suggest that PRD treatment may be an option in a water shortage.
      PubDate: 2022-07-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130975
  • Uses of Plant Growth Regulators and Biofertilizers in Fruit Crops: A

    • Authors: Pankaj Kumar, Vikram Singh, Vishal Johar, Akshay Kumar, Suprikesh Suresh Kadlag
      Pages: 314 - 326
      Abstract: Plant growth regulators are extremely important natural hormones which control the growth and the physiological factors within the plant. They are naturally occurring as well as synthetic. PGRs like Auxins, ethylene, cytokinins and gibberellins are the growth inhibitors and growth retardants. The foliar application of plant growth regulators helped in increasing the quality of the fruit crops. Auxin is required for fruit retention in sweet cherry, litchi, grapevine, snake fruit and tomato. Most commonly used auxins are IBA, NAA, IAA, 2,4D etc. IBA at the concentration of 4000 ppm is the best plant growth regulator for rooting in cuttings. Gibberellins (GA) are diterpene plant hormones that influence various aspects of growth and development through complex biosynthetic processes. Application of GA with combination of Zinc and pruning showed better performance in fruit weight, ascorbic acid, and reduction in pre-harvest fruit drop. Repeated applications of brassinosteroid have a long-lasting effect on strawberry cv. Winter Dawn physiological growth. Triacontanol (TRIA), natural plant growth hormone in fruit crops. It regulates a variety of physiological processes in plants. Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant hormone best recognized for modulating host responses in response to pathogen infection.SA treatments boosted crop productivity and fruit quality criteria such as firmness, aril color, and individual sugar and organic acid concentrations at harvest. It is revealed by many studies that the application of biofertilizer play an essential role for increasing the sustainability of the soil and also enhance the organic matter content, aeration, fertility, availability of micro and macronutrients with in the soil which are the essential things for the better survival of the plant and results into the good quality and higher yield from the plant. The present review encompasses the use and the effect of different PGR’s and biofertilizer on the fruit crops.
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130977
  • Identification of 'Start of Season' in Major Rainfed Crops of
           Tamil Nadu, India Using Remote Sensing Technology

    • Authors: V. Vasumathi, R. Kalpana, S. Pazhanivelan, R. Kumaraperumal, M. V. Priya
      Pages: 327 - 334
      Abstract: Cropping seasons are the seasons in which a particular crop is grown. Identification of cropping seasons is crucial for successful cropping in rainfed areas. This research study focuses on the identification of major rainfed crop growing seasons in rainfed areas of Tamil Nadu using remote sensing technology. The MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Image Spectroradiometer) satellite product MOD13Q1 is utilized to produce NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) of the study region. Then the NDVI values for each rainfed ground truth point were extracted and the value was used to produce a line graph representing the crop growing period. Likewise, multiple lines were produced for major rainfed crops: Rice, Maize, Pearl millet, Sorghum, Groundnut, Moth bean, Cotton and Chilli. The result reveals that the Maize and Cotton growing season starts in June-July, mostly single crop per year. Rice, Pearl millet, Sorghum and Chilli are also grown as a single crop per year, sowing by the month of October-November. Besides, there was a double-cropping area of Groundnut- Black gram and Groundnut-Moth Bean raised during June-July and October-November respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130978
  • A Participatory Approach: Climate Change Perceptions and Adaptation
           Strategies of Small-holder Farmers in Bangladesh

    • Authors: Ferdowsi Easmin
      Pages: 335 - 343
      Abstract: One of the global challenges to sustainability in this age of climate change is how to sustain the growing population by providing services to increase food production from farmland. The purpose of this study was to investigate farmers' perceptions of agriculture adaptation strategies, acceptance of tuber crops as adoption in adverse climatic conditions and the constraints on them in relation to climate change. Finding from the study research will bring advantages for small-holder farmers with the community-based approach (PRA method) which may develop action plan, perception about the climate change in the case of 150 Upazila in 60 districts of Bangladesh. It is also demonstrated the farmers insights of climate change and agriculture adaptation tactics and their limitations on them in relation to climate change. Most of the participants didn't read or perceive {literacy rate in project area was 68.4% (MSVSB 2019, BBS)} such as climate change, global climate change, temperature change etc. as an issue or development and adaptation problem and expected given the restricted knowledge base community members had concerning climate change. About average percentage of the participant was thirty-three of men and twenty of women in a group from 150 Upazila in 60 districts who were concern about the board range of challenges that were summarized into six broad unranked categories. Key finding exposed that from PRA analysis, few of the farmers do understand climate to be dynamical issues, however, mostly participants did cultivation with different varieties with their seasonal patterns (i.e., longer and warmer dry seasons and shorter and a lot of intense rainy seasons) and ready to cultivate tuber crops in adverse climatically condition. It is evaluated and ranked the different ways to observed the cultivation of tuber crops which can contribution to climate change adaptation (scale ranging based on climate change adaptation and from very low to high potential). Mitigation and adaptation strategies and constraints, cropping systems incorporating risks and adaptations possibility assessment is a simultaneous study effort as climate change-resilient farming and cropping systems that undergo continuous changes with the changing environment, farming culture, and technological innovations. This study stated that farmer perception of global climate change was surveyed and compared to the actual acquaintance to observe that they might not much influence adaptation. Research outcome would be contributing to our inclusive understanding of climate change and adaptation among vulnerable in project area.
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130979
  • Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis for Yield and Yield Attributing
           Traits in Blackgram (Vigna mungo. (L) Hepper)

    • Authors: M. Priyanka, K. Rukmini Devi, K. Parimala, Ch. Anuradha
      Pages: 344 - 351
      Abstract: The present research work was conducted at Agricultural Research Station (ARS), Madhira during Rabi 2022 to assess the correlation and path coefficient analysis among yield contributing traits in 35 blackgram genotypes. Correlation analysis has revealed that Plant height, number of seeds pod-1, 100 seed weight, harvest index and biological yield was positively correlated with seed yield per plant. The path coefficient analysis recorded that, days to 50 percent flowering, plant height, number of clusters per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight, biological yield and harvest index had direct positive effect on yield. Blackgram seed yield can be significantly improved with the selection of plants with more number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight, biological yield and harvest index in the segregating generations as these traits were positively associated with the seed yield per plant.
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130980
  • Genetic Analysis of Heterosis of F1 Seed Yield and Quality Attributes in
           Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.)

    • Authors: Dijendra Kumar, C. N. Ram, G. C. Yadav, Shiva Nath, Mritunjay Rai
      Pages: 352 - 368
      Abstract: A diallel set of 10 parents and their 45 F1 hybrids developed through diallel mating design (excluding reciprocals) were analysed to estimate the magnitude of heterosis for seed yield and its component in fenugreek. The present study was conducted at Main Experimental Station, Department of Vegetable Science, Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Narendra Nagar (Kumarganj), Ayodhya (UP), India, during Rabi, 2020-21 (Y1) and 2021–22 (Y2). Appreciable heterosis were found over better parent and standard variety for all the traits under study in desirable direction. For early maturity traits i.e., days to 50% flowering, days to maturity negative heterosis is desirable, for these traits cross combinations P1× P2, P2×P5, P1×P10 and P5×P9 exhibited highest significant heterosis over better parent and standard variety. Seed yield per plant being a compound trait and is a multiplicative product of several basic component characters of yield. The top three hybrids based on seed yield per plant, best hybrids were P5 × P9, P7 × P10 and P3 × P9.
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130983
  • Effect of Nanochitosan and Biocapsules on Growth, Yield and Quality of Red
           Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. ) Var. Kashi Lalima

    • Authors: Shanika Raghvendra Deo, Vijay Bahadur, Anita Kerketta, V. M. Prasad
      Pages: 369 - 376
      Abstract: An experiment on okra was conducted throughout August to Nov 2021, in Horticulture Research Field, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, and Technology & Sciences Prayagraj (U.P) India. The results of the investigation, concerning the performance of Nanochitosan and Biocapsule within the 9 treatment of Red Okra i.e. t0 control (NPK): 100:50:50 Kg/ha, T1 Biocapsule 250 ppm, T2 Biocapsule 500 ppm, T3 Nanochitosan 50 ppm, T4 Nanochitosan 100 ppm, T5 Nanochitosan 50 ppm + Biocapsule 250 ppm, T6 Nanochitosan 50 ppm + Biocapsule 500 ppm, T7 Nanochitosan 100 ppm + Biocapsule 250 ppm, T8 Nanochitosan 100 ppm + Biocapsule 500 ppm. The seed was obtained from source of IIVR Varanasi. To find out the best performance in terms of growth, yield and quality the experiment was conducted in randomized block design, where each treatment replicated thrice. The results from the current investigation concluded that the treatment T6 (Nanochitosan 50ppm + Biocapsule 500 ppm) was recorded with maximum number of fruits (20.37 fruits/plant), with average fruit weight (14.22 gm), and also average fruit yield (143.13 q/ha) with Benefit cost ratio of 2.88 whereas in terms of quality the treatment T8 (Nanochitosan 100ppm and Biocapsule 500 ppm) was recorded with maximum TSS (3.94⁰Bx) and the treatment of T7 (Nanochitosan 100 ppm and Biocapsule 250 ppm) was recorded with maximum Ascorbic acid (21.38 mg/10 0g).
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130984
  • Studies on Water Absorption Properties of Fiber- Board Prepared Using
           Sugarcane Bagasse with Natural Resins

    • Authors: Hrishikesh Patil, I. P. Sudagar, P. Sudha, K. Boomiraj
      Pages: 377 - 382
      Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fiber content and incorporation of natural resin on the water absorption behavior and swelling in thickness of sugarcane bagasse (SB)-reinforced epoxy-natural resin fiber-boards. Artificial (epoxy) and natural resins (cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) resins, black dammar and pine resins) were used as a binder. The weight proportions of fiber: epoxy + hardener: natural resin were viz., 1:1:1.50, 1:1:1.75, 1:1:2. The lowest water absorption percent value for the sample immersed for 2 h and 24 h is shown by board prepared by mixing cashew nut shell liquid resin. There was less swelling in the thickness of the fiber board made with the fiber to resin weight ratio of 1:2.75. The cashew nut shell liquid resin was found to be effective in terms of Water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS). Hence, the cashew nut shell liquid resin would be an alternate source for artificial resin source with less environmental hazards.
      PubDate: 2022-07-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130985
  • Screening Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) Genotypes for Salt Tolerance
           at Germination and Seedling Stages

    • Authors: R. Rajasekar, V. Babu Rajendra Prasad, M. Djanaguiraman, A. Sumathi, D. Jegadeeswari
      Pages: 383 - 396
      Abstract: Aim: Salt stress negatively affects the growth and development of plants. An effective and important strategy to develop salinity tolerant crops is to harness the genetic diversity within the crop germplasm by identification of salinity tolerant genotype. The present study was carried out with an objective to screen blackgram genotypes (A31, DPU 968, KU 7720, LBG 787, PLU 621, TMV 1, Tutiminimum, VBG 18028, VBG 18032, and VBN 2) for salt tolerance at germination and seedlings stage and identification of saline tolerant blackgram genotype based on salt stress tolerance indices. Study Design: Factorial and arranged in a completely randomized design. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Crop Physiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore; May-June 2022. Methodology: Using petriplate and roll towel techniques, blackgram seed germination indices and seedling growth indices such as germination percentage, germination index, mean germination time, seedling vigour index, shoot and root length, fresh and dry seedling weight, and stress tolerance indices were recorded. Two-way ANOVA, Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Heat-map Analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: PCA indicates that salinity stress accounted for 86.2 percent of the variation, whereas the individual genotype contributes only 5.4 percent of the variation observed in germination and growth parameters that were studied in blackgram under control and 130mM NaCl salt stress conditions. Among the ten blackgram genotypes, stress tolerance index was highest for LBG 787 (0.831) followed by KU7720 (0.722). On the other side, the stress susceptible index was found to be lower for the blackgram genotype KU7720 (0.335) followed by LBG 787 (0.592), as compared to other genotypes screened. Cluster heat-map analysis for all the measured parameters revealed that blackgram genotype LBG 787 was clustered with PLU 621 and VBG 18028 and found to tolerate the salt stress level (130mM NaCl stress) compared to other blackgram genotypes. Conclusion: Observations indicate that the blackgram genotypes KU 7720, LBG 787, PLU 621 and VBG 18028 exhibit greater tolerance towards salinity during the germination and seedling growth stages.
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130986
  • Response of Biofertilizer and Foliar Spray of Organic Amendments on
           Economics and Yield Attributes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

    • Authors: Mayank Rabade, Rajesh Singh, Thakur Indu
      Pages: 397 - 402
      Abstract: Field experiment was conducted on cowpea during Kharif 2021 at (CRF) Crop Research   Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute. SHUATS, Prayagraj  (U.P) India. The experiment entitled as “Response of biofertilizer and foliar spray of organic amendments on economics and yield attributes of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)”, to    study treatments consisting of three kinds of biofertilizers viz.Rhizobium, PSB and Rhizobium + PSB and three types of organic amendments viz. Panchagavya, Jeevamrutha and Beejamrutha. Each of the nine treatments was replicated three times and laid out in a Randomized Block  Design with various treatment combinations. T1: Rhizobium 20 g + Panchagavya 3% foliar spray, T2: Rhizobium 20 g + Jeevamrutha 5% foliar spray,T3: Rhizobium 20 g + Beejamrutha 2% foliar spray ,T4: PSB 20 g + Panchagavya 3% foliar spray,T5: PSB 20 g + Jeevamrutha   5% foliar spray,T6: PSB 20 g + Beejamrutha 2% foliar spray, T7: Rhizobium + PSB 20g + Panchagavya 3% foliar spray,T8: Rhizobium + PSB 20g + Jeevamrutha 5% foliar   spray,T9: Rhizobium + PSB 20g + Beejamrutha 2% foliar spray. The results revealed that treatment 9 (Rhizobium + PSB 20g + Panchagavya 3% foliar spray) recorded maximum on no. of pods per plant (15.43), length of pod (19.53), seeds per pod (10.68), test weight (133.40), seed yield (1025.50), harvest index (41.74), and B:C ratio (2.42).It is concluded that seed treatment  with Rhizobium + PSB 20g + Panchagavya 3% foliar spray was found more productive and economical.
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130987
  • Effect of Microbial Consortium for Nutrient Dynamics and Biological
           Activity of Paddy Field under insitu Decomposition

    • Authors: Nivedha Babu, V. Davamani, P. Kalaiselvi, M. Maheswari, Dheebakaran Ga, E. Parameswari
      Pages: 403 - 412
      Abstract: The production of rice and rice straw are directly proportional to each other and becomes a  major problem in disposal of rice straw. Though there are many suitable methods in the reduction of rice straw few are bane to environment. Thus this study focuses only on the sustainable and ecofriendly manner of straw disposal. Insitu decomposition of rice stubbles using TNAU biomineralizer is the experimental study which was carried out in randomised block design    with six Treatment and four replications. To determine the most effective methods of managing  rice stubble, nutrient dynamics, and growth parameters of the rice crop, CO 53 variety of short duration was selected and laid down at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore   from 2021 to 2022. The six treatments includes T1: Stubble (Natural degradation), T2: Stubble+ balancing C:N ratio with urea, T3: Stubble applied with TNAU biomineralizer @ 2kg /ton of residue, T4: Stubbles applied with TNAU biomineralizer @ 2kg/ton of residue +balancing C:N ratio with  urea, T5: Stubbles incorporated in soil using rotavator and applied with TNAU biomineralizer @ 2kg/ton of residue, T6: Stubbles incorporated in soil using rotavator and applied with TNAU biomineralizer @ 2kg/ton of residue + balancing C:N ratio with urea. The study findings showed that incorporation of straw with addition of biomineralizer for decomposition of straw @ 2kg/ton of residue along with balancing C:N ratio urea recorded the highest rice crop growth at harvest stage (115.70cm) and nutrient dynamics (N, P K) of 20.9 %, 4.6 % and 19.2 % higher at tillering stage  and micro nutrients Cu-22.0 %, Zn- 20.9 %, Fe- 2.8 %, Mn- 9.7 % in panicle initiation stage of rice crop.
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130988
  • Effect of Irrigation Scheduling at Different Phonological Phases on Growth
           and Yield of Mustard (Brassica juncea l.) in Northern Telangana

    • Authors: K. Mamatha, N. Mahesh, O. Sampath, P. Ravi
      Pages: 413 - 424
      Abstract: Optimum crop yield is not possible without the timely application and right amount of irrigation water. Since rainfall during rabi is inadequate and uncertain, scheduling of irrigation during critical stages could boost the growth, yield and water productivity of mustard. So, in order to identify critical stages of irrigation for mustard in Northern Telangana Zone, a field experiment was conducted during rabi, 2021-22 at Agricultural college, Jagtial to investigate the effect of irrigation scheduling at different phenological phases on growth and yield of mustard. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with twelve treatments and replicated thrice. Treatments includes two irrigations each at vegetative and flowering stage (T1), two irrigations each at vegetative and siliqua development (T2), two irrigations each at flowering and siliqua development (T3), three irrigations each at vegetative, flowering and siliqua development (T4), three irrigations each at vegetative, pre-flowering and siliqua development (T5), three irrigations each at pre-flowering, siliqua initiation and siliqua development (T6), four irrigations each at vegetative, pre-flowering, flowering and siliqua development (T7), four irrigations each at vegetative, pre-flowering, flowering and siliqua initiation (T8), four irrigations each at vegetative, pre-flowering, siliqua initiation and siliqua development (T9), four irrigations each at pre-flowering, flowering, siliqua initiation and siliqua development (T10), five irrigations each at vegetative, pre-flowering, flowering, siliqua initiation and siliqua development (T11) and scheduling of irrigation at IW/CPE ratio of 1.0 (T12). The results of the experiment revealed that maximum plant height (146 cm), LAI (0.89), dry matter accumulation (416 g m-2), number of siliquae plant -1 (124), number of filled seeds siliquae-1 (13.65), seed yield (1113 kg ha-1) and stover yield (2224 kg ha-1) were recorded with five irrigations each at vegetative, pre-flowering, flowering, siliqua initiation and siliqua development (T11). However, it was on par with irrigation scheduled at IW/CPE ratio of 1.0 (T12). While, the lowest plant height (102 cm), LAI (0.42), dry matter accumulation (198 g m-2), number of siliquae plant -1 (63), number of filled seeds siliquae-1 (10.43), seed yield (431 kg ha-1) and stover yield (923 kg ha-1) was recorded with scheduling two irrigations at vegetative and siliqua development (T2).
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130989
  • Effect of Phosphorus and Boron Levels on Growth and Yield of Mustard
           (Brassica juncea L.)

    • Authors: Polavena Tharun Kumar, C. Umesha
      Pages: 425 - 430
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during Rabi 2021 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P), India. This study aims to determine the effect of phosphorus and boron levels on growth and yield of mustard (Brassica juncea L.). The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.2). The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design consisting of nine treatments with three replications. The treatments comprising of different levels of phosphorus and boron whose effect was observed in mustard. The results obtained that the application of Phosphorus @ 60 kg/ha along with Boron @ 2.0 kg/ha was recorded significantly higher Plant height (187.59 cm), Plant dry weight (37.92 g/plant), Number of Siliquae/plant (319.80), Number of Seeds/siliquae (14.60), Test weight (5.19 g), Seed yield (2.61 t/ha) and Stover yield (4.55 t/ha). Therefore, treatment with the application of Phosphorus @ 60 kg/ha along with Boron @ 2.0 kg/ha was more productive and cost effective.
      PubDate: 2022-07-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130990
  • Climate Change Impact on Forest Cover: A Critical Review

    • Authors: V. Kasthuri Thilagam, S. Manivannan, P. N. A. Vaishnavi, Ravindra Yaligar
      Pages: 431 - 441
      Abstract: Climate change affects forest cover through increased temperature, change in precipitation, frequent extreme events, and a shifting disturbance regime. In view of understanding the existing studies carried out on climate change impact on forest cover, we reviewed the findings of several researchers to assess the impact of changing climatic parameters on forest cover. The role of deforestation on climate change was analyzed by presenting some of the arguments made by several researchers. Further, the influence of forests in climate change was evaluated by the amount of carbon sequestrated in the forests throughout the world and the effect of climate change on carbon sequestration was also done with the help of review of the literature. Direct, Indirect and compound effects of climate change impact on forest cover were also shortlisted and discussed. Then certain coping mechanisms were also discussed by the authors for the forests whose health was highly affected due to climate change. Several research publications demonstrating the response of forest cover to climate change were critically analyzed. The review revelaed that climatic variations are very important to understand the forest cover changes of an ecosystem in which the climate prevails. It is also understood that the variability of rainfall and temperature were not the main cause for forest cover changes. Climate change impact assessment has significant implications on carbon sequestration greenhouse gas mitigation and adaptation strategies to climate change. Utilising remote sensing data for documenting and identifying forest degradation status is a viable option for planning climate change mitigation in forest regions.
      PubDate: 2022-07-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130991
  • Studies on Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis of Yield and Yield
           Attributing Characters in Rice Landraces (Oryza sativa L.)

    • Authors: S. Manasa, S. Madhusudhan Reddy, K. Gopala Krishna Murthy, A. Meena
      Pages: 442 - 451
      Abstract: In order to characterise the correlation and path analysis for yield and yield attributing traits for 66 genotypes including 4 checks in Augmented Block Design replicated thrice during Kharif, 2021, the present investigation was conducted at the Agricultural College, Aswaraopet, Bhadradri, Telangana. The most positive and significant correlation between important traits and grain yield per plant was found to be between the number of panicles per plant and the number of filled grains per panicle indicating yield can be improved through improvement of these traits. The features number of panicles per plant and number of filled grains per panicle had reported the strongest positive direct effect on grain yield per plant, and may be considered as excellent selection criteria for yield improvement, according to path coefficient analysis.
      PubDate: 2022-07-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130992
  • A Temperature Based Model for Cotton Mealybug to Development, Survival and
           Population Growth Potential

    • Authors: R. Vinithraja, R. Ravikumar, K. N. Selvaraj, V. Anandhi
      Pages: 452 - 459
      Abstract: Aims: Based on the different temperature model, analysis the cotton mealy bug growth, developmental, survival, mortality, and reproduction rate. Place and Duration of Study: This secondary data were collected from Central Institute of Cotton Research, Coimbatore. Methodology: In this study, we used models like the Sharpe and DeMichele model, the Wang model, the Polynomial model, the Stinner model, and the Gaussian model. To measure the goodness-of-fit criteria, the model performance has been assured using Coefficient of Determination (R2), Alkaline Information Criteria (AIC), Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Mean Absolute error (MAE), Relative Absolute Error (RAE) and Relative Standard Error (RSE). Result and Conclusion: From the Sharpe and Demichele and Polynomial models, male have highest R2 and least error values. From the Wang model, nymph 3 has highest R2 and least error values. When compare all models the Polynomial model have highest R2 and least error values. So it is the best fit model compare to all the models.
      PubDate: 2022-07-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130993
  • Grewia tenax for Sustainable Agroforestry Farming in Saline Soils of
           Khartoum State of Sudan

    • Authors: Nasre Aldin Mustafa Abdalla, Ballal Mohamed ElMukhtar, Mutwali Nuha Ahmed
      Pages: 460 - 467
      Abstract: Intercropping of cow pea (Vigna unguiculata) with multipurpose tree in terms of Grewia tenax was carried out under saline soils in south of Khartoum State in Sudan. The objectives were to investigate the performance of Grewia tenax trees under sub-irrigation regime in saline soils as well as to find out most agro forestry system suitable for saline soil. The experiment was carried out during period of March to November 2017 in terms of completely randomized block design with 3 replicates. The treatments were Grewia tenax tree that fixed at spacing of 4x4 m versus cow pea crop which sown at one and 1.5 m apart from the Grewia tenax tree trunk at 25 cm and 50 cm as inter and intra rows spacings besides sole Grewia tenax tree and cow pea crop as controls. Soil samples were taken at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-30 cm, 30-60 cm and 60-100 cm from soil profile of 1x1 m and 1.5 m depth and its chemical and physical properties were analyzed. Grewia tenax trees parameters were measured in terms of tree height, tree collar diameter and tree crown diameter. While cow pea crop parameters were determined in terms of straw weight and crop yield per hectare as well as land equivalent ratio. The data revealed that; soil chemical properties for pH, EC ds/m, CaCo3, SAR and ESP were increased with increasing soil depths , while other chemical properties in terms of Nitrogen content , Organic carbon and C/N ratio did not differ with respect to soil layers. Meanwhile the total average Grewia tenax tree growth means in terms of tree height, tree collar diameter and tree crown diameter were higher under intercropping than in sole trees, similarly for cow pea crop straw weight. Cow pea yield did not differ between the intercropped plots and the control. Partial LER was higher under straw weight than for yield and the total LER was advantageous particularly under GS1 which indicates the superiority of intercropping than mono-cropping in this saline soil.
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130995
  • Physiological Screening of Green Gram (Vigna radiata L.) Varieties by
           Seedling Germination Traits under Salinity Stress

    • Authors: B. Rakavi, I. T. Sharanya, C. Sivanantham, R. M. Sona, S. Sowndarya, K. Mohamed Riyaz
      Pages: 468 - 474
      Abstract: Among the legumes, pulses are the most important component in India as they have very high protein resources. Green gram (Vigna radiata) is the most essential one when compared to other pulses regarding high nutritional value, enriching soil fertility and being a short duration crop. In India, pulses cultivation faces salinity stress which is a most constraint factor on its production. Hence, an experiment was performed with the purpose of analyzing morpho- physiological differences in high difference green gram varieties, which are MH 421,VBN 2,VBN 4,CO 8 and CO(Gg) 912 under salinity stress condition. This experiment was done at laboratory condition under various concentration level of Sodium Chloride (NaCl). These levels create different levels of salinity stress, the above five green gram varieties where screened for identifying their salinity stress and the important parameters which include radicle length, shoot length, plant height, germination percentage and seed Vigor were recorded.
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130996
  • Comparison between Different Mustard Yield Prediction Models Developed
           using Various Techniques for Udaipur Region of Rajasthan

    • Authors: Adita Mishra, Shraddha Rawat, Shweta Gautam, Ekta P. Mishra
      Pages: 475 - 485
      Abstract: The present research was conducted to develop and compare mustard yield prediction models using SPSS regression, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Autoregressive Moving Average (ARIMA) model. Mustard crop is one of the major rabi crops of India with Rajasthan as the leading mustard producing state. In this study, eight different weather parameters were used to develop mustard yield prediction model, with different yield prediction techniques. Weather and yield data from year 1999 to 2015 were utilised for calibration and year 2016 to 2018 for validation. Three different algorithms were used in ANN to predict mustard yield. Time series model (ARIMA) is another technique used in this study to forecast mustard yield for Udaipur district. In order to analyse and compare error(s) in the developed models and to compare simulated and actual/observed yield, different error indices like root mean square error (RMSE), standardized root mean square error (SRMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and D Index were considered. The validated results showed that, regression model spss performed better than other two models as the RMSE value using SPSS model was very less (0.12 to 0.14), also the D index value using regression model was close to 1.
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130997
  • Effect of Sowing Windows and Nutrient Levels on Growth Parameters of
           Sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea)

    • Authors: A. Pon Arasan, S. Sanbagavalli, N. Sakthivel, R. Vigneshwari, S. Panneerselvam, S. P. Sangeetha
      Pages: 486 - 492
      Abstract: Sunnhemp is the important multifaceted legume crop which is used as fodder, fibre and green manure. While incorporation into the soil, it supplies Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium at the level of 50-75 kgha-1, 15-20 kgha-1 and 40-65 kgha-1 respectively. In sunnhemp, the seed production was highly affected by improper agronomic management practices and less availability of quality seeds. Hence the present study was carried out to find the suitable agronomic practice for sunnhemp. A field experiment was conducted to study the suitable sowing windows and nutrient levels on growth parameters of sunnhemp during split-plot design with 12 treatments and replicated thrice. Three sowing dates were studied under main plots and four different nutrient levels under sub plot. Growth attributes such as plant height, leaf area index and dry matter production were recorded. From the above study, it is concluded that delayed sowing on February 2nd week and the application of nutrients at 30:60:30 NPK kg ha-1 recorded higher plant height and dry matter production at harvest over other treatments.
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130998
  • Influence of Nutrient Management Practices on Growth, Flowering and Yield
           Attributes of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

    • Authors: Priyanka Sahu, P. Tripathy, G. S. Sahu, S. K. Dash, S. K. Pattnayak, S. Sarkar, R. K. Nayak, N. J. Nayak, S. Mishra
      Pages: 493 - 503
      Abstract: Field experiments were conducted at AICRP on Vegetable Crops, operating under Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India during summer season of 2017 and 2018 to find out the impact of various nutrient management practices on growth, yield attributes and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Twelve nutrient management practices such as, T1 (Absolute Control), T2 (RDF through Fertilizer (100:60:60 NPK ha-1), T3 (½ RDF + Biofertilizer consortia (BF) i.e., Azospirillum, Azotobacter and PSB @ 4 kg ha-1 in 1:1:1), T4 (Vermicompost @ 4 tha-1), T5 (VC @ 2 tha-1+ BFs), T6 (½ RDF + VC @ 2 tha-1+ BFs), T7 (RDF+ VC @ 2 tha-1+ Biofertilizer consortia), T8 (FYM @ 20 tha-1), T9 (FYM @ 10 tha-1+ BFs), T10 (½ RDF + FYM @ 10 tha-1+ BFs), T11 (RDF+ FYM @ 10 tha-1+ BFs) and T12 (½ RDF + FYM @ 10 tha-1 + VC @ 2 tha-1+ BFs), were evaluated by adopting RBD replicated thrice. The pooled results over two years revealed significant variations among the nutrient management practices for all the characters under study. Invariably, INM practices recorded significantly better vegetative growth, earliness in flowering, fruit yield and yield attributing parameters over inorganic, organic sources, BFs and absolute control. The results revealed integrated application of ½ RDF+FYM @ 10tha-1+VC @ 2tha-1+BFs recorded significantly higher maximum vegetative growth parameters (i.e., vine length of 296.4 m with 4.1 primary branches vine-1), induced earliness in flowering (i.e., days to appearance of male flowers : 30.2, days to appearance of female flowers : 31.7, sex ratio of : 12.8, fruit yield attributing parameters (i.e., fruit girth : 15.0 cm, fruits vine-1 : 8.6, days to 1st fruit harvest : 45.3), days to final harvest : 80.1, yield i.e., marketable yield (12.6 kg plot-1, 156.0 q ha-1, 15.6 tha-1) and total fruit yield (13.9 kg plot-1, 172.2 q ha-1, 17.2 tha-1 ). Thus it may be concluded that integrated application of nutrients from inorganic, organic with soil inoculation of biofertilizer consortia not only increased significantly increased growth, flowering and fruit yield in cucumber.
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1130999
  • Influence of Nutrient Sources and Zinc on Growth and Yield of Babycorn
           (Zea mays L.)

    • Authors: Degala Gouthami, Victor Debbarma
      Pages: 504 - 509
      Abstract: Back Ground: The experiment was done on Baby corn crop it is a cereal grain taken from corn harvested early while the stalks are still small and immature, it contains 4.7 grams of carbs, 2.5 grams protein, 25 calories. Nitrogen deficiency is the major problem in these days it leads to stunted root and shoot growth and shoot water stress so nitrogen taken in highest quantity, by using chemical nitrogen crop growth will be faster but later on it leads to soil acidification. but by using organic manures we can provide nutrients required by plants and also it maintains CN ratio, maintain soil health and it doesn’t reduces yield. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of nutrient sources and zinc on growth and yield of               babycorn. Methods: with goal of studying effect of nutrient sources and zinc on growth and yield of babycorn under Randomised Block Design with 9 treatments (T1-T9). The experiment details revealed that T9 [Vermicompost 3.3t/ha + Zinc 1.00 ppm foliar spray] produced maximum Plant height, dry weight, maximum crop growth rate at 45 DAS to 60 DAS interval, highest Number of cobs/ plant, highest length of cob, highest girth of cob, maximum cob weight with husk, highest cob weight without husk, highest cob yield, green fodder yield. Conclusion: The combination of Vermicompost 3.3t/ha + Zinc 1.00 ppm foliar spray produced maximum Plant height (176.75 cm) and highest dry weight (88.42 g/plant) maximum crop growth rate at 45 DAS to 60 DAS interval (47.73 g/m2/day), highest Number of cobs/ plant (2.64), highest length of cob (17.89 cm), highest girth of cob (12.72 cm), maximum cob weight with husk (47.57 g/cob), highest cob weight without husk (11.71 g/cob) highest cob yield (6.07 tons/ha), green fodder yield (37.42 tons/ha).
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131000
  • Performance of Timely Sown Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes under

    • Authors: Mode Girish Kumar, Umesha C., Gorla Prathyusha, Pulibandla Avinash
      Pages: 510 - 516
      Abstract: The field experiment was conducted during Rabi 2021-2022 genotypes at Wheat Breeding experimental Field, Naini Agriculture Institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh. The Soil of the experimental plots was sandy loam in texture with neutral soil reaction (pH 6.7). The experiment was laid out with six genotypes (NERI-301, NERI-302, NERI-303, NERI-304, NERI-305 and NERI-306) in a Randomized Block Design with four replications. Study revealed that growth parameters viz., higher plant height (105.26cm), number of effective tillers/hill (10.00/hill), and plant dry weight (22.13 g/plant) were recorded significantly higher for the genotype NERI-305.For yield attributing parameters viz., number of effective tillers (6.55/hill), number of grains/spike (63.07/spike),and test weight (49.38 g) were significantly highest for the genotype NERI-304, and yield parameters viz, grain yield (4.74 t/ha), harvest index (41.52%) were recorded significantly higher for the genotype NERI-304. spike length (13.35 cm) and straw yield (6.69t/ha) were r significantly highest for the genotype NERI-301. From the above findings gross return (1,18,500.00 INR/ha), net return (82,314.00 INR/ha) and Benefit cost ratio (2.27) were significantly highest for the genotype NERI-304.The genotype NERI-304 was found to be more potential as well as economically viable and productive over rest of the  genotypes.
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131001
  • The Effects of Spray Drying Conditions on Water Absorption Index, Water
           Solubility Index, Solubility and Water Activity (aw) of Rice Milk Powder

    • Authors: M. Padma, P. V. K. Jagannadha Rao, L. Edukondalu, K. Aparna, G. Ravi Babu
      Pages: 517 - 529
      Abstract: Cow’s milk has been widely consumed as it acts as an important source of protein. It also acts as a wholesome complete food providing all the major nutrients like fat, carbohydrates and proteins. Due to the lactose intolerance in some people in place of cow’s milk plant based milk products are becoming more popular due to its nutritional benefits same as that of cow’s milk. Broken rice has the nutritional benefits equal to raw rice and it can be processed into various value added products. In this study, the broken rice was used to prepare rice milk with the optimized process parameters. Rice milk was spray dried to enhance its shelf life at different inlet drying air temperatures and feed flow rates. Temperature and feed flow rate were optimized with desirability function which satisfied all the responses with required values to obtain optimum conditions for spray drying. The predicted optimum conditions were;T= 138°C, and Q= 35 mL/min. Under these conditions, the response values for water activity, water solubility index and water absorption index were 0.30, 72.8% and 21.7%, respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131002
  • Comparative Study of Biofertilizer and Plant Extracts on Growth, Yield and
           Yield Attributing Traits of Field Pea (Pisum sativum)

    • Authors: Mude Hari Chandhana, Bineeta Micheal Bara
      Pages: 530 - 537
      Abstract: The field experiment was conducted to comparative analyze the effect of biofertilizer and plant extracts on growth, yield and yield attributing traits of field pea (Pisum Sativum L.)” was conducted during Rabi 2021 at field experimental centre, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, SHUATS, Prayagraj, (U.P). The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.1), low in organic carbon (0.36%), available N (171.48 kg/ha), available P (15.2 kg/ha) and available K (232.5 kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with thirteen treatments including control which were replicated thrice. The treatments are as follows, TO- Control, T1, T2, T3, - Rhizobium at the rate of 5%, 8%, 10%, T4, T5, T6 – Vermi wash at the rate of 5%, 8%, 10%, T7, T8, T9 – Neem leaf extract at the rate of 5%, 10%, 15% and T10, T11, T12 – Tulsi leaf extract at the rate of 5%, 10%, 15% respectively. The experiment results revealed that seeds treated with rhizobium at the rate of 8% gave better than other treatments viz, field emergence (87.47%), plant height (95.71 cm), days to 50% flowering (40.60), number of branches per plant (8.87), number of pods per plant (13.53), number of seeds per pod (8.47), seed yield per plant (24.88 g), seed yield per plot (746.50 g), biological yield (33.73 kg/ha), harvest index (73.48%) were recorded significantly higher compared to other treatments.
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131003
  • Flood Frequency Analysis of Araniar Medium Irrigation Project in Chittoor
           District by using Gumbel's Distribution

    • Authors: P. Sambasiva Rao, M. V. Ramana, K. Madhusudhana Reddy, A. Ashok Kumar
      Pages: 538 - 544
      Abstract: Flood frequency analysis is one of the most important statistical technique to understand the nature and magnitude of high discharge of floods in the river. The objective of flood frequency analysis was to relate the magnitude of floods and their frequency of occurrence through probability distribution. Flood frequency analysis is essential to reduce the impact of flood damage by predicting the floods by adopting the suitable flood prediction model.  The Araniar reservoir was constructed across the Araniar river in the Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh. The flood frequency analysis was conducted on the Araniar reservoir using Gumbel’s extreme value distribution method in the year 2019-2020. Daily maximum inflow data from the Department of Water Resources, Andhra Pradesh, were collected for the period 1990-2019 and used for flood frequency analysis of Araniar Reservoir using Gumbel's extreme value distribution method. From the observations of Gumbel’s distribution, the R2 value acquired from the trend line equation was 0.9803, indicating that Gumbel's extreme value distribution was suitable for estimating predicted reservoir flood flow. The estimated flood flow for upcoming years of 2 years, 10 years, 50 years, 100 years,150 years, 200 years, 300 years and 400 years were found to be 38.29 Mm3/year, 66.96 Mm3/year, 92.08 Mm3/year, 102.71 Mm3/year, 108.90 Mm3/year, 113.29 Mm3/year, 119.47 Mm3/year and 123.85 Mm3/year respectively. The mean instantaneous flow in the reservoir was 40.88149 Mm3/year which was nearly equal to a return period of about 2 years. The estimated flood flows of the Araniar reservoir was useful for constructing important dam hydraulic structures, advising agricultural patterns in the command area, and protecting lives and property downstream of the catchment region.
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131004
  • Estimation of Genetic Variability, Correlaton for Yield and Yield
           Compoments in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    • Authors: Maddula. Sudarshan Reddy, Mohammad. Abdul Anwar, Gaibriyal M. Lal, G. R. Lavanya
      Pages: 545 - 556
      Abstract: The present study consists of 23 rice genotypes including one check variety that were evaluated at Field Experimentation Centre of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (Allahabad), U.P. to study genetic variability, correlation and path coefficient for 13 quantitative characters. The experiment was conducted by using Randomized Block Design with three replications during Kharif -2021. Observation recorded to study the genetic variability parameters, correlation coefficient and path coefficient for yield and its attributing traits. On the basis of mean performance BPT-3291 was found to be superior in grain yield per hill followed by, SIGNET-5455, KSR-140 and RNR-15048 showed higher yield over the check (NDR359). High to moderate estimates of GCV and PCV were recorded for number of spikelets per panicle followed by number of tillers per hill, harvest index, biological yield, grain yield per hill, flag leaf width, test weight and number of panicles per hill. Grain yield indicated significant positive correlation with plant height followed by tillers per hill, panicles per hill, biological yield and harvest index in terms of phenotypic correlation coefficient whereas in terms of genotypic coefficient it showed positive and significant correlation. Path coefficient analysis showed positive significant direct effects on Biological Yield, Harvest Index and Number of Spikelets per Panicle at genotypic level whereas it showed positive and significant direct effect for days to fifty percent flowering, plant height, flag leaf width, number of panicles, test weight, biological yield, and harvest index at phenotypic level. Thus, these traits are identified as the efficient and potential for indirect selection for the improvement of rice productivity in the present experimental materials.
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131005
  • Efficacy of Newer Insecticides against the Major Sucking Pests of
           Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.)

    • Authors: N. Priyanka, O. Shaila, M. Anurdha, V. Divya Rani, M. Rajashekhar
      Pages: 557 - 564
      Abstract: The field experiments on the efficacy of newer insecticides on sucking insect pests of groundnut was conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Palem, of Nagarkurnool district, Telangana, India during rabi, 2021-22 in a randomized block design with eight treatments viz., Tolfenpyard 15% EC at 1.5ml L-1 and Tolfenpyard  15% EC at 2 ml L-1, Tolfenpyard 15% EC at 2.5ml L-1, Spinetoram 11.7%  SC at 0.5ml L-1, Thiamethoxam 12.6+ Lambdacyhalothrin 9.5% ZC at 0.4ml L-1, Clothianidin 50% WDG at 0.3g L-1, Afidopyropen 50g/IDC at 2ml L-1 and Sulfoxaflor 21.89% SC at 0.5ml L-1. Among all the insecticides tested clothianidin @ 0.3g L-1 worked very effectively in reducing the population of leafhoppers and thrips. The other effective treatments were afidopyropen at 2ml L-1 and tolfenpyard @ 2.5ml L-1 followed by tolfenpyard 15 %EC at 2.5ml L-1, tolfenpyard at 2.5ml L-1, thiamethoxam+ lambdacyhalothrin at 0.4ml L-1. The treatment spinetoram at 0.5ml L-1 was less effective on the sucking pest. The highest Incremental Cost Benefit Ratio (ICBR) is recorded from the plots sprayed with clothianidin @ 0.3g L-1 (1.4.83) followed by afidopyrofen @ 2ml L-1 (1:3.94).
      PubDate: 2022-07-21
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131006
  • Economic Analysis of Sericulture in Nagpur District, India: Environmental
           Impact and Sustainable Management

    • Authors: A. G. Kadu, P. P. Baviskar, A. D. Dhunde
      Pages: 565 - 569
      Abstract: The study is an attempt to assess the silkworm cocoon production and its profitability in Nagpur district of Maharashtra through structured survey during 2017-18 with a view to know socio economic characteristics of mulberry growers such as family type, education, family size, education status, land use pattern, and cropping pattern etc. were studied. Data pertains to the year 2017-18. The data were collected by using the multipurpose sampling design. The study was based on total 60 mulberry growers. It states that, the average size of the family worked out to 5 individuals per households. Out of which 2 mens, 2 women and 1 children, Where as 6.66% illiterate and 93.34% are literate. The possession of average land holding was 2.06 hectares. The gross cropped area was 3.73 hectares. The cropping intensity was found to be 195.28 per cent. In 2017-18 total area under mulberry cultivation in Nagpur district is 285 acre and per acre production of silk cocoon is 1.666 kg/yr. (District Sericulture Office, Nagpur).
      PubDate: 2022-07-21
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131007
  • Performance of Regional Climate Model (WRF 4.3) in Medium Range Rainfall
           Forecast (MRRF) for Tamil Nadu, India

    • Authors: C. Musierose, S. Kokilavani, Ga. Dheebakaran, N. K. Sathyamoorthy, R. Pangayar Selvi
      Pages: 570 - 576
      Abstract: The weather events are highly dynamic and fluctuating for the next few days due to enormous processes carried out by nature and physics and it is even more highly variable in tropics. The Medium Range Weather Forecast is incredibly helpful and trustworthy for agricultural purposes and rainfall is one of the most imminent events determining productivity. The Medium Range Rainfall Forecast (MRRF) given by Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF v 4.3) is verified using forecast verification scores including Ratio of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) to the standard deviation of the observations (RSR), Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE), Percent Bias (PBIAS), Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE), and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). Scores were computed by comparing forecast generated using two microphysics options viz., WRF Single Moment scheme (WSM-3) and Kessler scheme during South West Monsoon (SWM) and North East Monsoon (NEM) of the year 2021 for five different physiographic regions of Tamil Nadu. WSM-3 microphysics scheme outperformed in predicting MRRF for all the five regions and during both the monsoons.
      PubDate: 2022-07-21
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131008
  • Drought Analysis in Southern Agroclimatic Zone of Tamil Nadu using
           Standardized Precipitation Index

    • Authors: B. Lalmuanzuala, N. K. Sathyamoorthy, S. Kokilavani, R. Jagadeeswaran, Balaji Kannan
      Pages: 577 - 585
      Abstract: Drought differs from other natural hazards in the fact that the initiation and the termination is extremely difficult to determine and that its drastic effects continue to persist well after the cessation of the event which adds to the complexity as well as the casualties. The Southern Agro Climatic Zone (ACZ) of Tamil Nadu is heavily rain shadowed during the South West Monsoon Season, several complications arise with respect to drought, causing crop failures and depleted moisture concentration in certain cases. With that idea in perspective, a study was conducted in Agro Climate Research Centre, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India to study the frequency of drought over the Southern Agro-Climatic Zone of Tamil Nadu, India. Since precipitation that occurs over a region determines mainly the occurrence and cessation of drought events, precipitation-based Rainfall Deviation and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was used to quantify the extent of rainfall deficit or surplus over the region. The analysis of 30 years (1991 – 2020) historical rainfall data of various districts of the Southern Agroclimatic Zone of Tamil Nadu using SPI showed that the annual SPI value ranged from +3.3 to -4. The study showed that Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi districts were most prone to moderate drought and severe drought. The region showed more frequency of Moderate drought than Severe and Extreme drought.
      PubDate: 2022-07-21
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131009
  • Population Dynamics of Sucking Pests in Dual Season Cotton Ecosystem and
           Its Correlation with Weather Factors

    • Authors: A. Kiruthika, M. Murugan, S. Jeyarani, N. K. Sathyamoorthy, K. Senguttuvan
      Pages: 586 - 595
      Abstract: Population dynamics of sucking pests in cotton ecosystem were studied at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during winter (2021) and summer (2022) seasons. Weekly observations were recorded on 20 randomly selected plants representing top, middle and bottom canopy of the crop which was raised in regular planting dates of winter and summer and were maintained as per the recommended regular agronomic practices except insect management interventions. During winter season, sucking pests viz., leafhopper, aphids, thrips, and whitefly were first observed in field from 39th SMW i.e. one month after sowing. Mealybugs were first observed during 41st SMW i.e. 43 days after sowing (DAS) of crop. The highest population of leafhopper, aphids, thrips, whitefly and mealybug recorded was 4.7, 18.7, 4.6, 2.45 no. per 3 leaves and 13.7 no. per 3 twigs, respectively. The mean population of sucking pests was high in October, 2021 and coincided with square formation to flowering stage except mealybug, which attained peak during January, at the boll bursting stage of crop. During summer season, the sucking pests were found to colonize from 8th SMW, corresponded to 20 DAS crop, while the mealybug occurred at 11th SMW, 40 DAS crop. The peak population of leafhopper, aphids, thrips, whitefly and mealybug registered was 5.4, 38.4, 4.9, 7.07 no./ 3 leaves and 2.4 no./ 3 twigs, respectively. The mean population of sucking pests was high from mid march to first fortnight of april 2022, and by that time the crop was at square formation to flowering stage. On comparison of both the season, summer season crop was infested by intensive level of sucking pests. Correlation results revealed that maximum temperature (0C) showed positive correlation, whereas rainfall (mm) showed negative correlation with population growth of sucking pests. Results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that all the weather parameters collectively caused 51.1% – 88.4% influence on the population fluctuation of sucking pests.
      PubDate: 2022-07-21
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131010
  • Effect of Seed Priming with Organic-inputs on Seedling Germination,
           Seedling growth and Vigour of Fingermillet

    • Authors: G. Soniya, R. Karthikeyan, K. Thirukumaran, M. Gopalakrishnan
      Pages: 596 - 600
      Abstract: A lab experiment was conducted at Department of Agronomy, Tamilnadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. The research study revealed that effect of seed priming treatments with Vermiwash, Cowurine, Panchagavya, Beejamrutha, Jeevamrutha on seed germination, seedling growth and vigour of fingermillet. The organic seed priming treatments had a substantial impact on the fingermillet seed quality. Seed priming with T4-cow urine 3% exhibited the highest germination percentage (91.67%),seedling length (9.27cm), root length(8.27cm), vigour index I (1011.23) and vigour index II (112.12) values. The shoot length(2.77cm), seedling fresh weight(4.01g), seedling dry weight(1.22g) and root to shoot ratio (1.44) were recorded highest in Cow urine 3% (T4)which was on par with Panchagavya3%(T5) (2.70cm,3.97g,1.21g,and1.42, respectively) and T3- Vermiwash3% (2.67cm,3.97g,1.19g,and1.40,respectively). This research helps to improve the quality of seedling with the help of organic bio-fertilizer treatments which are economical, non-toxic and ecofriendly.
      PubDate: 2022-07-21
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131011
  • Oxygen Production and Carbon Capturing Capacity of Various Tree Species in
           Coimbatore City, India

    • Authors: S. Gowtham, M. Prasanthrajan, N. Sritharan, S. K. Rajkishore, S. Keerthana
      Pages: 601 - 615
      Abstract: Climate change, environment pollution, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been recognized as major environmental threats of the present-day scenario. These environmental issues cause severe socio-economic implications across the globe. The living space and human settlements are increasing rapidly in urban areas of India. Simultaneously the existing green cover and tree population are declining in the name of developments. Trees are considered to be one of the important assets in cities, they provide myriad benefits. Considering the importance of trees the cities and their role in reducing the pollution besides adding fresh oxygen to the atmosphere, the present investigation focused with the aim of documenting various tree species in Coimbatore city and to assess their carbon capturing and oxygen release potential. There are about 58 tree species comprising of 27 families, that have been documented and classified into four age classes. Further these tree species were subjected to total biomass, carbon stock, CO2 (eq.), net carbon sequestration and net oxygen release assessment using standard non-destructive method. Among the 58 tree species studied, Albizia lebbeck (2.745 ton tree-1year-1), Tamarindus indica (2.156 ton tree-1year-1), Parkia biglandulosa (1.921 ton tree-1year-1), Delonix regia (1.027 ton tree-1year-1), Kigelia Africana (1.009 ton tree-1year-1), Peltophorum pterocarpum (1.006 ton tree-1year-1), Ficus religiosa (0.906 ton tree-1year-1), Leucaena leucocephala (0.804 ton tree-1year -1) of net oxygen were found to release, Pterospermum acerifolium (0.827 ton tree-1year-1) and Azadirachta indica (0.804 ton tree-1year-1) were found to release high oxygen with more carbon capturing capacity.
      PubDate: 2022-07-21
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131012
  • Diversity of Insect Visitor’s on Blossom of Capparis decidua (Forssk.)
           Edgew (Kair) in Northwest Rajasthan

    • Authors: Shiwani Bhatnagar, Ameen Ullah Khan, Lokendra Singh Rathore, Bundesh Kumar, . Imran
      Pages: 616 - 621
      Abstract: Capparis decidua flowers are cross-pollinated and favored by number of insect for collecting nectar and pollen rewards. It has for low fruit set ratio due to a high degree of self-incompatibility and it largely depends on cross pollination by insects for fruit setting. Present study focuses on studying diversity of insect visitors of C. decidua to enlist the dominant and most abundant insect pollinator of C. decidua. The data collected revealed that the most predominantly insects visiting the blossom belongs to insect order Hymenoptera, Coleoptera & Diptera. Among Hymenopteran insects different species of honey bees are the most abundant flower visiting insects.
      PubDate: 2022-07-21
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131013
  • Influence of Nitrogen and Sulphur on Growth Attribute, Yield and Yield
           Attribute of Mustard (Brassica juncea) Prayagraj Condition

    • Authors: Shankar Lal Yadav, C. Umesha, Vikas Yadav
      Pages: 622 - 628
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2021-22 at SHUATS Crop Research Farm (CRF), Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (UP) on sandy loam soil to investigate the effect of nitrogen and sulphur on growth and yield of mustard (Brassica juncea). The treatment consisted of 3 levels of nitrogen viz., Nitrogen at 40 kg/ha, Nitrogen at 60 kg/ha and Nitrogen at 40 kg/ha. 3 levels of sulphur viz., Sulphur at 10 kg/ha, Sulphur at 20 kg/ha and Sulphur at 30 kg/ha. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with ten treatments replicated thrice. Study revealed that with application of Nitrogen 80 kg/h + Sulphur 30 kg/ha recorded significantly higher plant height (99.10 cm) and maximum plant dry weight (23.10 g) at harvest stage as compared to other treatment combinations. The treatment with application Nitrogen 80 kg/h + Sulphur 30 kg/ha also recorded significantly higher number of siliqua/plant (342.41), number of seed/siliqua (16.17), test weight (5.63), seed yield (25.10 q/ha) and stover yield (58.45 q/ha) as compared to all the treatment combinations.
      PubDate: 2022-07-21
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131014
  • Comparative Assessment of Soil Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Dioxide
           Emissions from Agroforestry Systems in Kogi East Nigeria

    • Authors: S. O. Amhakhian, I. J. J. Otene, I. O. Adava
      Pages: 629 - 641
      Abstract: This study was conducted to assess the below ground carbon sequestration (soil carbon stock per unit land area) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from agroforestry systems (AFSs) in Kogi East (Ankpa, Dekina, Ofu, Olamaboro, and Omala local government areas) Nigeria. Stratified random sampling was used to select study locations of the agroforestry systems in Kogi East, Nigeria. Four AFSs were selected in each local government area (LGA) - this consisted majorly of smallholder farmer’s farm with silvoarable systems in the region (4 communities per LGA, total of 20 communities). The selection criteria for AFS was based on farm size not less than 1 hectare. The results from the analysis revealed that highest soil carbon stock [C stock (Mg Cha-1)] was recorded from AFSs in Dekina (334.43 Mg Cha-1) while no significant difference in carbon stock was observed from the soils of AFSs in Ankpa, Ofu, Olamaboro, and Omala LGAs (69.01, 159.21, 142.58, 117.33 Mg Cha-1 respectively). Nonetheless, the soils from AFSs in Dekina LGA had highest CO2 emissions followed by Ofu LGA (186.23 and 159.40 gCO2 emitted/50g wet soil slice respectively) while the lowest CO2 emissions (104.15 and 88.88 gCO2 emitted/50g wet soil slice) were recorded from Ankpa and Omala LGAs respectively. The highest carbon sequestration recorded from soils of AFSs in Dekina LGA may depend on the soil C input and soil stabilization processes including tree species and density and again highest CO2 emissions from the same Dekina LGA can be attributed to the coarse texture of the soils as coarse soils are considerably more susceptible to releasing their carbon. On the other hand, the absence of variation in CO2 emission levels in some of the locations studied can be attributed to similar land management practices like tillage, bush burning and soil fertility management.
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131015
  • Influence of Microplastics on Seedling Growth of Blackgram under Different
           Soil Types

    • Authors: Raveendra Gnana Keerthi Sahasa, Periyasamy Dhevagi, Ramesh Poornima, Bharani Alagirisamy, Pon Sathya Moorthy, Subburamu Karthikeyan
      Pages: 642 - 649
      Abstract: The prevalence of microplastics in soil has recently attracted substantial interest as they pose a major threat to agricultural system. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of polyethylene microplastics (PE-MPs) on seedling development of blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) in two different types of soil during April, 2022 under controlled conditions in the Department of Environmental Sciences, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India. The treatments included four different concentrations of PE-MPs (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00%) along with a control which had no microplastics. All the treatments were replicated thrice. In loamy soil type, germination rate declined from 87.1±0.57 (control) to 73.1±0.33 (1.00% PE-MPs) and in clay loam soil, from 83.3±3.08 (control) to 79.8±0.03 (1.00% PE-MPs). Similarly root and shoot characteristics also showed distinct reduction along with increasing microplastics concentrations. Hence, the results of the study reveal that soil type has influence over the magnitude of variations in blackgram growth parameters in the presence of polyethylene microplastics.
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131016
  • Influence of Crop Residue in Addition to Decomposition Enhancers on Soil
           Nitrogen Transformation and Available Macronutrients Status during Growth
           of Maize

    • Authors: P. Nagaseshi Reddy, J. Aruna Kumari, G. Jayasree, M. Tejashree
      Pages: 650 - 657
      Abstract: A Greenhouse experiment was conducted on loamy sand soils of Agricultural College, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during rabi 2021-2022 to find out the influence of crop residues in addition to decomposition enhancers on soil nitrogen transformation and available macronutrients status during growth of maize. The crop residues were incorporated in soil during sowing of maize either alone or in combination with decomposition enhanceres (microbial consortia and single super phosphate). The nitrogen transformation and macronutrients assayed at different intervals of maize were significantly increased by the application of crop residue along with microbial consortia. At 30 DAI, 60 DAI and 90 DAI among the treatments, the highest ammonical and nitrate nitrogen and macronutrient status of were recorded with T9 (T5 + as Microbial consortium @ 1.5%) and it was on par with the treatment T13 (T5 + as Single Super Phosphate @5%). At 120 DAI among the treatments highest ammonical and nitrate nitrogen and macronutrient status of were recorded with T8 (T4+ as Microbial consortium @ 1.5%,) and it was on par with the T6 (T2+ as Microbial consortium @ 1.5 %). At all intervals the lowest ammonical and nitrate nitrogen and macronutrient status were recorded in control (T1). Incorporation of crop residues along with microbial consortium before sowing has significant effect on growth and yield of maize when compared to residue alone.
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131017
  • Knowledge of Young Farmers about Climate Smart Agricultural Intervention

    • Authors: Snehal Patel, O. P. Sharma
      Pages: 658 - 665
      Abstract: Climate Smart Agriculture interventions have emerged to address the challenges in the agriculture sector caused by climate-induced disasters and stresses. For the present investigation data were collected from all the seven districts of the South Gujarat region, the overall sample size comprises of 280 young farmers. The results showed that the majority of the young farmers had adequate to best knowledge about CSA interventions. Further, results showed that the annual income, risk preference and leadership ability were found positively and significantly related to the knowledge of young farmers about CSA interventions at a 1 percent level of significance. While, education, mass media exposure, extension contact, scientific orientation, awareness on climate change, innovativeness, risk orientation and decision making ability were found positively and significantly related with the knowledge of young farmers about CSA interventions at a 5 percent level of significance. Furthermore, the land holding was found negatively and non-significantly related with the knowledge of young farmers about CSA interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131018
  • Phenotypic Screening of Chilli Genotypes Collected from Different Regions

    • Authors: S. Tiwari, Kanchan S. Bhan, R. S. Shukla
      Pages: 666 - 675
      Abstract: The experiment was performed at Maharajpur Farm under the Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur (M.P.) during the Kharif season 2019-2022 and planted in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The characterization of thirty genotype for thirty-five qualitative traits articulated no variability for trait i.e., the monomorphic trait was non-enveloping fruit calyx cover, two descriptors were found to be moderately diverse, which were with medium fruit intensity of the red colour (at the mature unripe stage) and the narrow triangular shape of fruit with the Shannon-Weaver diversity index H'=0.46 & H'=0.50, both of these are fruit related traits. The descriptor intensity of pubescence (hairiness) of the stem had the highest diversity index of 1.82. The studies highlighted some of the genotypes with the distinctness, MPKC-1(Katni collection) addressed unique features with green with purple tinge leaf colour, purple petal colour, upright fruit orientation, absence of fruit curvature, purple fruit colour at ripening maturity, ovate leaf and erect plant habit, depicting it like a wild relative of capsicum and could be utilized as the morphological descriptor.
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131019
  • Performance of Gluconate and Lactate Based Formulations on Plant Growth
           and Yield Attributes in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    • Authors: B. Prasanna Kumar, B. Gouthami, B. Joseph, A. Raja Reddy, N. Sreerama Reddy, G. Prathiksha, N. Lavanya, N. Ramohan, D. S. Sparjanbabu
      Pages: 676 - 684
      Abstract: Aim: To check the efficacy of gluconate and lactate based formulations on plant growth and yield characteristics of maize. Place and Duration of Study: School of Agricultural Sciences, Malla Reddy University, Hyderabad, spring 2021. Methodology: The experiment was laid-out in Randomized Block Design (RBD), with Maize hybrid (DHM-117) spacing adopted (60 x 20 cm) with 4 replications. The treatments viz; T1: Control (No fertilizer), T2:100% RDF, T3: 75% RDF + 25% Sahasra Organic Formulations (SOF), T4:50% RDF + 50% SOF, T5: 25% RDF + 75% SOF, T6: 100% SOF. The RDF (N:72-80; P:24; K:20 kg/acre). Results: The yield attributes were recorded intermittently and maximum grain yield (7,649.8 kg               ha-1) and Stover yield (8,859.87 kg ha-1) were recorded with T2 (100% RDF), followed by T3 (75% RDF + 25% Sahasra Organic Formulations). Similarly gross returns (₹ 123606.5 ha-1), net returns (₹ 87116.49 ha-1) and B: C (3.4) ratio was also recorded highest in T2 followed by T3 (75% RDF + 25 % SOF), while the lowest were recorded with T1 (control). Conclusion: Adoption of gluconate and lactate based formulations enhanced soil fertility, soil organic carbon and yield in Maize crop. The study concluded that the integrated approach i.e., T3 (75% RDF + 25% SOF) has realized the highest net returns (₹ 82466.8 ha-1) and B: C ratio (3.4) in comparison to the 100% RDF treatment thus reducing the cost of fertilizers and benefiting the net returns to the farmers.
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131020
  • Isolation, Identification and Pathogenicity Assay of Fungal Species on
           Horse Purslane (Trianthema portulacastrum L.,)

    • Authors: Eddem Sreeja, P. Murali Arthanari, V. Sendhilvel, E. Somasundaram
      Pages: 685 - 690
      Abstract: A field survey was carried out in Tamil Nadu agricultural university, Coimbatore, to locate Horse purslane (Trianthema portulacastrum) infected with fungal pathogens. Heavily infested areas were recognized and symptomatic leaves were collected. Fungal species account for leaf spot disease of Horse purslane were Isolated from infected leaves on PDA medium. Based on morphological characteristics two foliar pathogens of Horse purslane were identified as Gibbago trianthemae Simmons and Curvularia tuberculata Sivan. Pathogenicity of two isolates was tested by applying spore treatment to Horse purslane (test plants). Leaves of test plants showed naturally occurring symptoms after inoculation with pathogens. Among the two isolates, Gibbago trianthemae was shown to be more effective against Horse purslane than Curvularia tuberculata.
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131021
  • Influence of Electric, Magnetic and Bio Film on the Growth, Yield and
           Yield Attributing Traits of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    • Authors: Ramireddy Paul Manjrekar Reddy, Bineeta M. Bara, Prashant Kumar Rai, Abhishek Kumar Pal
      Pages: 691 - 696
      Abstract: The present study was carried out for Influence on electric, magnetic and Bio - film in the growth, yield, and yield attributing traits of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was made to identify the effect of seed priming of different kinds on seed quality characters of radish and to find out suitable seed priming method for radish. For this purpose, 13 priming treatments were taken in Randomized Block Design including control on radish seed was studied under field conditions during Rabi, 2020-21. Analysis of variance for the data revealed that significance mean sum of squares due to seed priming treatments were observed for all the characters under study viz., Field emergence percentage, Plant height (20, 40 DAS and at harvest), Days to maturity, total number of leaves, dry weight of leaves, fresh weight of leaves, seed yield per plot, seed yield per plant and seed yield per hectare which were highly significant at 5% level of significance indicating presence of good amount of variability among the treatments for these characters. Seed priming with T3 – Magnetic (600 gauss) significantly affected characters studied in field experiment. Thus, application of T3 – Magnetic (600 gauss) may be useful for improving growth, yield, and yield attributing traits of radish. The experiment was laid out in Randomized block design (RBD).
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131022
  • Phenotyping Rice (Oryza sativa. L) Genotypes for Nitrogen use Efficiency

    • Authors: R. Gowri Karthigaa, A. Senthil, V. Ravichandran, Asish K. Binodh, R. Kuttimani
      Pages: 697 - 706
      Abstract: Aim: Global food security has become a serious issue, nitrogen fertilizer use has increased agricultural productivity globally, but at a significant environmental cost. The present study was aimed to identification of rice genotypes from the existing germplasm or development of rice cultivars that can make the best use of N in low nitrogen soils is essential for the sustainability of agriculture Study Design: The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three nitrogen levels as main plots and twenty five rice genotypes as subplots. Place of Study: The screening experiment was conducted in December 2021April 2022 at wetland, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. Methodology: Twenty five rice genotypes were cultivated with three nitrogen levels 0% Recommended Dose of Nitrogen (RDN) (T0), 50% RDN (T1), 100% RDN (T2) as control under field conditions, morphological traits such as plant height, leaf area; the number of tillers, total dry weight and leaf nitrogen were recorded along with leaf nitrogen and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE).Two-way ANOVA and Cluster analysis were used to analyze the data. Result: The results revealed that among twenty five rice genotypes, G3 recorded the highest photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (25.10) followed by G7 (22.62) under 0% RDN (T0). The lowest PNUE was recorded in G11 (5.99) 100% RDN (T2). Across the genotypes G3 and G7 genotypes exhibited the highest NUE. Conclusion: Observations relies upon that the rice genotype G3 and G7 exhibit high nitrogen use efficiency and G11 shows low nitrogen use efficiency.
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131023
  • Influence of Biofertilizers and Sulphur on Growth and Yield Attributes of
           Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    • Authors: Devarapalli Sathvik, Victor Debbarma
      Pages: 707 - 713
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season 2021-22 at the experimental field of the Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology And Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh. India which is located at 250 30’ 42’’N latitude, 810 60’ 56” E longitude, and a height of 98 meters above sea level. The Experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with 9 treatments replicated thrice based on one year of experimentation. Biofertilizers like Rhizobium (25g/kg seeds), PSB (25g/kg seeds), Rhizobium(12.5g/kg seeds) + PSB (12.5g/kg seeds) along with different levels of Sulphur – 15,20 and 25kg/ha were used as treatments. The results revealed that significantly higher plant height (59.3cm), maximum number of Nodules/plant (7.8) and higher plant dry weight (66.3g). Whereas the maximum number of pods/plant (67.6),higher seeds/pod (2.8), maximum seed index (28.00 g),higher seed yield (1748.8 kg/ha), higher stover yield (2957.8 kg/ha) were recorded in the treatment- 9[Rhizobium(12.5g/kg seeds )+ PSB(12.5 g/kgseeds) + Sulphur ( 25kg/ha)].
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131028
  • Growth Dynamics and Yield of Zero-Till Maize as Influenced by Microbial
           Consortia Treated Paddy Residue Incorporation

    • Authors: G. Rajitha, B. Padmaja, M. Malla Reddy, A. Madhavi, S. Narender Reddy, S. Triveni, M. Yakadri
      Pages: 714 - 727
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at College farm, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during 2020-21 and 2021-22 to assess the influence of paddy residue management practices at different fertility levels on certain growth parameters and the yield of rabi maize succeeding kharif rice in a strip plot design. The growth analysis indicated that the leaf area index, crop growth rate, net assimilation rate and leaf area duration remained the same with residue management practices at 0-30 DAS and 30-60 DAS but between 60 DAS-harvest, maize leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), net assimilation rate (NAR) and leaf area duration (LAD) was significantly increased by incorporation of crop residues treated with microbial consortia and SSP. Different fertility levels affected leaf area index, crop growth rate and leaf area duration at all the growth intervals whereas net assimilation rate remained unaffected. Interaction effect of residue management practices and fertility levels on leaf area index, crop growth rate, net assimilation rate and leaf area duration was found non significant at 0-30 DAS and 30-60 DAS, while at 60 DAS-harvest integration of residues and microbial consortia along with chemical fertilizers resulted in a significant increase of LAI, CGR and LAD with no significant improvement in NAR. In 2020-21 and 2021-22, the grain yield and straw yield were higher in the incorporation of crop residues treated with microbial consortia and single super phosphate (SSP) in combination with 125 % recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) which was on par with 100% RDF and 75 % RDF and was significantly superior over other treatments.
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131029
  • Impact Assessment of Different Level of Mycorrhiza on the Growth
           Parameters and Nutrient Content of Capsicum annum

    • Authors: . Sarita, Rakesh Kumar Chugh, Satish Mehta, Narender Singh Yadav, Kushal Raj
      Pages: 728 - 736
      Abstract: Soil microbes play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and their availability to plants, which is important for sustaining soil health and agricultural sustainability. In light of this, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) plays an important function. Hyphae of VAM can reach far beyond the plant root zone, allowing it to obtain nutrients from a considerably larger region of soil. Mycorrhiza improves plant nutrition by facilitating the uptake of minerals such as phosphorus and immobile trace elements such as zinc, cobalt, magnesium, iron, copper, molybdenum, and others. Mycorrhiza improves plant growth, productivity and yield by increasing the rate of photosynthesis. In the present study Glomus fasciculatum was tested on Capsicum annum plant with different inoculum levels (100, 150, 200 and 400 chlamydospores/kg soil) and found that Plant height, Root length, Dry weight of root and shoot, NPK content, per cent mycorrhizal colonization and sporocarp number were maximum when 400 spores were used for inoculation and minimum were found in untreated plants. SPAD chlorophyll content was highest at 90 DAT among all the observation periods.
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131030
  • Influence of Phosphorous and Foliar Spray of Zinc on Growth and Yield of
           Lentil (Lens culinaris M.)

    • Authors: Nitta Chandan, Victor Debbarma, Sammeta Mounika, Neeraganti Mohan
      Pages: 737 - 743
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2021-22, at crop research farm of Department of Agronomy at Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj in North Eastern plains of Eastern Uttar Pradesh with the objective to study the Influence of Phosphorus and Foliar Spray of Zinc on Growth and yield of lentil (Lens culinaris M.) Var. KSL-0903 was conducted on Randomized block design comprising of 9 treatments designated as (T1-T9) with different combination of Phosphorus and Foliar Spray of Zinc on which are replicated thrice. The experimental results revealed that [Phosphorus 50kg/ha+ Zinc 0.75%] gave the tallest plants (54.53cm), Number of nodules/plant (8.66), Plant dry weight (12.73g), number of pods/plant (163.3), number of seeds/pod (2.00), test weight (25.13g), Seed yield (1.908t/ha), Stover yield (3.534 t/ha). The treatment 9 [Phosphorus 50kg/ha+ Zinc 0.75%] recorded highest net return (66348.30 INR /ha), highest gross return (97308.30 INR/ha) and benefit: cost ratio (2.14).
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131032
  • Effect of Different Green Manuring Crops and Fertilizer Doses on Growth
           and Yield of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) at Scarce Rainfall Zone of
           Andhra Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Chaitanya Kumar Goddumarri, U. Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy, P. V. Ramesh Babu, P. Kavitha
      Pages: 744 - 750
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Mahanandi, Nandyal, Andhra Pradesh, India during the rabi season of 2021-22 to evaluate the effect of different green manure crops on growth and yield of succeeding chickpea. The field experiment was laid out in split-plot design with four green manure crops viz., cowpea, greengram, horsegram, pillipesara along with one control were grown in situ and incorporated into the soil before sowing of chickpea crops in respective treatments and different levels of fertilizers viz., 25 % RDF (recommended dose of fertilizer), 50 % RDF, 75 % RDF and 100 % RDF were applied to study their interaction effect on growth and yield attributes, nutrient uptake and economics of succeeding chickpea. Growth attributes like plant height (40.7 and 41.2 cm), number of branches plant-1 (26.1 and 27.1), dry matter accumulation (3873 and 3642 kg ha-1) and earlier days to 50 % flowering (53.3 and 53.8 days); grain (876 and 874.6 kg ha-1), haulm (884.3 and 873.2 kg ha-1) yield was found to be highest in the treatment with the incorporation of cowpea as preceding green manure and with the application of 100 % RDF.  The treatment was at par with greengram and pillipesara green manuring and with the application of 75 % RDF. Pre green manuring with cowpea and with the application of the 100 % RDF provided enhanced growth and yield parameters in chickpea than leaving the land fallow during summer season.
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131033
  • Impact of Rainfall Variability on the Streamflow of the Kara River Basin,
           Northern Togo

    • Authors: Mélila Sinam, Bokonon–Ganta Bonaventure Eustache, Badameli Pyalo Atina, Ogouwale Euloge
      Pages: 751 - 758
      Abstract: Water resources are affected by hydrological and climatological reactions in the Kara river Basin. The aim of this work is to analyze the dynamics of rainfall variability on the flow of the Kara River. Data was collected through documentary research and field surveys carried out among 82 correspondents. Data from the hydrological and climatological records (1955-2015) as well as socio-anthropological were used to conduct this research. The results were ascertained through state-pressure-impact-response model (SPIR). Year to year rainfall trends (1963 -2003) related to the stream flow showed that there has been low rainfall since the 1980s. This situation leads to extreme harsh flows of the Kara River located in the Kozah district. A look into the seasonal flow variability (1955-2015) showed that the average monthly flow figures over the years are very low from October to July (09 months) especially after the 1970s. This hydroclimatic dynamics have impacted the availability of water resources in the Kara basin located in the Kozah district. Indeed, the results of the annual changes in rainfall in relation to the flows of the Kara River showed a decrease in rainfall conditions from 1963 to 2003. As a result, people develop coping strategies that are ineffective.
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131034
  • Effect of Different Varieties, Nitrogen Levels and Cutting Management on
           Yield and Its Attributes of Fodder Bajra (Pennisetum glaucum L.)

    • Authors: D. Anoohya, R. V. T. Balazzii Naaiik, K. Bhanu Rekha, T. Sukruth Kumar, T. Shashikala, M. Yakadri
      Pages: 759 - 765
      Abstract: Aims: To identify an ideal pearl millet variety under ideal nitrogen level and cutting management for high green fodder yield and dry fodder yield. Study Design: Factorial Randomized block design. Place and Duration of Study: AICRP on Forage Crops and Utilization, Agricultural Research Institute, from July 2021 and Nov 2021. Methodology: Field experiment was conducted at AICRP on Forage Crops and Utilization, ARI, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during kharif 2021. The treatments consisted of three varieties (TSFB 15-4, TSFB 15-8 and Moti bajra), three nitrogen levels (80, 100 and 120 kg N ha-1) and two cutting management practices (C1: Two cuts: 1st at 60 days after sowing (DAS), 2nd cut at 50% flowering) (C2: Three cuts: 1st at 50 days after sowing (DAS), 2nd cut at 35 days after 1st cut and 3rd cut at 50% flowering) laid out in randomized block design with factorial concept, with Factor (A) as varieties, Factor (B) as nitrogen levels and Factor (C) as cutting management with three replications. The soil was sandy loam in texture with pH of 7.0 low in available nitrogen, medium in available phosphorus and available potassium. Results: Variety TSFB 15-8 recorded significantly higher plant height (67.2 cm) and leaf-stem ratio (0.4) green forage yield (821.1 q ha-1), dry fodder yield (198.4 q ha-1)respectively, but Moti bajra variety was recorded highest number of tillers m-2 (4.5).Application of nitrogenat the rate of 120 kgha-1 significantly recorded highest plant height (72.0 cm), number of tillers m-2 (4.7) and leaf-stem ratio (0.4), green forage yield (817.7 q ha-1), dry fodder yield (201.0 q ha-1). Three cuts for green fodder recorded significantly higher plant height (65.9 cm), number of tillers (5.1) and leaf-stem ratio (0.5) green fodder yield(910.0 q ha-1), dry fodder yield (216.4 q ha-1) compared to two cuts. Conclusion: Variety TSFB 15-8 with nitrogen level of 120 kg N ha-1 at C2 found suitable and economical for cultivation in southern Telangana zone.
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131035
  • Response of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to Sulphur and Zinc Elements

    • Authors: Gadde Hari Venkata Akhil, Victor Debbarma
      Pages: 766 - 773
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted aiming to study the influence of Sulphur and Zinc on growth and yield of chickpea during the Rabi season 2021/22. The treatments were T1 (20 kg sulphur h-1 + 10 kg zinc h-1), T2 (20 kg sulphur h-1 + 15 kg zinc h-1), T3 (20 kg sulphur h-1 + 20 kg zinc h-1),T4 (30 kg sulphur h-1 + 10 kg zinc h-1), T5 (30 kg sulphur h-1 + 15 kg zinc h-1), T6 (30 kg sulphur h-1 + 20 kg zinc h-1), T7 (40 kg sulphur h-1 + 10 kg zinc h-1), T8 (40 kg sulphur h-1 + 15 kg zinc h-1) and T9 (40 kg sulphur h-1 + 20 kg zinc h-1). The findings show that the treatment T9 recorded highest plant height (44.11 cm), maximum number of nodules/plant (42.40), highest plant dry weight (8.05 g/plant), maximum number of pods/plant (31.53), maximum number of seeds/pod (1.73), highest seed index (237.67 g), highest seed yield (1819.00 kg/ha) and maximum stover yield (3253.67 kg/ha), highest gross returns (130068.00 INR/ha), highest net return (92527.62 INR/ha) and highest benefit cost ratio (2.40) compared to other studied treatments, while the lowest one was realized with T1 treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131036
  • Performance of Wheat Genotypes under Late Sown Conditions in Eastern
           Region of Uttar Pradesh

    • Authors: Peram Vamsi Krishna, C. Umesha, Reddi Satish, Satti Maheswara Reddy, Gorla Venkata Raj
      Pages: 774 - 779
      Abstract: There is an increase in the world population greatly during the past decade. In order to support the growing population scientists are looking towards the high yielding varieties to provide for the world. As such field experiment entitled “Performance of Wheat genotypes under late sown conditions in Eastern region of Uttar Pradesh" was conducted during Rabi  2022  at Wheat Breeding Experimental Field, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with Eight genotypes which were replicated four times. The genotypes used in the experiment are NELS-201, NELS-202, NELS-203, NELS-204, NELS-205, NELS-206, NELS-207, NELS- 208. The experiment results revealed that the Wheat genotype NELS-208 performed better than other hybrids viz. Plant height (103.19 cm), dry weight (22.46 g), number of tillers per hill (12.85), number of grains per spike (84.00), spike length (13.40 cm), test weight (40.73 g), grain yield (3.10 t/ha), straw yield (4.85 t/ha), Harvest index (38.99%) was recorded significantly higher compared to other genotypes.
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131037
  • Use of Agro-Insecticide, Plant Extracts and Resistance Inducers to Manage
           Yellow Vein Mosaic of Okra

    • Authors: Pankaj Yadav, Vinod Kumar Malik, Rakesh Kumar, Lokesh Yadav, Satish Kumar, Ravinder Singh Chauhan, Manjeet Singh
      Pages: 780 - 787
      Abstract: Production of okra is under threat due to certain biotic and abiotic factors. Okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV) is a devastating disease of okra, caused by monopartite and bipartite begomovirus and transmitted by whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci Gen.). Yield loss due to this virus is quite high, up to 80-94 percent is reported under heavy infection. The efficacy of Malathion with botanicals and resistance inducers were tested against OYVMV in the field conditions for the effective management of the disease. The result revealed that among all the treatments malathion 50 EC (2 ml/litre) in combination with sarpagandha leaves extract (10%) had recorded the lowest terminal per cent disease index (PDI) (15.55%) during all the observation periods as compared to untreated check plot (71.68%). The fruit yield was also recorded highest (3833.20 kg/ha) in this treatment as compared to control (1811.15 kg/ha) and other treatments. For the evaluation of resistance inducers, the seeds were soaked in salicylic acid with concentrations of 50, 100 and 150 mg/litre water and Trichoderma viride @ 5 g/litre water at the time of sowing and later sprayed with the same doses at 15 days interval. Amongst different treatments, salicylic acid @ 150 mg/litre as seed priming and spray @ 150 mg/litre water recorded significantly less terminal PDI (28.89%) as well as the highest fruit yield as compared to other treatments and untreated check plot (73.33%). The treatment with bioagent Trichoderma viride @ 5 g/litre as seed priming and spray @ 5 g/litre water also effective in reducing the disease severity and increasing fruit yield significantly as compared to control.
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131038
  • Effect of Different Moisture Conservation Methods and Nutrient Management
           Practices on Growth, Yield and Economics of Safflower (Carthamus
           tinctorius L.)

    • Authors: V. Prathibha, C. Sudha Rani, C. Sudhakar, T. Ramprakash
      Pages: 788 - 797
      Abstract: Aim: To determine the effect of moisture conservation methods and nutrient management practices on growth, yield and economics of safflower. Study Design: Split plot. Place and Duration of Study: Agricultural Research Station, Tandur, between November 2021 and March 2022. Methodology: A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Tandur, Vikarabad (District) during rabi 2021-22 to assess the effect of different moisture conservation methods and nutrient management practices on growth, yield and economics of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) under rainfed condition. The experiment was assigned in twenty treatments, laid out in split plot design with three replications. Treatments included were 4 treatments of moisture conservation methods (i) M1 = Fallow in kharif fb safflower in rabi (ii) M2 = Greengram in kharif fb safflower in rabi (iii)  M3 = Compartmental bunding in kharif fb safflower in rabi (iv) M4 = Barnyard millet in kharif fb safflower in rabi and 5 fertility levels (i) N1 = Control (No fertilizer) (ii) N2 = 50% RDF (iii) N3 = 75% RDF (iv) N4 = 100% RDF (v) N5 = 125% RDF randomly placed in sub plots of the main plot. Results: Significantly higher grain yield (1402 kg ha-1), stover yield (3130 kg ha-1) was recorded under compartmental bunding in kharif fb safflower in rabi (M3). Similarly maximum grain yield (1565 kg ha-1), stover yield (3659 kg ha-1) was observed in 125% RDF (N5). The lower yield was recorded in M4 in moisture conservation practices whereas it was N1 (control) as in case of fertility levels. Exceptionally higher net returns was observed in M3 (Rs.53401) and N5 (Rs.61506). Conclusion: Adoption of moisture conservation methods during kharif in semi arid regions impounds the rainwater effectively thereby providing more residual moisture for the upcoming rabi crop and enhances the crop yield.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131041
  • Vetiver Floating Wetlands for Dyeing Effluent

    • Authors: M. Aarthy, K. Sara Parwin Banu, G. Karthikeyan, K. Suganya, S. Haripriya
      Pages: 798 - 805
      Abstract: As a result of industrialization, the degree of global water contamination has drastically grown in recent decades. Both rich and developing nations are seeing this worldwide trend, although the later are experiencing it more pronouncedly. Due to its extraordinary and distinctive morphological and physiological characteristics, the Vetiver Floating Wetlands (VFWs), which is based on Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides), has been successfully used as a phytoremediation tool to remediate both polluted water like municipal wastewater such as sewage effluent, landfill leachate, urban runoff, drainage channels, industrial wastewater such as food processing factories, and contaminated land (mine overburden and tailings, solid waste dumps). This study focuses on the use of hydroponics and floating wetlands to clean contaminated dyeing effluent. This study aims to find the efficiency of Vetiver Floating wetlands over various physio-chemical parameters in Dyeing effluent. The study was laid down in Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore in 2022 during the month of April- May. The effluent was diluted to different concentrations namely 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. Various parameters were analyzed in these treatments in Dyeing effluent. The samples were collected at 15 days interval analyzed for one month. In Dyeing effluent, 50% concentration of the effluent showed better results over Vetiver Floating Wetlands and the removal efficiency was greater at this particular concentration.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131042
  • Removal of Nitrate Loads Pollution from Drinking Water by Using Different
           Aromatic Grasses: Green Technology

    • Authors: Bhagyashree Kesherwani, S. Ravichandran, Abdul Mazeed
      Pages: 806 - 816
      Abstract: The rapid increase in population needs a vast amount of food and energy to survive. This review paper reveals the potential of aromatic grasses to remove nitrate loads from different sources of contaminated water. A sustainable development approach for growing food needed pure water for irrigation and drinking purposes. These days, farmers are using chemical fertilisers to increase the quantity of food energy without knowing its harmful effect: our challenge is to be aware of them with green technology and teach them how to use it sustainably. Currently, many countries are experimenting with the green approach with the help of plants; they are trying to eliminate harmful elements from contaminated water. This method of removing pollutants by plants use is known as phytoremediation. So, many countries are using it to accumulate and extract toxic substances like heavy metals and higher nutrients load from water with the help of this approach. These aromatic grasses have been identified most photo-stabiliser, hyper-accumulator, and hyper-extractor of the toxic substance and nutrient loads at contaminated sites without harming or negatively impacting these toxics to other parts of the plant.  Aromatic grasses cost-effectively have higher economic value. Many studies observe that toxicity enhances the essential oil quality of these grasses and increases the value and quantity of oil. Thus, grasses are very suitable for removing nitrate from different contaminated water sites and may be they are option for ideal sustainable development approaches.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131043
  • Exogenous Application of Melatonin-loaded Nanoformulation for Yield
           Enhancement in Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) under Drought Condition

    • Authors: K. Dheerkadharshini, M. K. Kalarani, M. Djanaguiraman, S. Haripriya, M. Umapathi
      Pages: 817 - 826
      Abstract: Aim: To study the performances of melatonin-loaded nanoformulation on growth, yield and yield attributes of finger millet. Place and Duration of the Study: The pot culture experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions at the Department of Crop Physiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, during the rabi season of 2022. Methodology: The Experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications, including six treatments: T1: no spray, T2: 60 μM CF of MT, T3: Surfactant alone, T4: 20 μM NF of MT, T5: 40 μM NF of MT, T6: 60 μM NF of MT were used. Results: Among various melatonin combinations T6: Foliar spray @ 60 µM NF of MT recorded maximum photosynthetic rate, Fv/Fm ratio, antioxidant enzyme activity, and grain yield. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that foliar application of melatonin-loaded nanoformulation 60 μM was found to be an effective concentration for reducing drought effect and improving physiological, biochemical, yield and yield attributes in finger millet under drought conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131044
  • Genetic Diversity Analysis for Yield and Morpho-physiological Traits in
           Elite Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes under Semi-dry System Through D2

    • Authors: Md. Farheen, K. Gopala Krishna Murthy, Y. Chandra Mohan, J. Hemantha Kumar
      Pages: 827 - 835
      Abstract: Genetic divergence is a useful tool for choosing the parents to employ in a hybridization program. The current study was conducted at Agricultural College, Aswaraopet, Telangana, to evaluate genetic diversity among 30 rice genotypes during Kharif 2021 using D2 analysis under a semi-dry system. Based on the analysis, thirty genotypes were divided into ten clusters based on D2 values. Cluster II was found largest with twelve genotypes followed by cluster I with ten genotypes and clusters III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, and X had one genotype each, indicating that there was a sizable amount of variation among the genotypes. Cluster II (284.13) had the highest intra-cluster D2 value, followed by cluster I. (242.63) while the highest inter-cluster distance was found between Cluster VIII and IV (1503.42) followed by cluster VI and IV (1316.83), cluster VI and III (1316.15), cluster IX and IV (1303.55), cluster VIII and X (1261.09), cluster VIII and IX (1132.95), V and III (1113.91), and cluster VII and V (1101.7) suggesting that crosses involving lines from these clusters would produce wider and more desirable recombination. The average inter-cluster distance for Cluster VIII and VI was the lowest (231.01), followed by Cluster IX and X (394.3) and Cluster III and IV (397.72). The genotypes of these clusters have the most gene complexes, as shown by the shortest inter-cluster distance. The findings revealed that root biomass contributed the most to genetic divergence (24.59 percent), ranking first followed by total biomass (21.60%), root length (17.70%) and grain yield/plant (14.02%), culm strength (8.04%), plant height (5.74%), 1000 grain weight (4.36 %). The traits viz., root biomass, total biomass, root length, grain yield/plant, and culm strength contributed 85.95% of the total deviation and need to be exploited to develop varieties suitable for the semi-dry system in rice. The genotypes BPT 5204, WGL 697, RNR 21278, RNR 28361, WGL 915, PR 126, and JGL 28545 were to be better for further hybridization programs to develop varieties for the semi-dry system.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131045
  • Association of Different Satellite Driven Products with Evapotranspiration
           in Tamil Nadu, India (2010-2020)

    • Authors: Kuldeep Patel, S. Kokilavani, S. P. Ramanathan, Balaji Kannan
      Pages: 836 - 847
      Abstract: Evapotranspiration is an important phenomenon of hydrological cycle mainly influenced by meteorological factors and other vegetation characteristics. In this study, the relationship between Actual Evapotranspiration (AET) with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) were analysed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) TERRA satellite data products with the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) software. The duration of study was during South West Monsoon (SWM) season from June to September, over a period of ten years (2011 to 2020) for all seven Agro Climatic Zones (ACZ) of Tamil Nadu, India. The results showed that moderate to strong positive correlation were observed between AET and NDVI (r= 0.3 to 0.9) in all seven ACZ. The AET and LST showed a weak to strong negative correlation (r= -0.4 to -0.7) in six ACZs except High Rainfall Zone (HRZ) which might be due to lower LST and high NDVI values recorded in the HRZ which exhibited a weak positive relationship (r=0.2). Relationship between AET, LST and NDVI are highly useful for parametrizing evapotranspiration in different climatic conditions, analyzing different crop growth and production and helps in planning water management strategies at regional scale.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131048
  • Climate Driven Responses in Cocoa for Tamil Nadu, India

    • Authors: M. Selva Kumar, V. Geethalakshmi, P. Irene Vethamoni, M. Rajavel, C. Sudhalakshmi, K. Bhuvaneswari
      Pages: 848 - 856
      Abstract: Climate influences the spread of the any crop by imposing environmental restrictions. The present investigation was carried to understand the effect of climate on cocoa in various cocoa growing regions. In order to establish the relationship between weather parameters and cocoa productivity, Coimbatore, Theni, and Tenkasi were chosen as the study regions. Historical climate data was acquired from India Meteorological Department (IMD) for the past 30 years (1991-2020). Cocoa yield was simulated by using the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) and it was correlated with the weather variables such as rainfall, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, atmospheric water demand (PET), and crop water requirement (ET). Cocoa crop had positive correlation with rainfall and Actual Evapotranspiration. Whereas, both maximum and minimum temperature had significantly negative effect. Climatic conditions, such as decrease in rainfall, increase in temperature and increase in PET, would significantly reduce the cocoa bean yield. The anticipated increase in temperature and erratic rainfall distribution requires suitable management measures for sustainable cocoa productivity.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131049
  • Multiplication of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Chickpea and their
           Co-inoculative Impact with Trichoderma sp. on Chilli Wilt

    • Authors: . Sarita, Rakesh Kumar Chugh, Satish Kumar, Narender Singh Yadav
      Pages: 857 - 865
      Abstract: Fusarium wilt has emerged as a serious problem in all chilli growing areas of India. Due to difficulties in disease management and lack of stable genetic resistance in chilli cultivars, integration of arbuscular mycorrhiza and Trichoderma were used to manage the disease. Different mycorrhizal fungi were raised and maintained on chickpea in earthen pots. A further experiment was conducted and Plant height, Root length, Dry weight of root and shoot, Mycorrhizal colonization (Phillips and Hayman method), Sporocarp number (Gerdemann and Nicolson method), SPAD chlorophyll content (SPAD meter) and NPK content were investigated. The present investigation deals with the beneficial effect of Glomus intraradices and Trichoderma harzianum on chilli wilt under greenhouse. In soil (Chickpea) sporocarp population of Glomus intraradices (5283) in 100 g soil and mycorrhizal colonization of Glomus intraradices (87 per cent) was observed. Chilli plant showed a significant increase in the Plant height, Root length, Dry weight of root and shoot, SPAD chlorophyll content and NPK content as compared to control. The results revealed that mixed Fusarium oxysporum + Glomus intraradices + Trichoderma harzianum inoculation contribute best growth and development of chilli plant under greenhouse experiment at 90 days after transplanting.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131050
  • The Role of Nanozeolite and Biocapsule in Improving Growth, Yield and
           Fruit Quality of Low Chilling Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) Cv.
           HRMN-99 in Prayagraj Agro-Climatic Condition

    • Authors: Saurav Vats, Saket Mishra, Vijay Bahadur, Ravi Kumar Singh
      Pages: 866 - 875
      Abstract: The present investigation was conducted at the Research farm of Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Prayagraj, on 30-month-old plant during January 2021 to July 2021 with the objective to find out suitable treatment of Biocapsule and Nanozeolite with combination of NPK in relation to plant growth, yield and quality of apple. The statistical design adopted for the experiment was randomized block design (RBD) with three replications and nine treatment combinations. viz, T1 (NPK (RDF)), T2 (Biocapsule 500 ppm), T3 (Nanozeolite 250 ppm), T4 (Nanozeolite 250 ppm + Biocapsule 500 ppm), T5 (Nanozeolite 250 ppm + Biocapsule 250 ppm), T6 (NPK (RDF) + Biocapsule 500 ppm), T7 (NPK (RDF) + Nanozeolite 250 ppm), T8 (NPK (RDF) + Nanozeolite 250 ppm + Biocapsule 500 ppm), T9 (NPK (RDF) + Nanozeolite 250 ppm + Biocapsule 250 ppm). The treatments were applied by soil drenching at initiation of experiment, pre-flowering stage and the last one at the fruit setting stage to assess the effect on growth, yield and quality of apple. The results of present investigation revealed that, the treatment T8 (NPK (RDF) + Nanozeolite 250 ppm + Biocapsule 500 ppm) outstand in all the aspects like Maximum plant height (2.8 m), Maximum number of Primary and Secondary branches (3), (28) respectively, maximum number of flower (319), maximum no. of fruit (63.6), maximum yield Plant-1(7.2 kg) and quality parameters like Maximum TSS (11.56 ºBrix) and Maximum acidity (0.71 %) followed by T9 (NPK (RDF) + Nanozeolite 250 ppm + Biocapsule 250 ppm). The lowest observation was recorded in T3 (Nanozeolite 250 ppm). Biocapsules and nano zeolite with combination of NPK played an important role in fixing the nutrients in soil and protecting the apple plant against pathogen effect. That’s why a positive response has to be seen in particular treatment during the research trail.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131052
  • Triangulating Indigenous Place Names and Meteorological Data for a Better
           Understanding of Climate Change in Same District, Tanzania

    • Authors: Sifuni Nikombolwe Lusiru, Asnath Alberto Malekela
      Pages: 876 - 885
      Abstract: Aims: The study sought to triangulate climate-related place names and quantitative evidence of climate change from meteorological data from 1960 to 2021 so as to establish the extent of climate change in Same District. Triangulating the two was important in ascertaining the strategies developed to adapt to climate change. Study Design: The study deployed a mixed research design which allows for the triangulation of qualitative and quantitative methods to gain a better understanding of the studied topic. This was important, as the study needed both qualitative and quantitative data. Methodology: Four villages with climate-related names were purposefully selected. In-depth interviews, structured interviews and direct observations were used in collecting primary data from 152 respondents. Meteorological data were collected from the Tanzania Meteorological Authority (TMA). Results: Seven place names associated with wet conditions were found in the villages. The climatic conditions that led to the invention of the names have changed such that if the villages were to be named today, their names would reflect the dry condition found in the villages. These findings were supported by meteorological data, which indicated a significant decrease in rainfall (b = -1.1 and R = 0.1) and increase in maximum and minimum temperature (b = 0.02) and R = 0.4 and 0.5, respectively). Besides, the intensity and frequency of drought has been increasing over time such that currently (1991 to 2021) the area experiences intensive drought every three years, but did so every ten years, from 1960 to 1990. Farmers’ adaptation strategies included growing early maturing crops (EMCs), changing planting dates, growing drought-tolerant crops (DTCs), reducing the number of meals, and migration. However, most of the strategies are ineffective due to rapid climate change. Conclusion: Farmers’ adoption of strategies which can be effective in adapting to the current rapid climate change is important in having sustainable livelihoods. The strategies may include beekeeping and the cultivation of drought-tolerant crops.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131053
  • Effect of Organic Manures and Organic Foliar Sprays on Yield Attributes
           and Yield of Barnyard Millet (Echinochloa frumentacea L.)

    • Authors: E. Hari Kumar, M. Mohamed Yassin, E. Somasundaram, M. R. Latha, R. Anantham
      Pages: 886 - 892
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of organic manures and organic foliar sprays on yield attributes and yield of barnyard millet during summer season (February-May) 2022 at Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design (FRBD) with three replications comprising two factors. Factor I – organic manure with three levels viz., Enriched farmyard manure (M1), enriched vermicompost (M2) and control (M3). Factor II – organic foliar spray consisting of four levels viz., 3% Panchagavya (F1), 2 % pink pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFM) (F2), 3% vermiwash (F3) and water spray (F4). From the experimental results, it was found that significant higher grain yield (2279 kg/ha) and straw yield (7204 kg/ha) were recorded by the application of enriched vermicompost @ 1 t ha-1 followed by application of enriched farmyard manure @ 1 t ha-1. Significantly lower grain yield was produced in control (1717 kg/ha). Regarding organic foliar sprays, application of 3% panchagavya recorded maximum grain yield (2279 kg/ha). Among the nutrient sources used, enriched vermicompost @ 1 t ha-1 and foliar application of 3% panchagavya gave significantly superior yield.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131054
  • Effect of Microclimate Modification on Growth and Yield of Pearl Millet

    • Authors: K. J. D. Karthika, V. Manivannan, Ga. Dheebakaran, S. Kokilavani, M. Djanaguiraman
      Pages: 893 - 898
      Abstract: Field experiment was conducted at Agro Climate Research Centre, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during the summer 2022 to study the effect of microclimate modification on growth and yield of pearl millet (CO 10). Experiment was laid in Factorized Random Block Design (FRBD) with three factors viz., three levels of land configurations, two levels of mulching and two levels of water stress conditions. Totally 12 treatment combinations that replicated thrice. The results revealed that the paired row with intercropping approach produced the best growth parameters, such as plant height, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and yield followed by paired row sowing and normal sowing due to higher solar radiation interception and utilization. In terms of irrigation level, maximum growth and yield parameters were observed with 0.75 IW/CPE ratio as compared to 0.5 IW/CPE due to lesser canopy temperature. In respect of mulch treatments, the mulched plots under both the levels of irrigation and at different land configurations had higher DMP and yield by reducing soil moisture stress, lowering the canopy temperature and higher PAR use efficiency It is concluded that the microclimatic alterations through changes in land configuration, irrigation and mulch application showed an effective adaptive strategy to mitigate adverse weather susceptibility and climatic risks in field crops.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131055
  • Effect of Organic Management on Growth, Yield and Economics of Green Gram,
           Pigeon Pea and Sunflower under Rainfed Conditions

    • Authors: M. Manu Kumar, K. A. Gopinath, K. Bhanu Rekha, V. Girija Veni, V. Visha Kumari
      Pages: 899 - 911
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during Kharif, 2021 at Gungal (around 43 km from Hyderabad) Research Farm of ICAR-Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India. The soil was Sandy clay loam in texture, slightly acidic in reaction, low in organic carbon, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and medium in available potassium. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three treatment combinations viz., Organic (recommended 100% N equivalent FYM), Integrated (recommended 25% N equivalent FYM + 75% N and 100% P and K through chemical fertilizers) and Control (recommended 100 % NPK through chemical fertilizer) replicated nine times. Based on the results, it was found that the growth, yield attributes, yield, and economics with respect to all the three crops viz., green gram, pigeon pea and sunflower were significantly higher with organic treatment which was followed by integrated treatment and control.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131056
  • Economics of Wet Seeded Rice as Influenced by Alternate Wetting and Drying
           Irrigation Regimes and Weed Management

    • Authors: N. Prathap Reddy, G. E. Ch. Vidya Sagar, M. Yakadri, M. Malla Reddy, A. Madhavi, S. Narender Reddy
      Pages: 912 - 919
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted at College Farm, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during rabi 2020-21 and 2021-22.The experiment was laid out in split plot design with two factors i.e., irrigation regimes (I1 : Farmers practice (continuous flooding of 2-5 cm from 3-4 days after sowing), I2: AWDI at 5 cm depletion of ponded water, I3: AWDI at 10 cm depletion of ponded water and I4: AWDI at 15 cm depletion of ponded water) and weed management practices (W1: Control (Unweeded check), W2: Pyrazosulfuron ethyl (10% WP) 20 g ha-1 PE fb Penoxsulam (1.02%) + Cyhalofop butyl (5.1%) 120 g ha-1 PoE, W3:Pyrazosulfuron ethyl (10% WP) 20 g ha-1 PE fb Penoxsulam (1.02%) + Cyhalofop butyl (5.1%) 120 g ha-1 PoE + Mechanical weeding at 45 DAS and W4: Weed free (Mechanical weeding at 15, 35 and 55 DAS with line weeding). Among the irrigation regimes, cost of cultivation and gross returns were highest in farmers practice (continuous flooding of 2-5 cm from 3-4 days after sowing) and lowest in AWDI at 15 cm depletion of ponded water. Net returns and B:C ratio was highest in AWDI at 5 cm depletion of ponded water and lowest net returns and B:C ratio  was recorded in AWDI at 15 cm depletion of ponded water. Among weed management practices highest cost of cultivation, gross returns were achieved in weed free (mechanical weeding at 15, 35 and 55 DAS with line weeding) and lowest cost of cultivation and gross returns was achieved in Control (unweeded control). With respective to herbicide application highest gross returns, net returns and B:C ratio were achieved in pyrazosulfuron ethyl (10% WP) 20 g ha-1 PE fb penoxsulam (1.02%) + cyhalofop butyl (5.1%) 120 g ha-1 PoE + mechanical weeding at 45 DAS.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131057
  • Analysis of Socio-Economic and Personal Characteristics of the Adopters
           and Non-Adopters of Climate Change Resilient Technologies in West Bengal,

    • Authors: P. N. H. Vardhan, P. K. Pal, D. Roy, S. Mondal
      Pages: 920 - 926
      Abstract: The study relates to the socio–economic condition of the respondents who are adopting climate resilient technologies and also not adopting those technologies.The socio-economic characteristics pertaining to demography, means of production, investment, income and expenditure pattern of people living in a particular location strongly influence their responses to technological changes and participation in development schemes. Socio-economic study of villages is mainly for understanding the present condition of villages regarding the lifestyle, education status, and overall development of rural areas. It influences the accessibility to the resources, livelihood pattern, food and nutritional security etc. The present study was conducted in Cooch Behar and Malda districts of West Bengal to know the socio-economic status of the farmers in adopted and non-adopted villages of climate resilient technologies. A total of 120 respondents were randomly selected for the study from the total of 120 respondents 60respondents were selected from climate resilient technologies adopted villages and another 60 respondents were selected from non-adopted villages. It has been found that majority of the respondents from adopted and non- adopted villages were belonging to Below Poverty Line category and climate resilient technologies adopted village respondents were having better Socio- Economic status than the non-Adopted villages.
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131058
  • A Study on Astrometeorological Relationship between Planet Azimuth and

    • Authors: M. Panchulakshmi, Ga. Dheebakaran, S. P. Ramanathan, S. Kokilavani
      Pages: 927 - 937
      Abstract: Temperature is one of the key weather parameters, which is a necessity for all life on Earth. Any variation from the normal can impede the physical, chemical, and biological processes of life. Extremes would produce permanent changes that would halt the plant's growth and may cause complete withering. Advance information on temperature events will be helpful in protecting the plant and sustain the productivity under any temperature related disasters. Astrometeorology is one of the oldest organized knowledge systems that interplay between planetary movement and weather. In Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Astrometeorological weather forecast rules for rainfall, wind speed and cyclone events were already well defined. In continuation of this research, identification of Astrometeorological rules for the temperature events had been taken up during 2021-2022 at Agro climate Research Centre, TNAU, Coimbatore. Hourly temperature data from 2011-2016 was collected for 30 districts of Tamil Nadu. In each districts one particular location is selected and is correlated with ephemeris developed for a particular location using Alcyone ephemeris calculator. The findings clearly demonstrated the differential impact of individual planets and their azimuth on the temperature events. The study revealed that low temperature events were influenced when most planets are away (271- 300 degree azimuth) whereas the high temperature events were influenced by the planets that are directly above the location (91 to 120 degrees azimuth) and the in between temperature events were influenced by both 61-90 and 241-270 degrees. The specific azimuth of the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune had a makeable influence on a particular temperature event, however all the azimuths of the Moon and Mars had only a mild effect on any temperature event. Based on the results, Astrometeorological rules for the temperature events could be defined and used for the development of hybrid forecasting by overlapping the astromet forecast output on the numerical forecast output. This will produce more accuracy than individual forecast, reduce missing forecast, falls alarms, and improve the usability of forecast.
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131059
  • Effect of Moisture Content on Physical Properties of Groundnut Seed for
           Planter Development

    • Authors: H. K. Venkata Reddy, Manoj Mathew
      Pages: 938 - 945
      Abstract: The physical properties of groundnut seeds were calculated as a function of moisture content. The average length, breadth and thickness of the seed various from 13.09 to 14.10, 8.68 to 9.56 and 7.07 to 7.82 mm, respectively. As the moisture content, increased from 8.13 to 79.80% d.b. the roundness and sphericity increased from 92% to 94% and 68% to 71%, respectively. Also the seed volume increased from 0.803 to 0.984 cm3, 1000 seed weight, W1000 from 328 to 380 g, the angle of repose from 32.620 to 36.50 and the bulk density decreased from 0.845 to 0.81 g cm-3 for the same range of moisture content. The static coefficient of friction increased on three structural surfaces namely, stainless steel (2.013-2.32), aluminum (2.47-2.62) and wooden (2.25-2.42) as the moisture content increased from 8.13 to 79.80% d.b.
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131062
  • Influence of Nutrient and Weed Management on Growth, Yield and Energetics
           of Maize

    • Authors: Sasi Chandra Gummadi, Gayatri Kumari
      Pages: 946 - 952
      Abstract: A field experiment entitled “Influence of nutrient and weed management on growth, yield and bioenergetics of maize (Zea mays L.)” was conducted in agricultural research farm of Lovely Professional University, Punjab. The investigation was laid out in factorial randomized block design with three replications, aimed to study the impact of nutrient and weed management on growth attributes, yield attributes and bioenergetics of maize. The treatment consisted of three nutrient management treatments viz., T1 (100% N through Recommended dose of fertilizer), T2 (75% N through RDF and 25% N through vermicompost (P and K recommended doses)), T3 (75% N through RDF and 25% N through Farmyard manure) (recommended doses of P and K)); three weed management treatments, viz, W1 (control), W2 (Atrazine @1 kg a.i/ha + Tembotrione @110 g a.i/ha), W3 (Live mulching with cowpea). The results of the experiment revealed that among the nutrient management treatments, significantly higher growth attributes, yield attributes, energy output, energy efficiency index was observed with treatment T2 (75% N through RDF and 25% N through vermicompost) and the lowest was observed in treatment T1 (100% N through RDF), the pooled data suggested that yield was significantly highest in treatment combination T2W2 (75% N through RDF and 25% N through vermicompost along with Atrazine @1 kg a.i/ha + Tembotrione @110 g a.i/ha).
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131063
  • Influence of Different Doses and Methods of Phosphorous Solubilizing
           Bacteria and Phosphorus Levels on the Phosphorus Solubilizing Bacteria
           Population and Phosphorous Use Efficiency in Sunflower and Chickpea

    • Authors: Mudigiri Chandana, A. Aziz Qureshi, S. Harish kumar Sharma, S. Triveni
      Pages: 953 - 959
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to study The effect of the application method and different doses of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) application and the phosphorus levels on sunflower during Rabi, 2020 at College of Agriculture, PJTSAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design, comprising eleven treatments with three replications. Initial soil parameters of experimental site indicated that the soil belongs to sandy loam texture, with alkaline in soil reaction, non-saline, low in O.C, low in available nitrogen, medium in available phosphorus, available potassium and available sulphur. The results showed that due to addition of PSB in powdered and liquid form there was an increase in PSB population in the soil, the increase in population is with the application of 75% phosphorus + PSB at 6 kg/ha in both crops. The increase in population is more with the soil application than the Drenching. Due to this there is also an increase in the phosphorous use efficiency. The above study indicated that combined application of PSB with reduced P levels could help in saving fertilizer dose to the extent of 25% in sunflower and 50% in chickpea.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131070
  • Pre-sowing Seed Treatment with Botanicals and Organics on Plant Growth,
           Yield and Yield Attributing Traits of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.)
           cv.VROH-12 Kashi Shristi

    • Authors: Paila Venkata Raviteja, Bineeta M. Bara, Pandula Sravani
      Pages: 960 - 968
      Abstract: The present situation emphasizes the need to enhance eco-friendly agriculture practices for intensive farming. Chemical farming has made an unfavourable impact of the health care of not only soil but also the favourable soil microbial clique and the plants cultivated in these soil. This eventually has led the way to a high demand of botanical and organic produce by the present day health conscious society and repeated attempts are being made by farmers all over the world to make chemical free environment. Botanical and organics play vital role in increasing soil fertility and increase yield. The experimental study was conducted at crop research field during Kharif 2021-2022, in the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences. To find out the suitable pre-sowing seed treatment of okra with different concentration, definite period of pre-sowing seed treatments with control (without treated) were calculated by the experimental study. The field experiment was carried out in Randomized Block Design with 13 treatments including control were used to study under field conditions. the results indicates that field emergence percentage (%), plant height at (30, 60 and at harvest ) (cm), days of 50% flowering, days to maturity, number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule, length of capsule (cm), seed yield per plant (g), seed yield per plot (g),seed index (%), biological yield (g), harvest index (%) were significantly recorded highest in vermiwash @5% (12hours) followed by vermiwash (3%), beejamrutham (3%), panchagavya (3%) and neem leaf extract (5%) is used for improving growth, yield and yield attributing traits of okra.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131071
  • Traits Associated with Drought Tolerance in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum

    • Authors: Kodipelli Kousalya, A. Sankari, L. Pugalendhi, M. Djanaguiraman
      Pages: 969 - 975
      Abstract: Across the globe, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a commonly used vegetable for culinary purposes. Despite its economic importance, its production is decreasing now a days due to the occurrence of various abiotic stresses like drought. Hence, it is important to understand the mechanism of drought tolerance to sustain tomato production. A field experiment was conducted with drought tolerant and susceptible genotypes to understand the mechanism of tolerance or susceptibility. Drought stress was imposed during the flowering stage for 19 days. The physiological traits like relative water content, pigmentation, flower abscission percentage and fruit set percentage were recorded. The results showed that relative water content was decreased by 20.47 % in the SL CBE G 26 and 40.98 % in the SL CBE G 23. However, the flower drop was highest in the line SL CBE G 23 (23.29%) and lowest in SL CBE G 26 (19.14 %) under drought stress. The line SL CBE G 23 had lower fruit set than SL CBE 26. Hence, the study confirmed that SL CBE G 26 is a drought tolerant line and drought tolerance is associated with increased water retention in the tissue, eventually resulting in decreased flower drop and increased fruit set percentage.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131072
  • Performance of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) Genotypes on Growth and Yield
           under Prayagraj Agro-Climatic Zone

    • Authors: S. L. Annie, Devi Singh, C. Umesha
      Pages: 976 - 982
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted on the Performance of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)  genotypes on growth and yield under Prayagraj agro-climatic zone at Research Field, Department of Horticulture, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, during April 2021 to February 2022. Fifteen genotypes including check variety were evaluated to ascertain the performance of genotypes under Prayagraj agro-climatic conditions. The experiment was laid out with 15 genotypes replicated thrice in Randomized Block Design. The result of the present investigation, regarding the performance of 15 genotypes Alleppey supreme, Kandi, Kedaram, Lakadong, Megha-1, Prabha, Pragati, Prathibha, Soba, Sona, Sudharsana, Suguna, Suvarna, Varna and UP Local from different sources evaluated for plant growth and yield.   The present investigation concluded that the genotype Pragati, performed well in plant growth and yield followed by Sona, and Prabha. In terms of economics, the maximum Cost Benefit ratio (4.78) was recorded in Pragati. Overall results revealed that Pragati was suitable for growing under Prayagraj agro-climatic conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131073
  • Effect of Varied Phases of Lunar on the Growth and Yield Parameters of
           Rice Varieties

    • Authors: S. Gurudevan, N. Maragatham, Ga. Dheebakaran, M. Djanaguiraman, E. Somasundaram
      Pages: 983 - 988
      Abstract: Aim: To understand and reason out the effect of lunar phases on the rice crop growth and development. Study Design: Experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design. Place and Duration of Study: Field trial was conducted in the wetland farm of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu during the Navarai season (Dec. 2021 – Apr. 2022). Methodology: Treatment consists of two factors viz., Sowing date (4 Nos.) weekly sowing with respect to lunar phases – New moon, first quarter, full moon and third quarter) and Varieties (4 Nos.) in which two organic (i.e. Kullakar, Karunkuruvai) and two conventional varieties (ADT 43, ASD 16). Normal cultivation practices were followed as per the Tamil Nadu Crop Production Guide 2021. Results: The pooled mean value revealed that the seeds sown at full moon gave significant positive influence on the growth parameters such as plant height, number of tillers, leaf area index and dry matter production compared to other sown dates. Whereas the treatments that had flowering stage synchronized with full moon phase were produced more yield and dry matter content. Conclusion: The rice varieties sown in full moon phase exhibited superior growth on compared to other lunar phases and the treatments had flowering synced with full moon phase resulted with more yield and dry matter production.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131074
  • Compost and Casing of Mushroom in Indian Perspective: A Brief Review

    • Authors: Dharmesh Gupta, Rajneesh Thakur, Joginder Pal, Vedukola Pullareddy, Savita Jandaik, Annu Sharma
      Pages: 989 - 997
      Abstract: The Himalayas, the Western Ghats, and the highlands of northeast India are all temperate areas where mushrooms have been successfully grown. Recently, mushroom farming has become a popular kind of self-employment for many unemployed people. It is past time that mushroom growers and consumers in India learned about the therapeutic and dietary benefits of both farmed and wild kinds of mushrooms. The majority of all mushrooms are white button mushrooms, accounting for around 73 percent of the market. Compost is necessary for cultivating white button mushrooms. The substrate in which the mushroom mycelium grows and eventually produces fruiting bodies is compost. The critical shift from vegetative growth to the reproductive stage occurs in the coating material, which is a nutritionally deficient medium is called casing layer. This layer plays a vital part in the formation of mushrooms. The most crucial process in mushroom cultivation is composting and casing, which has an impact on the crop's productivity, quality, and market value.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131075
  • In-vitro Sensitivity Test of Native Trichoderma spp. against Growth of
           Rhizoctonia solani f.sp. sasakii Causing Banded Leaf and Sheath Blight of
           Maize in Manipur

    • Authors: Paluru Pavani, L. Nongdrenkhomba Singh, Bireswar Sinha, Pooja Bathula
      Pages: 998 - 1002
      Abstract: The antagonistic potential of seven species of native Trichoderma against Rhizoctonia solani f.sp. sasakii were evaluated in dual culture method which includes T. asperellum (KU933476), T. koningiopsis (KU904460), Hypocrea lixii (KX0113223), T. harzianum (KU933471), T. ovalisporum (KU904456), T. harzianum (KU904458), T. atroviridae (KU933472). Among them T. asperellum showed highest inhibition percentage (78.09%), followed by Hypocrea lixii by (70.95%), T. ovalisporum by (68.76%), T. atroviride by (54.22%), T. harzianum by (64.76%), T. koningiopsis by (64.76%) and T. harzianum by (62.38%) respectively. However, all the species considerably inhibited the growth of R. solani.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131076
  • Evaluation and Selection of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) Genotypes for
           High Yield with Fruit and Shoot Borer Tolerance

    • Authors: R. Mahalakshmi, B. K. Savitha, R. Swarna Priya, L. Pugalendhi, N. Manikanda Boopathy
      Pages: 1003 - 1009
      Abstract: Aim: Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) is a vital crop of India which belongs to the family Solanaceae with a chromosome number of 2n=24.This study is aimed to evaluate brinjal genotypes and identify superior types with desirable qualities, high yield with fruit and shoot borer tolerance. Study Design: The experimental materials consisted of fifteen genotypes and two checks which were laid out in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. Place and Duration of Research: The investigation was carried at Horticultural College orchard, Department of Vegetable Science, Horticultural College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during 2021-2022. Methodology: Fifteen local types of brinjal and two checks were collected from several districts of Tamil Nadu and various other sources. Seeds were sown in portrays and then transplanted to main field at the age of 30 days. Growth and yield parameters were observed and recorded. Results: Based on the per se performance of the genotypes, CBE SM-006 was adjudged as the best one since, it has recorded superior performance for the characters studied viz., number of branches, fruit weight, number of fruits per plant, fruit yield per plant. Also, CBE–SM-006 found to have minimum fruit borer infestation and shoot borer infestation hence providing maximum marketable yield per plant. The genotype CBE-SM-105 also performed the best for most of the desirable characters. Thus, CBE-SM-006 could be a promising genotype for further breeding programme. Conclusion: Thus, the study will provide comprehensive knowledge on evolving and selecting superior genotypes which is indispensable to aim at rational improvement in crop plant.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131077
  • Biochar Production Technologies from Agricultural Waste, Its Utilization
           in Agriculture and Current Global Biochar Market: A Comprehensive Review

    • Authors: Prajakta D. Phadtare, S. R. Kalbande
      Pages: 1010 - 1031
      Abstract: This review comprehensively describes biochar, the term which is gaining exponential attention nowadays. The technologies to convert the agriculture waste to biochar include slow pyrolysis, flash pyrolysis, and hydrothermal carbonization. Biochar production methods are based on batch processes and continuous processes. Biochar production processes and steps involved are also discussed. Different biochar reactors are also revived, including the continuous type of biochar reactor and microwave pyrolysis reactors. Kinetics of biochar, bio-oil, and syngas production is also revived briefly with kinetic equations. Uses of biochar are comprehensively revived and discussed, including advanced applications such as catalyst production, activated Carbon production, water treatment, soil amendment, etc. All biochar characterization methods are briefly described, including proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, physiochemical analysis, surface analysis, and molecular structure analysis. Factors affecting biochar production are revived in this article. Biochar yield from different crop waste s is tabulated with temperatures involved. Post-production processing methods of biochar are included in this review. The global biochar market and current status and opportunities are also revived, the data of biochar manufacturers in India are compiled. The utilization of biochar in agriculture is revived in two subcategories: the effect of biochar application on soil health and the effect of biochar application on crop yield. At last engineered or designed biochar concept is revived.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131078
  • Field Validation on Incorporation of Rice Husk Biochar and Paddy Straw
           Compost on Crop Attributes and Soil Properties in Rice Ecosystem

    • Authors: K. Bharath Kumar, M. Raju, K. Sathiya Bama, C. Umamageshwari
      Pages: 1032 - 1046
      Abstract: Aim: To study the effect of rice husk biochar and rice straw compost on Rabi season rice cultivation. Study Design: The randomized block design was used. The treatments of different doses of soil amendments like rice husk biochar, rice straw compost and recommended fertilizer doses are applied. Place and Duration of Study: The experimental trial was conducted during the Rabi season (January - April) of 2022 at Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai, Tamil Nadu, India. Methodology: The study consisted of 11 sets of RBD design treatments replicated thrice. The rice variety of ADT57 Short duration variety was used for this study. The observation has been recorded during the crop growing period at regular intervals. Results: The study results revealed that application of PSB @ 2kg/ha + RSC @ 5 t/ha + 75% RDF (T10) treatment showed the highest plant growth parameters like plant height (27.88, 74.22 and 108.89 cm), number of tillers m-2 (122, 620 and 642), leaf area index (2.62, 6.53 and 8.47), SPAD reading (47.22, 43.64 and 40.46), root length (18.86, 37.45 and 56.31 cm) and root volume (17.85, 26.01 and 37.77 ml) at 30, 60 and 90 DAT respectively and yield parameters like grain yield (5133 kg/ha), straw yield (7090 kg/ha), panicle length (25.28cm) and number of productive tillers m-2 (571.6) and was significantly on par with application of PSB @ 2kg/ha + Rice Husk Biochar (RHB) @ 5 t/ha + 75% RDF (T6) and superior over the other all treatments. Plant growth parameters of application of PSB @ 2kg/ha + Rice Husk Biochar (RHB) @ 5 t/ha + 75% RDF (T6) recorded the plant height (27.41, 73.76 and 108.29 cm), number of tillers m-2 (118, 613 and 630), leaf area index (2.54, 6.42 and 8.38), SPAD reading (46.26, 43.10 and 40.20), root length (18.35, 37.05 and 55.40 cm) and root volume (17.42, 25.44 and 37.33 ml) at 30, 60 and 90 DAT respectively and yield parameters like grain yield (4953 kg/ha), straw yield (7077 kg/ha), panicle length (25.07 cm) and number of productive tillers m-2 (555). So, the application of PSB @ 2 kg/ha + RSC @ 5 t/ha + 75% RDF has recorded the best results than all other treatments. With respect to soil properties, application of Rice husk Biochar (RHB) @ 5t/ha + 75% RDF (T4) has reduced the soil bulk density (from 1.52 to 1.47) and application of rice straw compost @ 5t/ha has increased the soil pH (from 6.58 to 7.14) as compared to other treatments whereas the nutrient status (nitrogen (from 212 to 266 kg ha-1); phosphorus (from 45.41 to 61.59 kg ha-1) and potassium (from 192 to 218.4 kg ha-1) has increased by application of PSB @ 2kg/ha + RSC @ 5t/ha + 100% RDF (T11) than other treatments.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131079
  • Water Requirement of Selected Crops for Sangareddy District of Telangana
           Using CROPWAT 8.0

    • Authors: Ajay Kumar, Anurag Gautam, S. Hemalatha, P. Himaja, N. Hari
      Pages: 1047 - 1052
      Abstract: The precise selection of appropriate crops that are compatible with the soil and crop water requirements (CWR) in a particular area is necessary for effective land and water management. A study was conducted to ascertain the agricultural water requirements of a few chosen crops for the Sangareddy District of Telangana. The crops include Rice, Sugarcane, Soybean, Maize, Cotton, Black gram, Green gram, and Bengal gram. Using meteorological data from the past 10 years stored in CROPWAT, the amount of water needed by each crop was calculated. The FAO Penman-Monteith method was used to determine reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0). The study shows that reference crop evapotranspiration, ETo varied from 7.96 mm/day to 3.14 mm/day in the years between 2010 – 2021. The crop water requirement (CWR) and Net irrigation requirement for Rice were 595.5 mm and 331.9 mm, Maize was 366.6 mm and 64.3 mm, Cotton was 612.7 mm and 283.8 mm, Sugarcane was 1902.1 mm and 1189.3 mm, Soybean was 270.9 mm and 0.0mm, the Black gram was 332.1 mm and 22.1 mm, Green gram was 342.7 mm and 13.3 mm and Bengal gram was 344.9 mm and 316.1 mm. The results were accurate R2 was 0.84 compared with the Class A pan. This study demonstrates that the CROPWAT model is helpful for computing the crop water requirement which needs for the appropriate administration of water assets.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131080
  • Assessment of Physicochemical and Metal Concentrations in Wastewater from
           the Industrial Zone of Cotonou Benin

    • Authors: Bokossa Hervé Kouessivi Janvier, Adanlokonon Elias Alexandre Sètondji, Toffa Damien, Johnson Harvey, Edorth Patrick, Fiogbe Emile Didier, Johnson Roch Christian
      Pages: 1053 - 1064
      Abstract: The present study aimed to assess the physico-chemical quality of wastewater(s) in order to better control the flow of various pollutants generated by the industries from the industrial zone of Cotonou. Water samples were collected in triplicate in each collector and analyzed for their nutrient and metal content (Cu2+, Fe2+, Cd2+, Al3+ and Pb2+) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) and a five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) were carried out by spectrophotometry. The results revealed highly mineralized waters, indicated by average pH (6.97± 0.34), dissolved oxygen (5.16 ± 0.29 mg/L), electrical conductivity (2280.58 ± 263.97 µS/cm) and total dissolved solids (1076.04 ± 51.01 mg/L). The values of COD (482.05± 1.18 mg/L) and BOD5 (291.67 ±2.19 mg/L) were very high, exceeding the standard for industrial wastewater discharge in Benin respectively by 5 and 11 which is indicative of the presence of very poor biodegradable materials coming essentially from industrial discharge in the study area. The concentration of Cd2+, Pb2+ and nutrient salts indicative of eutrophication were relatively low in the collectors. However, the concentration of Al3+ (2.65±0.03 mg/L) and Cu2+ (10.20 ± 0.14 mg/L) were very high with the later cation being four times higher than the wastewater standard in Benin (2.5 mg/L) for the most heavily loaded collectors. In conclusion, the results of this study provide useful insights for implementation of purification system and efficient management of wastewater from industries.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131081
  • Yield and Economics as Influenced by Irrigation and Weed Management
           Practices in Rice

    • Authors: . Keshavamurthy, M. Madhavi, G. Prathiba, T. Ramprakash, S. Narender Reddy
      Pages: 1065 - 1071
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of irrigation and weed management practices weed seed bank at college farm situated in College of Agriculture, PJTSAU, Hyderabad, during kharif 2019 and 2020. The experiment consisted of two main plot treatments and nine subplot treatments laid out in Split plot design replicated thrice.  Two irrigation practices (Alternate wetting and drying irrigation and continuous submergence) and nine weed management practices (pretilachloar 50  EC 660 g ha-1(PE) fb mechanical weeding  twice, pyrazosulfuron ethyl + pretilachloar 6.15  GR 615 g ha-1 (PE) fb penoxsulam + cyhalofop p butyl 6.12  OD 125 g ha-1 (POE), orthosulfamuron + pretilachloar 6.6 GR 600 g ha-1 (PE) fb mechanical weeding twice, penoxsulam + butachloar 39.77 SE 820 g ha-1  (PE) fb mechanical weeding, flucetosulfuron 10% WG 25 g ha-1(Early PoE) fb mechanical weeding, bispyribac sodium + 2, 4-D sodium salt 56.3 SP 703.75 g ha-1  (PoE) fb mechanical weeding once, florpyrauxifen benzyl + cyhalofop p butyl 12  EC 150 g ha-1 (PoE) fb mechanical weeding once, hand weeding twice and unweeded control). There was no significant difference observed in irrigation practices for grain yield. With respect to weed managements, significantly higher grain yield was recorded in hand weeding and integrated weed management (IWM) involving penoxsulam + butachloar fb mechanical weeding. As an economics aspect is concerned, continuous submergence recorded higher cost of cultivation and higher grass return. Among weed management practices, hand weeding and IWM involving penoxsulam + butachloar fb mechanical weeding recorded higher cost of cultivation and higher gross return. As net return is concerned, IWM involving penoxsulam + butachloar fb mechanical weeding recorded higher, whereas B: C ratio in chemical weed control.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131082
  • Intercropping of Radish and Beetroot with Chilli under Prayagraj
           Agro-Climatic Conditions

    • Authors: Somya Pal, . Deepanshu, Urfi Fatmi
      Pages: 1072 - 1078
      Abstract: A field experiment entitled “Intercropping of Radish and Beetroot with Chilli under Prayagraj Agro-climatic conditions” was conducted from August, 2021 to February, 2022 at the Horticulture Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications and 12 treatments. The experiment consisted of six cropping combinations viz., sole chilli, sole radish, sole beetroot, chilli + radish, chilli+ beetroot, chilli + radish + beetroot. The highest yield (green chilli) was obtained from treatment T1 (sole chilli @ 100 % RDN) (13.09 t ha-1). Among the intercropping treatments, the highest chilli yield (12.62 t ha-1) was obtained from treatment T10 (chilli @ 50% RDN + radish @ 50% RDN) whereas the lowest (9.45 t ha-1) was found in treatment T6 (chilli @ 75% RDN + radish @ 12.5% RDN + beetroot @ 12.5% RDN). Intercropping reduced chilli yield but total chilli with intercrop yield increased over sole chilli due to the contribution of companion crops. The highest chilli along with intercrop yield (150.71 t ha-1), gross return (1101506 Rs. ha-1), net return (817969 Rs. ha-1) and benefit cost ratio (3.88) were obtained from treatment T12 (chilli @ 50% RDN + radish @ 25% RDN + beetroot @ 25% RDN). Considering the experimental findings, treatment T12 (chilli @ 50% RDN + radish @ 25% RDN + beetroot @ 25% RDN) found the most suitable combination for higher productivity and economic return under Prayagraj agro-climatic conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131083
  • Effect of Organic Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Quality of Cauliflower
           (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis.)

    • Authors: Ashok Yadav, Anita Kerketta, Samir E. Topno, . Himanshu
      Pages: 1079 - 1085
      Abstract: The present experiment was carried out during 2021-22 with an aim to study the different treatments of organic fertilizers on growth, yield and quality of Cauliflower and to work out with economics, in Central Horticulture Research Farm of Department of Horticulture, SHUATS,. The experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design with 10 treatment replicated three times. The treatments were T1 FYM 100% (100:40:100), T2 Vermicompost (75%) + Poultry manure (25%), T3 Vermicompost (75%) + Goat manure (25%), T4 Vermicompost (50%) + Poultry manure (50%), T5 Vermicompost (50%) + Goat manure (50%), T6 Vermicompost (25%) + Poultry manure (75%), T7 Vermicompost (25%) + Goat manure (75%), T8 {Vermicompost + Poultry manure} (75%) + Goat manure (25%), T9{Vermicompost + Poultry manure} (50%) + Goat manure (50%), T10{Vermicompost + Poultry manure} (25%) + Goat manure (75%). From the present investigation it was concluded that treatment T5 Vermicompost (50%) + Goat manure (50%) was found best in the terms of Plant height (cm), Leaf Length (cm), Number of leaves per plant, Head size (cm), Head weight (g), Net weight of head per plot, Yield per plot (kg), TSS, Acidity (%),B:C Ratio.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131084
  • Effect of Desiccant Beads on Groundnut Bruchid, Caryedon serratus
           (Olivier) Infestation in Stored Groundnut

    • Authors: Rashmirekha Singh, P. R. Mishra
      Pages: 1086 - 1100
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of desiccant beads on the stored groundnut against groundnut bruchid, Caryedon serratus Olivier. The experiment was carried out in the storage laboratory of Department of Entomology, OUAT, Bhubaneswar during 2019-20 in Completely Randomised Design. Groundnut pods(100 grams) in each treatment were mixed with 2 types of beads viz., zeolite beads and sodium aluminium silicate in four different ratios (1:1, 1:0.9, 1:0.8, 1:0.7) along with an untreated control and the observations on the fecundity, adult emergence, weight loss(%), moisture content, germination(%) were recorded during 6 months of storage at an interval of 60 days. Among the different treatments, the pods mixed with zeolite beads in 1:1 ratio was found to be the most superior treatment after 2, 4 and 6 months with the lowest fecundity (14.67, 25.67 and 34.33 eggs, respectively) and adult emergence (10.00, 17.33 and 25.00 adults, respectively). However, all the treatment dosages were found significantly superior over control which recorded maximum weight loss due to bruchid infestation. It was also noted that there was reduction in moisture content of the groundnut kernels with the increase of storage period with desiccant beads as these beads absorbed the moisture from the groundnut and created unsuitable environment for insect development and infestation. These beads did not show any adverse effects on the germination of groundnut.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131086
  • Response on Phenological, Fruiting Behaviour and Growth Characteristics of
           F1 Candidates Rootstock Seedlings of Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]

    • Authors: Pushpendra Rajput, Anirudh Thakur, Harminder Singh, . Poonam
      Pages: 1101 - 1112
      Abstract: Aim: The aim of present study was to evaluate the flowering and fruiting behaviour of different variety of peach, plum along with growth characteristics of their F1 hybrids and identification hybrid rootstocks for future genetic improvement. Study Design: The experiment was designed in Randomized Block Design Factorial with three replications. Place and Duration of Study: Rootstock hybridization programme were carried out at main fruit research station Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab during 2016-17 and 2017-18. Methodology: Rootstock hybridization programme were carried out with three varieties two peach namely Sharbati and Flordaguard and one plum Kala amritsari and study the phenological, fruiting behavior and growth performance of seedlings of parents and F1 hybrids. Results: Higher days from full bloom to maturity take by Sharbati × Flordaguard (129.4 Days) and minimum in Kala amritsari × Flordaguard (111.1 Days). For completion of stratification seeds of Sharbati and Sharbati × Flordaguard took maximum days for stratification (90-105 Days and 30-105 Days, respectively) and minimum in Flordaguard (30-60 Days). Seed germination % higher in Flordaguard (97.15%) and minimum in Sharbati × Kala amritsari (70.81%). Pollen viability in stored and fresh pollen was highest in Flordaguard (96.26 and 97.58%), while, minimum in Sharbati (90.89% and 96.60%). Leaf colour values (L, a, b, chroma and hue) maximum were in Sharbati and minimum in Flordaguard and leaf colour values of both hybrids, were as Flordaguard. Maximum chlorophyll (SPAD units) were recorded in Flordaguard × Sharbati (42.87) which was at par with the SAPD values of Sharbati × Flordaguard. Leaves of Flordaguard and both the hybrids showed dark reddish green colour on upper and light reddish green in lower side of leaves. Seedlings of Sharbati, Sharbati × Flordaguard and Flordaguard × Sharbati showed better growth characteristics as compares to seedlings of Flordaguard. Conclusion: The advance candidate hybrid rootstocks may be useful for further exploitation for genetic improvement and development of rootstock with good nursery characters.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131087
  • Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes for
           Grain Yield Characters

    • Authors: Muppasani Rachana Shaili, Gaibriyal M. Lal, G. Roopa Lavanya, G. Vijay Kumar
      Pages: 1113 - 1122
      Abstract: A set of 55 genotypes of rice were evaluated for “assessment of genetic diversity in rice genotypes for grain yield characters”. The experiment was conducted in a Randomized Block Design with three replications during the kharif season, of 2021 at Naini Agriculture Institute, Naini. The plant to plant distance was 15 cm and row to row distance was 20 cm. The data were recorded from five randomly selected plants for each genotypes from all the replicates for thirteen characters. Analysis of variance showed significant differences among genotypes for all 13 characters indicating that the material has adequate genetic variability to support the breeding programme for improving the grain yield of rice. Out of 55 rice genotypes evaluated for various characters, 5 genotypes were found superior for different characters. These 5 genotypes were found better for more than one character. Among the lines SHUATS DHAN -6 (62.133g) recorded the highest grain yield per hill followed by the genotypes BPT-3291 (51.8g), SHIATS Dhan -2 (51.467g), SIGNET-5455 (50.467g) and SIGNET-5455 (50.4). All these genotypes were significantly higher as compared to the check NDR - 359 (CHECK) (22.67g). High estimate of heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean was recorded for Grain yield per hill, Biological yield, Number of spikelets per panicle, Harvest Index, Flag leaf length, Number of tillers per hill, Number of panicles per hill, Flag leaf width, Test weight, and Plant height. These traits are governed by additive gene effects and therefore, may be improved through direct selection. Further the characters viz., Biological yield, Harvest Index, Number of tillers per hill, Days to fifty percent flowering, Flag leaf length and Test weight, had the highest direct positive effect and  indirect effect (through each other) on grain yield per hill. Thus, selections for these characters will prove efficient for the improvement of grain yield of rice. All the 55 rice genotypes were  classified using Mahalanobis D2 statistics involving 13 quantitative characters of 55 genotypes grouped into 6 clusters In the present study, the highest inter cluster distance was observed between cluster IV and cluster V (368.37) followed by cluster II and cluster V (361.04).
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131088
  • Implementation of Road Safety Audit to Highlight the Deformities in the
           Design and Environmental Safety Features: A Case Study on National

    • Authors: Swabhimaan Sahu, Siba Prasad Mishra, Kamal Kumar Barik, Deepak Kumar Sahu
      Pages: 1123 - 1140
      Abstract: Road Safety Audit is an advanced strategy for detecting the highly affected areas which are more prone to accidents and security Increase of existing and new streets. RSA is a well-organized, economical and making a move to improve road security. It is demonstrated that RSA has the capacities to rescue lives as it provides and formulates all possible safety measures and techniques which are extremely essential to have a secured journey. The RSA was first implemented in Britain and later followed by other nations like Australia, Denmark, Malaysia, Singapore, New Zealand, Canada and United Kingdom & United States of America. It is at different phases of execution in flourishing countries like India, South Africa, and Thailand. RSA plays a significant role for enhancing road security in India, as fundamental and exact information on accidents still can't seem to be gathered. The fundamental part of this study is to assess Road Safety Audit of a segment of two-path National Highway (NH) - 326 and the job of an auditor is to give autonomous suggestions in the form of written recommendation. The fundamental goal of the investigation is to recognize highly affected zones which are more prone to accidents and dark spot regions on the road from FIR, to think about the impact of geometric design of roads and influence of traffic characteristics on various parameters of roads and experimentation and establishment of statistical relationship between accidents rates and different variables causing accidents. This paper investigates the deformities in the design and other safety features.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131089
  • Comparison of Linear and Non-linear Models for Coconut Yield Prediction in
           Coimbatore Using Weather Parameters and External Factors

    • Authors: K. Madeshwaran, A. Eswari, M. R. Duraisamy, S. Praneetha, B. Senthamizh Selvi
      Pages: 1141 - 1150
      Abstract: Coconut is the world's most significant plantation crop, and it is grown in practically every country. As Coimbatore is the leading producer of coconut in Tamil Nadu, followed by Thanjavur and Kanyakumari, this study is centred on the Coimbatore area. West Coast Tall is a popular cultivar that produces more than other types. The West Coast Tall (WCT) cultivar was used in this research. In this paper, four models were developed such as Ridge, Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection Operator (LASSO), Elastic net (ELNET) regression methods and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Further, we validate this model using field-level data from TNAU coconut research farm for two years. The purpose of this communication is to find the best fit model for prediction of coconut yield using weather parameters and external factors in Coimbatore district. The models were selected based on different performance metrics such as RMSE, MAPE, MAE, and R2. Among the four models developed in the study, the ELNET model is found to be best model for prediction of coconut yield based on weather and external factors for the available data in the studied region.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131090
  • Inhibitory Potentialities of Bio-control Agents on Cochliobolus
           heterostrophus Inciting Maydis Leaf Blight of Maize in Manipur

    • Authors: Bathula Pooja, Sobita Devi, Bireswar Sinha, Paluru Pavani
      Pages: 1151 - 1156
      Abstract: The antagonistic potentialities of seven species of native Trichoderma viz., T. atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. ovalisporum, Hypocrea lixii, T. harzianum, T. asperellum and T. harzianum were evaluated in vitro against Cochliobolus heterostrophus causing maydis leaf blight of maize. The current study of dual culture assay, revealed the percentages of mycelial growth inhibition of C. heterostrophus by Hypocrea lixii, T. harzianum, T. atroviridae, T. koningiopsis, T. ovalisporum, T. asperellu and T. harzianum were 80.4%, 83.80%, 83.80%, 82.85%, 85.23%, 83.33% and 82.38% respectively. Each species significantly slowed the Cochliobolus heterostrophus pathogen's expansion. The findings indicate that C. heterostrophus, a common pathogen associated with maize leaf blight, is capable of being inhibited to a significant degree by all seven species of Trichoderma, using them as effective potential antagonists.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131091
  • Influence of Sea Weed Extract (Kappaphycus alverzii) and Zinc on Growth
           and Yield of Blackgram (Vigna mungo L.)

    • Authors: C. Manjula, Shikha Singh
      Pages: 1157 - 1163
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted in Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Science, Prayagraj, (U.P), during the zaid season of 2022 with the objective to study the ‟Influence of sea weed extract (Kappaphycus alverzii) and Zinc on growth and yield of Blackgram (Vigna mungo L.)”. Pulses are an integral part of many diets across the globe and they have great potential to improve human health. Black gram crop grown in many parts of India. This crop is grown in the cropping systems as a mixed crop, catch crop, sequential crop besides growing as a sole crop under residual moisture conditions after the harvest of other summer crops under semi-irrigated and dry land conditions ,and the variety is shekar 2. The soil in the experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, pH (6.9), low in organic carbon (0.112%), available N(278.93 kg ha-1), available P (10.80 kg ha-1) and available K (206.4 kg ha-1).The layout of the experiment was done in a Randomized block design with nine treatments which is replicated thrice. The 3 levels of concentration of sea weed extract (Kappaphycus alverzii) (2%, 3%, 4%) foliar application and three levels of zinc (15,20,25 kg ha-1) soil application.Growth and yield parameters namely plant height, dry weight, pods plant-1, number of seeds pod-1, test weight, seed yield, Stover yield, harvest index were collected from this experiment. Results revealed that significantly higher plant height (24.2cm), dry weight (4.9), pods/plant (21.2), seeds/pod (5.7), seed yield (637.0 kg ha-1), Stover yield (873 kg ha-1) were recorded with treatment combination of 4%K sap + ZnSO4 25 kg ha-1 (treatment 9). Maximum gross return (82819.00 INR/ha), net returns (55880.00 INR/ha), and benefit cost (2.07) were obtained highest in the treatment combination of 4%K sap + ZnSO4 25 kg ha-1 (treatment 9).
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131092
  • Effect of Foliar Application of Ga3, NAA and Urea on Fruit Physiological
           Characterstics of Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) cv. Banarasi Karaka

    • Authors: Trivendra Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Gautam, Vishal Gangwar, Deepak Kumar, . Veersain, Navdeep Singh, Avdhesh Kumar
      Pages: 1164 - 1170
      Abstract: Among subtropical fruits Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana L.) one of the most common fruit crop, grown under neglected soil types. It is a drought hardy and can grow under the most hazardous conditions of soil, water and climate and thus it has rightly been recommended for the arid and desert area of India [1]. It is found growing wild as well as in cultivated forms throughout the warmer regions up to an altitude of 1500 metres above Mean Sea Level. The experiment comprised 13 treatments consisting of foliar spray of GA3, NAA, Urea and control. The treatments are as follows- T0 Control (water spray), T1 (GA3 @10 ppm), T2 (GA3 @20 ppm), T3 (NAA @20 ppm), T4 (NAA @40 ppm), T5 (Urea @1.0%), T6 (Urea @1.5%), T7 (GA3 @10 ppm + NAA @20 ppm + Urea @1.0%), T8 (GA3 @20 ppm + NAA @40 ppm + urea @1.5%). Mentioned solutions with different concentration were sprayed by foot sprayer in the morning hours and selected branches were fully drenched. On the basis of sprays of plant growth regulators i.e. GA3 and NAA and urea as well as their combined treatments influenced different parameters in this research trial. The combined treatments of GA3 20 ppm + NAA 40 ppm + urea 1.5% maximized initial fruit set, fruit retention, fruit volume, length of fruit, fruit diameter, fruit weight, pulp weight, pulp/stone ratio and minimized the fruit drop, stone weight content. The second effective treatment was GA3 10 ppm + NAA 20 ppm + urea 1.0% identified in present investigation.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131093
  • Effect of Foliar Spraying of Nano Boron on Qualitative Parameters of
           Tomato Grown in Polybags

    • Authors: D. Rajani, M. Padma, M. Raj Kumar, A. Kiran, M. Vijaya, G. Padmaja
      Pages: 1171 - 1177
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted during kharif, 2020 to know about the effect of foliar application of nano boron on qualitative parameters of tomato. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with nine treatments comprising different concentrations of nano boron (50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm) boron (1g L-1) and control (Without boron application). Each treatment was replicated thrice. The foliar application of nano boron was done at 30 and 45 DAT. Nano boron 400 ppm (T7) recorded minimum values for TSS (4.10 oBrix), pH (4.45), total sugars (2.45%), reducing sugars (2.22%), lycopene content (5.85 mg 100g-1) and maximum values for ascorbic acid (24.02 mg 100g-1), titrable acidity (0.52%) and non-reducing sugars (0.23%). Whereas nano boron 500 ppm (T8) recorded significantly maximum TSS (5.30 oBrix), pH (4.74), total sugars (3.27%), reducing sugars (3.18%), lycopene content (7.03 mg 100g-1) and minimum values for ascorbic acid (19.60 mg 100g-1), titrable acidity (0.32%) and non-reducing sugars (0.09%).
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131094
  • Effect of Different Plant Growth Regulators on In-vitro Regeneration in
           Varieties of Strawberry

    • Authors: C. Dutta
      Pages: 1178 - 1187
      Abstract: The present study was carried out in College of Post Graduate Studies in Agricultural Sciences, Central Agricultural University (Imphal), Umiam, Meghalaya during 2017-18. The objective was to study the effect of growth regulators on in vitro regeneration in four varieties of strawberry viz., Camarosa, Chandler, Festival and Winter Dawn. Best sterilization results were obtained for explants sterilized using Tween 20, 0.1% Bavistin, 0.1% Ascorbic acid + 0.1% Streptomycin and 0.1% Mercuric chloride for 30, 45, 40 and 8 minutes respectively. Sixteen different concentrations and combinations of growth regulators were used out of which regeneration from runners was successfully observed in six combinations of growth regulators. MS media supplemented with 5 mg/l 6-Benzylaminopurine + 1 mg/l Indole-3-acetic Acid produced maximum percent survival of explants and maximum number of shoots while MS medium supplemented with 4 mg/l 6-Benzylaminopurine + 1 mg/l Indole-3-acetic Acid produced the highest shoot length. Rooting was observed in half strength MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg/l Indole-3-butyric acid. Rooted plantlets were transferred to soil where they showed 66.67% survival. MS medium supplemented with Kinetin were inferior in performance for shoot development to MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 6- Benzylaminopurine
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131095
  • Sensory Garden for Occupational Therapy and Improving Quality of Life

    • Authors: Nawazish Mehdi, . Thaneshwari, R. Atchaya, Sabina Raut
      Pages: 1188 - 1196
      Abstract: A sensory garden is a self-contained garden or garden area that has a collection of plants that are appealing to one or more of the five senses. The major senses like sight, smell, sound, taste, and touch; are mainly enhanced in these kinds of gardens so that people of various ages can benefit from it and it can act as a therapy. This kind of garden has also been reported to be an amazing way for young people to explore their senses and learn about their surroundings and the people suffering from dementia and children requiring special needs. In both cases, it has proved to improve their overall health and decreased their agitation level to normal. The idea behind the sensory garden design was that the gardens should aim to stimulate users' senses and improve their physical abilities. These types of gardens have a huge impact on people's mental and physical health and it helps in improving their way of living as well. In this review paper, the elements and benefits of the sensory garden and its scenario in India have been discussed in detail.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131096
  • Effect on Organic Manure and Inorganic Fertilizers on Productivity
           Parameters and Quality Traits of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under
           Central Plain Zone of Uttar Pradesh

    • Authors: Abhishek Sirohiya, Anil Kumar, R. K. Pathak, Ravindra Sachan, Abhishek Tiwari, Saumya Nema, Abhishek Singh Yadav, Ashish Kumar Singh
      Pages: 1197 - 1202
      Abstract: A field trial was conducted on sandy loam soil having low status of organic carbon and accessible nitrogen, medium in accessible phosphorous and high in accessible potassium at pot house of department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of C.S.A.U.A&T, Kanpur (campus) under Indo-Gangetic Plain zone of Uttar Pradesh, amid Rabi season of 2021-22. The experiment comprised of 9 treatment combinations in randomized block design with three replications. Wheat variety K-1006 was grown with the recommended agronomic practices. Recommended dose of fertilizer (R.D.F.) i.e., NPK @ 120:60:40 ha-1 and FYM @ 10 ton ha-1 were applied. On the premise of the comes about exuded from the present investigation, it might be concluded that application of 100% RDF+FYM+ S20+ Zn5 (T9) significantly recorded maximum grain yield, straw yield, biological yield and harvest index viz. 57.65 q ha-1, 88.20 q ha-1, 145.85 q ha-1 and 39.52 % respectively. And among the quality traits maximum protein content 12.75 % and lysine content 3.10 % was recorded also associated with application of 100% RDF+FYM+ S20+ Zn5 (T9). The present investigation clearly points out the significance of balanced use of nutrients including FYM in wheat for improving the productivity and quality of wheat crop.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131097
  • Influence of Nitrogen and Sulphur Levels on Growth and Yield of Lentil
           (Lens culinaris M.)

    • Authors: Yadla Mereena Madhu Bindu, C. Umesha, Kakulavarapu Navya Sri Subha, Veluri Sree Sindhu
      Pages: 1203 - 1210
      Abstract: The field experiment entitled ‘‘Influence of Nitrogen and Sulphur levels on growth and yield of Lentil (Lens culinaris M.)’’ conducted during Rabi 2021 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P). The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.2), low in organic carbon (0.22 %), available N (171.48 kg/ha), available P (12.3 kg/ha) and available K (235.7 kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with nine treatments which are replicated thrice. The treatments viz; 1: N-10 kg/ha + S-10 kg/ha, 2: N-10 kg/ha + S-20kg/ha, 3: N-10 kg/ha + S-30 kg/ha , 4: N-20 kg/ha + S-10 kg/ha , 5: N-20 kg/ha+ S-20 kg/ha , 6: N-20 kg/ha + S-30 kg/ha , 7: N-30 kg/ha + S-10 kg/ha , 8: N-30 kg/ha + S- 20 kg/ha ,9: N-30 kg/ha + S-30 kg/ha. Treatments consisted of three levels of Nitrogen (10, 20, 30 kg ha-1) and four levels of Sulphur (10, 20 and 30 kg ha-1). The results obtained that application of Nitrogen 30kg/ha along with Sulphur 30kg/ha recorded significantly higher Plant height (42.68cm), Number of nodules/plant (7.33) Plant dry weight (19.30g/plant), Number of Pods/plant (159.42), Number of Seeds/pod (1.80), Seed yield (1719.3kg/ha) and Stover yield (2814 kg\ha) and Harvest Index (37.92%). Higher Gross returns (87684.30 INR/ha), Net return (59773.60 INR/ha) and Benefit cost ratio (2.14) were obtained in the treatment with application of Nitrogen 30kg/ha along with Sulphur 30kg/ha. Sulphur application up to 30 kg ha-1 increased significantly the uptake of N and K by the crop. Protein content in grain increased significantly with the addition of N (30 kg ha-1) and sulphur (30 kg ha-1). Yield of lentil increased linearly with increasing levels of Sulphur. Therefore, it is concluded that the application of Nitrogen 30kg/ha + Sulphur 30kg/ha was more productive and economically feasible.
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131098
  • The Arduous Journey for Environmental Justice: Trinidad and Tobago a
           Mirror of the Challenges Confronting the Developing World

    • Authors: Rajendra Ramlogan
      Pages: 1211 - 1238
      Abstract: Environmental justice is a philosophy that has dominated environmental law since its emergence. The poor often seems to inherit the burden of poor environmental management practices. Thus, it is hardly surprising that environmental justice has emerged as a mechanism to represent the rights of the poor and vulnerable from environmental consequences of development-related decisions. In the developing world, the struggle to represent the interest of the poor and vulnerable in the environmental decision-making process primarily rests on the shoulders of Non-Governmental Organisations. Yet these organisations are often handicapped by several factors predominantly present in the developing world. This paper examines the journey of Trinidad and Tobago, a developing country, to achieve environmental justice as a microcosm of what obtains in the wider developing world.
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131099
  • Effect of Gibberellic Acid and Naphthalene Acetic Acid on Growth, Yield
           and Quality of Chilli (Capsicum annum L.)

    • Authors: Satyasuravit Devchandan Panda, . Deepanshu, Urfi Fatmi
      Pages: 1239 - 1244
      Abstract: The experiment entitled "Effect of gibberellic acid and naphthalene acetic acid on growth yield and quality of chilli (Capsicum annum L.)” was conducted at Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj during August to December, 2021. Experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design with three replications and ten treatment combinations. The experiment consisted of two factors. Factor A: Variety (two variety) as TMPH-449, TMPH-443 and Factor B: Plant growth regulator T1: NAA (30ppm) T2: NAA (40ppm) T3: GA3 (50ppm) T4: GA3 (100ppm). The results revealed that among the varieties studied, variety TMPH-449 resulted better in vegetative growth (Plant height, leaf area) whereas variety TMPH-443 resulted better in vegetative growth (Number of branches per plant), yield parameter (Minimum days taken for 50 percent flowering, minimum days to first harvest, length of fruit, fruit girth, weight of fruit, number of chilli fruit per plant, average fruit yield per plant, fruit yield per hectare), and quality parameter (total soluble solids). Among different concentrations of growth regulator application T2: NAA (40ppm) gave better result in vegetative growth (Plant height, Number of branches per plan, leaf area), yield parameter (Minimum days taken for 50 percent flowering, minimum days to first harvest, length of fruit, fruit girth, weight of fruit, number of chilli fruit per plant, average fruit yield per plant, fruit yield per hectare), and quality parameter (total soluble solids). The best interaction amount different variety and growth regulators were found to be variety TMPH-443 and Growth regulator T2: NAA (40ppm) which give maximum growth and quality characteristics of chilli.
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131100
  • Population Dynamics of Aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover on Bt and non-Bt
           Cotton and Correlation with weather Parameters

    • Authors: Z. K. Patel, R. D. Patel, H. R. Desai, G. R. Bhanderi, M. K. Jena
      Pages: 1245 - 1251
      Abstract: Investigations on the population dynamics of aphid Aphis gossypii Glover on Bt (G.Cot.Hy.8 BG II) and non-Bt (G.Cot.Hy.8) were carried out at Main Cotton Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Surat, Gujarat during the Kharif, 2020-21. The incidence of aphids initiated in the first week of July (27th SW) in Bt cotton hybrid and in the second week of July (28th SW) in non-Bt cotton hybrid and continued till the crop harvest in the second week of January (2nd SW) in both the hybrids. The peak activity of aphids was recorded during the third week of December (51st SW) in Bt as well as non-Bt cotton hybrid. In both Bt and non-Bt cotton, the aphid population had a significant negative correlation with morning relative humidity. There was a highly significant negative correlation with minimum temperature, evening relative humidity, rainfall, rainy days, and a positive correlation with sunshine hours.
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131101
  • Herbicide Efficacy as Influenced by Spray Fluid Quality and Adjuvants on
           Yield and Economics of Maize (Zea mays L.)

    • Authors: K. Bhavitha, K. Suresh, M. Madhavi, T. Ram Prakash
      Pages: 1252 - 1257
      Abstract: A field investigation was conducted during Rabi season of 2020-21 at Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad to assess the herbicide efficacy as influenced by spray fluid quality and adjuvants on yield and economics of maize (Zea mays L.). The results revealed that there was a positive influence on addition of ammonium sulphate as adjuvant when saline waters (C3S1 and C3S2 classes) were used as spray fluid as compared to application of herbicides with saline waters alone. Tank mix application of halosulfuron methyl at 67.5 g ha-1 + atrazine at 0.5 kg ha-1 with 2% ammonium sulphate with C3S1 class water as spray fluid recorded higher yield (5.00 and 8.15 tons ha-1) and economics of maize with reference to other saline water treatment combinations and proved as effective treatment following to halosulfuron methyl at 67.5 g ha-1 + atrazine at 0.5 kg ha-1 with 2% ammonium sulphate with distilled water as spray fluid.
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131102
  • Variability, Correlation and Path Analysis for Grain Yield Characters of
           Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes

    • Authors: Akhila Mathew, G. Roopa Lavanya, R. Kumar
      Pages: 1258 - 1267
      Abstract: The present investigation with thirty-four accessions of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes (26 Advanced breeding lines (ABL’s),7 Dhan varieties and one check) were investigated to study variability, correlation and path analysis for yield contributing characters carried out at the Field Experimentation Centre, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj during Kharif-2021 in Randomized Block Design with three replications. NDR 359 rice variety was used as the check. The data was recorded for 13 quantitative traits viz Days to 50% flowering, Plant height (cm), Flag leaf length (cm), Flag leaf width (cm), Number of total tillers per hill, Number of panicles per hill, Panicle length (cm), Number of spikelets per panicle, Days to maturity, Biological index, Harvest index (%), Test weight (g), Grain yield per hill (g) using agro-morphological traits. The mean sum of squares due to genotypes was highly significant for all the quantitative characters in ANOVA. The characters with high range estimates of GCV and PCV (Grain yield per hill), heritability (days to maturity) and genetic advance as percent mean (number of spikelets per panicle,) should be given top priority during selection. For character association, grain yield per hill showed positive significance with flag leaf length, number of spikelets per panicle, biological yield, harvest index, number of tillers per hill, biological yield because  it help in determining the nature and extent of the relationship existing between the yield and its contributing components and their association.Path analysis further proved about the direct and indirect effect of characters on grain yield. Days to 50% flowering, flag leaf width, number of panicles per hill, biological yield, harvest index showed positive direct effect at both genotypic and phenotypic level indicating their importance in breeding programme. So direct selection of the above characters will be rewarding.
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131103
  • Impact of Seed Rate and Nutrient Management on Growth Analysis of Chickpea
           under Semi-Arid Zones

    • Authors: M. Karthika, K. Bhanu Rekha, Kasbe Sudhanshu Sudhakar, A. Madhavi, P. Rajiah, S. Triveni
      Pages: 1268 - 1276
      Abstract: Aim: To study the effect of seed rate and nutrient management on growth and development of chickpea. Study Design: The study consisted of mechanized sowing at different planting densities as one factor which required a bigger plot size and second factor was nutrient management which is to be analyzed precisely. Thus as one factor (planting densities) need a bigger plot size and the other (nutrient management) required a more precise results with small plot size, suitable design for the study was chosen as split-plot design. Place and Duration of Study: Agricultural Research Institute (ARI), Main Farm, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during rabi 2020-21 and 2021-22. Methodology: This experiment consisted of four seed rates (planting densities with planter) imposed in main plots and seven nutrient management practices in sub plots with a total of 28 treatment combinations and replicated thrice. Data obtained on various parameters were analysed using WINDOSTAT software for split plot design. Results: Crop growth indices viz., absolute growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation were found to be significantly higher with the seed rate of 52 kg ha-1 (321.4 mg day-1, 19.5 and 2.07 mg g-1 day-1) respectively. Among the nutrient management practices, 125 % RDF + Soil application of Microbial consortia (N –Azotobacter + PSB + KRB+ ZnSB) @ 5 kg ha-1  resulted in significantly higher values of all crop growth indices followed by 125 % RDF and 100 % RDF + Soil application of Microbial consortia (N –Azotobacter + PSB + KRB+ ZnSB) @ 5 kg ha-1 (256.5 mg day-1 and 17.1 mg g-1 day-1) respectively. Conclusion: Seed rate of 52 kg ha-1 and 125 % RDF along with soil application of Microbial consortia (N –Azotobacter + PSB + KRB+ ZnSB) @ 5 kg ha-1 resulted in better growth and development which can be recommended for obtaining higher yield of chickpea.
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131104
  • Effect of Different Levels of PSB and Organic Starter Solution on Growth
           and Yield of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.) c v. Lucky

    • Authors: N. A. Anagha, Vipin M. Prasad, Vijay Bahadur
      Pages: 1277 - 1281
      Abstract: The present investigation entitled “Effect of different levels of PSB and organic starter solution on growth and yield of Broccoli” was conducted in the Horticulture Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Science, Prayagraj (UP) During October 2021 to February 2022. The experiment was laid out in RBD with 9 treatments with 3 replications. The results revealed that 40ml/Plant PSB + 40ml/Plant Starter Solution TA41 (Diluted) performed the best in terms of days to Plant Height (30.56), Leaf length (46.86), Leaf width (16.71), Leaf Number (14.89), Days to initiation (49.5), Head weight (530 g), Head yield per plot (3.22 Kg), Head yield per hectare (14.6t/ha) and B: C Ratio (4.9). Therefore, 40 ml/Plant PSB + 40 ml/Plant Starter Solution TA41 (Diluted) is the best when compared to other treatments. As, the highest cost benefit ratio was observed in treatment 40 ml/Plant PSB + 40 ml/Plant Starter solution TA41 (Diluted) i.e., (4.9) which states that it is economically profitable compared to all other treatments.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131105
  • Effect of Biofertilizers and Potassium on Yield and Economics of Yellow
           Mustard (Brassica campestris L.)

    • Authors: Balasu Janaki, Rajesh Singh, Pratyasha Tripathi
      Pages: 1282 - 1287
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out at Crop Research Farm, during Rabi 2021, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (Uttar Pradesh) to study the effects of biofertilizers and potassium on the yield and economics of yellow mustard. Biofertilizers (Azotobacter, Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria) and Potassium levels (35, 40 and 45 kg/ha) were organized in a Randomized Block Design experiment. The treatment with Azotobacter at 10 g/kg seed + PSB at 10 g/kg seed + Potassium at 40 kg/ha resulted in a higher number of siliqua per plant (134.53), seeds per siliqua (31.67), test weight (3.40 g), seed yield (1.53 t/ha), stover yield (5.20 t/ha) and harvest index (22.74%). In respect to all other treatment combinations, the application of Azotobacter at 10 g/kg seed + PSB at 10 g/kg seed + Potassium at 40 kg/ha resulted in the highest gross returns (91,800.00 INR/ha), net returns (60,642.40 INR/ha) and benefit cost ratio (1.95).
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131106
  • Delineation and Mapping of Groundwater Quality in Chengalpattu District of
           Tamil Nadu, India

    • Authors: M. P. Hemavarshini, D. Janaki, M. Baskar, S. Radhika, R. Jagadeeswaran
      Pages: 1288 - 1296
      Abstract: Groundwater is a major natural source of water supply all around the world. It's utilised for irrigation, industry, and even household purposes. The quality of groundwater is important for irrigation. Irrigation water quality plays a critical role in long-term soil productivity. To assess the quality of the groundwater, 149 samples were taken in May 2022 from the coastal blocks of the Chengalpattu district: Chithamur (42), Lathur (37), Thirukalukundram (31), and Thiruporur (39). The samples were analysed in accordance with the appropriate protocol. The study revealed that the coastline blocks pH ranges from 8.92 to 7.52 and their EC ranges from 11.50 to 0.13 dS m-1. The Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) ranges from 20.00 to -6.80, while the Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) ranges from 14.77 to 0.26 meq/L. The Chengalpattu district has a high concentration of alkali water, according to CSSRI, Karnal classification. Among the coastal blocks, the Thiruporur block contains more alkali water compared to other coastal blocks (46%).  
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131107
  • Efficacy of Capsaicin Rich Botanicals on the Aphid Population in Lablab
           (Dolichos lablab L.) under Organic Production System

    • Authors: P. Tamilselvi, H. Usha Nandhini Devi, L. Pugalendhi, E. Sumathi
      Pages: 1297 - 1303
      Abstract: Aim: The growing concern for environmental safety and the demand for pesticide residue –free food worldwide have evoked interest in pest management through the use of botanicals, which offers a good alternative to manage the insect pests in an eco-friendly manner. This research was carried out to study the efficiency of botanicals on the aphid population in lablab under organic production system. Study Design: The study was carried out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with eight treatments and three replications. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at College Orchard, Department of Vegetable Science, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during 2021 - 2022. Methodology:  The study was performed using chilli extract with three concentrations (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5%) and compared with other botanicals such as neem oil, neem seed kernel extract, garlic extract and panchagavya. The aphid population was counted visually before and 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after spraying. Results: The  results showed that after 7 days spraying 95.81 per cent of aphid population was reduced in T3 (7.5% chilli extract) followed by T2 & T1 (5 % & 2.5%) with a population reduction to the level of 95.62 and 91.54 per cent, respectively. This was followed by neem oil with a reduction of 83.50 per cent followed by garlic extract (79.74%), neem extract (76.94%) and panchagavya (62.81%). The inflorescence infestation was also lower in T3 (4.94) which were compared to control. Conclusion:  The application of chilli extract resulted in reduction of aphid population in lablab under organic cultivation. Infloresecence infestation was also recorded minimum in chilli extract treated plots. The chilli extract is non-toxic to humans and does not harm the environment and hence this can be utilized as an alternative to chemical pesticides.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131108
  • Sub-soil Nitrogen Content as Influenced by Long-term Manuring and Its
           Relationship with Nitrogen Availability and Productivity of a Rice-rice
           Cropping System in Eastern India

    • Authors: Sujit Kumar Mukhi, Kumbha Karna Rout, Prasanna Kumar Samant, Ranjan Kumar Patra, Abhiram Dash, Amulya Kumar Parida, Sugyata Shivhare, Soumyajeet Pradhan
      Pages: 1304 - 1317
      Abstract: Investigation was made to study the impact of long-term fertilizer and manure application on the sub-soil nitrogen (N) fertility of an acidic Inceptisol under continuous rice-rice cropping system. For this purpose, a long-term fertilizer experiment commenced from 2005-06, rabi season in the Central Farm of Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology (OUAT), Bhubaneswar under aegis of ICAR, New Delhi was used. The experiment had 12 manurial treatments whose impact on sub-soil N fertility up to 75 cm depth and its relation with surface soil N fertility was studied. N uptake and crop yield has been assessed after 20 cropping cycles. The initial soil was acidic (pH 5.8) with low soil organic carbon (4.3 g kg -1) and CEC of 3.75 cmol (p+) kg-1, mineralizable N of 187 kg ha-1 and total N of 1280 kg ha-1. After 20 cropping cycles, the soil organic carbon (SOC) content increased in all the fertilized treatments in the surface layer and with depth it decreased sharply from 15-30 cm to 30-45 cm layer. Treatments with balanced nutrition registered higher content of total N, organic N, mineralizable N and inorganic N both in surface soil and sub-soil. Not only the surface soil but also the sub-soil contents of total N, organic N and mineralizable N are significantly influenced by long-term use of fertilizer nutrients and manure under wet land intensive rice production system. Sub-soil contents of total N, organic N, mineralizable N, inorganic N, ammonium N and nitrate N have strong positive correlation with those of surface layer. SOC, total N, mineralizable N and inorganic N are strongly correlated with each other in the same layer. Correlation of organic N and total N with nitrate N was however, significant up to 30 cm depth and beyond that there was no correlation at 30-45 cm layer. From the results, it is concluded that application of nutrient in balanced and integrated manner (NPK + FYM) not only increased grain yield and sustainability of rice but also improved various pools of N in surface as well as sub-soil up to 75 cm depth of a wet land rice-rice production system under subtropical climatic situation.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131109
  • A Scale to Measure Farmers’ Perception towards Climate Vulnerability

    • Authors: Varsha Shrivasatava
      Pages: 1318 - 1324
      Abstract: Perception is influenced by various factors such as attitude, knowledge, information, socio-cultural factors, and previous experience. To understand human behavior, it is necessary to understand the process of perception. The farming community may not have knowledge about the reasons for climate vulnerability but they can understand and realize the consequence of it. Agriculture is susceptible to climate vulnerability through increased temperature and changes in rainfall patterns. These factors affect germination, plant growth, grain development, and maturity in turn productivity. Increased temperature creates heat stress on crops and this adversely affects the production of crops. While the uneven distribution of rainfall creates drier or waterlogged conditions for crops that hampered the growth of crops. In this direction, the research was designed to develop a scale to measure farmers' perception of climate vulnerability. A list of 62 statements indicating the positive or negative perception was considered for scale construction. The statements were edited in light of the informal criteria suggested by Edwards. The total individual score of judges was calculated by summing up the weights given by judges to the individual states. Based on total individual scores, 25 percent of judges with the highest total individual scores and 25 percent of judges with lowest total individual scores were taken assuming that these groups provided criterion groups in terms of high and low evaluated by the individual states.  Item analysis is done by the 't' value for each statement using the formula and procedure given by Edwards. Finally, 52 statements that had a 't' value of 1.75 and above qualified for inclusion in the scale.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131110
  • Standardization of Rose Apple (Syzygium jambos) Syrup with Different
           Concentrations of Sugar

    • Authors: Jeeva Sara Mathew, Saket Mishra, Gaurav Singh Vishen
      Pages: 1325 - 1334
      Abstract: The experiment was conducted on “Standardization of rose apple (Syzygium jambos) syrup with different concentrations of sugar” during the period November 2021 to February 2022 at Post Harvest Technology Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (Uttar Pradesh). The experiment was planned in completely randomized block design, seven treatments with three replication. The observations were recorded on various characteristics like acidity, TSS, pH, ascorbic acid content and organoleptic qualities. The results obtained from the experiment shows that the treatment T6 (rose apple juice + 55% sugar syrup) was found best in terms of the quality attribute as compared to other treatments. It shows the highest mean score in sensory evaluation like colour and appearance (8.85), taste (8.6), aroma (8.45), overall acceptability (8.7) and the chemical parameters like titratable acidity (0.458), T.S.S (64.66˚Brix), pH (4.427) and ascorbic acid (26.73%). Therefore on the basis of above findings it is concluded that the treatment T6 (rose apple juice + 55% sugar syrup) is the most promising and best syrup in terms of their physico-chemical and organoleptic test of rose apple syrup.
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131111
  • Analysis of Productivity and Profitability of Sweet Corn + Cowpea
           Intercropping under Rainfed Condition in NCPZ of Odisha

    • Authors: M. Ray, P. K. Roul, B. Behera, K. C. Sahoo, N. Mishra, S. Das
      Pages: 1335 - 1347
      Abstract: A field experiment on "Planting pattern and nutrient management in rainfed sweet corn + cowpea system" was conducted during the kharif 2019-20 and 2020-21 at Regional Research and Technology Transfer Station, Keonjhar, Odisha. The experiment was laid down in Split plot design with three replications. The experiment was conducted to identify the suitable planting pattern and effect of nutrient management practices for enhancing production potentials of Sweet corn+ Cowpea. The treatments taken in this experiment consists of planting pattern with 3 levels i.e P1 : Sweet corn +Cowpea (1:1) in alternate rows, P2 : Sweet corn +Cowpea (2:2) in alternate paired rows and P3 : Sweet corn +Cowpea (1:1) in the same row and nutrient management practices with seven levels i.e. F1- STBFR to Sweet Corn , F2- Proportionate of STBFR of (Sweet Corn + Cowpea) based on population, F3- STBFR to Sweet Corn + Consortia biofertilizer , F4- 75% STBFR to Sweet Corn + STBFR to Cowpea based on population, F5- 50% STBFR of Sweet Corn + STBFR to Cowpea based on population, F6- 75% STBFR of Sweet Corn + STBFR to Cowpea based on population + Consortia biofertilizer, F7- 50% STBFR of Sweet Corn + STBFR to Cowpea based on population + Consortia biofertilizer. Sweet corn variety 'Sugar 75' and Cowpea variety 'Kashi kanchan' were used as test crops. Observations on yield and yield parameters were recorded before and at harvest. The yield and yield parameters measured in the form of cobs per plant, cob length with husk, cob girth with husk , no of seed rows per cob, cob weight, green cob yield, fresh kernel yield, green fodder yield and harvest index in case of sweet corn and pods per plant, pod length, weight of pod, weight of green pod per plant, fresh pod yield, dry pod yield and dry haulm yield in case of cowpea were recorded. Planting of sweet corn + cowpea (2:2) in alternate paired rows(P2) with application of 75% STBFR of Sweet Corn + STBFR to Cowpea based on population + Consortia bio fertilizer to the maize + cowpea crop (F6) followed by STBFR of sweet corn and cowpea (F2) was superior in terms of both yield and yield parameters.
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131112
  • Application of K-means Clustering Algorithm in Rice Production of Tamil
           Nadu, India

    • Authors: B. Abirami, R. Gangai Selvi, Balaji Kannan, G. Vanitha, N. Thavaprakaash
      Pages: 1348 - 1355
      Abstract: Aim: (i) To Cluster the Rice data using K-Means clustering algorithm. (ii) To helps the study of crop yield prediction. Study Design: K-Means clustering technique is one of the most common exploratory data analysis used to get an intuition about the structure of the data. Place and Duration of Study: Time Series crop data were collected from the season and crop report, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Chennai for the period of 2015-2020. Methodology: The machine learning algorithm of big data analytics method such as K-means clustering algorithm helps to predict the paddy yield accurately in Tamil Nadu. The performance of the technique is examined through the determinable value of k by Elbow method and Silhouette method which helps in the crop yield prediction. Results: The observed results show that there is a positive relationship between area, production, area under irrigation, minimum temperature, and relative humidity and a close negative relationship with moisture and wind speed. Additionally, two clusters were identified with cluster 2 having the highest mean value, followed by 1. The identification of the highest mean clusters will guide farmers on where best to concentrate on when planting their crops in ordered to improve productivity and crop yield. Conclusion: This study reveals a scalable, simple, and reduced method for correctly assessing rice production over a large area using publicly released multi-source data, which may have been used to calculate crop production in areas with rarely observed data and all around the world.
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131113
  • Effect of Different Colour Mulches on Water Use Efficiency in Cucumber
           (Cucumis sativus) under Protected Cultivation

    • Authors: K. Nagarajan, I. Geetha Lakshmi, S. Ramya, M. N. Harinarayanan, K. N. Vidya
      Pages: 1356 - 1361
      Abstract: Aims: To evaluate the effect of different colour mulches on Water use efficiency under protected cultivation a field experiment was carried out during April–June 2021 in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Study Design: Split plot design statistical design. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, between April to June 2021. Methodology: Different coloured Plastic mulches (black-M1, silver-M2, yellow-M3, red-M4, white-M5) and no cover M6 (control) with different irrigation levels (I1-100% PE, I2-75% PE and I3-50% PE) was adopted with split plot design. Results: The observed data revealed that using mulches decreased irrigation requirements of cucumber crop with comparing to no cover (without mulch). The data shows that Black Mulch M1 with I3-50%PE recorded the highest values of WUE (31.30 kg/m3) followed by White Mulch M5 with I3-50% PE (30.03kg/m3). Conclusion: Increasing irrigation level up to I2-75% improved yield with different coloured plastic mulch treatments, while the yield decreased with increasing irrigation level to I1-100%PE. Though using 50% PE with black plastic mulch increased WUE compared to using 75% PE or 100% PE without plastic mulch (control).
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131114
  • Variability and Selection Indices in Two F2 Populations of Brinjal from
           Intra-specific Hybridization

    • Authors: Kasireddy Sivasankarreddy, Prabalee Sarmah, Debojit Sarma, Purna Kanta Barua, Sailen Gogoi
      Pages: 1362 - 1377
      Abstract: Two F2 populations of brinjal (Solanum melongena L) from intra-specific hybridizations MLC-1 x Longai (oblong) and MLC-3 x Longai (oblong) attempted in 2015-16 were evaluated for eight quantitative traits using genetic variability parameters, heritability, genetic advance, genetic advance as per cent of mean, correlation and selection indices in the year 2017-18. The characters viz., number of fruits per plant (0.794) and number of branches per plant (0.633) recorded positive and highly significant correlations with yield per plant in F2 plants of MLC-1 x Longai (oblong), whereas the characters viz., number of fruits per plant (0.819), average fruit weight (0.700) and fruit volume (0.593) recorded positive and highly significant correlations with yield per plant in F2 plants of MLC-3 x Longai (oblong). Selection indices for yield selection were constructed in both the F2 populations using the characters with highly significant yield correlations. Based on the efficient selection index, the genotypes were given scores or ranks and the best 5% plants were selected in both F2 populations i.e., plant number 2, 12, 10, 3, 11 and 19 in F2 plants of MLC-1 x Longai (oblong) and plant number 105, 28, 107, 26, 22 and 109 in F2 plants of MLC-3 x Longai (oblong) for constituting the third generation, evaluated in the year 2018-19. A comparative evaluation of the performance of the two populations arising from one common parent i.e. Longai showed that population generated from cross MLC-1 x Longai (oblong)was more promising than MLC-3 x Longai (oblong).
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131115
  • General Overview of Climate Change and Global Warming: Their Effect on

    • Authors: Ali Mohamed Elshafei
      Pages: 1378 - 1387
      Abstract: Global warming is the rise in average global temperatures brought on by the greenhouse effect. Sunlight heats the earth's surface, but certain gases in the atmosphere act like the glass of a greenhouse, trapping the heat as it radiates back into space. Greenhouse gases build up in the atmosphere, causing the Earth to warm. This process leads to climate change, which is also known as rapid climate change. Numerous factors that contribute to global warming have negative effects on people, plants, and animals. Both natural and human-caused factors may contribute to these issues.  The modern world faces significant issues due to global warming and climate change. In this regard, microbes have a significant impact on the environment as users or producers of greenhouse gases. Due to its capacity to thrive in a variety of climatic situations and to its particular metabolic characteristics, microbial diversity in diverse ecosystems has a significant impact on climate change by reducing its negative effects. There are a variety of potential roles for mitigation that microorganisms and their biological constituents can play by supplying a forward response. They offer a great deal of potential, particularly when used to treat and lower greenhouse gas emissions through nutrient recycling. This review article gives a general overview of the argument over public policy and the science behind global warming. It takes into account the elements   contribute to rising near-surface air temperatures, greenhouse gases potential ecological and societal impacts of temperature increases and the influence of climatic and environmental change on microorganisms.
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131116
  • Influence of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Nutrition on Growth, Yield
           and Quality of Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) cv. Sweet Charlie

    • Authors: Poojitha Nagavalli, V. M. Prasad
      Pages: 1388 - 1393
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out during 2021-2022 to see the effect of Organic and Inorganic Sources on growth, yield and quality of strawberry cv. Sweet Charlie with 7+1 treatments with different combinations of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients  (Vermicompost,  FYM,  and  NPK)  replicated  thrice  in Randomized Block Design. Observations were recorded for vegetative growth, fruit yield, and quality. In different combinations of (organic manure and inorganic manure) the treatment T7 (30%Vermicompost + 30% FYM + 40% NPK) recorded highest plant height, plant spread, number of leaves and flowers as compared to T0 (control + NPK). Plant treatment T7 (30%Vermicompost + 30% FYM + 40% NPK) registered earliest flowering and also highest number of flowers per plant. The maximum fruit weight, number of fruits per plant and yield were recorded with plants treated with T7 (30%Vermicompost + 30% FYM + 40% NPK) followed by T8 (20%Vermicompost + 20% FYM + 60% NPK) at 90 DAP. The maximum Benefit: Cost ratio (1: 3.42) was recorded in T7 (30%FYM + 30% Vermicompost + 40% NPK) than T8 (20%FYM + 20% Vermicompost + 60% NPK) Due to its high productivity, The highest yield and best quality fruit were recorded in the combination of T7 (30%FYM + 30% Vermicompost + 40% NPK).
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131117
  • Effect of Mulched and without Mulched Intercrops on Growth Yield and Fruit
           Quality of Kinnow Mandarin Plantation under Semi-Arid Irrigated Conditions

    • Authors: Dinesh Kumar, Surender Singh, Indu Arora, Jeet Ram Sharma, Rao Pankaj
      Pages: 1394 - 1400
      Abstract: The aim of the present was to analyze the effect of different intercrops with and without mulch on growth, yield and quality of kinnow mandarin orchard. The data of kinnow plant such as height, stem girth, canopy spread, and canopy volume were collected in the month of February 2020 before transplanting the intercrops. The intercrops under mulch and without mulch treatments have significant effect on growth of kinnow plant, the percent increase in plant height (3.22%) in kinnow + watermelon, stem girth (4.20%) in kinnow + tomato, and canopy spread EW direction (3.89%) in kinnow + cantaloupe, were found to have positive effect in mulch intercrops treatments and percent increase in canopy spread NS direction (3.76%) and canopy volume (10.84%) in kinnow + watermelon, was found in without mulch intercrops treatments. The number of fruits per tree, average fruit weight and yield were significantly affected by mulch and without mulch treatments, with maximum number of fruits (920), fruit weight (161.11 g), and yield (361.34 q/ha) were recorded in kinnow + watermelon. TSS (11.56%), acidity (0.91%), ascorbic acid (30.15 mg/100ml juice) were recorded in without mulch intercrops treatments, and juice (42.96%), peel (27.84%) were recorded in mulch intercrops treatments.
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131118
  • Effect of Seed Germination and Seedling Vigour in Different Soil Media for
           the Establishment of Annual Drumstick (Moringa oleifera L.) cv. PKM-1

    • Authors: S. Sreehari, Devi Singh, C. John Wesley, Vijay Bahadur
      Pages: 1401 - 1407
      Abstract: A field experiment on the “Effect of seed germination and seedling vigour in different soil media for the establishment of annual drumstick (Moringa oleifera) cv.PKM-1” was conducted during August to November 2021,  naturally ventilated polyhouse of Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P.). The experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design consisting of 12 treatments and three replications. The experiment consisted of using media and fertilizers such as Soil, NPK, Perlite, Vermiculite, Biocompost, Bokashi and Coirpith in different combinations to evaluate the best media combination for the seed germination, seedling growth and establishment of annual drumstick. In this investigation,+ the result reveald that the treatment T8 [Soil (50%) + Vermiculite (25%) + Perlite (25%)] was found best in respect to the germination parameters, growth parameters and physiological parameters like days to germination (7.0), germination percentage (87%), seed vigour index (3.03), plant height (140.03 cm), number of leaves per plant (380.43), stem girth (2.05 cm), number of nodes (34.17), length of inter node (20.15 cm), fresh weight of shoot (21.48 g), dry weight of shoot (10.50 g), fresh weight of root (8.54 g), dry weight of root (3.90g) and root : shoot ratio (0.40) of annual drumstick (Moringa oleifera L.) cv.PKM-1.
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131119
  • Changing Structure and Composition of Rice Seed Sector: Insights from Seed
           Villages in Telangana State, India

    • Authors: S. Kaviraju, Aldas Janaiah, R. Vijaya Kumari
      Pages: 1408 - 1418
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to understand the recent developments in the seed industry as well as farm-level information from seed villages on the structure and composition of the of the rice seed system in the Telangana state. A focussed group discussion approach was adopted to collect the primary data needed for the study with 8 to 10 progressive and experienced seed farmers in 30 selected seed villages of two predominant seed producing districts of the state in two points of periods 2014 and 2021. The results indicated that the sizeable portion of seed business has been shifted to other neighbouring states specially to Chhattisgarh in case hybrid paddy due to special incentive is being given to seed growers. Similarly, cotton seed production area is being shifted to Karnataka due to less cost of production compared to Telangana. As a result, the relative share of Telangana in India’s seed business has declined from about 30 per cent to 18 per cent between 2014 and 2020. The commission paid to intermediators (organisers) by companies has increased by 40 per cent while the procurement price paid to seed growers increased merely 14 per cent in the case of inbred paddy seed and less than 1 per cent in the case of hybrid paddy seed. The MNCs' participation in both inbred and hybrid rice seed production has decreased substantially. The average yield of hybrid rice seed has decreased, and there is no improvement in its procurement price offered by companies between 2014 and 2021. The per cent of farmers who entered into a contract without specifying a price has been increased in last seven years. The companies reduced their services like insurance to farmers, supply of critical inputs like GA3 for free and prolonged payment period after procurement, and limited compensation in the event of crop loss, which influenced the farmers to convert from hybrid rice seed production to other crops.
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131120
  • Nutrient Composition and Total Antioxidant Activity in Eggplant (Solanum
           melongena) Germplasm

    • Authors: Minakshi Dutta, Debanjal Borah, Samindra Baishya, Sunayana Rathi
      Pages: 1419 - 1425
      Abstract: Brinjal, also referred to as eggplant, is one of the most consumed vegetables worldwide. In this investigation, the nutritional makeup and antioxidant capacities of ripe fruits from six different eggplant germplasms were assessed using accepted methodologies. Germplasms differed significantly in terms of variables such as moisture (88.140–91.327%), total soluble sugar (4.559–6.827%), ash (6.576–9.5%), reducing sugar (0.575–3.383%), crude fat (0.940-1.813%), crude protein (0.783–2.736%), and crude fibre (1.410–3.420%). Ascorbic acid, chlorogenic acid, total phenol, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and DPPH radical scavenging activity all exhibited antioxidant properties, with respective concentrations of 12.486-31.78 mg/100g, 150.820-342.650 mg/100g, 604.920-1007.006 mg GAE/100g, 5.156-14.5174 mg/100g, 10.729-22.192 mg/100g, and 88.860-205.070 µg/ml IC50. The nutritional value of JC-1 and the antioxidant characteristics of SM-6-7 were shown to be superior to other germplasms. The superior germplasms can be recommended for consumption as well as for use in breeding.
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131121
  • Interaction Effect of Phosphorus and Boron on Yield Components,
           Productivity Parameters and Quality Traits of Lentil (Lens culinaris L.)

    • Authors: Saumya Nema, S. B. Pandey, Anil Kumar, Ravindra Sachan, Abhishek Sirohiya, Ashish Kumar Singh
      Pages: 1426 - 1433
      Abstract: A field trial was conducted on sandy loam soil having low status of organic carbon and accessible nitrogen, medium in accessible phosphorous and high in accessible potassium at pot house of department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of C.S.A.U.A&T, Kanpur (campus) under Indo-Gangetic Plain zone of Uttar Pradesh, amid Rabi season of 2021-22. The experiment comprised of 16 treatment combinations in Factorial randomized block design with three replications. Lentil variety Lentil Shekhar 2 (KLB-303) was grown with the recommended agronomic practices. On the premise of the comes about exuded from the present investigation, it might be concluded that application of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1+ 2.5 kg Boron ha-1 significantly recorded maximum yield components viz. no. of pod plant -1 (71), Seed pod -1 (1.84) and Seed Index (3.23 g). Similarly, among the productivity parameters such as grain yield (15.67 q ha-1), straw yield (28.22 q ha-1), biological yield (43.89 q ha-1) and harvest index (35.70%) was also associated with the application of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1+ 2.5 kg Boron ha-1. Among the quality traits maximum protein content (22.40%) and protein yield (351.00 kg ha-1) was also associated with the application of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1+ 2.5 kg Boron ha-1. The present experiment clearly points out the significance of balanced use of Phosphorus and Boron nutrients in Lentil for improving the yield components, yield and quality of Lentil crop.
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131122
  • Delineation and Mapping of Groundwater Quality in Coastal Blocks of
           Tiruvallur District of Tamil Nadu Using GIS

    • Authors: D. Reethika, M. Baskar, D. Janaki, S. Rathika, R. Jagadeeswaran
      Pages: 1434 - 1444
      Abstract: An investigation was carried out to assess the quality of groundwater in coastal blocks of Tiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu. Approximately fifty groundwater samples were obtained from the coastline blocks in May 2022, particularly Minjur (25 Nos), Puzhal (7 Nos,) and Gummidipoondi (18 Nos). The groundwater samples were tested for physio-chemical (pH and EC) and chemical characteristics like cations-Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and anions- CO32-, HCO3-, Cl-, and SO42- ; and the resultant properties were computed (SAR and RSC). The pH of Minjur, Puzhal, Gummidipoondi blocks ranged from 7.66 to 8.78, 7.77 to 8.36 and 7.35 to 8.76 respectively.The EC of Minjur ,Puzhal,Gummidipoondi were 0.3 to 3.56 dS m-1,0.76 to 2.91 dS m-1 and 0.2 to 2.07 dS m-1 respectively. The SAR of Minjur, Puzhal, and Gummidipoondi ranged from 1.60 to 11.73 ,1.67-10.01, 0.6 to 6.87 respectively. . The RSC of Minjur ,Puzhal, Gummidipoondi ranged from -4 to 8.4 meq l -1 ,-0.8 to 3.4 meq l -1, -4.4 to 4.8 meq l -1 respectively. In the Minjur block, the majority quality of groundwater was characterized as good quality water (32 per cent), salty water (24 per cent), and alkali water (36 per cent). While in the Puzhal block, the majority quality of groundwater was characterized as good quality water (28.57 per cent), saline water (14.28 per cent), and alkali water (57.14 per cent). In the Gummidipoondi block, the majority quality of groundwater was assessed as good quality water (38.8 percent), and alkali water (50 per cent).
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131123
  • A Review on Crop Regulation Techniques in Guava (Psidium guajava L.)
           through Hi-Tech Practices

    • Authors: Kanchan Bhamini, Anjani Kumar, Sumit Kumar Mishra, D. N. Singh
      Pages: 1445 - 1453
      Abstract: Guava (Psidum guajava L.) is one of the most favorable fruit crops in India and is considered to be a well-executed, nutritionally valuable and profitable crop. Recently, guava has secured higher demand within the global trade because of its nutritional value and processed products. It is a hardy, prolific bearer and produces a fairly remunerative fruit crop. It is mainly cultivated on a large commercial scale. Guava fruit bears three bahar seasons, viz., Ambe bahar, Mrig bahar, and Hasth bahar. The continual bearing habit ends up in the reduction of yield with the inferiority of small-sized fruits. So as to overcome this problem, bahar treatment is practiced. Among the three bahar seasons, the heaviest flowering is observed in the Ambe Bahar season, but the fruit quality of this season is rough, watery, insipid in taste, poor in quality, less nutritive and is heavily attacked by many insects, pests and diseases. The fruit quality of winter season crops is excellent, nutritive, and escaped from the attack of fruit flies. Therefore, the crop regulation practice is to force the tree for rest and produce profuse blossoms and fruits throughout any one of the two or three flushes. It is necessary to reduce the fruit set during the rainy season and subsequently increase the fruit set during the winter season through the use of various chemicals like NAA, ethereal and urea etc to regulate the guava crop. This method aims at regulating uniform and good quality fruit and also maximizing produce as well as profit. This regulation method depends on climatic factors, cropping pattern, extend of the damage by the disease and pests, market and industry demand, cultivar, etc. Crop regulation is accomplished by the various strategies like water management to induce stress, training and pruning of shoots and roots at different levels as well as at different times and manual or chemical thinning of flowers.
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131124
  • Energy Dynamics of Aerobic Rice Cultivation in India

    • Authors: Mangal Deep Tuti, R. Mahender Kumar, B. Sreedevi, B. Nirmala, P. Senguttuvel, R. M. Sundaram
      Pages: 1454 - 1460
      Abstract: Aerobic rice needs 30% less total water for land preparation, 50% saving on labour requirement and 50% less GHG emission compared to transplanted rice. Energy use efficiency of aerobic rice cultivation also varies due to varieties. However, a detailed study on various energy inputs components of aerobic rice cultivation (variety, water management, spacing, fertilizer dose and weed management) is lacking. To confirm the energy dynamics of aerobic rice cultivation, a combined study was taken up to find out the energy input, output and energy use efficiency of aerobic rice cultivation consisting of various trials conducted at research farm of ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research and few other trials conducted at other places. Gayatri variety performed well in terms of higher energy use efficiency at eastern part of India. Further higher energy use efficiency (output/input ratio) was recorded at 100% RFD. Crop spacing also affects the total energy output of aerobic rice. It was seen that the total output energy is highest at optimum spacing of 20 x 10 cm compared to 25 x 10 and 30 x 10 cm. Apart from need based hand weeding, Pendimethalin 1.0 kg /ha + Bispyribac sodium 35 g/ha resulted higher energy use efficiency (2.75) compared to those of other chemical weed management practices. It was observed that aerobic rice based systems maintained higher productivity and profitability in comparison to transplanting based rice cropping systems. The study revealed that varieties, fertilizer dose and spacing played crucial role in enhancing the energy use efficiency of aerobic rice cultivation. So, farmers have to strike a balance among the input resources specially variety, water, fertilizer to achieve higher energy use efficiency in aerobic rice based cropping systems.
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131125
  • Yield Enhancement through a Low-Cost Irrigation System for Groundnut

    • Authors: V. P. Harini Harishma, S. Vallal Kannan, T. Sampathkumar, S. Sheeba
      Pages: 1461 - 1466
      Abstract: The existing irrigation system namely drip and sprinkler adds cost to production. So, an alternate low-cost irrigation system (rain hose irrigation) was compared with other irrigation systems. The study was proposed to find out the optimum soil moisture by selecting a proper irrigation system that supports optimum soil moisture management, enhanced productivity, high water use efficiency, and also involves less cost on production. The treatment comprises different methods of irrigation (drip, sprinkler, rain hose, and BBF) and deficit irrigation (100%, 125%, and 75% of PET) was tested. The results have shown that higher pod yield (3086 kg/ha) and high water use efficiency (11.2 kg/ha.mm) were attained in drip + 100% of PET and drip + 75% of PET. The high B/C ratio was attained in rain hose + 100% of PET and hence, considered as the low-cost irrigation technology for higher profit.
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131126
  • Effect of Zinc Application on Growth and Yield of Summer Maize (Zea mays)

    • Authors: Anupriya Yadav, Rinjumoni Dutta
      Pages: 1467 - 1472
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at the Instructional-cum-Research (ICR) Farm, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat during the summer season of 2019 to find out the effect of zinc on growth and yield through soil and foliar application. The experiment consisted of nine treatments viz., 0 kg/ha ZnSO4 (Control), 10 kg/ha ZnSO4 soil application, 20 kg/ha ZnSO4 soil application, 0.5% ZnSO4 foliar spray at 25 DAS, 0.5% ZnSO4 foliar spray at 25 DAS and 45 DAS, 10 kg/ha ZnSO4 ­soil application + 0.5% ZnSO4 foliar spray at 25 DAS, 10 kg/ha ZnSO4 ­soil application + 0.5% ZnSO4 foliar spray at 25 DAS and 45 DAS, 20 kg/ha ZnSO4 ­soil application + 0.5% ZnSO4 foliar spray at 25 DAS and 20 kg/ha ZnSO4 ­soil application + 0.5% ZnSO4 foliar spray at 25 DAS and 45 DAS. The treatments were laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) and replicated thrice. The soil of the experimental site was sandy loam in texture, acidic in reaction (pH 5.4), medium in organic carbon (0.64%), low in available N (198.04 kg/ha), medium in available P2O5 (24.98kg/ha), low in available K2O (187.30 kg/ha) and low in available zinc (0.56 mg/kg). Experimental findings revealed that growth attributing characters like plant height was recorded in the combined application of 20 kg/ha ZnSO4 ­soil application + 0.5% ZnSO4 foliar spray at 25 DAS and 45 DAS. The Leaf Area Index (LAI) and yield attributing characters like weight of the cob with and without husk, number of grain rows per cob, number of grains per row, number of grains per cob as well as grain yield (43.05 q/ha) were recorded the highest in the combined application of 20 kg/ha ZnSO4 soil application + 0.5% ZnSO4 foliar spray at 25 DAS and 45 DAS which was at par with the combined application of 20 kg/ha ZnSO4 soil application + 0.5% ZnSO4 foliar spray at 25 DAS.
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131127
  • Effect of Organic Nutrients on Growth and Flowering Attributes of African
           Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) under Terai Region of West Bengal

    • Authors: Mahadevappa Buthe, Indrajit Sarkar, Bellapakonda Goutham Kishore, Soumen Maitra, Arpita Mandal Khan, Ranjit Chatterjee, Ayon Roy
      Pages: 1473 - 1483
      Abstract: A field experiment was conductedat Instructional farm, Department of Floriculture, Medicinal and Aromatic plants, Faculty of Horticulture, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya during 2019-2020 to study the “Effect of organic nutrients on growth and flowering attributes of African Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) under Terai region of West Bengal” with the objectives of different organic inputs for production of quantitative and qualitative flowers of African Marigold. Now a day’s organic cultivation practices have immense potentiality due to huge demand as because it resulted low health hazards as well as gave pollution free environment and improved soil fertility. The experiment was laid out by following Factorial Randomized Complete Block Design, consists of two factors in which first factor was varieties (Pusa Bahar-V1 and Pusa Narangi Gainda- V2)and second factor was ten treatments combination. Different Organic nutrients like Farm Yard Manure (FYM), Vermicompost, Poultry Manure, Sea Weed extract, Vermi wash and Mustard oil cake extract used in the experiments as basal application and foliar spray according to the treatments. The vegetative and floral attributes were recorded at peak flowering stage and the data was statisticallyanalysed. The data was significantly differed among the varieties, treatments and different treatment combinations with varieties. Between the two varieties, var.Pusa Narangi Gainda (V2) showed early flowering compared to var. Pusa Bahar (V1) but the longer duration of flowering (49.41 days) was observed with the var. Pusa Bahar (V1). Among the ten treatments,the treatment T10 (Poultry Manure @ 2.5t/ha + Vermiwash @ 3%) resulted the best against the important flowering parameters like total number of flowers per plant (55.73) and weight of ten fresh flowers (103.08 g). The var.Pusa Narangi Gainda when treated with Poultry Manure @ 2.5t/ha + Vermiwash @ 3% (T10)showed better performance in respect of several morphological and quality parameters of African Marigold. It may be recommended that the application of Poultry Manure@ 2.5t/ha as basal with combination of Vermi wash @3% spraying attwice (30 and 45 days after transplanting) during the plant growth for quantitative and qualitative producesof African Marigold in the terai region of West Bengal.
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131128
  • Effect of Chromium Species and Plant Growth Promoting Microorganisms on
           Growth Parameters of Amaranthus gangeticus

    • Authors: K. Niharika, S. Sheeba
      Pages: 1484 - 1490
      Abstract: In agricultural regions close to industrial areas, especially at the vicinity of tannery industry, chromium contamination poses a serious environmental risk. A pot experiment was carried out in the current study to assess the impact of hexavalent and trivalent chromium under the influence of microorganisms on Amaranthus gangeticus growth characteristics. Nine different concentrations of chromium (Cr) were used which consists of 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg Cr+6 as K2Cr2O7 and 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg Cr+3 as KCr(SO4)2, in conjunction with four different levels of microorganisms, consisting of control, Azospirillum, Phosphate solublizing Bacteria (PSB), and Potassium Releasing Bacteria (KRB). The study revealed that when Cr concentrations increased, steady decline was observed in shoot, root length, leaf length, leaf breadth, number of leaves, and fresh weight. But when supplemented with KRB, the treatments had an ameliorative impact on chromium and, in comparison, enhanced the growth characteristics.
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131129
  • Effect of Organic Manures and Inorganic Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and
           Quality of Onion (Allium cepa) var. Nashik Red

    • Authors: Kalle Preethi, Anita Kerketta, Vijay Bahadur, Sanam Rajkumar
      Pages: 1491 - 1497
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to find out the effect of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on growth, yield and quality of onion (Allium cepa L.) var. Nashik Red during 2021-2022 in Rabi season (Nov-Apr) at Horticulture Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh). Total 13 treatments were replicated thrice in Randomized Block Design (RBD).  The results showed that treatment T4 (75% NPK + 25% Poultry manure) was recorded maximum in growth and quality parameters i.e., plant height (62.29 cm), maximum number of leaves (10.38), maximum TSS (14.58 0Brix) and maximum ascorbic content  of (12.49).whereas, the yield parameters were maximum in treatment T8 (50% NPK + 50% Poultry manure) was recorded with maximum weight of fresh bulb weight (181.70 g), maximum weight of cured bulb (168.07 g), maximum bulb diameter (8.63 cm), maximum yield per plot (23.09 kg) and maximum yield per hectare (15.36 t).
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131130
  • Influence of Varied Plant Densities and Nitrogen Doses on Growth and Yield
           of Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Under High Density Planting System

    • Authors: D. Kavya, Ch. Pragathi Kumari, G. Sreenivas, T. Ramprakash, S. Triveni
      Pages: 1498 - 1504
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at College farm, College of Agriculture, PJTSAU, Hyderabad during kharif, 2021-22 to study the growth and yield of Bt cotton as influenced by varied plant densities and nitrogen doses under high density planting system. The results revealed that among plant densities, plant height (102.8 cm) and drymatter production (7396 kg ha-1) were higher with spacing of 90 x 15 cm (74,074 plants ha-1) and was on par with spacing of 90 x 20 cm (55,555 plants ha-1). Whereas, sympodial branches plant-1 (21.0) and leaf area (4143 cm2 plant-1) were recorded higher with spacing of 90 x 60 cm (18,518 plants ha-1). Even though at spacing 90 x 60 cm (18,518 plants ha-1) showed more number of picked bolls plant-1 (18.2), boll weight (5.10 g) but 90 x 15 cm spacing (74,074 plants ha-1) showed significantly higher seed cotton yield (2176 kg ha-1) which was at par with 90 x 20 cm (55,555 plants ha-1) (2052 kg ha-1). In case of nitrogen doses, application of 180 kg N ha-1 recorded higher growth parameters like plant height (103.2 cm), sympodial branches plant-1 (20.8), drymatter production (6952 kg ha-1) and leaf area (3826 cm2 plant-1). Whereas, application of 150 kg N ha-1 recorded higher seed cotton yield (2072 kg ha-1) with more number of picked bolls plant-1 (12.9) and higher boll weight (4.87 g) over other nitrogen doses tested.
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131131
  • Effect of Combined Application of Herbicides on Weed Flora, Yield
           Attributes Yield and Profitability of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    • Authors: Vinod Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, Vikash Singh, Shikhar Verma, Vivek Verma, Durgesh Kumar Maurya
      Pages: 1505 - 1515
      Abstract: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) commonly known as gram or Bengal gram belongs to the family Leguminaceae (Fabaceae). It's one of the most important rabi season pulse crops grown in India for economic importance and to improve soil fertility. The productivity of chickpea is low despite of having high-yielding varieties and new agronomic practices. One of the causes of poor productivity is the infestation of weeds in the field of chickpea. It is a poor competitor to weeds because of its slow growth rate and limited leaf area development at early stages. To overcome this, a field experiment was conducted during the rabi seasons of 2021-22 at the Agronomy Research Farm of the Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Ayodhya (UP). Replicated thrice set of eleven treatments (T1) Pendimethalin 30 EC @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha PE,(T2) Imazethapyr 10% SL @ 0.06 kg a.i./ha PoE,(T3) Clodinafop propargyl 15 WP @ 0.06 kg a.i./ha PoE, (T4) Propaquizafop 10 EC @ 0.075 kg a.i./ha PoE,(T5) Quizalfop ethyl 5 EC @ 40 g a.i./ha PoE, (T6) Pendimethalin 30 EC @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha PE followed by (Fb) Imazethapyr 10% SL @ 0.06 kg a.i./ha PoE, (T7) Pendimethalin 30 EC @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha PE fb by Propaquizafop 10 EC @ 0.075 kg a.i./ha PoE, (T8) Pendimethalin 30 EC @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha PE fb by Clodinafop propargyl 15 WP @ 0.06 kg a.i./ha PoE, (T9) Pendimethalin 30 EC @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha pE fb by Quizalfop ethyl 5 EC @ 40 g a.i./ha PoE, (T10) Weed free and (T11) Weedy check, was laid out in randomized block design. Weed management was done as per treatment. Other crop management practices were followed as per the recommendation of the area. Pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i./ha PE fb Clodinafop propargyl 15 WP @ 0.06 kg a.i./ha as PoE during the experiment recorded significantly less weed density, weed dry matter, and higher weed control efficiency, yield attributes (number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod and test weight), yield (grain yield, stover yield, biological yield, and harvest yield). Economically it recorded higher gross returns, the net return, and B:C ratio was noted and proved to be more remunerative as compared to other herbicide applications used in chickpea crop.
      PubDate: 2022-08-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131133
  • Effect of Organic, Inorganic and Biofertilizers on Growth, Yield and
           Quality of Cluster Bean (Cyamopsis tetragonaloba L.)

    • Authors: Palguna Erraiah, . Deepanshu, Vijay Bahadur
      Pages: 1516 - 1522
      Abstract: Cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonaloba L. Taub) popularly known as "Guar" is an important legume crop mainly grown under rainſed conditions in arid and semi-regions of Rajasthan during kharif season. The main objective is to optimize the concentration of NPK, FYM, Vermicompost, PSB, Rhizobium, which can be applied in the treatment of the soil, to maximize the crop yield and find out the most treatment combination of plant growth, yield and quality. This study was conducted in the horticulture Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (UP) from July 2021- October 2021 to investigate the impact of organic, inorganic, and biofertilizers on the growth, yield, and quality of cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonaloba L.). The experiment was laid out in RBD with nine Treatmentsconducted in the horticulture Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (UP) During from July 2021- October 2021. The experiment was laid out in RBD with nine treatments with three replications. The results revealed that T8 (N20P50K50 Vermicompost 5 t ha-1 + PSB 5 kg ha-1 + Rhizobium 5 kg ha-1) – performed the best in terms of Plant Height (140.22), Number of Branches (21.39), Length of Pods (25.00), Width of Pods (3.70), Weight of Pods (4.10), Number of cluster per plant (21.60), Number of Pods per plant (89.17), Number of seeds per pod (11.80), Number of Pod yields per plant (196.87), Number of pod yield per plot (68.03), TSS (12) B:C Ratio (2.5:1). Therefore, the treatment T8 (N20P50K50 Vermicompost 5 t ha-1 + PSB 5 kg ha-1 + Rhizobium 5 kg ha-1) is the best when compared to other treatments. As, the highest benefit cost ratio was observed in T8 (N20P50K50 Vermicompost 5 t ha-1 + PSB 5 kg ha-1 + Rhizobium 5 kg ha-1). i.e., (2.5:1) which states that is economically profitable compared to all other treatments.
      PubDate: 2022-08-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131134
  • Studies on Evaluation of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) Genotypes for
           High Tuber Yield and Quality

    • Authors: P. Pavithra, C. Thangamani, L. Pugalendhi, R. Swarnapriya, P. Meenakshi
      Pages: 1523 - 1530
      Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken at the College Orchard, Department of Vegetable Science, Horticultural College & Research Institute, TNAU, Coimbatore during the year 2021-2022 in a randomized block design with four replications. Six sweet potato accessions viz., Sree Arun, Sree Kanaka, Bhu Krishna, CO 5, Ib 73 and Ib 74 were evaluated to study the growth, yield and quality parameters. All the accessions used in this study were morphologically different in leaf lobing, vine pigmentation, tuber skin and flesh colour. Statistical analysis also confirmed that each accession showed a significant difference among them for growth, yield and quality parameters. The results revealed that, maximum number of tubers per vine of 5.25 was observed in Ib 73, however the accession Ib 74 recorded the highest single tuber weight (205.65 g), tuber yield per plant (1.10 kg), tuber yield per plot (32.62 kg) and tuber yield per ha (22.72 t ha-1) followed by Ib 73 with tuber yield per plant (1.09 kg), tuber yield per plot (32.19 kg) and tuber yield per ha (22.35 t ha-1). The quality parameters viz., Dry matter (%), TSS, Total sugar and Total protein contents mainly decide the quality and nutritive value of sweet potato. There is a significant variation in the quality parameters i.e, TSS, Dry matter, Total sugar and Total protein contents. Higher values were recorded for dry matter content in Ib 73 (33.50 %). The highest total sugar content and protein content were observed in Ib 74 with 37.2 g/100g and 2.4 g/100g. Overall Ib 74 recorded the highest values for single tuber weight, tuber yield per plant, tuber yield per plot and tuber yield per ha.
      PubDate: 2022-08-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131135
  • Comparative Physiology and Antioxidant Response of Grasspea (Lathyrus
           sativus L.) Seedlings under the Iso-osmotic Potential of Salinity and
           Drought Stress

    • Authors: P. Chettri, K. Atta, K. Jana, A. K. Pal
      Pages: 1531 - 1540
      Abstract: Aims: This study's objective was to determine how early-stage grass pea seedlings will respond to salinity and drought stress with iso-osmotic potential, emphasising ROS-scavenging enzymes. Study Design: Completely randomized design. Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory studies on the grass pea varieties BK-14 and Pratik were carried out in the academic years 2017–2018 and 2018–2019 at the Department of Plant Physiology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal, India. Methodology: Sodium chloride and PEG 6000 solutions with iso-osmotic potentials of -0.2, -0.4, and -0.8 MPa were used to study salinity's effects and drought stress. The experiment was conducted in sand culture using modified Hoagland solution under diffused light, at a temperature of 22°C and an approximate relative humidity (R.H.) of 80±1%. Results: Results indicated that drought stress was found to produce more adverse effects on seedling dry weight and lipid peroxidation in comparison with iso-osmotic potential of salinity stress. Variety BK-14 was found to be more tolerant than Pratik for seedling dry weight at the highest intensity of drought stress. The data further indicated that drought- induced more accumulation of phenol in the leaf as well than iso-osmotic salinity stress. The activities of four ROS scavenging enzymes (viz, superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase) in leaves mostly showed a sigmoidal pattern of changes under varying levels of both stresses. Comparative analysis indicated that Pratik registered higher activities of two peroxidases, viz, GPOX and APX, under higher levels of drought stress while BK 14 registered higher activities under salinity stress. However, BK-14 was found to register a higher increase in SOD activity at the most intense level of salinity and drought stress as compared to Pratik. Conclusion: In the present experiment, it was discovered that BK-14 was generally more tolerant than Pratik for seedling growth under the utmost level of stress. This may be explained by the stronger antioxidative mechanism it exhibited in the present experiment under the conditions of the maximum stress, as generated by both enzymatic and non-enzymatic components.
      PubDate: 2022-08-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1131136
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