A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

              [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Climate Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 72)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Climate Change and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 198)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Nīvār     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Oxford Open Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

              [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change
Number of Followers: 28  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2581-8627
Published by SCIENCEDOMAIN international Homepage  [66 journals]
  • Temperature Induction Response: A Rapid Screening Technique for
           Thermotolerance in Plants

    • Authors: Doddaghatta H. Raviteja , M. M. Dhanoji, P. H. Kuchnur , Amaregouda A., Yasmeen Begum
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Global warming is a never-ending disastrous threat to the world and the existence of life. For many years, researchers have been cautioning about the disastrous results on the climate if the world touches average temperatures of 1.5ºC above the pre-industrial levels. High-temperature stress affects the growth and development of crops, Reduced photosynthesis and transpiration lead to lower biomass and increased respiration, leading to faster depletion of stored carbohydrates and reduced growth. Altered mineral nutrition and enzyme activity leads to nutrient imbalance and oxidative stress and eventually lowers yields to significant levels. Thermotolerance is a complex trait, and along with agronomic practices, there is a need for the identification and characterization of genotypes for heat tolerance, which is a prerequisite for crop improvement. Temperature Induction Response (TIR) is a high-throughput means successfully employed for assessing, identifying, and screening crop plants for thermotolerance in different crop species. TIR is based on the principle of the LD50 concept and acquired thermotolerance, which is crop-specific in nature. Hence, this review focuses on the relevance, methodology, standardization, mechanism, utilisation and significance of the TIR technique for crop improvement in different crop species to combat heat stress.
      PubDate: 2023-10-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113136
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • A Comprehensive Review on Climate Change Adaptation Strategies and
           Challenges in Agriculture

    • Authors: D. R. K. Saikanth , Sunil Kumar, Manu Rani , Anant Sharma , Swapnil Srivastava , Dileep Vyas , Gaurav Ayodhya Singh , Suneel Kumar
      Pages: 10 - 19
      Abstract: This review examines the impact of climate change on Indian agriculture and adaptation strategies. Climate change, driven by human activities, poses challenges like rising temperatures and extreme weather events. Rising temperatures can induce heat stress in crops, leading to reduced yields and poor quality produce. Farmers use adaptation measures like altering planting dates and developing climate-resilient crops. Changing rainfall patterns, erratic or insufficient rainfall can trigger drought conditions, parching farmlands and causing crop failures. On the other hand, excessive rainfall can result in flooding, which damages crops and soil, disrupting agricultural operations especially during the monsoon. Soil conservation, precision agriculture, and urban food production initiatives promote food security and resource recycling. Addressing water scarcity requires improved irrigation and efficient water management. Climate change affects agricultural pests population and threatening global food security. Various adaptation strategies, including traditional practices, resource-conservation technologies, and socio-economic interventions, are being implemented. Climate-smart agriculture technologies like precision agriculture increase yields and resilience. Success depends on regional suitability, economic viability, and collective implementation. Agriculture operates within a complex socio-ecological system with uncertainties in policy, economics, and climate. Site-specific climate-smart agriculture practices are crucial for smallholders' resilience and food security. Publicly provided agricultural extension services can help adopt these technologies, but barriers like financial constraints and cultural factors must be considered. This review emphasizes the need for comprehensive, context-specific approaches to address vulnerabilities in Indian agriculture to climate change and ensure a sustainable future for food production and smallholder livelihoods.
      PubDate: 2023-10-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113138
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Investigation on the Abiotic Influences on Amplitude Fluctuation in the
           Incidence of Major Pest of Rice in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Rajneesh Pal , Umesh Chandra , Deepak Kumar, Chandra kant , Vijay Kumar , Suneel Kumar
      Pages: 20 - 28
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted at Students Instructional Farm, Acharya Narendra deva University of agriculture and technology Kumarganj, Ayodhya (U.P.). during Kharif season 2021. The incidence that, the yellow stem borer, leaf folder, green leaf hopper, BPH and gundhi bug were recorded. The highest dead heart per cent of yellow stem borer was recorded on rice at 36th SMW (12.97 per hill) and white ear per cent (7.41 per hill) in 44th SMW, leaf folder 41st and 32nd SMW (6.75 & 0.10 per hill), green leaf hopper 43th and 32nd SMW (3.25 & 0.20 nos./hill), BPH 44th and 34th SMW (9.84 & 0.15 nos./hill) and gundhi bug 45th and 40th SMW (1.37 & 0.20 per hill). Yellow stem borer (dead heart) was showed non-significant positive correlation with rainfall, minimum, maximum temperature and sun shine however, relative humidity showed significant positive correlation with dead heart. White ear showed that non-significant negative correlation with rainfall while, minimum, maximum temperature and relative humidity significant negative correlation however, sun shine showed non- significantly positive correlation with white ear. Leaf folder incidence showed non- significant positive correlation with rainfall and relative humidity, maximum and minimum temperature showed non-significant negative correlation, however sun shine showed significant positive correlation. Relative humidity and rainfall exhibited non-significant negative correlations with the incidence of green leaf hopper, although substantial positive correlations with sun shine and minimum and maximum temperatures were observed. Minimum and maximum temperatures, relative humidity, and rainfall all exhibited non-significant negative correlations with the population of BPH; however, sunshiny days revealed a substantial positive link. The incidence of gundhi bug, showed significant negative correlation with minimum, maximum temperature and relative humidity correlation while rainfall and sun shine showed non-significant negative correlation and non-significant positive correlation respectively.
      PubDate: 2023-10-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113139
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Response of Nutrients and Mulches on Qualitative Attributes of Strawberry
           (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) cv. Chandler

    • Authors: Charu Shekhawat, Sanjay Kumar , Shatrunjay Yadav, Pooja Meena , Usha Shukla, Deeksha Gautam , Surbhi Prithiani
      Pages: 29 - 33
      Abstract: To assess the significance of mulching and nutrients on the performances of Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) with respect to the qualitative character's during 2019–20, a field experiment was carried out at the Horticulture Research Farm-1 of the Department of Horticulture, School of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University), Vidya-Vihar, Rae Bareli Road, Lucknow. The experiment was laid out in RBD having three replications. The result revealed significantly highest Tss (11.28)0Brix, Total Sugar (8.89%), Reducing Sugar (6.85%), Non Reducing Sugar (2.39%), Acidity (0.63%) and Ascorbic Acid (41.90 mg/100g) in treatment T9 (Black polythene FYM 100%) followed by the treatment T10 (Black polythene vermi-compost 100%). Treatment T1 (the control), on the other hand, performed poorly in terms of all qualitative character’s. In light of the results, it can be said that using black polythene with FYM 100%in strawberry increases all qualitative attributing characters, while black polythene with vermin-compost 100% produced the second-best results.
      PubDate: 2023-10-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113140
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Optimum Yaramila (N23P10S5) Blend Formulation and Its Fertilization for
           Growth and Yield of Wheat in Enderta District, South Eastern Tigray

    • Authors: Hagos Brhane , Daniel Berhe
      Pages: 34 - 38
      Abstract: Fertilizer use in Ethiopia has focused mainly on the application of nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers in the form of di-ammonium phosphate and urea for almost all cultivated crops for the last several years. Such unbalanced application of plant nutrients may aggravate the depletion of other important nutrient elements in soils such as S and micro-nutrients. Present study was conducted in Tigray region Enderta district with the objective of evaluating Yaramila (23-10-5, N: P2O5: S) and its rate on yield of wheat crop. In this trial five treatments were included and it was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The results indicated that biomass, grain, and straw yields of wheat responded to the additional yaramila levels. But, these levels did not beat recommended NP and the maximum grain yield was obtained at the recommended NP. The yaramila@200kg/ha level has almost equal levels of N and P with the recommended NP and additional sulfur levels but the yield and yield components of wheat were not significantly higher than recommended NP even with additional NP adjusted. This implies that either the sulfur or the formulation of blending decreased nitrogen and phosphorus efficiency. Hence, nitrogen and phosphorus are the yield limiting nutrients rather than sulfur for wheat. Moreover, Yaramila blended based on this formulation as source of sulfur is not a suitable fertilizer for wheat growth in the study. So, other alternative sources of sulfur rather than yaramila should be used for wheat production.
      PubDate: 2023-10-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113141
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Green Manure: Aspects and its Role in Sustainable Agriculture

    • Authors: Dheerendra Singh , Khumanthem Babina Devi , Ashoka P., Raj Bahadur , Neeraj Kumar , Okram Ricky Devi , Yumkhaibam Sonia Shahni
      Pages: 39 - 45
      Abstract: Continuous cropping and frequent soil cultivation contribute to the breakdown of soil aggregates and the removal of organic matter, which reduces soil fertility and production. Green manuring is a low-cost and efficient approach for reducing the expense of inorganic fertilizers and preserving soil fertility. Due to the mounting problems facing agriculture, including climate change, extreme weather events, soil deterioration, and land contamination as a result of the overuse of chemical fertilizers, many farmers are adding green manuring into their methods to prevent soil erosion, improve soil structure, control weed growth, and most importantly increase the soil's fertility. The use of green manure has drastically decreased, raising concerns about the sustainability of soil fertility. Field crops may experience a temporary setback following the integration of organic residues with a high C-N ratio. By enhancing the soil's structure, fertility, and nutrient content, green manuring functions as a restoration factory to maintain the soil's fertility for sustainable agriculture. Green manure is therefore essential for growers that seek to decrease the use of dangerous chemicals for soil fertilization. Many farmers must use green manure in their operations to avoid the usage of chemical fertilizers in agriculture.
      PubDate: 2023-10-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113142
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Impact of Different Land Use Practices on Size of Soil Aggregates and Its
           Mean Weight Diameter under Vertisols of Central India

    • Authors: Anil Kumar , Hitendra K. Rai, Suwa Lal Yadav , Shani Gulaiya, Devendra Kumar Inwati
      Pages: 46 - 54
      Abstract: The present study was carried out at JNKVV, Jabalpur (23010’ N latitude, 79057’ E longitudes and at elevation 393.0 meters above mean sea level). This study was carried out in 2019 that laid out in split plot design with nine main treatments of land use practices (forest land, perennial forage land, uncultivated land, aonla orchard, rice-wheat system, soybean-wheat system, guava orchard, mango orchard and citrus orchard) and three sub-plot treatments of soil depths (0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm) which were replicated three times. A total of 81 soil samples were subjected to determination of different size (> 5.0, 2.0-5.0, 1.0-2.0, 0.50-1.0, 0.25-0.50, 0.10-0.25 and <0.10 mm) water stable soil aggregates and mean weight diameter of soil aggregates. Results revealed that land use practices and soil depths significantly affect the mean weight diameter of soil aggregates, distribution of different size soil aggregates. It was noted that irrespective of soil depths, proportions of macro-aggregates (>0.50 mm size) and mean weight diameter were highest under forest land and lowest in soybean-wheat system. However, number of micro-aggregates (< 0.50 mm) increased with soil depths and macro-aggregates and mean weight diameter of soil aggregates were highest at 0-20 cm depth. It can be concluded that extent of soil disturbance significantly alters the proportion of macro-aggregates (>0.50 mm size) and mean weight diameter of water stable soil aggregates with higher in undisturbed (forest, uncultivated and perennial forage) land uses and lower in crop lands which decreased with increase in soil depths.
      PubDate: 2023-10-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113143
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Enhancing Germination and Seedling Vigour of Interspecific F1 Hybrid
           Chilli Seeds through Priming with KNO3 and GA3

    • Authors: Umesh Babu B. S., B. V. Tembhurne, P. H. Kuchanur , Hasan Khan , D. S. Aswathanarayana , B. Kisan
      Pages: 55 - 66
      Abstract: India is called a home for spices and also involved in the export. Chilli is an indispensable spice, essentially used in every Indian cuisine due to its pungency, taste, appealing odour and flavour. Quality seed is a key component for the successful agriculture, where the main objective is each seed should germinate and produce a vigorous seedling which ensures higher seed yield, productivity and also better storability to achieve good yield in the coming season. To achieve all the above said traits, the seed technologists have developed seed enhancement techniques. Seed enhancement techniques are post-harvest treatment of seeds to enhance the seed germination and seedling growth by facilitating the delivery of seeds with other materials at sowing time. This enhancement technique includes hydration treatments like seed priming and seed encapsulation like seed pelleting, which impacts significantly on seedling emergence and establishment. In this experiment study was conducted different priming treatments, seeds primed with KNO3 @ 1%, 2% and 3% and seeds primed with GA3 @ 50 ppm, 100 ppm and 150 ppm, the seeds treated with KNO3 @ 1% showed highest germination percentage, root, shoot, seedling length, seedling dry weight and seedling vigour index I and II which was followed by GA3 @ 50 ppm. Acknowledge of proper priming techniques in order to improve the germination in the seeds.
      PubDate: 2023-10-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113144
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Lead Contamination on Morphological Attributes and Biomass
           Allocation of Bambusa balcooa (Roxb.)

    • Authors: Mamta Rani , Mamta Lathwal , Vikas, Anand Narain Singh , Nirmala Chongtham
      Pages: 67 - 76
      Abstract: Lead contamination in the agricultural soil by anthropogenic activities, industrialization and modernization poses a great concern to human health. A pot experiment was completed to evaluate the effect of Pb concentrations (0, 150, 500, 1000, 1700 mg kg-1) of lead nitrate on Bambusa balcooa plantlets grown in earthen pots placed in a fenced enclosure. For each concentration, three replicates were taken and to reduce the heterogeneity in the results, pots were placed in randomized manner. Thereafter, plantlets were transplanted in the pots and grown in the natural condition, only rainfall was controlled by covering the fenced enclosure with polythene sheet. The result showed that a higher concentration of Pb caused a minimum increase in the number of culm (0%), nodes (25%), leaves (58.53%), length of internode (19.04%), plant height (32.89%) and leaf area (62.91%). Biomass of the plant ranged from 5.33± 0.57 to 37.33±6.42g and moisture content was found maximum in Pb 500 mg kg-1 (38.78%) throughout the experiment. Findings of the study indicates that B. balcooa can tolerate the elevated level of Pb toxicity and can be used for remediation purpose.
      PubDate: 2023-10-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113146
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Source-Sink Relationsionship Studies in Multicapsule Genotypes of Sesame

    • Authors: B. Rajkumar, K. T. Ramya , K. B. Eswari , Ratna Kumar Pasala
      Pages: 77 - 86
      Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the source and sink relationship in multicapsule genotypes of sesame.  Thirty-six multicapsule genotypes along with two single capsule genotypes as checks were used in this study. Data on source characters such as number of leaf axils, leaf area, SPAD chlorophyll, photosynthetic rate, plant height, stem girth was recorded at capsule formation stage. Similarly, data on sink related characters such as number of flowers per axil, number of capsules per axil, capsule length, breadth, seed weight, seed yield per plant, and oil content were recorded.  There were 1 to 3 capsules per axil, genotypes, SC-500-1, PI-154298, JCS-1020, exhibited 3 capsules at every axil.  The results indicated the source characters such as number of leaf axils per plant was significantly positively correlated with seed yield per plant, leaf area was significantly positively correlated with number of flowers per main stem, total capsule number per main stem and seed weight of the right capsule in the bunch of the capsules. SPAD chlorophyll was positively associated with, number of flowers per axil, number of capsules per axil and seed yield per plant. Photosynthetic rate was significantly associated with total number of capsules per main stem of the plant, oil content and test weight. There were 7 principal components which explained 80 of the variation presents in the genotypes. Characters such as number of flowers per axil, number of leaf axils per plant, number of capsules per axil in the main stem and capsule length, weight, seed weight of left and right capsules contributed for the variation. Variation in these characters distributed the genotypes across the axis in the PCA biplot. Genotypes such as SC-500, PI-154298 exhibited high capsules number per plant, capsules per axil, capsule length and capsule seed weight. This study indicated that the genotypes showing more than 1 capsules per axil have high leaf area, stem girth. These genotypes are potential source for utilization in yield improvement programmes. 
      PubDate: 2023-10-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113147
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Recent Advances for Detecting and Addressing Plant Disease: Towards Future

    • Authors: Pranjali Sinha , Pooja Kathare , Anjan Roy
      Pages: 87 - 94
      Abstract: Pests and pathogens inflict enormous financial harm on the global farming industry. Monitoring plant health and early pathogen detection is essential for facilitating successful management strategies and preventing the spread of disease. Various traditional methods and serological techniques have been found to be time-consuming and require handling skill. Also, the reliability of the result is uncertain, and it is hard to diagnose the pathogen during asymptomatic stages. Hence, the innovative sensors based on host reactions assessment, phage display-based biosensors, and bio-photonics in combination with other systems, remote sensing techniques integrated with spectroscopy-based approaches allow for high spatialization of data; these techniques could mainly be of immediate benefit for initial identification of infection and early control with limiting the use of Systemic Fungicides and developing a sustainable environment with high yield.
      PubDate: 2023-10-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113148
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Diseases and Pests Harmful to Honeybees (Apis spp.) and Their Management
           Tactics: A Review

    • Authors: Dhananjay Kushwaha , Katta Subramanya Sai Teja , Nagendra Kumar , Ashutosh Singh Aman , Arun Kumar , Shailja Jaiswal , Madan Mohan Bajpeyi , Anam Khan
      Pages: 95 - 109
      Abstract: Honeybees (Apis spp.) play a vital role in pollination and contribute significantly to global agriculture. However, the health and survival of honeybee colonies are threatened by a range of harmful insect pests and diseases. This review provides an overview of the major pests and diseases that impact honeybee colonies and explores the diverse management tactics employed to mitigate their effects. The primary focus is on key pests such as the Varroa mite (Varroa destructor), which inflicts considerable damage by parasitizing adult bees and their brood, facilitating the transmission of debilitating viruses. Management strategies for Varroa mites encompass chemical treatments, integrated pest management (IPM) approaches, and organic treatments to curtail mite populations and prevent colony collapse. Another significant threat discussed is the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida), a beetle species that disrupts hives by laying eggs in comb and consuming stored resources. Hive manipulation, traps, and chemical controls are among the tactics utilized to control small hive beetle populations and mitigate their impact. The review also addresses wax moths (Galleria mellonella and Achroia grisella), which target hive comb, potentially causing comb destruction and honey fermentation. Hive maintenance, freezing, and pheromone traps are outlined as effective strategies to combat wax moth infestations. Additionally, the review covers Nosema infections (Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae), and microsporidian parasites that compromise adult bee health by weakening immune systems and reducing foraging efficiency. Hive hygiene, medications, and genetic selection are explored as methods to manage Nosema infections and bolster colony resilience. To effectively manage these harmful pests and diseases, a holistic and integrated approach is recommended. Beekeepers are encouraged to remain informed about the latest research findings and implement appropriate measures, considering local conditions and sustainable beekeeping practices. By combining scientific knowledge with practical application, the resilience of honeybee colonies can be enhanced, ensuring the vital role they play in pollination and global food security.
      PubDate: 2023-10-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113149
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Water Quality Assessment on Physicochemical and Biological Parameters of
           Selected Lentic Ecosystem in Aboh Mbaise Local Government Area, Imo State,

    • Authors: Frank C. Mbachu , Ify L. Nwaogazie , Victor Amah
      Pages: 110 - 122
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the suitability of the ponds in Aboh Mbaise Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria for domestic use. A cross-sectional study was carried out for the study. Composite sampling method was used, where three water samples were collected randomly from each station to ensure that the samples were representative of the entire station. Samples were collected during the rainy season, given that the ponds always dry up during the dry season. Physicochemical and microbial analyses were carried out on water samples of selected lentic aquatic ecosystems in randomly identified ponds in five communities of Aboh Mbaise. These ponds are used by the residents of these villages for various domestic and anthropogenic activities. Statistical analyses include: descriptive statistics, Analysis of Variance, Parallel coordinate plot, Pearson correlation, Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) and Water Quality Index (WQI) were carried out. Results indicate that pond water within the study area did not fall within the bracket of good water quality, as per the WQI range of 0 to 50, thereby affirming the poor quality of water. The WQI for the five ponds ranges from 1338.71 - 3322.81.  There is a direct correlation between the presence of Total Bacterial Counts from Shigella and Salmonella counts and the presence of fecal contamination from both human and animal wastes. Given the poor quality of the pond water, it is unhealthy for the inhabitants in the study area to use pond water for food preparation and other household tasks, except if it is treated.
      PubDate: 2023-10-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113150
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Farmer’s Awareness Level on Organic Agriculture in Varanasi District
           of Uttar Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Rakesh Kumar Mishra , Ameesh John Stephen , Nitin Barker , Akash Rai
      Pages: 123 - 129
      Abstract: The present study was conducted in four blocks of Varanasi district (Uttar Pradesh). A total 332 respondents from 63 villages were selected by the researcher. The objective of the study was to know the awareness level of respondents towards the organic fertilizers, organic farming, sources of information regarding awareness, and duration of practicing organic agriculture. It was found that around 43.97 percent of the respondents were aware of the organic farming in the study area. However only four types of organic fertilizers Organic Manure, Vermicompost, City compost, and PROM, known to the respondent out of 10 fertilizers recommended under FCO 1985, amended in July 2021. Most of the respondents practiced organic farming within the last 6 to 8 years, concurrent with the government policies emphasizing organic farming. The most important source of information regarding awareness towards organic farming was Krishi Vigyan Kendra and NGOs in the study area.
      PubDate: 2023-10-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113151
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessing Farmer Vulnerability to Climate Change in Karnataka: A Focus on
           Index Development

    • Authors: Vikas Chowhan , D. M. Chandargi , S. B. Goudappa , S. K. Kammar , B. G. Koppalakar , G. B. Lokesh
      Pages: 130 - 142
      Abstract: Agriculture represents a core part of the Indian economy and provides food and livelihood to much of the Indian population. Climate change can affect crop yields both positively and negatively, by impacting agricultural inputs such as water for irrigation, amounts of solar radiation that affect crop growth, as well as the prevalence of pests and diseases. It is widely accepted that developing countries are generally more vulnerable to the effects of climate change than the more developed countries. Among the developing countries, India may be most vulnerable to climate change due to its high reliance on natural resources mainly agriculture, inability to adapt financially and institutionally, low per capita GDP, extreme poverty and huge population. Temperature and rainfall are the most important crucial factors which affect plant development, growth and yield. So, any changes in the climate will adversely affect the productivity of the major crops through changes in the phenological process of the crop. So, Vulnerability assessment is a practical tool to identify the systems that are susceptible to be harmed, Knowing the systems' level of vulnerability is helpful to identify and develop reduction actions like increasing the adaptive capacity and decreasing the sensitivity and understand the dynamics between the different sectors and dimensions. In this study, a vulnerability index of the farmers to climate change was developed using the standardized procedures with three dimensions: exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Consisting a total of 56 items. The validity of vulnerability index was validated using face and content validity. Consequently, reliability of the vulnerability index was also verified using Cronbach's Alpha. Thus, the study found that the vulnerability index reliability was 0.846(\(\alpha\)).
      PubDate: 2023-10-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113152
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Impact of Foliar Feeding of Borax, Zinc Sulphate and Their Intraction on
           Post Harvest Losses and Economy of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Cv. Gwalior

    • Authors: Komal Yadav , Shashi S. Yadav , Manju verma , Priyadarshani Arun Khambalkar , Sunil Kumar Yadav , Shankar Lal Yadav , Suman Chopra
      Pages: 143 - 147
      Abstract: A field experiment entitled “Effect of foliar application of borax and zinc sulphate on growth, yield and quality of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Gwalior-27” was carried out at Agrotechnology Park, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, College of Agriculture, Gwalior (M.P.) during 2016-2017. The experiment was consisting of 9 treatments having two levels of each Borax (0.2 per cent and 0.4 per cent) and Zinc sulphate (0.4 and 0.6 per cent). The experiment was laid out in Factorial randomized block design with three replications. Among different doses of foliar spray of nutrients, Zinc sulphate @ 0.6 (T5) were found significantly superior over control with respect physiological loss in weight (g) and shelf life of guava. While the minimum spoilage % was recorded with treatment B2Z2 (Borax@ 0.4% + ZnSo4@ 0.6%) at 5th, 10th and 15th day of storage respectively.
      PubDate: 2023-10-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113153
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Sowing Time and Spacing Influenced Yield, Quality and Economics of Bt
           Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    • Authors: P. M. Patel , K. K. Patel , C. K. Patel
      Pages: 148 - 155
      Abstract: A field study was conducted in the 2019 kharif season at the Agronomy Instructional Farm, SDAU, SKNagar, Gujarat, India. To investigate that the sowing time and spacing influenced yield, quality and economics of Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in loamy sand soil. Twelve treatment combinations were examined, involving three sowing times (T1: 3rd week of May, T2: 1st week of June, T3: 3rd week of June) and four plant spacings (S1: 90 cm × 60 cm, S2: 90 cm × 45 cm, S3: 60 cm × 60 cm, S4: 60 cm × 45 cm). Four replications of a split plot design were used for the experiment. The third week of May was consistently the best time to sow cotton, according to the results, producing the maximum yields of seed cotton and stalk cotton. The quantity of monopodial branches/plant, harvest index and plant population as well as quality parameters such as oil content and ginning percentage were not significantly impacted by sowing time. The 3rd week of May sowing also yielded the highest benefit cost ratio and net realization. In terms of plant spacing, the spacing of 60 cm × 45 cm promoted highest plant population, taller plants and increased yield attributes like the bolls/plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield/plant. The highest seed cotton yield and stalk yield were achieved with this spacing. Harvest index and quality parameters were unaffected by plant spacing. The narrow spacing of 60 cm × 45 cm also resulted in the highest benefit cost ratio and net realization. The interaction effect between sowing time and plant spacing did not significantly influence growth, yield, yield attributes and quality parameters of Bt cotton.
      PubDate: 2023-10-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113154
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Influence of Organic Manures and Inorganic Fertilizers on Growth, Yield
           and Quality of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

    • Authors: Manibhushan Kumar , Deepanshu, Vijay Bahadur
      Pages: 156 - 162
      Abstract: A study was conducted at the Vegetable Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Prayagraj (UP) during 2022. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the plants in terms of various parameters such as plant height, Leaf Area Index, days to 50% flowering, days to first harvesting, number of pods per plant, pod length, pod girth, pod weight, pod yield per plant, pod yield per plot, pod yield per hectare, total soluble solids (TSS), Vitamin C and benefit-cost ratio. The results of the study indicated that the application of mixture of 50% inorganic fertilizers and 50% FYM improved the growth and yield of Okra. The highest pod yield (12.06 t/ha), pod weigh (25.42 g), TSS (9.47 Brix) and Vitamin C content (24.26) were observed in the plants treated with 50 % through Chemical fertilizer + 50 % through FYM. The benefit-cost ratio was also found to be higher in the treated plants compared to the control. Overall, the study suggests that the application of 50 % through Chemical fertilizer + 50 % through FYM can be an effective and sustainable method for enhancing the growth, yield, and quality of Okra.
      PubDate: 2023-10-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113155
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Climate Change Awareness and Vulnerability among Farming Communities of
           Konkan Region, Maharashtra, India

    • Authors: Rohit Shelar , Saikat Maji , Arun Kumar Singh , Shivananda P. Yarazari
      Pages: 163 - 175
      Abstract: This research paper presents an analysis of awareness and vulnerability to climate change among farming communities in a specific study area. The study focuses on understanding the level of awareness among respondents regarding climate change and its associated impacts. Additionally, it looks into the affecting socio economic factors of the level of awareness among farming communities. Furthermore, the study assesses the vulnerability of the farmers to climate change, considering indicators such as exposure to disasters and perceived extent of loss. Based on the analysis of data collected from 245 respondents, it was found that a significant majority of participants demonstrated awareness of changing weather patterns and the warming of the climate. However, a lower level of awareness was observed regarding the significance of addressing climate change as an important issue. In terms of vulnerability, the findings indicated that a considerable number of respondents had experienced various climate-related disasters, including unpredictable rain, floods, cyclones, and outbreaks of disease or pests. The perceived extent of loss varied among respondents, with agriculture and related aspects being most affected. Using a vulnerability categorization method, it was determined that a significant proportion of respondents fell into the low and very low vulnerability categories.
      PubDate: 2023-10-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113156
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Impact of Elevated Ozone on Cabbage

    • Authors: S. Ramakrishnan , Periyasamy Dhevagi , Ramesh Poornima , Ambikapathi Ramya , Balaji Kannan , Kalichamy Chandrakumar , Jothimani Bhaskaran , Kovilpillai Boomiraj
      Pages: 176 - 186
      Abstract: Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a pervasive greenhouse gas and air pollutant known for its detrimental effects on human health and vegetation. In the recent years, tropospheric ozone has been rising steadily on the account of rapid urbanization and globalization. Hence, a study to investigate the impact of elevated ozone levels on cabbage cultivars have been initiated. The cultivars Tekila and Primero, which are extensively grown in the high-altitude region of the Western Ghats, India were used as test crop, where ozone levels are a growing concern. The study employed a comprehensive experimental design, encompassing ozone stress (200 ppb), cabbage varieties (Tekila and Primero), and different growth stages of the cabbage plants. Ozone fumigation at 200 ppb was used to simulate elevated ozone conditions, reflecting potential future scenarios. To assess the extent of impact both physiological and biochemical parameters were extensively analyzed. The results revealed that elevated ozone concentrations had a significant negative impact on both cabbage cultivars. Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll content declined progressively as ozone exposure continued, leading to maximum reductions of 71.2, 81.03 and 32.98% respectively. However, protective mechanisms were activated in response to ozone stress, including increased proline by 32.24%, ascorbic acid by 64.75%, catalase by 3.58%, and peroxidase activities by 56%, suggesting the cabbage plants' efforts to mitigate oxidative damage. Overall, this study highlights the vulnerability of cabbage cultivars to elevated ozone levels and emphasizes the need for effective mitigation strategies to safeguard crop productivity and ensure sustainable agriculture in regions facing escalating ozone pollution. Further research is essential to develop and implement solutions that can protect vital crops like cabbage from the adverse effects of tropospheric ozone.
      PubDate: 2023-10-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113157
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Morphological and Biochemical Changes in Moth Bean during Drought Stress

    • Authors: Manoj Kumar Meena , Anurag Malik , Rajvinder singh , Jogender, Arun Pratap Singh, Shilpa Naik , Ravindra Kumar Meena , Deepak Singh , Tushar Kumar , Kishan Kumar , Kinjal Mondal , Raj Laxmi , Salman Khan , Vikas Kumar
      Pages: 187 - 201
      Abstract: The current investigation on the repercussions of drought stress on the growth parameters of the Moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) has been carried out in a semi-field condition. Two sets of local moth bean cultivars (RMO-40: fifteen in each) were prepared, and one was subjected to terminal drought stress. The rest was maintained with proper watering as a control set. The treated plants were thoroughly evaluated based on leaf length, root length, and relative leaf water content in comparison with the control ones. The findings of this study reveal a significant impact of drought stress on moth bean's growth and physiological performance. Under drought conditions, treated plants exhibited considerable reductions in leaf length and root length compared to their well-watered counterparts. Additionally, the relative leaf water content declined under drought stress, indicating decreased water uptake and retention within the plants under stress. These outcomes underscore the vulnerability of moth bean to drought stress, emphasizing the urgency of developing efficient water management strategies and drought-resistant varieties to safeguard food security in regions where this legume serves as a staple crop. This research highlights the importance of understanding the adverse effects of drought stress on moth bean's growth parameters for sustainable agriculture and food production.
      PubDate: 2023-10-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113158
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessment of Physio Chemical Parameters and Water Quality Index of
           Different Ghats of River Ganga at Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Nihal Poul , Ibadaiahun Myrthong
      Pages: 202 - 208
      Abstract: Ganga, the longest river in India, provides water to millions of people who live along its bank and depend on it for their livelihood throughout the year. For about 40% of the population, it provides water for drinking and irrigation. This study was conducted to analyse the physico-chemical parameters and WQI of five different Ghats of River Ganga at Varanasi. The data recorded from the present investigation revealed that the maximum value of pH was recorded at Dasaswamedh Ghat with 8.57 in the month of March and minimum was 7.53 recorded in the month of February Harish Chandra Ghat. EC value was recorded maximum at Tulsi Ghat with 564 mmhos/cm in the month of April and the minimum value was 131 mmhos/cm in the month of January recorded at Assi Ghat. The maximum value of TDS was 319.67mg/l in the month of February recorded at Assi ghat and minimum data recorded was 229mg/l in the month of January at Manikarnika Ghat. The DO value was recorded maximum at Manikarnika Ghat with 8.20mg/l in the month of January and the minimum value was5.97mg/l recorded in the month of January at Tulsi Ghat. The BOD value was recorded maximum at Assi Ghat with 4.63mg/l in the month of March and minimum of 2.70 mg/l recorded in the month of January at Harish Chandra Ghat. The Total Hardness value was recorded maximum at Tulsi Ghat with 138.33mg/l in the month of February and minimum value of 78.33mg/l recorded in the month of January at Assi Ghat. The Total Alkalinity value was recorded maximum with 114.33mg/l in the month of April at Ghat and minimum value was 78.67mg/l recorded in the month of January at Harish Chandra Ghat. The chloride value was recorded maximum at Harish Chandra Ghat with 31.67mg/l in the month of February and minimum value was 10mg/l recorded in the month of January at Manikarnika Ghat. The results of the different parameters when compared with BIS standards were found to be within the permissible limit except for pH and BOD. The WQI of the different Ghats indicated poor category of water quality.
      PubDate: 2023-10-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113159
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Cultural and Morphological Variabilty in Rhizoctonia solani Isolates of
           Different Rice Growing Areas of Chhattisgarh, India

    • Authors: Nitin Kumar Toorray
      Pages: 209 - 220
      Abstract: The sheath blight disease of rice caused by Rhizoctonia solani is an economically important disease in India. A survey was carried out to find the disease severity of sheath blight of rice and collected the disease samples from the different locations of Chhattisgarh. Fifty eight isolates of R. solani collected from various locations of Chhattisgarh were studied for their morphological and cultural variation. Cultural and morphological parameters of each isolate like growth pattern of mycelium, colony colour, Colony growth diameter (mm) at different intervals was recorded after inoculation of R. solani on to the sterilized PDA in 90 mm Petri plates incubated at 28 ± 2 0C in B.O.D incubator after 15 days [1].  The isolates were assigned code numbers such as RS1, where "RS" named Rhizoctonia solani and "1" denote the serial number of the isolate. The R. solani isolates RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, RS5, RS12, RS19, RS34, RS50 and RS57 were recorded as fast growing isolates. The color of the fungal colony was varied from light brown to dark brown.
      PubDate: 2023-10-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113160
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Monitoring and Assessment of Water Quality of Iril River, Manipur, India

    • Authors: Sanasam Bidyabati , Satyendra Nath
      Pages: 221 - 230
      Abstract: The present study can be concluded that the analysis of the physio chemical parameters of Iril River revealed that most of the values are within the permissible limit of water quality standards. Water quality is suitable as per Standards norm of BIS and CPCB based on the determined values of pH, EC, TDS, DO, BOD, Chloride, Total Hardness, Total Alkalinity and Sulphate was monitored during the period of January 2023 to May 2023. The value of water pH recorded between 7.4- 8.34, EC ranged between 179.6 ms/cm-254 ms/cm, TDS ranged between 90.2 mg/l-126.8 mg/l, dissolved oxygen between 6.0-7.7 mg/l, BOD between 3.0 mg/l-3.9 mg/l, chloride between 28.9 mg/l-36.9 mg/l, total hardness between 112mg/l-170 mg/l, total alkalinity between 115 mg/l-174 mg/l and sulphate between 14.4 mg/l-39.3 mg/l. Hence, these rivers and hold to provide uninterrupted supply of drinking water to Iril River of Manipur without any major treatment.
      PubDate: 2023-10-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113161
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Seasonal Incidence of Insect Pests and Predatory Fauna on Toria (Brassica
           rapa) in West Central Tableland of Odisha, India

    • Authors: Saswati Parija , Lopamudra Biswal
      Pages: 231 - 240
      Abstract: The present field investigation was conducted for two consecutive Rabi seasons of years 2021/22 and 2022/23 at the College of Horticulture, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Chiplima, Odisha to record the seasonal incidence of major insect pests with the predatory fauna on toria (Brassica rapa) in relation to meteorological parameters. The occurring pest complex in both seasons constituted a total nine number of insects and three consistent predatory fauna. The highest peak population of pests recorded for 2021/22 were: mustard aphid (3.7 A.I plant-1 at 50th SMW), whitefly (25.9 whiteflies plant-1 at 50th SMW), painted bug (13.37 nymphs+adults plant-1 at 50th SMW), mustard sawfly (12 larvae plant-1 at 48th SMW), flea beetle (12.45 grubs+adults plant-1 at 50th SMW), diamondback moth (1.3 larvae plant-1 at 52nd SMW), leaf Webber (6.45 larvae plant-1 at 51st SMW), Bihar hairy caterpillar (29.3 larvae plant-1 at 50th SMW) and tobacco caterpillar (8.9 larvae plant-1 at 49th SMW. Similarly, the highest peak population of pests recorded for 2022/23 were: mustard aphid (3.82 A.I plant-1 at 51st SMW), whitefly (23.8 whiteflies plant-1 at 50th SMW), painted bug (13.7 nymphs+adults plant-1 at 51st SMW), mustard sawfly (15 larvae plant-1 at 48th SMW), flea beetle (13.45 grubs+adults plant-1 at 50th SMW), diamondback moth (1.2 larvae plant-1 at 47th SMW), leaf Webber (5.45 larvae plant-1 at 51st SMW) which coincided the abundance of natural enemies namely, coccinellid predators, syrphid fly and spider between 50th to 52nd SMW of the experimental year for both seasons. The correlation of insect pest density with weather parameters (Rabi, 2021/22) showed negative correlations with Tmax (mustard aphid, painted bug, flea beetle, leaf Webber, diamondback moth, Bihar hairy caterpillar), Tmin (all pests), rainfall (mustard aphid, whitefly, mustard sawfly, flea beetle, tobacco caterpillar), RH% at 7 hours (all pests), and RH% at 14 hours (mustard aphid, whitefly, painted bug, leaf Webber, diamondback moth, Bihar hairy caterpillar).For natural enemies, Tmax, Tmin, RH% at 7 hours, RH% at 14 hours, and wind velocity had negative effects on their population, while rainfall had a positive influence. However, in Rabi 2022/23, Tmax, Tmin, and RH% at 14 hours negatively influenced the pest population mostly except for wind velocity and RH% at 7 hours. For predators, wind velocity showed positive correlation with its’ population.
      PubDate: 2023-10-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113162
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Performance of Integrated Nutrient Management and Foliar Spray of
           Micronutrients on Growth, Yield Attribute and Yield of Wheat (Triticum
           aestivum L.)

    • Authors: Reenu Kumar , M. Z. Siddiqui , Vikash Teotia , Anurag Dhanker , Ram Naresh , Naushad Khan , Suryabhan
      Pages: 241 - 248
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during two rabi seasons of 2021-2022 and 2022-23 at Students’ Instructional Farm of Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology Kanpur, (U.P.) The experiment was caried out in SPD (Split Plot Design) with fifteen treatment combination were replication thrice. fifteen treatment treatments combination consisted of three organic manure + RDF nutrient source (Control (100% RDF), 100 % RDF + Vermicompost @ 2.5t/ha, and 100 % RDF + FYM @ 5t/ha) put under main plot and five foliar spray of micronutrient control (No spray),Foliar spray of ZnSO4 @ 0.25% at tillering and booting stages, Foliar spray of Nano Zinc @ 0.5% at tillering and booting stages, Foliar spray of FeSO4 @ 0.25% at tillering and booting stages and M5- Foliar spray of ZnSO4 @ 0.25% + FeSO4 @ 0.25% at tillering and booting stages) allotted under sub plot. The study on yield attribute and yield of wheat. The result showed that the maximum increase growth parameters, yield attribute and yield of wheat viz plant height (cm), number of tillers/m2, and leaf area index and number of grain/spike, number spike/m2, total grain weight spike (g) and test weight (1000 grain weight) (g) and grain yield (t/ha) and straw yield (t/ha) recorded significantly higher with F2- 100 % RDF + Vermicompost @ 2.5t/ha treatments. Among the sub plot, M5- foliar spray of ZnSO4 @ 0.25% + FeSO4 @ 0.25% at tillering and booting stages produced significantly maximum highest grain yield (5.95 t/ha) and straw yield (7.94 t/ha)
      PubDate: 2023-10-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113163
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Nutritional Significance of Fish in Combating Malnutrition

    • Authors: Patekar Prakash , Narsale Swapnil , Samad Sheikh , Indulata Tekam , Naik Bhalchandra , Gitte Madhav , S. Munilkumar
      Pages: 249 - 258
      Abstract: The nutritional importance of fish in the context of combating malnutrition holds significant potential as a strategic avenue for addressing global health issues. Malnutrition, characterized by deficiencies in vital nutrients, remains a critical concern affecting diverse populations. Fish is a nutrient-dense food source and investigates its potential contributions to alleviating malnutrition. Wild-caught and aquaculture-derived fish are rich sources of essential nutrients crucial for human health. Abundant in high-quality proteins, fish provides ample amino acids necessary for growth, immune function, and cellular repair. Moreover, fish is renowned for its content of omega-3 fatty acids, along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) also docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which confer cardiovascular advantages, neurological development, and anti-inflammatory properties. The importance of fish’s micronutrients, such as vitamins D and B12, iodine, selenium, and zinc. These micronutrients play integral roles in maintaining bone health, supporting cognitive functions, regulating thyroid activity, and enhancing immune responses. Notably, the bioavailability of these nutrients from fish exceeds that of many plant-based sources, highlighting its potential to address nutrient deficiencies effectively. The versatility of fish consumption across cultural diets and its potential to bridge nutritional gaps for vulnerable populations, particularly in regions with limited access to diverse nutrient sources. As malnutrition is influenced by various socio-economic, cultural, and environmental factors, adopting a holistic approach incorporating fish’s nutritional attributes could significantly address this challenge. This study aims to highlight the potential of fish as a strategic path for addressing global health issues.
      PubDate: 2023-10-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113164
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Iron and Boron on Growth and Yield of Foxtail Millet

    • Authors: Singi Reddy Keerthana Reddy , Umesha C., Satti Ramya Suma Sri
      Pages: 259 - 265
      Abstract: The field experiment was conducted during Zaid season 2023 at experimental field of Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology And Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India. The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.8), low in organic carbon (0.62%), available nitrogen (225 kg/ha), available phosphorus (38.2 kg/ha) and available potassium (240.7 kg/ha). The experiment was laid down in Randomized Block Design with ten treatments which are replicated thrice. The experiment consists of Iron and Boron. The treatment combinations are T1: Iron 0.25% + Boron 0.25%, T2: Iron 0.25% + Boron 0.50%, T3: Iron 0.25% + Boron 0.75%, T4: Iron 0.50% + Boron 0.25%, T5: Iron 0.50% + Boron 0.50%, T6: Iron 0.50% + Boron 0.75%, T7: Iron 0.75% + Boron 0.25%, T8: Iron 0.75% + Boron 0.50%, T9: Iron 0.75% + Boron 0.75%, T10: Control (RDF 50:30:20 NPK kg/ha). Results revealed that significant and higher plant height (84.43 cm), maximum number of tillers/hill (8.60), higher plant dry weight (14.41 g), higher panicle length (15.33 cm), number of grains/ panicle (1,263.00), test weight (4.34 g), grain yield (1.99 t/ha), straw yield (3.39 t/ha), maximum gross return (INR 66,480.00), net return (INR 43,186.40) and B:C ratio (1.85) were recorded in treatment 9 [Iron 0.75% + Boron 0.75%].
      PubDate: 2023-10-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113165
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessment of Growth Performance of Casuarina equisetifolia Clones in
           Tropical Region of Jabalpur District of Madhya Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Nanita Berry , Akash Shukla
      Pages: 266 - 271
      Abstract: Casuarina equisetifolia L., commonly known as the Casuarina or Australian Pine, is a fast growing, evergreen tree native to the coastal regions of Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands  and can be useful in carbon sequestration and in afforestation programme in tropical forest. An experiment was laid out at Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur (M.P.) India with an aim to assess the growth performance of Casuarina equsetifolia clones namely IFGTB CH-1, IFGTB CH-2, IFGTB CH-3, IFGTB CH-4, IFGTB CH-5, IFGTB CH-6, IFGTB CH-7, IFGTB CH-9, IFGTB CH-10 in tropical region of Madhya Pradesh comes under Kaymore plateau and Satpura Hills agroclimatic zone of  the state.  The results revealed that the clone IFGTB CH-5 produced the maximum volume per m3 followed by the Clone IFGTB CH-2 and IFGTB CH-4 because of the highest survival percentage among the all clones and maximum carbon stock was found in clone IFGTB CH-5 (0.044 tonnes) followed by CH-2 (0.028 tonnes), CH- 4 (0.026) and minimum carbon stock was found in CH-1 (0.016). Thus, Clone CH-5 is recommended for this region under afforestation programmes due to its fast growth within a short period of 2 years, quick pulpwood yield and maximum carbon sequestration.
      PubDate: 2023-10-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113166
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Safeguarding Agriculture: A Comprehensive Review of Plant Protection

    • Authors: Ashok Kumar Koshariya , Neha Sharma , Satya Narayan Satapathy , P. Thilagam , Akanksha, T. Laxman , Sumit Rai , Bal veer Singh
      Pages: 272 - 281
      Abstract: The rapidly evolving landscape of agriculture faces myriad challenges, including pests, diseases, and environmental factors that jeopardise global food security. The urgency of these challenges necessitates innovative plant protection strategies that are both effective and environmentally sustainable. This review offers a comprehensive examination of the advancements and considerations in plant protection, from traditional methods to modern technological approaches. Traditional practices, although eco-friendly, often fall short in efficacy and scalability. The advent of chemical solutions such as pesticides revolutionised plant protection but brought about environmental and health concerns. Biological controls offer a middle-ground, leveraging natural predators and bio-pesticides to combat agricultural threats. Technology is playing an increasingly critical role in shaping the future of plant protection. Sensor technologies and drones are enabling precision agriculture, enhancing the monitoring and application of protection measures. Genetic engineering holds the promise of creating crops resistant to pests and diseases, albeit amid ethical and safety debates. Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a balanced, eco-friendly approach, is gaining traction, supported by case studies that validate its effectiveness and adaptability. Meanwhile, policy and regulation are evolving to better govern the use of chemicals, promote sustainability, and address the impacts of climate change on agriculture. This review explores future trends, particularly the influence of emerging technologies such as nanotechnology and IoT, and potential shifts in global policies towards more sustainable practices. It argues for the imperative of integrating these multifaceted approaches, guided by robust policies and regulations, to achieve the dual objectives of high agricultural yield and environmental conservation. It aims to provide a holistic understanding and guide future directions in plant protection strategies, emphasising the importance of adaptability, sustainability, and integration in facing the challenges of tomorrow.
      PubDate: 2023-10-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113168
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessment of Exotic Sesame (Sesamum indicum) Accessions through Principal
           Component Analysis

    • Authors: Rahul Sonaniya, Rajani Bisen , Pallavi Sonaniya
      Pages: 282 - 290
      Abstract: The present research conducted over 96 exotic sesame accessions with five checks, to identify the minimum number of components, which could explain maximum variability out of the total variability using Principal Component Analysis (PCA); The investigation was performed under Project Co-ordinating Unit (Sesame and Niger) Research Farm, JNKVV, Jabalpur (M.P.) during kharif 2018 using Augmented block design. Among the studied traits, Component 1 had the contribution from the traits viz., number of primary branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule, oil content and seed yield/plant, which accounted 30.71% to the total variability. Days to flower initiation and days to 50% flowering had contributed 17.11% to the total variability in component 2. The remaining variabilities of 11.26%, 9.94%, 7.48% and 6.73% were consolidated in PC3, PC4, PC5 and PC6 respectievely by various traits like number of secondary branches/plant, capsule length, days to maturity, thousand seed weight and plant height . The cumulative variance of 83.23% of total variation among 12 characters was explained by the first six axes. On the basis of PC scores PC1, PC3 and PC5 accounting mainly to yield and quality traits containing accesions viz., EC-334998, ES-38, EC-346426, EC-334958, EC-340538, RT-351 and GT-10 might be further utilized in breeding programme.
      PubDate: 2023-10-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113170
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Phosphorous and Boron on Growth and Yield of Rice Bean

    • Authors: Sunhara Sanskriti , Umesha C.
      Pages: 291 - 299
      Abstract: A field experiment titled “Effect of Phosphorus and Boron on Growth and Yield of Rice Bean” conducted during the Zaid season of 2022 at the Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology And Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P.) India. To study the Response of Phosphorus and Boron on the growth and yield of Rice Beans. The treatments consist of Phosphorus 20, 40, 60 kg/ha and Boron (Borax 0.01% 20 DAS, Borax 0.02% 40 DAS, and Borax 0.03% 60 DAS). The experiment was laid down in a Randomized Block Design with ten treatments which are replicated thrice. The soil of the experimental plot was sandy loamy in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.8), and low in organic carbon (0.35%). Results obtained that the higher plant height (106.90 cm), higher number of nodules (30.94), higher number of branches (8.84) higher plant dry weight (49.25 g/plant), a higher number of pods/plant (26.25), higher number of seeds/pod (7.19), higher 1000 seed weight (58.19 g), higher seed yield (2.10 t/ha) and higher stover yield (4.66 t/ha) were significantly influenced with application of Phosphorus 60 kg/ha + Boron 0.03% at 60 DAS. Higher gross return (INR 1,15,500.00 /ha), higher net return (INR 84,155.70/ha) and higher B:C ratio (2.68) were also recorded in treatment-9 (Phosphorus 60 kg/ha + Boron 0.03% 60 DAS).
      PubDate: 2023-10-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113172
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Adaptation Strategies for Enhancing Sustainable Smallholder Dairy Cattle
           Productivity under the Regime of Climate Change in Bungoma County, Kenya

    • Authors: Gregory Nalianya
      Pages: 300 - 309
      Abstract: The study evaluated adaptation strategies for enhancing sustainable dairy cattle herd productivity under the present of climate change scenario. The study was conducted in three selected Sub Counties of Bungoma County that is Tongaren, Mt. Elgon, and Kimilili, Sub Counties with estimated total population of 900 smallholders. A cross-sectional, correction and evaluation research designs was used to provide an accurate portrayal of the characteristics of the respondents. A sample size of 415 respondents was used and served with questionnaires to solicit their responses. A review of empirical reports, interviews of key stakeholders, NGOs, professionals in the Kenya Metrological Department as well as ministry of agriculture was used to compliment data gathered through questionnaires. Quantitative data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS software. From the results farmers use the following adaptation strategies as a matter of priority of strategies to enhance productivity; - growing of early maturing and drought resistant crops varieties. Making silage and preserving of farm residues for dry spells. Farmers are collaborating with veterinary officers during breeding so as to improve on the quality of cows kept. This study recommends to all stakeholder to formulate policies to empower farmers to effectively adapt to climate change and variability for enhancing smallholder dairy cattle herd productivity in the county.
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113173
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • A Comprehensive Review of CRISPR/Cas9 Based Strategies in Horticultural
           Crop Modification

    • Authors: Gaurav Sharma , Shivani Ahalawat , Asif Islam , S. Vignesh, Soumya Unnikrishnan , Pradeep Kumar , Atar Singh , Megha Raghavan , Prerna Singh
      Pages: 310 - 323
      Abstract: The introduction of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology represents a groundbreaking advancement in the realm of horticulture. It provides a precise and effective means for making targeted genetic alterations in a wide range of plant species. This abstract delves into the diverse applications of CRISPR/Cas9 within the domain of horticultural crops, with a particular emphasis on its crucial role in tackling issues related to climate change. This review paper outlines the diverse applications of CRISPR/Cas9 in horticulture, including trait improvement for enhanced stress tolerance, disease resistance, and yield optimization. It highlights specific examples of successful CRISPR-edited horticultural crops and their contributions to climate adaptation. Furthermore, it discusses the potential of CRISPR/Cas9 in accelerating the development of new crop varieties tailored to thrive in changing climatic conditions. Additionally, the ethical and regulatory considerations surrounding the use of CRISPR/Cas9 in horticulture are addressed, as they play a crucial role in determining the broader adoption of this technology. Balancing the benefits of climate-resilient crop development with potential environmental and societal implications remains a critical aspect of its application. In conclusion, the transformative potential of CRISPR/Cas9 in horticultural crop improvement and its role in addressing climate-related challenges. By harnessing the power of genetic editing, horticulturalists can create more productive crops and better equipped to withstand the uncertainties of a changing climate. However, this technology's responsible and ethical use is imperative to ensure its long-term sustainability and benefit to society.
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113174
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effects of Integrated Weed Management Practices on Weed Parameters and
           Yield of Bt Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    • Authors: Vinod Reddy , Shyamrao Kulkarni , Mohan Chavan , Ajayakumar M. Y., Rudramurthy
      Pages: 324 - 331
      Abstract: Aim: To know the effect of integrated weed management on weed parameters and yield of bt cotton. Study Design: Randomized complete block design. Place and Duration of Study: College of Agriculture Farm, Bheemaraynagudi between July 2021 and Feb 2022. Methodology: The field experiment was conducted during Kharif 2021 at Experimental block, College of Agriculture, Bheemarayanagudi. The soil of the experiment field was deep black clayey in texture. The experiment comprises 11 weed management practices viz., T1: Pendimethalin 38.7% CS @ 750 g a.i./ha as PE + Hand weeding @ 20-25 DAS and Intercultivation @ 55-60 DAS, T2: Pendimethalin 38.7 % CS @ 750 g a.i./ha as PE fb Pyrithiobac Sodium 10 EC @ 75g a.i./ha + Quizalofop ethyl 5 EC @ 37.5g a.i./ha as PoE @ 25 DAS and Intercultivation @ 55-60 DAS. (Tank mix), T3 : Pendimethalin 38.7 % CS @ 750 g a.i./ha as PE fb Pyrithiobac Sodium 10 EC @ 50g a.i./ha + Quizalofop ethyl 5 EC @ 25 g a.i./ha as PoE @ 25 DAS and Intercultivation @ 55-60 DAS, T4 :Pendimethalin 38.7 % CS @ 750 g a.i./ha as PE fb Pyrithiobac Sodium 10 EC @ 75g a.i./ha + Quizalofop ethyl 5 EC @ 37.5g a.i./ha as PoE @ 25 DAS and Intercultivation @ 55-60 DAS, T5 : Pendimethalin 38.7 % CS @ 750 g a.i./ha as PE fb Pyrithiobac Sodium 10 EC @ 100g a.i./ha + Quizalofop ethyl 5 EC @ 50g a.i./ha as PoE @ 25 DAS and Intercultivation @ 55-60 DAS, T6 : Pyrithiobac Sodium 10 EC @ 50g a.i./ha + Quizalofop ethyl 5 EC @ 25g a.i./ha as PoE @ 25 DAS and Intercultivation @ 55-60 DAS, T7: Pyrithiobac Sodium 10 EC @ 75g a.i./ha + Quizalofop ethyl 5 EC @ 37.5g a.i./ha as PoE @ 25 DAS and Intercultivation @ 55-60 DAS, T8: Pyrithiobac Sodium 10 EC @ 100g a.i./ha + Quizalofop ethyl 5 EC @ 50g a.i./ha as PoE @ 25 DAS and Intercultivation @ 55-60 DAS, T9: Farmers practice (Hand weeding @ 25 DAS and 2 intercultivations @ 50 and 75 DAS), T10: Weedy check, T11: Weed free check. Results: Among the treatments, application of pendimethalin 38.7 % CS @ 750 g a.i./ha as PE fb pyrithiobac sodium 10 EC @ 100 g a.i./ha + quizalofop ethyl 5 EC @ 50 g a.i./ha as PoE (combi-product) @ 25 DAS and intercultivation @ 55-60 DAS recorded significantly lower weed density and higher weed control efficiency (82.39 %), also recorded higher seed cotton yield (2495 kg ha-1) and stalk yield (4056 kg ha-1) over other treatments. Conclusion: Application of Pendimethalin 38.7 % CS @ 750 g a.i./ha as PE fb Pyrithiobac Sodium 10 EC @ 100g a.i./ha + Quizalofop ethyl 5 EC @ 50g a.i./ha as PoE @ 25 DAS and Intercultivation @ 55-60 DAS was found effective in controlling the weeds with coupled with higher seed cotton yield .
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113175
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Confectionery Groundnut Genotypes (Arachis hypogaea L.): A Study on
           Genetic Variability Parameters with Special Reference to Confectionery
           Traits Improvement

    • Authors: Deepa G. M., Laxmi C. Patil , Nandini B., Motagi B. N.
      Pages: 332 - 344
      Abstract: Diverse groundnut parents were used to generate 36 advanced breeding lines to develop into a confectionery genotype for yield, quality, and main biotic stress. Groundnut use is increasing in both food and confectionary due to the steady change in groundnut consumption patterns. Advanced breeding lines evaluated in randomized complete block design including parents and checks during kharif and summer, 2021 respectively. High genetic variability (%) and heritability (%) observed for hundred seed weight (21.08 & 86.34), pod yield per plant (25.37 & 87.66), pod yield (31.63 & 83.71), late leaf spot (32.71 & 79.16), rust disease (39.86 & 87.06), oil content (2.55 & 79.60), Blanchability (18.76 & 97.00), oleic acid (8.52 & 72.90), linoleic acid (16.32 & 73.40) and O/L ratio (24.64 & 73.60) respectively. The correlation between hundred seed weight, sound mature kernels, shelling percentage and pod yield per plant with kernel yield showed positive association. Rust and LLS disease revealed a high positive connection indicating that an increase in late leaf spot disease incidence enhances the incidence of rust disease and vice versa in groundnut. Substantial negative association was found between two crucial quality parameters such as oil content and protein content, as these two characteristics determine the quality of groundnut for confectionary purposes. Path analysis indicates kernel yield had the greatest direct positive effect on pod yield, followed by seed weight, oil content and sound mature kernel and direct selection for these characteristics would be effective. The path analysis of quality attributes revealed that at the genotypic level, oil content, protein content, and O/L ratio have the most direct effect on hundred seed weight.
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113176
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Character Association and Path Analysis for Yield and Yield Attributing
           Traits in Bread Wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) em Thell] Genotypes

    • Authors: Harshlata Regar , Abhay Dashora , Parul Gupta , Aliza Mariyam , Avadhoot B. Dharmadhikari
      Pages: 345 - 352
      Abstract: The current study was conducted in Rabi 2021- 2022 at Instructional Farm, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, MPUAT, Udaipur to estimate the association among yield components and their direct and indirect influence on grain yield of bread wheat. For the overall traits under investigation, significant genotypic differences were found indicating the presence of huge amount of variation among studied genotypes. At both the genotypic and phenotypic levels, there was positive and significant correlation between grain yield and days to 50% heading, plant height, length of main spike, number of spikelet’s per spike, number of grains per spike, grain weight per spike and biological yield per plant. Plant height had the greatest positive direct impact on grain production per plant followed by biological yield per plant, number of grains per spike, days to maturity and 1000-grain weight. It is, therefore, feasible to increase the grain yield per plant in bread wheat by taking into account certain traits viz., plant height, biological yield per plant, number of grains per spike.
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113177
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • A Review: Pulses Production, Productivity, Status and Way Forward for
           Enhancing Farmers Income of Bundelkhand Region, India

    • Authors: Deepak Prajapati , Amar Singh Gaur , Jagannath Pathak , Suraj Mishra , Ashutosh Kumar , Krishnanand Yadav , Sarvesh Kumar
      Pages: 353 - 362
      Abstract: Total pulses area in Uttar Pradesh, contributes of pulses through the Bundelkhand region, more than half but the productivity is low because lack of technological approaches for pulse growing area. This review paper assessed the cultivation of pulses production, productivity and area, of Bundelkhand and in India also. The technologies and infrastructure need to be accepted pulses cultivation and accurate policies for the farmers through government.  Pulses are next to cereals regarding their nutritional and economic significance to human health. The pulses crop highly water sensitive like chickpea, lentil, mung bean and black gram are dominant in drought prone areas and improve soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Rainfed Agriculture has emerged as an opportunity in raising pulse production which is depend on amount and distribution of rainfall growing area. The cropping system of pulses cultivation year-after-year has observed that incidence of disease, insect-pests and weeds increase in Bundelkhand region. In pigeon pea, chickpea and lentil crops, important biotic agent for affecting production. United Nations declared 2016 ' "International Year of Pulses" was to increase production and consumption of pulses 10% by 2025 and raise public awareness towards health through social media. The many initiatives schemes govern by government of India for increase the pulses growing area and production such as ISOPOM (Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil palm and Maize) (2004-05 to 2009-10), NFSM Pulses (National Food Security Mission, 2007-08), for Technology demonstration. The Bundelkhand regions as 5 lakhs farmers of 14 districts of two states of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh should be linked with Rani Lakshmi Bai Central Agricultural University (RLBCAU) and benefited from this university to produce pulses.
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113178
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Impacts of Climate Change on Fruit Crops: A Comprehensive Review of
           Physiological, Phenological, and Pest-Related Responses

    • Authors: Shubham Yadav , J. R. Korat , Sanjeev Yadav , Kabita Mondal , Anuj Kumar , Homeshvari, Suneel Kumar
      Pages: 363 - 371
      Abstract: This review paper comprehensively examines the multifaceted effects of climate change on fruit crops, delving into physiological, phenological, and pest-related responses. Climate change, characterized by shifts in temperature, precipitation patterns, and extreme events, presents profound challenges to fruit crop cultivation and production. By analyzing the interplay between climate variations and fruit crops' physiological processes, flowering patterns, and susceptibility to pests, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the intricate mechanisms underlying these interactions. The study encompasses the influence of drought, rainfall, temperature fluctuations, and pest dynamics on various fruit crops, ranging from mangoes and apples to bananas, grapes, and more. The review underscores the urgency of developing adaptive strategies to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change on fruit crop production and quality.
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113179
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Influence of Seed Storage and Priming on Naturally Aged Seeds of Aromatic
           Joha Rice

    • Authors: Partha Pratim Bora , Meghali Barua , Sharmila D. Deka , Priyanka Das , Purna K. Barua
      Pages: 372 - 383
      Abstract: Joha is a fine grain aromatic rice of Assam, well known in the world market. This rice is protected and tagged as a geographical indication. This study evaluated priming effects on naturally aged seeds of two varieties, Kon Joha and Keteki Joha, after 0, 3, 6 and nine months of storage under ambient conditions. Seeds were hydro-primed, osmo-primed with 5% and 10% PEG, halo primed with 1% and 2% KCl and primed with 5 ppm and 10 ppm GA3 for 12 and 24 hours. Seed moisture percentage, germination percentage, germination index, mean germination time, seedling length and dry weight, seed vigour index, field emergence, seed reserve utilization rate, seed reserve use efficiency, seed reserve depletion percentage, and biochemical parameters like electrical conductivity, lipid peroxidation and α-amylase were observed. Seed quality was gradually deteriorating due to ageing over the storage period. The rate of deterioration was faster for seedling vigour traits than germination parameters. There was a varietal difference in the rate of deterioration; it was slower in Kon Joha, an indigenous variety which also showed dormancy. The priming treatments were able to ameliorate the effect of seed ageing on seed germination, seedling growth and biochemical parameters in Kon Joha. Treatments with 1% KCl, 10 ppm GA3 and 5% PEG enhanced the germination parameters and vigour indicators. KCl (1%) priming was the best priming agent; 24 hours of priming for all agents was better than 12 hours.
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113180
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Population Dynamics of the Coriander Aphids in Hyper Arid Region of
           Rajasthan and their Correlation with Biotic and Abiotic Factors

    • Authors: Vijay Kumar , H. L. Deshwal , Mahendra, Manoj Kumar Gurjar , Rohit Kumawat
      Pages: 384 - 389
      Abstract: Population dynamics of coriander aphid and their correlation with biotic and abiotic factors were studied at instructional farm of the department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, SKRAU Bikaner during Rabi, 2020-21 and 2021-22. The incidence of coriander aphid, H. coriandri (Das) commenced in the fourth week of January (4th SMW) and remained active throughout the crop season i.e. upto third week of March during both the years (2020-21 and 2021-22). The population of H. coriandri increased gradually and attained its peak in last week of February/first week of March (9th SMW) during both the years. After peak aphid population started declining and reached to low levels in the 11th SMW near maturity of the crop during both the years. Simultaneously the occurrence of predator, Coccinella septempunctata coincided with the population of aphids during both the years. Maximum and minimum temperatures had positive correlation with aphid population during both the years i.e. 2020-21, 2021-22. Morning and evening relative humidity showed negative correlation with aphid population. whereas, population of C. septempunctata was significant positively correlated with aphid population during both years. 
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113181
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Comparative Study on Carbon Footprint Assessment of Rice-Wheat Production

    • Authors: Ramkishor Kurmi , Satish Devram Lande , Jagdeesh Kurmi , Manojit Chowdhury , Chandu Singh , Pradeep Kumar
      Pages: 390 - 398
      Abstract: The carbon footprint is a robust tool to guide sustainable food production system. It is widely accepted as an indicator of GHGs emissions and their impact on global warming. An assessment was undertaken to measure the carbon footprint (CF) of rice-wheat production for two different locations i.e., Damoh (L1) and Ludhiana (L2), comes under central plateau and hill region, and Trans-Gangetic plain region of India, respectively. Further, variability in CF among these two climatically diversified regions having different soil type and management practices was analysed and compared. Results showed that, CF per unit area of rice and wheat production was obtained as 0.497 t Ce/ha and 0.481 t Ce/ha, respectively. Key contributors to CF were nitrogen fertilizer and energy use (diesel for tillage, sowing, harvesting and transport, and electricity for irrigation) for both crops in both regions. Nitrogen fertilizer comprised 27% and 31% of CF in rice, and 30% and 42% in wheat, for L1 and L2, respectively. Diesel and electric energy contributed 36% and 18% (rice, L1), 26% and 27% (rice, L2), 32% and 30% (wheat, L1), and 30% and 18% (wheat, L2). As the contributing factors to the CF vary between regions, mitigation strategies that account for regional diversity are likely to yield greater effectiveness than approaches solely focused on the country level.
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113182
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessing Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Genotype Yields and Yield Traits
           with Different Planting Geometries on Broad Bed and Furrows

    • Authors: Hussain Basha Nisani, Gajanan Sawargaonkar, Prasad Jairam Kamdi, Kiran Reddy Gade
      Pages: 399 - 405
      Abstract: A field study on “Assessing Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotype yields and yield traits with different planting geometries on broad bed and furrows” was conducted during rabi season of 2022 in the experimental field at International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Hyderabad, Telangana. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomised block design with three replications. Total 16 treatment combinations consisted of four planting geometries (P1) 30 × 10 cm, (P2) 15:15 × 10 cm, (P3) 20:20 × 10 cm, (P4) 25:25 × 10 cm and four varieties (V1) Girnar 4, (V2) Girnar 5, (V3) Avtar, (V4) K6. The important findings emerged from this investigation found that groundnut sown at the spacing of (P4) 25:25 × 10 cm recorded significantly higher number of pods plant-1 (33.0), kernels pod-1 (2.0), test weight (38.7 g), shelling percentage (67.1%), pod yield (1792 kg ha-1) followed by (P3) 20:20 × 10 cm, (P4) 30 × 10 cm and (P2) 15:15 × 10 cm. The genotype V2 (Girnar 5) performed best in yield and yield contributing characteristics than other genotypes and it was on par with V1 (Girnar 4). Hence, our results concluded that (P4) 25:25 × 10 cm spacing, performing best with (V2) Girnar 5 and (V1) Girnar 4 varieties.
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113183
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Optimizing Growth through Systematic Evaluation of Salinity, Putrescine,
           and Sodium Nitroprusside Levels in Stevia rebaudiana

    • Authors: Akankhya Guru , Padmanabh Dwivedi
      Pages: 406 - 414
      Abstract: Stevia rebaudiana, a natural sweetener source, has gained significant attention in recent years due to its potential as a sugar substitute with minimal caloric impact. To maximize its cultivation and production efficiency, it is imperative to optimize its growth conditions. In the present study, we performed a pot experiment in the polyhouse of the Department of Horticulture at the Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi and investigated the effects of salinity stress (NaCl), exogenous application of putrescine (Put), a polyamine, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of nitic oxide, as foliar spray on different morpho-physiological traits such as plant height, number of leaves per plant and SPAD or chlorophyll content in Stevia over different time intervals under in vivo conditions. Our findings revealed that mild salinity stress (15 and 30 mM NaCl) caused a lesser reduction in plant growth characteristics. However, excessive salinity (120 mM NaCl) had adverse effects on plant health, particularly at 15 days. We observed that higher concentrations of Put (1 mM and 2 mM) positively influenced all the studied growth indices as compared to control and NaCl treated plants. This indicates the potential for Put to be used as a growth regulator in Stevia cultivation. Similarly, 150 µM and 200 µM SNP treatments produced best results in Stevia plants by significantly enhancing plant height, leaf number and SPAD at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days. Therefore, SNP can be used as a potential growth promoting agent in Stevia plants. These findings have significant implications for sustainable Stevia cultivation, ensuring a stable supply of natural, low-calorie sweeteners for the food and beverage industry.
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113184
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • In-vivo Screening of Cherry Tomato [Solanum lycopersicum L. var.
           cerasiforme (Dunnal) A. Gray] Genotypes and Hybrids against Fusarium Wilt
           in Arunachal Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Rituraj Dutta, Nangsol Dolma Bhutia, P. Raja, Siddhartha Singh, Budhindra Nath Hazarika, Chandra Deo, Khwairakpam Rozerto, Tabalique Yumkhaibam, Pravinkumar Yumkhaibam
      Pages: 415 - 422
      Abstract: Cherry tomato [Solanum lycopersicum L. var. cerasiforme (Dunnal) A. Gray] is becoming popular among various tribes of Arunachal Pradesh due to its unique taste, flavor and appearance. Owing high rainfall and high humidity, successful cultivation of cherry tomato is becoming restricted in this state due to various biotic factors like infection of wilt complexes as well as pests like root-knot nematodes. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate eighteen cherry tomato genotypes (nine) and hybrids (nine) against Fungal wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici resistance in the Pasighat condition of Arunachal Pradesh, India. For screening purpose, artificial pathogen inoculation method was applied through pin-prick method in the 35 days old cherry tomato seedlings that were grown in pot culture containing sterile soil and data for the pathogen infection was recorded by following Completely Randomized Design (CRD) in 60 days and 120 days after pathogen inoculation. Among 18 genotypes and hybrids, G4xG6 (DI:0.00%, PDI:0.00%), G9 (DI:0.00%, PDI:0.00%) and G5 (DI:0.00%, PDI:0.00%) showed highest resistance towards Fusarium wilt, while genotype G3 (DI:65.56%, PDI:63.60%) exhibited susceptible system. The disease incidence was ranged from 0.00%-65.56%. The use of resistant genotypes and hybrids to manage the population of fungus is a very cost effective method and can be exploited commercially in breeding programmes and for vegetable grafting.
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113185
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Influence of Interaction between Fertilizer and Micronutrient Spray on
           Growth, Yield and Quality of Guava under Ultra High Density Orcharding

    • Authors: Karuna Shanker , Bikash Das, Sanyat Misra, Keshaw Kumar Jha
      Pages: 423 - 441
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive years (2012-2013 and 2013-2014) on a 5-year-old guava orchard of cv. Sardar was planted at a spacing of 1.0 m x 2.0 m in Ranchi. The objective of this investiation was to know the influence of interaction between the basal and foliar application of fertilizers of guava cv. Sardar under ultra-high-density planting system in eastern plateau and hill conditions. The experiments were set up in a split-plot design with four fertilizer doses 100%NPK i.e.580 g N, 270 g P, 400g K/plant; 60%NPK i.e. 348gN, 162gP, 240g K/plant; 40%NPK i.e. 232gN,180gP 160g K/plant; 20%NPK i.e.116gN 54gP 80g K/plant as main plots and four different foliar sprays as boric acid (0.4%), zinc sulphate (0.2%), boric acid (0.4%) + zinc sulphate (0.2%) and water spray as subplots with four replications. The NPK fertilizer dose was applied at an interval of every two months from June 12 to April 14 (A total of twelve times/ two year) in a 1m radius around the tree trunk (drip line of trees). The foliar application of micronutrients was sprayed at the rate of 750 ml/ tree at flowering and fruit set stage during June 12 and August 14 (Total of Four times/ two years). In our two-year study, the experimental results indicated that 60% NPK fertilizer dose resulted in maximum trunk girth (55.33 mm) and girth of primary branches (43.77mm), while, a maximum per cent increase in trunk girth (15.81%) and girth of primary branches (18.62%) were recorded in 100% NPK fertilizer dose. However the maximum number of flowers per plant (18.66), number of fruit per plant (17.10) and fruit weight/ plant (3.65kg/plant) were recorded in 100%NPK fertilizer dose, which was at par with 60% NPK Fertilizer dose.  
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113186
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Evaluation of the Growth Parameters with Respect to Bio-control Agents
           with Chemical Fungicides against Cercospora Leaf Spot of Okra (Abelmoschus
           esculentus L.) Moench

    • Authors: Debashree Sarangi, Chandan Kumar Panigrahi
      Pages: 442 - 450
      Abstract: Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) is one of the fore most vegetable crop grown during kharif as well as summer seasons. Cercospora leaf spot incited by Cercospora spp. is one of the emerging disease in all regions wherever okra is grown. C. abelmoschi causes sooty black, angular spots and cause severe defoliation common during humid seasons. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of bioagents and chemicals viz., T0 – Untreated control,T1 Mancozeb (1%) + Trichoderma (4%), T2 - Mancozeb (1%) + Pseudomonas (4%), T3 Mancozeb (1%) + Bacillus subtilis (4%), T4 - Mancozeb (1%) + Trichoderma(2%) + Pseudomonas(2%) ,T5 - Mancozeb (1%) + Pseudomonas (2%) + Bacillus subtilis (2%), T6 Mancozeb (1%) + Bacillus subtilis (2%) + Trichoderma (2%), T7 - Mancozeb (1%) against Cercospora leaf spot of okra. Studies revealed that minimum disease intensity , Maximum plant height , maximum no. of branches per plant and Maximum no. of fruits was observed in T4 - Mancozeb (1%) + Trichoderma (2%) + Pseudomonas (2%) and is hereby considered as the best treatment.
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113187
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Foliar Application of Nutrients on Yield and Nutrient Uptake by
           Rice Crop

    • Authors: Nandan Singh , Neeraj Kumar, Kumar Anshuman, Ram Ratan Singh, Sandeep Yadav, Ankit Singh
      Pages: 451 - 460
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during 2018 and 2019 at the Agronomy Research farm of A.N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Ayodhya, UP to evaluate the effect of foliar application of macro and micronutrients on yield and nutrient uptake of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The experiment consists of 10 treatment combinations with some foliar application macro and micronutrients two foliar spray tillering stages and a panicle initiation stage which were laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The results revealed maximum grain yield (38.50 and 40.40 q ha-1), straw (51.90 and 54.60 q ha-1), and harvest index (42.64 and 42.53 %) with treatment T10-75% RDF + WSCF @ 0.5 % (19:19:19) + ZnSO4 @ 0.5 % + Boron @ 0.25 % which was statistically at par with T3- 125 % RDF and significantly superior over rest of the treatments during both the years ., was recorded Similarly significant improvement in nutrient uptake (N, P, K, S, Zn, and B) by rice was observed in T10. Thus, it can be concluded that the application of 75% RDF + WSCF @ 0.5 % (19:19:19) + ZnSO4 @ 0.5 % + Boron @ 0.25 % can improve the yield and nutrient uptake.
      PubDate: 2023-10-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113188
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessment of Water and Stream Sediment Pollution Related to Artisanal
           Mining in Alga, Burkina Faso, West Africa

    • Authors: N. Kagambega, M. Ouedraogo, U. Sam
      Pages: 461 - 473
      Abstract: Burkina Faso, like several other countries in the Sahelo-Sahelian strip, has seen a significant change in its mining sector in recent years through the development of the industrial and artisanal mining sub-sectors. The purpose of this study is to assess the level of pollution of water and stream sediments in the study area. A total of twenty-eight samples were taken, including three surface water samples, nine groundwater samples, ten stream sediment samples and six mine tailings samples. The analysis of the physico-chemical parameters and the metal content (cadmium, chrome, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, zinc and arsenic) of the water show that the values meet the drinking water standards in force in Burkina Faso. However, the various indices calculated, namely the geo-accumulation index (Igeo), the contamination factor (CF) and the enrichment factor (EF) show that the total metal contents of stream sediments are not d lithogenic (natural) origin but attributable to artisanal mining in the village of Alga. They highlight metal pollution with high levels of arsenic and cadmium and extremely high levels of mercury.
      PubDate: 2023-10-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113189
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Nano Urea and Foliar Spray of Urea on Growth and Yield of Wheat
           (Triticum aestivum L.)

    • Authors: Aakash Ojha, Rajesh Singh, Jyoti Sinha
      Pages: 474 - 481
      Abstract: In pursuit of high yield today’s agriculture cultivars put the environment at greater risk by the inputs of chemical fertilizers. Using Nano urea we can minimize the inputs damage upto a certain extent. With this objective, field experiment was carried out during Rabi seasons of 2022-2023 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh on topic “Effect of nano urea and foliar spray of urea on growth and yield of wheat”. The treatment include two factors, Factor- 1 Nitrogen (50 %, 75%, 100%) and Factor- 2 Foliar Spray (2ml/L nano urea, 4 ml/L nano urea, 2% urea) and one control was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with 10 treatments and three replications. Result revealed that 100% nitrogen along with foliar spray of 4ml/L nano urea recorded significant effect on Growth, yield and yield parameters. Treatment 6 recorded maximum plant height (101.62 cm), dry weight (21.95 g) number of tillers/running row (85.02), number of effective tillers/m2  (340.08), number of grains/spike (54.16), test weight (48.52 g), grain yield (6.30 t/ha) and straw yield (7.98 t/ha).
      PubDate: 2023-10-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113190
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Studies on Depth Wise Distribution of Available Nutrients of Soil under
           Different Land Use Planning of Kanpur Nagar (U. P.), India

    • Authors: Abhishek Kumar, Sanjeev Sharma, Arpita Soni, Ravindra Sachan, Ashutosh Kumar
      Pages: 482 - 486
      Abstract: An investigation was carried out during 2021-22 at various land use planning of Kanpur Nagar (U.P.) to evaluate the availability of nutrients effect of various land use planning on soil. The 504 representative soil samples with 3 depths viz. 0-15, 15-30, and 30-60 cm soil samples were taken with manually driven post hole auger and processed for soil analysis from different land use planning of Kanpur Nagar. Available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, Sulphur, micro nutrients (Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn) and notable available Nitrogen in different lands low in ranged from 112.4 – 199.3 kg ha-1. The Phosphorus availability was found in ranged from 8.40 - 19.90 kg ha-1, while Potassium was found in ranged from 111.30 - 192.10 kg ha-1. However the availability of Sulphur, was found in ranged from 7.40 - 23.80 mg kg-1 and the availability of micro nutrients like - available Iron ranged from 4.34- 16.9 mg kg-1, available Manganese ranged from 1.10- 10.9 mg kg-1, available Copper ranged from 0.47 – 3.76 mg kg-1, and available Zinc ranged from 0.33- 2.54 mg kg-1.
      PubDate: 2023-10-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113191
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessment of River Water Quality during Summer Season in Prayagraj, Uttar
           Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Alfa Omega Minz , Satyendra Nath
      Pages: 487 - 497
      Abstract: The present study is focused on assessment of river water quality during summer season in Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh was experimentally investigated. The purpose of this study was to analyzed the physio-chemical properties of the river Ganga and Yamuna in Prayagraj. Water parameters such as pH, EC, DO, BOD, Alkalinity, Chloride, TDS and Hardness were analyzed. The results reveals that water was suitable for irrigation on purpose as the values were found to be within the permissible limit except DO whose values were found to be slightly less than the permissible limit.
      PubDate: 2023-10-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113192
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Impact of Potassium Inoculants and Biotite on Soil Microbial Population
           and Enzymatic Activity under Maize (Zea mays L.) Cultivation in Gangetic

    • Authors: Radheshyam Jangir, B. R. Maurya, Manish Yadav, Suhana Puri Goswami, Suwa Lal Yadav
      Pages: 498 - 504
      Abstract: The study explores the impact of potassium inoculants and black mica on soil microbial populations and enzymatic activity in maize cultivated soils. Microbial communities fueled by root exudates play essential roles in nutrient cycling, plant health, and soil structure. This study investigates the effects of potassium-solubilizing bacteria (KSB) and mineral potassium on microbial populations and enzymatic activity across different growth stages of maize. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with 14 treatments, including combinations of KSB isolates, mineral potassium, and inorganic potassium. Microbial populations (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and KSB) were quantified using serial dilution and plating techniques. Enzymatic activities (dehydrogenase, phosphatase, and urease) were assessed to understand nutrient interactions and microbial influences. The findings indicate that all treatments exhibited increased microbial populations compared to the control. Notably, treatment 75% recommended potassium dose + 25% potassium from Biotite + OVPS 05 consistently demonstrated the highest microbial growth. The presence of KSB appeared crucial in enhancing bacterial and fungal populations. Additionally, enzymatic activities were significantly influenced by treatments, with 75% recommended potassium dose + 25% potassium from Biotite + OVPS 05 showing the highest dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and urease activities. These results suggest that the combination of KSB isolates and mineral potassium contributes to enhanced microbial populations and soil enzymatic activities, offering insights into sustainable agriculture practices that balance productivity and soil health. The study sheds light on the intricate relationships between microorganisms, nutrients, and soil biochemical processes, providing valuable guidance for future agricultural strategies.
      PubDate: 2023-10-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113193
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Factors Influencing the Knowledge Level of Farmers about Solar Pumps in
           Jodhpur District of Rajasthan, India

    • Authors: Divya Choudhary, Banwari lal, Kamlesh Choudhary, Reshma Yadav
      Pages: 505 - 509
      Abstract: The research investigation was carried out in Rajasthan's Jodhpur district. In the Jodhpur district of Rajasthan, there are a total of seven tehsils. Osian and Balesar were chosen as the two tehsils with the most solar pumps installed. On the basis of who would benefit from solar pumps the most, ten villages from each chosen tehsil were selected. Twenty villages were chosen because they had the most solar pumps, and one hundred twenty-five (125) respondents were chosen from them. Age, caste, education level, size of land holding, family type, social participation, annual family income, occupation, extension contact, and mass utilization were identified as the significant variables that may have influenced the level of knowledge of farmers about solar pumps in the research that examined the social economic status of the respondents. This study revealed that although farmers' awareness of solar pumps was positively and strongly correlated with age, educational attainment, social engagement, occupation, extension contact, and media use. Family type, annual income, and size of land holding show positive and significant relationships with farmers' solar pumps knowledge levels, while caste indicates a negative and non-significant association.
      PubDate: 2023-10-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113194
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Carryover Effect of Green Manure, FYM and N-Fertilization on the
           Succeeding Wheat in Rice-wheat Cropping System

    • Authors: Harpreet Singh , Singh R., Manhas S. S.
      Pages: 510 - 520
      Abstract: The present study was carried out Punjab Agricultural University, Regional   Research Station, Gurdaspur, Punjab (India) during 2020-21 and 2021-22. The experiment was laid out in split-split plot design with three factors. Main plots contain three organic fertilizers treatments, sub plot contains three nitrogen levels and sub-sub plots contain three nitrogen application stage. Plant height of succeeding wheat crop grown after basmati rice was affected non-significantly by organic fertilizers and chemical fertilizers applied to basmati rice during both the years. The number of tillers and dry matter accumulation significant affected during both the years. Greater values were obtained with FYM application @ 15 t ha-1 which was significantly similar to green manuring but significantly higher than control during both the years. The various nitrogen doses and nitrogen application stages failed to significantly influence number of tillers and dry matter accumulation of succeeding wheat crop. In case of number of effective tillers and grains per spike, the maximum values were obtained with FYM. It was at par with green manuring but significantly higher than. The nitrogen doses and nitrogen application stages had non-significant effect on both these parameters. The organic fertilizers had statistical significant effect on straw and grain yield of wheat crop. The highest straw and grain yields were obtained with application of FYM @ 15 t ha-1 which was significantly higher than control but statistically at par with green manuring during both the years. The harvest index was non-significant for all the treatments. The total NPK uptake in wheat was significantly affected by the organic fertilizers. Highest uptake of NPK in grain and straw was observed with FYM application which was at par with green manuring but significantly higher than control during both the years.
      PubDate: 2023-10-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113195
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Recent Advances in Breeding of Mango (Mangifera indica): A Review

    • Authors: Sumit Bura , Amit Jasrotia , Sushma Sharma , Arti Sharma , Aman Tutlani
      Pages: 521 - 538
      Abstract: Mango stands as a significant fruit crop with global importance, thriving primarily in tropical and subtropical regions across the world. (Mangifera indica L.) belongs to the Anacardiaceae family. This evergreen, sizable tree bears a beloved tropical fruit that enjoys local consumption and international trade. The choice of preferred mango varieties varies from one country to another. Generally, mango types from subcontinental Asian regions are monoembryonic, while those from South East Asian regions tend to be polyembryonic. Despite Mangifera indica's prevalence within the Mangifera genus, several other species within this genus share grafting and pollination compatibility with M. indica. These species can serve as valuable rootstocks or sources of novel genetic traits for breeders. Growing mango presents challenges due to the rapid decline in seed viability shortly after fruit maturity, typically within weeks. While a diverse array of mango varieties is available, inherent limitations exist, including extended juvenility, high clonal heterozygosity, the presence of only one seed per fruit, resilient seeds, polyembryony, early post-zygotic auto-incompatibility, and a substantial land requirement for hybrid evaluation. Breeders, however, benefit from the extensive variation and the ease of vegetative hybrid production. A successful mango cultivar must exhibit traits such as dwarfness, precocity, regular and prolific fruit bearing, appealing fruit of good size and quality, resistance to physiological issues, diseases, and insects, and an extended shelf life. A comprehensive understanding of mango phenology, inheritance patterns, and advanced techniques for hybridization has proven invaluable in addressing challenges like irregular fruit bearing, susceptibility to disorders and pests, and issues with taste and quality. The development of genetic markers has further reduced uncertainties in mango breeding and improved the management of hybrid populations.
      PubDate: 2023-10-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113196
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Estimation of Phytochemicals in Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) Accessions
           under Northern Transition Zone of Karnataka, India

    • Authors: Thilak J. C., Ajjappalavara P. S., Ganiger V. M., Sandhyarani N., Ramangouda S. H., Abdul Kareem M., Vinutha D. B., Chetana Veerendra Kalammanavar
      Pages: 539 - 548
      Abstract: The present investigation was carried out for the estimation of phytochemicals in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) accessions at Horticultural Research and Extension Centre, Devihosur, Haveri under northern transition zone of Karnataka. Fifty chilli genotypes collected from different sources were screened for quality components like ascorbic acid, chlorophyll, and phenols. The analysis of variance revealed that the quality components varied significantly among the genotypes. The ascorbic acid content in green chilli and chlorophyll content in leaves varied from 40.73 to 191.15 mg/100 g and 0.26 to 1.80mg/100 g, respectively. Whereas, the phenols in leaves varied between 3.86 to 12.15 mg/100g. The maximum amount of ascorbic acid, chlorophyll, and phenol content were observed in the accessions IC-572470, EC-399572 and Ujwala. respectively, which can be further utilized as potential parenting materials for quality improvement programme in chilli.
      PubDate: 2023-10-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113198
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Enhancing Clarity and Quality: The Role of Clarifying Agents in
           Horticulture Foods and Formulations

    • Authors: Sajeel Ahamad , Ganesh Kumar Choupdar , Ramdeen Kumar , Amit Kumar , Chhail Bihari , Satvaan Singh , Vishal Srivastava , Manish Kumar , Mohd Wamiq
      Pages: 549 - 559
      Abstract: This abstract explores the multifaceted role of clarifying agents in the realm of horticultural foods and their vital functions within formulations. Clarifying agents serve as essential tools in the food industry, aiding in the removal of impurities, cloudiness, and undesirable particles from fruit juices, wines, and various horticultural products. These agents are instrumental in enhancing the visual appeal and quality of these products, improving their marketability. The uses of clarifying agents extend beyond aesthetics; they play a crucial role in stabilizing formulations, preventing sedimentation, and preserving the natural flavors and nutritional value of horticultural foods. Additionally, clarifying agents contribute to product consistency and shelf-life extension, ensuring a consistent and appealing product for consumers. This abstract delves into the diverse types of clarifying agents employed in horticulture and their specific functions within various formulations. It highlights their significance in maintaining product integrity and meeting consumer preferences for clear, visually appealing, and high-quality horticultural foods.
      PubDate: 2023-10-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113199
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Phenological and Metabolic Study of Mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. &
           Coss.) as Affected by Sulphur and Zinc Levels

    • Authors: Anupama Verma , P. K. Singh , A. K. Singh , Mahak Singh , Anil Kumar , Ravindra Sachan , Arpita Soni , Ram Ashish
      Pages: 560 - 567
      Abstract: The Field experiment was carried out during rabi season of 2021-22 and 2022-23 at Students Instructional Farm, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur. The experiment consist of 14 treatments combinations in factorial randomized block design with three replications consisted of 7 fertility levels (including sulphur and zinc) and two varietal factors (i.e. Rohini & Maya). Mustard varieties Rohini & Maya were grown with the recommended agronomic practices. On the basis of results emanated from investigation it can be concluded that among the metabolic studies the maximum chlorophyll content at pre and post anthesis are 46.70 and 48.88 SPAD were recorded in the treatment T14 [Var. Maya with Sulphur @900 ppm] during the first year (2021-22). Maximum rate of photosynthesis at pre and post anthesis are 25.97 and 33.29 µmole m-2/ s-1 respectively, during 1st years of experimentation were associated with the treatment T14 [Var. Maya with Sulphur @900 ppm]. Similarly during 2nd year of experimentation the maximum pre and post anthesis chlorophyll content (47.27 and 49.45 SPAD) and pre and post anthesis rate of photosynthesis (26.32 and 34.50 µmole m-2/ s-1) was found in the treatment T14 [Var. Maya with Sulphur @900 ppm]. Along with this, among the phenological studies minimum number of days taken to anthesis, number of days taken to 50 % flowering and number of days taken to maturity, was also found in the treatment T14 [Var. Maya with Sulphur @900 ppm].
      PubDate: 2023-10-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113200
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Recent Advances and Prospects for Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus spp.) Plant
           Propagation Techniques

    • Authors: Krishan Kumar Singh , Deepa Rani
      Pages: 568 - 573
      Abstract: Dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) is a recently introduced super fruit in India, gaining popularity both in rural and urban areas because of its attractive colour, delicious taste, and high nutritive and medicinal values. It is adaptable to humid as well as semi-arid tropical and subtropical conditions. The growing acceptance of this fruit along with its enormous medicinal and antioxidant properties has increased the demand for its cultivation followed by quality planting materials in the desired quantity. Propagation of Dragon fruit can be done by both micropropagation sexual via seeds and asexual methods via stem cuttings, grafting, and micropropagation. In this review, attempts have been made to cover various fruit propagation methods along with other related crop features about which there is relatively scanty information. The assessment also attempted to highlight the prospective propagation locations for dragon fruit, which calls for additional study to produce more information and advance crop propagation methods.
      PubDate: 2023-10-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113201
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Different Weed Management Practices on Growth Characters of
           Mungbean under Mid-Hills of Himachal Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Anmol Katoch , Ranjeet Singh Bochalya , Kartikeya Choudhary, Shubham, Ananya Sood
      Pages: 574 - 582
      Abstract: Weed management in mungbean is one of the most efficient ways to improve its growth, as uncontrolled weed growth causes a significant decrease in crop growth. Effects of various herbicides applied at different rates as pre-emergence or as post-emergence were studied on growth characterstics in mungbean. It is usually infested and its growth parameter is adversely affected by a number of weed species that compete with the crop from germination to harvest, affecting the crop growth adversely.  A field experiment titled “Effect of Different Weed Management Practices on Growth Characters of Mungbean under Mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh” was conducted during the kharif season of 2022 at Chamelti Agriculture Farm, MS Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, District Solan. The soil of the experimental field was sandy loam in texture, slightly alkaline in reaction with EC in a safer range, medium in organic carbon, available nitrogen, potassium, and high in available phosphorus. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications comprising ten weed management treatments viz. (T1) Pendimethalin 30 EC @ 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 PE, (T2) Pendimethalin 30 EC @ 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 PE fb one HW at 20 DAS, (T3) Pendimethalin 30 EC @ 0.75 kg a.i. ha-1 PE fb Imezathapyr 10% SL @ 70 g ha-1 PoE at 20 DAS, (T4) Pendimethalin 30 EC @ 0.75 kg a.i. ha-1 PE fb Oxyfluoren @ 50 g a.i. ha-1 PoE at 25 DAS, (T5) Pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg a.i. ha-1 PE fb Quizolofop ethyl @ 50 g ha-1 PoE at 20 DAS, (T6) Imazethapyr 10% SL @ 70 g a.i. ha-1 PoE at 20 DAS, (T7) One-hand weeding at 25 DAS, (T8) Two-hand weeding at 20 and 35 DAS, (T9) Weedy check and (T10) Weed free. The recommended dose of fertilizer (20:40:20 kg ha-1) was applied through Urea, SSP, and MOP at the time of sowing. Pusa Baishaki variety of mungbean was used for sowing. Weed management practices were done as per treatment. Other crop management practices were followed as per the recommendation of the area. Data on growth characters revealed that application of (T2) Pendimethalin 30EC @ 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 PE fb one HW at 20 DAS registered higher growth parameters viz. plant height, number of branches plant-1, dry matter accumulation and trifoliate leaves which was statistically at par with (T3), (T4) and (T5). Thus, study suggest that mungbean can successfully grown under Mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh on (T2) Pendimethalin 30 EC @ 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 PE fb one HW at 20 DAS.
      PubDate: 2023-10-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113202
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Screening of Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] Genotypes against Web
           Blight Caused by (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) for Disease Resistance

    • Authors: Rinku Bhaskar, Subhash Chandra, Ramesh Chand , Sarvesh Kumar , Jashanpreet Singh , V. P. Chaudhary
      Pages: 583 - 587
      Abstract: Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] is the important source of proteins, minerals, and vitamins of the predominantly vegetarian Indian diet. Web blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn) is one of the most important fungal diseases which appear every year in varying intensity and causes heavy reduction in yield. The present investigations were carried out at the Student’s Instructional Farm (S.I.F.) A.N.D.U.A. &T., Kumarganj, Ayodhya to test the resistance of 100 genotypes against Rhizoctonia solani Kühn under natural conditions (In vivo).Genotypes were placed in different grades according to the rating scale  which is based on disease severity. Out of total test entries nine genotypes viz., DGGV-2, OUM11-5, RMG1030, IPM9901-8, DGG1, SML10-82, MH2-15, LGG450 and CGG945 were found free from infection, twelve genotypes viz., RMG-975, CGG-973, AKM -8802, IPM -02-3, MH-4, Pusa -0672, AKM-4, CO-5 Check, Bbara S. check, Asha, BPMR 145 and IPM 02-14 were recorded highly resistant, twenty four genotypes were noticed susceptible and only nine genotypes were found highly susceptible.
      PubDate: 2023-10-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113203
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessment of Correlation Analysis for Yield and Yield Contributing Traits
           among Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Genotypes

    • Authors: Deepak Kumar , Vipin Kumar , Bijendra Singh , Satya Prakash , Manoj Kumar Singh
      Pages: 588 - 602
      Abstract: Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most economically valuable crops worldwide, making it imperative to understand the complex interplay of various factors influencing tomato yield. During the research, we investigate Correlation analysis enhances our understanding of the relationships between the variables. We employ Pearson correlation coefficients to assess the strength and direction of linear associations. The results indicate strong positive correlations between morphological traits of diverse genotypes of tomato. This research article contributes to the existing body of knowledge by providing a comprehensive assessment of the path coefficients and correlations among key factors influencing tomato yield. Our findings have practical implications for tomato growers, enabling them to make informed decisions regarding selection of different tomato genotypes strategies to optimize yield.
      PubDate: 2023-10-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113204
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • How does Assisted Natural Regeneration (ANR) Improve Soil Fertility and
           Plant Cover in the Simiri Commune in Niger'

    • Authors: Daouda Boukary , Hassimiou Halidou Djabri , Karimou Harouna Boureima , Alzouma Mayaki Zoubeirou
      Pages: 603 - 616
      Abstract: Aims: This study aimed to assess Assisted Natural Regeneration (ANR) impacts on improving soil fertility and plant cover through the physicochemical characterization of soil samples taken from ANR fields and control fields. Study Design:  The experimental design is made up of a vegetation observation gradient along an East-West transect and a soil sampling gradient along a North-South transect. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Sahelian zone in the rural commune of Simiri in Niger between May and June 2023. Methodology: Data on the diversity of species predominant in the ANR system, the social categories of ANR users and farmers' perceptions of ANR were collected on a sample of 120 farmers chosen at random from three villages in the commune of Simiri. Results: A sandy texture was recorded in all the samples submitted for analysis, with an overall acid of soil pH (5.18 ⁃ 5.62). The proportions of the main nutrients: C(0,16), N(0,015), P(6,88), K(0,066), Mo(0,30) C/N(10,83) were relatively higher in the fields under ANR practices compared with the control fields. With regard to the dominant woody species, the results show that the stands are mainly based on Combretum glutinosum, Combretum micranthum and Guera senegalensis. The ability of woody species to withstand stressful conditions could act as a bulwark against climatic hazards. The strong dominance of these species is due, among other things, to their regenerative capacity, their rapid spread and, above all, their economic interest in the production of firewood and other ecosystem services. Conclusion: The Assisted Natural Regeneration (ANR) adoption in farming practices has often been accompanied by the creation of village committees for the protection and management of trees and other areas of sustainable natural resource management. Despite mutilation and other illegal felling, the new agroforestry parks increase the resilience of agricultural production systems to climatic shocks and biotic stresses.
      PubDate: 2023-10-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113205
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Wood Fibre Properties and Genetic Divergence in Haldina cordifolia (Roxb.)

    • Authors: Kannan C. S. Warrier , R. Abinaya , K. Gireesan , M. Jayakumar
      Pages: 617 - 627
      Abstract: Haldina cordifolia is a multipurpose tree species. It is one of the best Indian timbers suitable for flooring, panelling and for railway carriages. It is also suitable for pulp and paper, construction, window frames, furniture, bobbins, piano keys and rulers. Wood is also used for pencil manufacturing. Though many phyto-chemicals and pharmacological compounds have been identified from this tree species, the species has not been domesticated so far. ICFRE-Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore has initiated a tree improvement programme in this tree species since 2018 and plus trees numbering 141 have been selected from the state of Kerala. Eucalyptus spp., Casuarina spp., and Poplars are the major sources of wood pulp used by the paper industries in India. Efforts are being undertaken by various research institutions in India to find alternate indigenous tree species suitable for pulp. Therefore, a study was undertaken to understand the wood fibre properties of select Plus Trees of H. cordifolia. Wood samples collected from 30 select plus trees have been subjected to wood fibre analyses and genetic divergence studies. Wood specific gravity varied from 0.62 to 0.71. Various wood fibre ratios were also studied. Among the 30 Plus Trees studied, HC 01, HC 03, HC 04, HC 05, HC 18, HC 26 and HC 27 have registered ideal values for using them for paper making. The maximum value for broad sense heritability was recorded by Felting coefficient (0.75). Coefficient of fibre flexibility, Isenberg coefficient, Runkel’s ratio and Lumen diameter also registered reasonably higher values for H2. Application of Mahalanobis’ D2 statistics and Tocher’s clustering method resolved 30 Plus Trees into 6 clusters. The cluster strength varied from one in cluster 6 to 21 in cluster 1. The remaining 4 clusters contained two trees each. Genetic divergence studies have shown that Plus Trees namely, HC 22, HC 23, HC24, HC 27, HC 28, HC 29 and HC 30 could be utilized for further tree breeding programmes.
      PubDate: 2023-10-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113206
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Enhancing Blackgram Yield through Optimized Irrigation Scheduling and
           Integrated Nutrient Management: Growth Characteristics and Yield

    • Authors: Vikas Singh , Kaushal Kumar , Sarvesh Kumar , Munish Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar , Divya Rajput , Athar Husain Warsi , Sanjay Yadav
      Pages: 628 - 635
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out at Soil Conservation and Water Management Farm of C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur during Zaid seasons i.e. 2022 and 2023 to assess the effect of irrigation scheduling and integrated nutrient management on blackgram.The experiment consisted of three irrigation schedulesviz.I1:0.4 IW/CPE, I2:0.6 IW/CPE, I3:0.8 IW/CPE, along with five integrated nutrient management options viz.F1: 100% RDF, F2:125% RDF.F3: 75% RDF + 2.5 ton FYM/ha,F4: 50 % RDF + 5 ton FYM/ha.F5: 50% RDF + 2.5 ton FYM/ha + 1 tonvermi-compost. The experiment was conducted in Split Plot Design replicated thrice irrigation scheduling systems in main plots and integrated nutrient management in sub plots.  The result clearly revealed that significantly higher growth attributes viz plant height (35.25 cm and 37.56 cm), number of branches plant-1 (8.87 and 9.21), number of plant leaves (19.96 and 20.29) at harvest and yield attributes viz number of pod per plant (27.80 and 30.10) no of seed per pod (6.62 and 6.91) and also higher seed yield (9.30 q ha-1 and 9.90 qha-1 ), stover yield(23.21 q ha-1 and 24.03 q ha-1) were recorded with I3: 0.8 IW/CPE compared to I1: 0.4 IW/CPE and I2: 0.6 IW/CPE. Among the integrated nutrient management significantly higher growth attributes viz plant height (36.12 cm and 38.07 cm), number of branches plant-1 (9.01 and 9.32), number of plant leaves (20.05 and 20.45) at harvest and yield attributes viz number of pod per plant (28.44 and 30.17) no of seed per pod (7.05 and 7.37) and also higher grain yield (9.73 q ha-1 and 10.27 qha-1 ), stover yield(23.55 q ha-1 and 24.76 q ha-1) were recorded with F5:50% RDF + 2.5 ton FYM/ha + 1 ton vermi-compost as compared to other integrated nutrient management protocol.
      PubDate: 2023-10-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113207
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Alleviating Damage Extent and Enhancing Yield through Ridge Planting
           Techniques in Maize (Zea mays L.) during Excess Soil Moisture Stress

    • Authors: Sudarshana Ranjan , Amit Bhatnagar , Pavan Singh , Gurdeep Bains
      Pages: 636 - 643
      Abstract: Waterlogging is one of the major constraints limiting maize (Zea mays L.) production in India and might become more common due to irregular precipitation pattern due to climate change. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of planting techniques by examining of physio-morphological, and productivity of excess water sensitive maize (Zea mays L.), under excess soil moisture stress (ESM). A field experiment was conducted during the kharif season 2020 at G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar. The experiment consisting of two planting methods (flat and ridge), under ponding conditions (30 DAS for 7 days) along with non-ponded condition was laid out in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The recommended dose of nutrients was120:60:40kgN: P2O5:K2O/ha. The physio-biochemical and yield characteristics of the plants at different times interval after planting were evaluated. Growing of maize on ridge bed maintain comparatively aerobic condition and give better anchorage to sturdy in excess moisture resulting lowest crop lodging (12.06%) and higher yield (3501kg/ha) by 7.2% compare to flat system (3268kg/ha). In comparison to non-ponded and ponded plant showed significantly maximum growth, however lowest crop lodging percent.
      PubDate: 2023-10-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113208
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Influence of Biomass Characters of Different Grafted Scion on the
           Rootstock of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) under Shade Net Condition of
           Prayagraj Region, India

    • Authors: Vinay Joseph Silas , V. M. Prasad , Vijay Bahadur , Saket Mishra
      Pages: 644 - 650
      Abstract: The experiment was conducted during the year 2019-20 & 2021-22, at Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj with the object to study the success and initial Biomass characters of the grafts of some important varieties of mango under net house condition. The experiment consists of ten different varieties of mango Amrapali, KishanBhog, Gulabkhas, Kesar, Totapuri, Dasheri, Malgoa, Himsagar, Nisar Pasand & Bombay Green as treatments and replicated thrice in Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The results of present investigation clearly showed that, grafts of different mango varieties studied had a significant influence on the maximum values of  biomass characters like Length of tap root (25.97 cm), No. of secondary roots (37.73) was recorded in kesar. Fresh shoot weight (19.37 g) , Dry shoot weight (g) (11.19 g), Fresh root weight  (9.66 g), Dry root  weight (5.04 g ) was found maximum in Dasheri. Shoot root ratio (Fresh on weight basis) (2.75g) and Shoot root ratio (Dry on weight basis) (2.77 g) was maximum in Amrapali.
      PubDate: 2023-10-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113209
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Genetic Divergence Analysis for Yield and Quality Traits in Rice (Oryza
           sativa L.) Germplasm under Irrigated Conditions

    • Authors: Jalleni Sai Sree , Gaibriyal M. Lal , Pathlavath Suman
      Pages: 651 - 660
      Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to conduct genetic divergence analysis for yield and quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm under irrigated conditions. The experiment was conducted at crop research farm, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences. Prayagraj. The experiment was performed with 40 rice genotypes with 13 quantitative characters and 8 qualitative characters. Analysis of variance revealed that all the genotypes showing significant at 1% level of significance for all the characters. According to mean table Shiats dhan-7, Shiats dhan-2 show greater mean in grain yield per plant. Genetic parameters show PCV greater than GCV in all the characters, the traits Grain yield per plant and biological yield exhibits greater in both GCV and PCV. Heritability showing high range of estimates in all the characters as Days to maturity, Days to 50% flowering exhibit greater among all the characters. Number of spikelets per panicle, biological yield shows highest among the characters in Genetic advance. According to D2 analysis, the total genotypes are divided into five clusters, Cluster II showing greater in Intra cluster distance, Cluster V and Cluster I combination showing greater in Inter cluster distances. The Cluster IV showing highest among the clusters in the mean of Grain yield per plant. According to percentage contribution Grain yield per plant showing highest among the characters. Quality analysis had done on 35 genotypes, based upon quality characters Hulling percentage showing genotype Ajaya greater and genotype MTU-2032 shows greater in Kernel elongation ratio.
      PubDate: 2023-10-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113210
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Different Weed Management Practices on Growth Characters of
           Chickpea in Mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Shubham, Ranjeet Singh Bochalya , Kartikeya Choudhary , Anmol Katoch , Ananya Sood
      Pages: 661 - 668
      Abstract: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is one of the most important pulse legumes in many parts of the world. India is largest producer of chickpea in the world, sharing 65 and 70 % of the total global area and production, respectively. Different weed control practices use of herbicides were followed for better management. Application of herbicide at critical growth stages followed by one or two hand weeding at proper time or manipulation of row spacing for improving the weed suppressing effect of crops gives marginal improvement in crop yield. A field experiment titled “Effects of Different Weed Management Practices on Growth Characters of Chickpea in Mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh” was conducted during rabi season of 2022 at Chamelti Agriculture Farm, MS Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan. The soil of the experimental field was sandy loam in texture, slightly alkaline in reaction with EC in a safer range, medium in organic carbon, available nitrogen, potassium, and high in available phosphorus. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications comprising ten weed management treatments viz. (T1) One hand weeding at 20 DAS, (T2) Two hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS, (T3) Pendimethalin 30 EC @ 1.0 kg ha-1 (PE), (T4) Imazethapyr 10 SL @ 1.0 kg ha-1 (PoE) at 25 DAS, (T5) Pendimethalin 30 EC @ 1.0 kg ha-1 (PE) + One hand weeding at 30 DAS, (T6) Imazethapyr 10 SL @ 1.0 kg ha-1 (PoE) at 25 DAS + One hand weeding at 40 DAS, (T7) Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 9.3 EC @ 60 g ha-1 (PoE) at 25 DAS + One hand weeding at 40 DAS, (T8) Pendimethalin 30 EC @ 1.0 kg ha-1 (PE) + Imazethapyr 10 SL @ 1.0 kg ha-1 (PoE) at 25 DAS, (T9) Weed free and (T10) Weedy Check. The recommended dose of fertilizer (30:60:30 kg ha-1) was applied through Urea, SSP, and MOP at the time of sowing. PBG-7 variety of chickpea was used for sowing. Weed management practices were done as per treatment. Other crop management practices were followed as per the recommendation of the area. Application of (T8) Pendimethalin 30 EC @ 1.0 kg ha-1 (PE) + Imazethapyr 10 SL @ 1.0 kg ha-1 (PoE) at 25 DAS registered higher growth parameters viz. plant height, number of branches plant-1, dry matter accumulation and crop growth rate. Thus, study suggest that chickpea can successfully grown under Mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh on (T8) Pendimethalin 30 EC @ 1.0 kg ha-1 (PE) + Imazethapyr 10 SL @ 1.0 kg ha-1 (PoE) at 25 DAS.
      PubDate: 2023-10-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113211
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Dates of Sowing on Grain Yield of Rabi Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    • Authors: Boppidi Manasa Reddy , S. G. Mahadevappa, K. Indudhar Reddy , K. Pavan Chandra Reddy
      Pages: 669 - 680
      Abstract: Aim: To determine the optimum date of sowing to realize higher grain yield in rabi rice. Study Design: Split plot. Place and Duration of Study: Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Rudrur, Nizamabad during rabi, 2022. Methodology: The experiment consisted of a total of fifteen treatments which were laid out in split plot design with three replications. Treatments included were five dates of sowing in the main plot M1-20th November, M2-1st December, M3-10th December, M4-20th December, and M5-30th December and three treatments of varieties in subplots S1-JGL 24423 (long slender variety), S2-Ganga Kaveri (medium slender variety) and S3-RNR 15048 (short slender variety) randomly placed in subplots of the main plot. Results: Maximum plant height (100.3 cm), number of tillers m-2 (432), dry matter accumulation (15869 kg ha-1), grain yield (7219 kg ha-1), straw yield(8387 kg ha-1) and HI (46.1) was noticed in crop Sownon 30thDecember. Significantly maximum number of tillers m-2, dry matter accumulation (14263 kg ha-1), grain yield (6127 kg ha-1), straw yield (8650 kg ha-1) was observed in S2-Ganga Kaveriwhile significantly higher plant height (100.6 cm) and HI (45.0) was found in S3-RNR 15048. Lowest height was recorded in S2-Ganga Kaveri (92.6 cm), and above parameters were recorded lowest in crop sown on 20th November, while lowest number of tillers m-2and straw yield (8122 kg ha-1) was observed in crop sown on 1st December.Significantlyless number of tillers m-2 (326), dry matter accumulation (13981 kg ha-1), grain yield (6166 kg ha-1), straw yield (7526 kg ha-1) was recorded in S3-RNR 15048, while lowest HI (43.9) was recorded in S1-JGL 24423. Conclusion: Crop sown on 30thDecember revealed better performance in terms of grain yield under the present study during Rabi conditions. Among varieties, Ganga Kaveri (S2) performed better in terms of grain yield.
      PubDate: 2023-10-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113212
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Evaluation of Different Juice Varieties of Grape (Vitis sp.) for
           Qualitative Characteristics

    • Authors: Disha S. K., K. Venkata Laxmi , Veena Joshi , K. Aparna , Bhagyashali V. Hudge
      Pages: 681 - 686
      Abstract: The present investigation was conducted at College of Horticulture, Rajendranagar, during the year 2023. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design. The research experiment was conducted to evaluate qualitative parameters of different juice varieties of grape. The results revealed that maximum TSS (21.05 ⁰B) and brix/acid ratio (42.96) were recorded in T1 – H-516. Maximum pH was recorded in T6 – Manjari Medika (4.03) and highest titrable acidity was recorded in T5 – Gulabi X Bangalore Purple (0.71%). Reducing sugars were highest in T1 – H-516 (17.24%), whereas total sugars were maximum in T4 – Concord (28.56%). Juice recovery was recorded maximum in T6 – Manjari Medika (71.80 %).
      PubDate: 2023-10-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113213
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Drought Forecasting Using Standard Precipitation Index Based on Rainfall
           of Western Region

    • Authors: Deepak Kumar Mishra, Ram Kumar, B. R. Singh , P. V. Singh
      Pages: 687 - 701
      Abstract: Drought has always been one of the most dangerous natural disasters for manhood. Due to the continuous global climate change, drought occurrences have become more frequent and severe, affecting human existence and long-term social progress. PIStandard values are a measure of the probability of a given precipitation event occurring. They are calculated using a statistical distribution of precipitation data. The three statistical distributions that are most commonly used to model precipitation data are the gamma distribution, the normal distribution, and the log-normal distribution. Therefore, utilising all three of the above-mentioned theoretical probability distributions, the drought index PIStandard has been computed. PIStandard range more than 2 (extremely wet) to less than -2 (extremely dry), with 0.99 to - 0.99 considered the near-normal range. PIStandard is calculated at different time scales which can be 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months, time scales. The temporal trends of SPI at the stations were identified using the Mann-Kendall test. PIStandard were computation at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24-month time scales. PIStandard provides a better analysis of meteorological drought at multiple different timescales for short- and long-term planning because it uses the running sum of rainfall values at 1 to 24 months and more parameters for the statistical distribution used. For short-term drought monitoring and agricultural crop planning, a 1- to 3-month PIStandard can be utilized; however, long-term hydrological drought monitoring and water management planning require PIStandards of 6 to 9 months and 12 to 24 months, respectively. Drought analysis using PIStandard results can be used to design rainwater harvesting and storage structures in drought-affected areas for appropriate crop planning.
      PubDate: 2023-10-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113214
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Auxin and Cytokinin on Grafting and Growth of Sapling of Guava
           (Psidium guajava L.)

    • Authors: Megha Kumari , L. K. Dashora , Moolchand Jain , Ramraj Meena , Yamini Tak
      Pages: 702 - 706
      Abstract: The experiment was conducted to study the effect of auxin and cytokinin on grafting and growth of sapling of guava (Psidium guajava L.) at department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, ummedganj, KOTA, KVK Modal nursery Agriculture university Kota during the year of 2020-21.In the investigation, L-49 cultivar of guava (Psidium guajava L.) was selected as mother plant for obtaining scion bud. The foliar spray of NAA and BA (50 and 25 ppm each) either on rootstock or/and scion branch was applied 10 days prior to grafting. The most responsive treatments was foliar spray on rootstocks with BA at 25 ppm concentration. Rootstocks treated with BA (25 ppm) resulted in length of scion shoot after grafting (16.63 cm), diameter of sprouted scion (2.80 cm), diameter of rootstocks (3.41 cm), number of leaves (20.83), leaf area (24.76 cm2), number of lateral shoot (7.89) as compared to others treatments.
      PubDate: 2023-10-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113215
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Studies on Foraging Behaviour of Honeybees on Flowers of Rapeseed Crop

    • Authors: Nishismita Parida , Braja Kishore Sahoo , Satya Narayan Satapathy, Swoyam Singh , Subhashree Subhasmita Paikaray, Amrit Mohapatra
      Pages: 707 - 712
      Abstract: This paper represents foraging behaviour of honeybees on the flowers of rapeseed crop; Apis cerana indica started foraging at 07.10hr and ceased their foraging activity at 17.25hr. Thus, the duration of foraging activity was 10.15hr which was maximum foraging period, followed by A. florea (08.00hr to 05.00hr and 09.00hr) and A. dorsata (07.50hr to 03.00hr and 07.10hr) respectively. A. cerana indica spent maximum time of 6.57 ± 0.43 sec/flower followed by A. dorsata 6.55 ± 0.26 sec/flower and and A. florea 4.4 ± 0.27 sec/flower. Maximum number of flowers visited by A. dorsata of 11.3 ± 2.3 flowers/ min then A. cerana indica of 9.7 ± 2.6 flowers/ min and A. florea of 6.3 ± 1.2 flowers/ min.
      PubDate: 2023-10-12
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113216
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Virulence of Native Isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff)
           against Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Western Uttar
           Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Ravi Shanker , Rajendra Singh, Malayaj R. Prajapati , Reetesh Pratap Singh , Aditya Patel , Omkar Singh
      Pages: 713 - 718
      Abstract: The chickpea pod borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a destructive pest of chickpeas that is difficult to control using conventional methods. We isolated and evaluated the virulence of five isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae against larvae of H. armigera. All isolates of M. anisopliae, SVPUAT 1, SVPUAT 2, SVPUAT 3, SVPUAT 4, and SVPUAT 5, were most effective against the second instar H. armigera at 2 ×108 conidia/ml. Among all isolates, SVPUAT 1 Accession no. ON183248 had the highest virulence 100% mortality, whereas LT50 and LT90 were 3.16 and 5.16 days.
      PubDate: 2023-10-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113217
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Farmers Knowledge on Pesticide Usage in Paddy and Cabbage Crops

    • Authors: Krishna Gudadur , S. S. Dolli
      Pages: 719 - 726
      Abstract: The study was conducted to investigate the knowledge of the farmers on pesticide use in selected crops during 2019-22. Two crops namely paddy and cabbage were selected and tow districts that have higher area namely Koppal and Belagavi were selected. In each district, two taluks and eighty farmers were selected for each crop by simple random procedure to form a total sample of 160 farmers. Overall knowledge index of pesticides by farmers was higher in case of paddy (73.57%) and cabbage (64.76%) farmers. Among the various dimensions, knowledge index was highest with respect to concentration and application practice (96.72% & 82.97%), types of sprayers and maintenance (91.25% & 87.50%), IPM practices (73.75% & 70.00) among paddy, and cabbage. Further, knowledge with respect to pest identification (69.06% & 57.66%), toxicity of pesticide and labels signs (68.59% & 61.09%) and disposal of pesticides and personal hygiene (67.86% & 61.09%) was around sixty percent among cabbage and paddy growers respectively. Further, low index was observed with respect to pesticide selection (26.88% & 38.54%) in case of paddy and cabbage growers respectively. Regarding overall knowledge of the pesticide use the findings revealed that Majority (72.50%) of the growers belongs to medium knowledge of pesticide category in case of paddy, low knowledge category in cabbage crop (38.75%) there is need for orientation to the farmers on different insect pests and pathogens through training and digital media. The short video on pests in different crops may be prepared and made access to upload on smart phones of farmers.
      PubDate: 2023-10-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113218
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Opportunities for Entrepreneurship in Waste Management: Need for
           Collaborative Approach under NEP

    • Authors: Krishna Gudadur , S. S. Dolli , Sudhakar S. K.
      Pages: 727 - 734
      Abstract: Due to the high demand for food and meat for the world's growing population, the agricultural sector is expanding every year. It is estimated India generates around 500 Mt of crop residue annually. Timely and effective treatment is of utmost importance to utilize organic matter in agricultural waste and avoid environmental pollution. This not only reduces the environmental effects but provides entrepreneurships opportunities to the students. The New Education Policy (NEP) emprises on skilling and entrepreneurships developments Agriculture waste management can be one of the area for skilling to covert waste into wealth. This review of the developments in this area revealed that agriculture waste can be utilised for mushroom cultivation, pig farming vermicomposting and many more. Indian council of Agriculture Research(ICAR) initiations have developed waste management technologies that includes  bio char from agricultural waste material, soil less planting media using sugar industry residue, foliar spray from fish waste etc .There is need to establish collaboration  for joint research, compilation of the technology to reach large number of stake holders. There is need to design one year course under degree programme that enable students to specialise and get diploma or certificate to become entrepreneur. The paper discusses opportunities for collaboration and strategies for effective implementation of Agriculture waste management through entrepreneurship development
      PubDate: 2023-10-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113219
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Impact of Weather Parameters on Population Dynamics of Fruit Flies
           (Bactrocera sp.) on Phalsa (Grewia asiatica Linn.)

    • Authors: Shallu Raina , Devinder Sharma, Monika Singh
      Pages: 735 - 741
      Abstract: Field experiments were meticulously conducted for two consecutive years (2018 and 2019) at a phalsa orchard situated in the Regional Horticulture Research Station (RHRS), Raya, District-Samba. The primary aim of these experiments was to comprehensively examine the population dynamics of fruit flies and their susceptibility to variations in weather parameters. To this end, green valley fruit fly traps were strategically deployed throughout the orchard to monitor fruit fly populations. The outcomes of the study revealed that fruit fly activity commenced during the 15th standard week and reached its zenith during the 24th standard week in both years. Correlation analysis underscored a notably strong and positive correlation with maximum (0.575**) and minimum (0.696**) temperatures. Furthermore, a significant negative correlation (–0.422*) was observed between morning relative humidity and fruit fly catches. However, the study did not find any statistically significant correlation between evening relative humidity, rainfall, and fruit fly captures. The weather conditions accounted for an impressive 59.70% of the observed variations in adult fruit fly trap catches of B. dorsalis and B. zonata on phalsa which highlighted the intricate interplay between environmental factors and the population dynamics of these fruit fly species in the phalsa crop ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2023-10-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113220
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Impact of Mission Kakatiya on Area under Tank Irrigation in Southern
           Telangana Zone, India

    • Authors: K. Naga Latha , D. Srinivasa Chary , Kallakuri Supriya , P. D. Sreekanth , Tadepalli Yamini
      Pages: 742 - 748
      Abstract: Aim: The study was done with an aim to find out whether there is any shift in major crops in Southern Telangana Zone with respect to area, production and yield due to the restoration of tanks with the Mission Kakatiya program and to study the growth in tank irrigated area. Data Description: Time series data of 15 years from 2005-10 to 2015-20 which consists of area, production and yield of major crops (Paddy, Maize, Cotton and Groundnut) and area under tank irrigation in Southern Telangana Zone were utilized for the study and was collected from Statistical Year Books published by Directorate of Economics and Statistics. Methodology: Analysis was done with the help of analysis platforms like SPSS and Excel using statistical tools which include linear and compound growth rates. Results: Results revealed that there was a considerable and significant growth observed in area under tank irrigation (29.69%) in Southern Telangana Zone after Mission Kakatiya. With the increase in tank irrigated area, this zone showed a shift towards irrigated and commercial crops like Paddy, Cotton and Maize from the rainfed crops. Conclusion: During the period before Mission Kakatiya there was a negative growth observed in tank irrigated area whereas both the growth rates have turned to positive in the period after implementation of Mission Kakatiya. This study concluded that there is a positive impact on crop characteristics in this zone due to Mission Kakatiya program. As a whole Mission Kakatiya is one of the outstanding projects whose achievements are incomparable and is a blessing for the farmers of Telangana State.
      PubDate: 2023-10-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113221
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Role of Biological Carbon Mitigation in Carbon Sequestration: A Review

    • Authors: Apoorva Guddaraddi, Pawan Kumar Goutam , Pallavi Sonaniya , D. R. K. Saikanth , SK. Abirami , Vineet Dheer , Mubashir Sadiq V.
      Pages: 749 - 757
      Abstract: The imperative to address climate change has ushered in a growing interest in carbon sequestration as a mitigation strategy. While current methods offer some promise, they also come with a host of challenges, including technological limitations, environmental impacts, and economic barriers. This review paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the future prospects and recommendations for advancing carbon sequestration methods. Technological innovations are highlighted, particularly the advent of Direct Air Capture technologies, bioengineering for enhanced biological mitigation, and material science for more efficient storage. The policy landscape is discussed, emphasizing the need for robust carbon pricing mechanisms and international collaboration. Additionally, the paper identifies pressing areas for further research, such as long-term impact studies, the exploration of social and economic implications, and advances in monitoring and verification technologies. By synthesizing the emerging trends and potential strategies for overcoming current limitations, this paper aims to provide a cohesive roadmap for making carbon sequestration a viable and effective tool in the global effort to combat climate change.
      PubDate: 2023-10-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113222
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Seasonal Abundance of Melon Fruit Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)
           Infesting Cucumber in Relation to Abiotic Factors

    • Authors: Chaudhary K. V., Patel S. R., Akshay Kumar
      Pages: 758 - 762
      Abstract: The present investigation on seasonal abundance of melon fruit fly in relation to weather parameters was conducted in cucumber at the farmers field, Kharsad, Navsari, Gujarat using Nauroji Stonehouse fruit fly trap containing cue-lure baited wooden block during summer 2022. Studies on seasonal abundance revealed that in cucumber the activity of adults of B. cucurbitae commenced from 13th Standard Meteorological Week (SMW) i.e., 4th week of March and continued till 19th SMW (1st week of May) which ranged from 38.00 to 59.75 with an average of 45.11 male fruit flies per four traps while, the peak adult population was observed during 17th SMW i.e., 4th week of April (59.75 mean male fruit flies/4 traps). Moreover, adult population of melon fruit fly showed positive and significant correlation with maximum temperature and negative and significant correlation with morning relative humidity.
      PubDate: 2023-10-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113223
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of PGRs on Cucurbits: An Overview

    • Authors: Priyanka Rajbhar , Gurumurthy N., Mohd Faruk , Anil Kumar Singh , Shivam Kumar Singh
      Pages: 763 - 770
      Abstract: Cucurbits, a popular vegetable, can thrive in deserts and moist tropics. The family Cucurbitaceae contains 118 genera and about 825 species. These crops are mostly grown in India during the summer and rainy seasons, with certain southern and western regions cultivating them in winter. These crops are annual and perennial. PGRs in cucurbits have shown promise in improving crop growth, productivity, and quality. PGRs affect several physiological and developmental processes in cucurbits. There are different effects of the various kind of the PGRs in cucurbits such as watermelon with 25-50 ppm GA3 yielded earlier and more fruits. Fruit count rose with 250 and 500 ppm ethrel. The 40 ppm GA3 increased vegetative growth and production. TIBA (20 ppm) increased fruit weight and yield. In case of cucumber GA3 at 20 ppm and NAA at 100 ppm increased cucumber growth and production. Application of GA3 (20 ppm) at the 4-leaf stage enhances growth, flowering, and yield in bottle gourd. In bitter gourd fruit per plant, fruit weight, and yield increased significantly with GA3 at 60 ppm. Ethrel at 50 ppm improved fruit set and weight. Gibberex treatments increased fruit quantity, weight, and yield per plant. Further study and fieldwork are needed to understand PGRs and determine the appropriate effects for cucurbits.
      PubDate: 2023-10-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113224
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Sewage on Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil in Unnao
           District (U.P.), India

    • Authors: Arpita Soni , Anil Kumar , Abhishek Kumar , Ravindra Sachan , Ram Ashish , Anupama Verma
      Pages: 771 - 775
      Abstract: This study was conducted during 2021-22 considering various vegetable growing farmers in Unnao District (U.P.), India to find out the effect of using sewage as the only source of irrigation to their crops. In this study, 250 surface soil samples collected from farmer’s field were analyzed for Physical as well as Chemical parameters. The physical properties of soils improved due to sewage application; Bulk density ranged from 1.04 to 1.42 Mg m-3 and particle density ranged between 2.61 to 2.88 Mg m-3 and Porosity ranged between 53.4 to 61.85 with mean of 56.87 percent. Chemical Parameters such as pH, E.C., O.C., Available N, P & K were also analyzed and the results indicated that soils had a mean normal pH of 7.2, E.C. of 0.76 dSm-1, O.C. of 56.80. Available nitrogen ranged from 565 – 1217 kg ha-1 with mean of 879.56 kg ha-1.The Phosphorus availability was found ranging from 14.40 – 33.5 kg ha-1 with a mean of 23.98 kg ha-1, while Potassium was found with a mean of 205.30 kg ha-1 in range of 174 – 235 kg ha-1.
      PubDate: 2023-10-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113225
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Response of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus mucilaginosus Strains on
           Yield and Quality of Soybean

    • Authors: Kavita Solanki , S. K. Choudhary , Aakash, Veer Singh , Ankit Singh , Devilal Birla
      Pages: 776 - 783
      Abstract: At present due to continuous use of phosphatic and potassic fertilizers a deposits of these nutrient have increased in the soil of studied area, and Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus mucilaginosus solubilize/mobilize P and K in the soil, thus, for increasing yield and quality of soybean, an experiment was planned with the aim to investigate the response of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus mucilaginosus strains on yield and quality of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill.] at All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) on Integrated Farming System Research at College of Agriculture, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India during kharif, 2019 & 20. The research was conducted in randomized block design (RBD) with 8 treatments, viz. Control with 75% RDF (T1), Control with 100% RDF (T2), 75% RDF with Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus mucilaginosus strainsas seed treatment (T3), 100% RDF with Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus mucilaginosus strainsas seed treatment (T4), 75% RDF with Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus mucilaginosus strainsas foliar application at 30 and 45 DAS (T5), 100% RDF with Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus mucilaginosus strainsas foliar application at 30 and 45 DAS (T6), 75% RDF with Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus mucilaginosus strainsas seed treatment + foliar application of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus mucilaginosus strainsat 30 and 45 DAS (T7) and 100% RDF with Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus mucilaginosus strainsas seed treatment + foliar application of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus mucilaginosus strainsat 30 and 45 DAS (T8). The seed yield (1139 kg ha-1) of soybean increased to the tune of 14.26 and 19.72 per cent with application of 100% RDF with Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus mucilaginosus strainsas seed treatment + foliar application of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus mucilaginosus strains (T8) at 30 and 45 DAS compared to control (786 kg ha-1). Among all the treatments, yield attributes such as pods count plant-1 (29.66), seeds count pod-1 (3.36) and seed yield plant-1 (13.17) were observed highest with T8 at 30 and 45 DAS.
      PubDate: 2023-10-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113226
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Spatial and Temporal Variability of Rainfall in South-central Senegal:
           Example of the Fatick and Kaolack Regions

    • Authors: Souleymane Diallo , Anders Jensen Knudby
      Pages: 784 - 797
      Abstract: One of the manifestations of climate change in the Sahel is a decrease in rainfall, which has led to a sharp decline in water potential in the south-central Senegal. The objective of this study is to understand the changes in rainfall through time and space, in the south-central Senegal (Fatick and Kaolack regions), to better plan water management for sustainable development. The rainfall data used ranges from 1961 to 2020 for the sites of Gossas, Foundiougne, Guinguineo and Nioro, and from 1951 to 2020 for the sites of Fatick and Kaolack. Pettitt and Buishand break tests were used to detect changes in rainfall patterns, Hubert segmentation was used to highlight sub-periods within the time series, and Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPI) were used to highlight deficits and surpluses. The results of break tests and Hubert segmentation show a decrease in average rainfall between the 1960s and 1970s, and an increase between the 1990s and 2000s, for some of the sites. The decrease in the 1960s and 1970s was early in sites in the Fatick region (Gossas, Fatick and Foundiougne) and late or absent in the Kaolack region (Guinguineo, Kaolack and Nioro). As for the increase in the 1990s and 2000s, it was first observed in the south and center of the study area in the 1990s (Nioro and Kaolack). In the 2000s, the increase was observed further north (Fatick and Gossas). The Standardized Precipitation Index shows reduced rainfall for 1971-2000 compared to the surrounding periods. Coefficient of variation values show that dispersion is lowest in the wetter years 1950 for two sites (Fatick and Kaolack), 1990 and 2000 for four sites (Gossas, Foundiougne, Guinguineo and Nioro). The highest coefficients of variation were detected in the drought years 1960, 1970 and 1980 for these four sites (Gossas, Foundiougne, Guinguineo and Nioro). This is not the case at the Fatick site, where the coefficients of variation for the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s are higher than those for 2000 and 2010. Coefficients of variation increase in the 2010s at five sites (Kaolack, Gossas, Foundiougne, Guinguineo and Nioro). The highest coefficients of variation were recorded in 2010 in Gossas, Guinguineo and Nioro. The decrease in average rainfall from the 1960s to the 1990s, and the increase in the 1990s and 2000s detected in most of the study sites, corroborates results of other studies from West and Central Africa.
      PubDate: 2023-10-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113227
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Characterization of Climate Change and Aquifer Recharge in Three
           Localities in the South-West of Côte d’Ivoire

    • Authors: Kouakou Koffi Abdelaziz , Omer Z. De Lasme , Oulai J. G. Kpan , Diabagate Bassirima
      Pages: 798 - 811
      Abstract: Located in the southwestern part of Côte d'Ivoire, the study area's economic activity is rainfall-dependent agriculture and facing climate change impact on water resources. This study aims to improve the resilience of water users based on a better understanding of the recent manifestation of climate change. Specifically, it is to determine the episodes of rainfall variability and estimate the effective rainfall and groundwater recharge. The hydro-climatic database for this study covers more or less the period from 1977 to 2021. The characterization of rainfall variability was highlighted by the calculation of rainfall indices, while effective rainfall and recharge values were determined using the ESPERE (Estimation of Effective Rainfall and Recharge) software according to different mathematical methods. Using the non-parametric Pettitt test was possible to detect years with significant rainfall breaks. Thus, there was an alternation of deficit and surplus periods at different scales in the three localities. However, a break in the rainfall pattern occurred in 1989 in San Pedro, whereas this event took place a year later, in 1990, in the other two localities. The effective rainfall and annual recharge closely followed the rainfall evolution in the three localities at different scales. This acquired knowledge of hydrological and hydrogeological rainfall, dynamics can be used to better educate the resilience and climate change adaptation habits of the populations in the southwest region of Côte d'Ivoire.
      PubDate: 2023-10-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113228
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Use of Selected Chemical and Biological Insecticides to Control
           Lepidopteran Pests of Maize Fields in Central Côte d'Ivoire

    • Authors: Armand Nahoulé Adja , Appolinaire Bley Bley-Atse , Eric-Olivier Tienebo , Jean Ayékpa Gnago , Mathias Danho
      Pages: 812 - 825
      Abstract: Control of lepidopteran larvae, the main pests in maize fields, has become necessary since the appearance and spread of Spodoptera frugiperda. The study was carried out at the Institut National Polytechnique Houphouët-Boigny in Yamoussoukro (Central Côte d’Ivoire). The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of three chemical - Viper 46 EC (Acetamiprid 16 g/l and Indoxacarb 30 g/l), K-Optimal 35 EC (Lambdacyhalothrin 15 g/l and Acetamiprid 20 g/l) and Ampligo 150 ZC (Chlorantanlipol 100 g/l and Lambdacyhalothrin 50 g/l) - and one biological insecticide Bio-Elit (Azadirachtin, Salanin, Nimbin and Melandriol) on lepidopteran larvae in maize fields using a randomized complete block design with five treatments and three repetitions. Data on insect identification, plant infestation, damage, and yield were collected. Insects’ identification was based on morphology using identification keys. Plant damage was assessed by visually estimating the plant health status (unattacked and attacked plants). Grain dry weight was used to estimate field yield. The encountered maize field insects belonged to 10 orders: Heteroptera, Hymenoptera, Homoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Dictyoptera, Odonata, Orthoptera, Dermaptera, and Lepidoptera. Five lepidopteran pest larvae have been recorded. Three of them were classified as minor pests (Eldana saccharina, Ostrinia nubilalis, and Helicoverpa zea), one as important (Sesamia calamistis), and one as a major pest (Spodoptera frugiperda). On untreated plots, more than 76% of plants were moderately to heavily attacked. However, on treated plots, plants showed isolated to moderate attacks. Insecticide sprayings controlled pest populations, reduced damage, and increased yield. The yields obtained on untreated plots (2.26±0.21 t/ha) were lower than those on treated plots (3.29±0.11 to 3.60±0.09 t/ha). The yield increase rate ranged from 45.74 to 59.63%. The best control was recorded with Ampligo (59.63%) and Bio-Elit (50.83%) compared to Viper (49.41%) and K-Optimal (45.74%). Therefore, the alternating use of synthetic or biological insecticides, which are not very toxic for humans and the environment but are effective on insect pests, increases the effectiveness of the control and provides a positive response to the problem of pest resistance while protecting the environment.
      PubDate: 2023-10-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113229
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Seasonal Incidence and Population Dynamics of Aulacophora foveicollis on
           Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria M.) and Their Correlation with Abiotic

    • Authors: Shubham Singh , Umesh Chandra , Ravi Kumar Rajak , Heenashree Mansion , Sanju Singh , Shobharam Thakur , Vijay Kumar Katara , Dwarka
      Pages: 826 - 830
      Abstract: The present Investigation carried out at Students’ Instructional Farm, A. N. D. U. A. & T., Kumarganj, Ayodhya (U.P.) during Zaid, 2022. Red pumpkin beetle was first recorded during incidence initiated in the 7th SMW (3rd week of February) with a mean population 1.4 beetles per five plants which reached its peak to maximum (21.20 beetles/five plants) during 14th SMW (1st week of April). There was a weakly positive association between the red pumpkin beetle population and the minimum and maximum temperature (0.067 & 0.40), maximum rainfall and relative humidity displayed an insignificant inverse relationship (-0.467 & -0.129) while significant negative correlation with minimum relative humidity (-0.506*).
      PubDate: 2023-10-13
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113230
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Understanding the Genetic Architecture of Yield and Associated Traits in
           Soybean (Glycine max L.): Implications for Crop Improvement

    • Authors: Jyoti Joshi , Brindaban Singh
      Pages: 831 - 844
      Abstract: The experiment consisting of 22 soybean cultivar/varieties were laid out in a Research farm (Genetics and Plant Breeding) AKS University Sherganj, Satna, Madhya Pradesh during Kharif, 2022. The 14 characters were studied viz. days to 50% germination, days to 50% flowering, plant height (cm), days to maturity, number of primary branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per clusters, number of pods per plants, pod length (cm), number of seed per pods, 100 seed weight (g), biological yield (gm), harvest index (%) and seed yield per plant (g). The magnitude of GCV ranged from days to 50% flowering (5.989) to the number of clusters per plant (31.701) and the magnitude of PCV ranged from days to 50% flowering (6.782) to number of clusters per plants (31.956). In general, higher estimates (h2b) >80% were observed for all the characters except days to 50% germination, harvest index, seed yield per plant (g) and days to 50% flowering. The heritability value ranged from days to 50% germination (69.9%) to number of clusters per plant (98.4%). The expected genetic advance in percent of mean @ 5% ranged from days to 50% flowering (10.896%) to the number of clusters per plants (64.78%). High estimates of expected genetic advance were found for number of clusters per plants followed by number of pods per plant, pod length (cm), number of primary branches per plants, seed yield per plant (g), biological yield (gm) and number of seed per pods at 5% level. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as a percent of mean at 5% observed for number of clusters per plant followed by a number of pods per plants, pod length (cm), number of seed /pods and biological yield (gm) indicating that these characters could be prominently governed by additive gene action.
      PubDate: 2023-10-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113231
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Study on Pattern of Rainfall and its Effect in the Chhatarpur (M.P), India

    • Authors: Priyanshi Garg , Vinit Kumar , Anshu Dhaka
      Pages: 845 - 851
      Abstract: Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy. It gives employment to more than 50 percent of India's population. This sector contributes more than 15 percent to the country's GDP, which signifies its importance in our economy. Though important, it is highly susceptible to losses due to its high dependence on various variable factors such as rainfall, soil fertility, temperature etc., which varies across the region. This article analyzes various literature to help us understand the trend, effects, and impact of rainfall in the Chhatarpur district. We analyze the effects of rainfall on groundwater, cropping patterns, and irrigation facilities in that region.
      PubDate: 2023-10-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113232
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessment Concerning the Role of Foliar Administration of Micronutrients
           on Growth, Yield, and Quality Characteristics of Vegetable Crops

    • Authors: Pallavi Soni , Gopal Chowdhury , Ujjwal Sarkar , Karuna Sahu , Deepa Narayanappa , Ritu Nayak
      Pages: 852 - 865
      Abstract: Vegetables are one of the main elements in terms of ensuring a person's food security and nutritional well-being. Integrated application of macronutrients coupled with adequate incorporation of micronutrients is one of the key factors for quality vegetable production. For ensuring maximum vegetable production with superior quality foliar nutrition is the better alternative in the era of climate change.  Foliar application is the easiest and most effective way to administer micronutrients as compared to other methods. Trace elements such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), boron (B), chlorine (Cl), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni) are essential for vegetable crops. The primary goal of this review article is to investigate the merits of micronutrients and the production potential of various vegetable crops through foliar nutrition. Additionally, this study aims to clarify the role of micronutrients in quality vegetable production. Several studies suggested that the exogenous application of micronutrients has a tremendous effect on overall growth and quality in a variety of crops. Many researchers have demonstrated that applications of Boron @250ppm significantly influenced the fresh weight of fruit, number of fruits per plant, number of seeds per plant, germination%, vigour index and root and shoot lengths of seedlings in sweet pepper. Various researchers also concluded that the application of Zn @1000 ppm + B @200 ppm + Mo @50 ppm provides a significant impact on head diameter, volume of head, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll total in cabbage.
      PubDate: 2023-10-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113233
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Diversity, Seasonal Dynamics and Host Plants of Butterflies in Forest
           Research Centre, Siddipet, Telangana, India

    • Authors: D. Ravivarma , Ch. Bhargavi , Sahith Chepyala , Varun Podishetti , Swamynath Shakati , Mogilicharla Manasa , Chandramohan Kolagani
      Pages: 866 - 882
      Abstract: Aim: This study aims at bringing out butterfly diversity through species richness, seasonal distribution and suitable host plant preferences of identified butterflies in Forest Research Centre, Siddipet, Telangana, India. Study Design: Line Transect Method is followed. Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in Forest Research Centre (FRC), Siddipet, Telangana, India during 2021-2022. Methodology: Five line transects are laid across the research centre which are surveyed both in morning and afternoon at 9-11AM and 4-6PM respectively across the season viz., rainy, winter and summer seasons. Species identification was done based on the visual and photographical observations. Results: The study revealed a butterfly species richness of 53, spanning 39 genera and distributed across five families. These families included Nymphalidae (23 species), Pieridae (12 species), Lycaenidae (10 species), Papilionoidae (6 species), and Hesperiidae (2 species). When it came to host plant preferences, the butterflies showed a preference for families such as Fabaceae (23%), Malvaceae (16%), Capparaceae (12%), Acanthaceae (11%), and Poaceae (8%). Additionally, several other families, including Apocynaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Rhamnaceae, and Rutaceae, were found to host a few butterfly species. Regarding seasonal distribution, the study noted that butterfly species were more abundant during the winter season, followed by the rainy season, with the summer season exhibiting a significant difference in distribution and occurrence compared to the other two seasons. Conclusion: From the study, it can be concluded that FRC reported a diverse range of butterflies distributed across all the seasons making it potential site for preservation and conservation of butterflies and its host species.
      PubDate: 2023-10-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113234
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Estimation of Disease Intensity against Cercospora Leaf Spot of Okra
           (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Moench through Bio-control Agents with
           Chemical Fungicides under Prayagraj Condition of India

    • Authors: Debashree Sarangi , Shashi Tiwari
      Pages: 883 - 888
      Abstract: Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) also known as bhendi is one of the most common vegetable preferred in every household of India. Cercospora leaf spot incited by Cercospora abelmoschi. is one of the emerging disease in Uttar Pradesh Region. An experiment was conducted in Central Research Farm ,SHUATS , Prayagraj in Kharif season of 2022 to evaluate the efficacy of bioagents and chemicals viz., T0 – Untreated control,T1 Mancozeb (1%) + Trichoderma(4%)  , T2 - Mancozeb (1%) + Pseudomonas(4%) , T3 Mancozeb (1%) + Bacillus subtilis(4%), T4 - Mancozeb (1%) + Trichoderma (2%) + Pseudomonas(2%)  ,T5 -  Mancozeb (1%) + Pseudomonas(2%) + Bacillus subtilis(2%), T6  Mancozeb (1%) + Bacillus subtilis(2%) + Trichoderma(2%), T7 - Mancozeb (1%)  against    Cercospora leaf spot of okra. C. abelmoschi initiates with sooty black, angular spots and cause heavy defoliation Studies revealed that minimum disease intensity was observed in T4 - Mancozeb (1%) + Trichoderma (2%) + Pseudomonas (2%) and is hereby considered as the best treatment out of all the treatments.
      PubDate: 2023-10-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113235
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Abiotic Factors on the Population Dynamics of Red Spider Mite,
           Tetranychus urticae Koch. of Brinjal in Malwa Region, Madhya Pradesh,

    • Authors: Rahul Patidar , G. S. Chundawat , S. S. Pippal , S. P. S. Tomar
      Pages: 889 - 895
      Abstract: Field experiments were conducted to investigate the population dynamics of the red spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) in brinjal and its relationship with various abiotic parameters during the 2020 and 2021 crop seasons at Patan farm, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Mandsaur, Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. The findings indicated that the red spider mite population initiated in the 30th and 31st standard weeks in 2020 and 2021, respectively. The peak population of mites per 2 cm2 leaf area was observed in the 43rd standard week (11.52) in 2020, while the highest population was noted in the 41st standard week (9.91) in 2021. It was evident that mite infestation was substantial during October in both years. There was a noteworthy positive correlation between the population of predatory mites, maximum temperature, and sunshine hours with the red spider mite pest, while a negative correlation was observed with relative humidity.
      PubDate: 2023-10-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113236
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Identification of Potential Sourcing Areas for Selected Organic Fruits and
           Vegetables (Mango, Onion and Pomegranate) in Maharashtra and Andhra
           Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Kalva Rajanikanth , P. Radhika , Ch. Srilatha , A. Meena
      Pages: 896 - 904
      Abstract: India is an agricultural country with more than half its population relying on agriculture. The diverse climate and vast potential for fruit and vegetable cultivation in India made it a forerunner in fruit and vegetable production. Excessive pesticide usage and its harmful effects have laid the emphasis on organic agriculture and it has been increasing. India has greater potential for organic cultivation of fruits and vegetables and needs to be exploited by identification of potential sourcing areas for fruits and vegetables. The present study was carried out in Nashik and Solapur districts of Maharashtra and YSR Kadapa and Chittoor districts of Andhra Pradesh state for the identification of sourcing areas for mango, onion, and pomegranate. A total of 150 samples of organic farming FPOs/traders/farmers in the selected districts of Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh were taken. Finally, based on the organic certification and availability of selected crops (onion, mango, pomegranate), 60 respondents were considered for further study. Based on the results, nine FPOs, seven traders and four farmers from the Nashik district of Maharashtra are identified as a potential source of organic onion and two FPOs, two traders and one farmer from the Nashik district and eight FPOs, four traders and three farmers from Andhra Pradesh and finally seven FPOs, four traders and two farmers from Solapur district and three FPOs, two traders and two farmers from Nashik district as potential sources for procurement of selected organic fruits and vegetables.
      PubDate: 2023-10-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113237
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Pulse Productivity and Profitability as Influenced by Cluster Frontline
           Demonstrations in Kupwara District of Jammu and Kashmir, India

    • Authors: Raies A. Bhat , Kaiser M. Malik , Sajad Mohi ud Din , S. A. Hakeem , F. A. Raina , F. N. Bhat , R. Nissar
      Pages: 905 - 912
      Abstract: The cluster frontline demonstrations (CFLDs) on Rajmash and Greengram were conducted by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kupwara, J&K at farmers’ fields during the year 2021. Through farmer meetings and group discussions, the crucial inputs in the production technology were identified. The results for Rajmash and Greengram showed that overall yield trends of demonstrations varied from 7.00 q/ha to 11 q/ha and 6.00 q/ha to 9.00 q/ha, respectively, with yield increase of 57.14%  and 50% over the yield of local practices. Due to significant heterogeneity in the extent of adoption of recommended technology based on the level of risk associated in terms of cost,convenience, skill, and information regarding the concerned practise, the yield levels were much lower under local practices. Rajmash and greengram's average extension gap, technology gap, and technology index, respectively, were found to be 4.00, 1.00 q/ha and 8.33 percent and 3.00, 1 q/ha and 10.00 percent. The demonstration's average gross and net returns for the rajmash and greengram crops, respectively, were 44.44 and 145.33 percent, 70.00 and 289.55 percent  greater than the farmer’s practices. In rajmash and greengram, the average benefit-cost ratio was higher with 44 and 145 percent respectively. Variations in agro-climatic factors, soil fertility, biotic stresses, economic status, and management practices were found to cause variations in the technology gap and index percentage. By encouraging farmers to use sustainable technical practices for increasing the yield and productivity of pulse crops, this variation can be reduced. With the application of pesticide, the performance of enhanced technology was shown to be most successful in controlling the smallest number of afflicted plants/m2 as well as the smallest number of pods/plants. Under demonstrations, production was higher than local practice. In order to increase the area and production of pulses in the Kupwara District of Jammu and Kashmir, pulse production and protection technology has a wide range of potential applications.
      PubDate: 2023-10-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113238
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • An Overview-Effects of Covid 19 Pandemic on Climate Change in India

    • Authors: Narmada Hidangmayum , Nigam Rani , Saurabh, Khumanthem Babina Devi , Pratibha Saxena , P. Prasath , I. E. Dhruvendra Singh Sachan , Babita Mishra
      Pages: 913 - 923
      Abstract: From a public health perspective, the spread of the COVID-19 virus has become a problem. The incredible rise in disease-related infection and death rates has brought the world to a standstill in dealing with its negative consequences. This has led to a global lockdown to prevent further spread of the virus. The blockade had a huge social and economic impact. However, it also has some positive effects on the environment, especially air quality, as many research institutes point to reduced nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide problems in major cities (PM) around the world. Ni#trogen dioxide emissions were reduced by 20-30% in China, Italy, France and Spain, while nitrogen dioxide emissions were reduced by 30% in the United States. Compared to last year, China's air quality improved by 11.4%. NO (-77.3%), NO2 (-54.3). Compared to five years per month, 3% and carbon monoxide (-64.8%) (Signs point to a decrease) content were found during Partial shutdown in Brazil. There are about -51.84, -53.11, -17 in India 97%, -52.68, -30.35, 0.78, and -12.33 reductions in PM10, PM2 concentrations. They are SO2, NO2, CO, O3 and NH3. This article focuses on the environmental impact of closures and also discusses air pollution before and after closures in major cities around the world. Various aspects of the environment were studied and evaluated, including air, water, noise and waste management before and after closure. Therefore, this research will serve as a guide for environmentalists, leaders, and frontline activists as they look for ways to beat this disease and reduce its long-term impact on health and the environment. Graphical Abstract:
      PubDate: 2023-10-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113239
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • A Comprehensive Review on Climate Change and Its Effects

    • Authors: Abhijeet, E. A. Singh , M. R. Shindikar
      Pages: 924 - 931
      Abstract: Organizations of all life forms from species to ecosystems are impacted by the global process of Climate Change. Human civilizations are also vulnerable to changing climatic conditions. Scientific evidence shows that anthropogenic activities have resulted in global warming of 1.1 degrees Celsius. This is increasingly impacting nature so also human life everywhere. Despite efforts to adapt to the changing climate extreme events such as heatwaves over land and in the ocean droughts and flooding have caused widespread and pervasive impacts on cities and infrastructure and limit the chances of a livable future for all. In a naturally occurring process of climate change, destructive impacts have become more likely due to human interventions. The extent and magnitude of climate change impacts are larger for each additional fraction of warming than estimated so are the risks projected for the future. The impact involves severe and widespread disruptions to nature and to society, reducing our ability to grow nutritious food or provide clean drinking water. Multiple climate hazards are also occurring simultaneously with often cascading impacts. These impacts are becoming increasingly complex and challenging to manage. How these will affect nature and people depends on the speed and level. After the study of almost 100 review articles on climate change, we have shared an overview of what exactly happening to our environment and what are repercussions the future generation is going to face.  
      PubDate: 2023-10-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113240
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Evaluation of Pre and Post Emergence Herbicides for Weed Control on Growth
           and Yield in Chickpea

    • Authors: Mulinti Yousuf , Roop Kishore Sharma, Sirazuddin, Vipin Negi, R. K. Mishra , T. Rama Raju
      Pages: 932 - 936
      Abstract: Chickpea, scientifically known as Cicer arietinum L., is a significant grain legume that is cultivated in 44 countries across five continents. India holds the position of the world's largest producer of chickpeas, contributing to approximately 75% of global production. The primary states in India where chickpeas are extensively grown include Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Gujarat. The aim of the experiment was to assess how various herbicides impact weed control in chickpea cultivation. An agronomic investigation on “Evaluation of pre and post emergence herbicides in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)” under late sowing conditions was conducted during Rabi 2019-20 at Doon PG College of Agriculture Science and Technology, Selaqui, Dehradun. To study the effect and performance of different weed control treatments. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design with eight treatments. The treatments were Pendimethalin@1.0 kg ha-1, Metribuzin @1.0 kg ha-1, Quizalofop-p-ethyl @ 40 a.i. g ha-1, Clodinafop @ 0.060 kg ha-1, Pinoxadan @0.005 kg ha-1, Hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS, Weedy check and Weed Free. They were replicated three times. Observations on growth and weed parameters were recorded periodically at an interval of 30 days. Among the treatments, weed-free recorded the highest grain and straw. It was on par with Pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg ha-1 significantly superior over the rest of the treatments. Among the chemical weed control treatment application of Pendimethalin @1.0 kg ha-1 was found beneficial to higher grain yield, and straw yield and effective in controlling weeds and increasing the yield of chickpea.
      PubDate: 2023-10-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113241
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • An Economic Analysis of Pearl Millet Crop in Rain-fed Micro Farming
           Situation in Zone IB of Rajasthan, India

    • Authors: Pradeep Kumar , I. P. Singh
      Pages: 937 - 944
      Abstract: The present study was conducted in Hanumangarh district of Zone IB of Rajasthan. This district have Rainfed micro-farming situation. Hence, Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan was selected. In this district two villages were selected from Nohar tehsil. A sample of 25 farmers from each village was selected. The study was aimed at examining compound growth rate, cost and returns, resource use efficiency and farm income inequalities. Primary data were collected on pre-structured schedules for agriculture year 2017-18. In the study found that CAGR of area, production, and productivity in period first was positive but in period second this found was negative except positive productivity in Rajasthan. Average cost per hectare of pearl millet was ₹ 13955.07 and gross income on was ₹ 33646.67. The Cobb Douglas production function, revealed that in pearl millet crop weeding intercultural operation were underutilized. Gini coefficient in farm household was 0.311 in Rain-fed micro farming situation.
      PubDate: 2023-10-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113242
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Impact of Weather Factors on Major Insect Pest of Brinjal (Solanum
           melongena) at Raisen District of Madhya Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Swapnil Kumar Pandey, Rishikesh Mandloi, Balveer Singh , Indra Kumar Kasi
      Pages: 945 - 952
      Abstract: Finding of the investigation on “Impact of weather factors on major insect pest of brinjal (Solanum melongena) at Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh,India" was conducted at Agriculture Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Rabindranath Tagore University, Raisen, M.P. during the Rabi season of 2020-21 and 2021-22 have been presented below: A total of six insect pest species like A.gossypii, A. biguttula biguttula, B .tabaci, N. viridula , E. vigintioctopunctata Fabricius and L. orbonalis and were recorded from brinjal crop during study period 2020-21 and 2021-22.
      PubDate: 2023-10-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113243
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Heterosis Studies on Grain Yield and Yield Attributes in Rice (Oryza
           sativa L.)

    • Authors: T. Ramakrishna , I. Swarnalatha Devi , D. Shiva Prasad , M. Shankar , D. Supriya
      Pages: 953 - 964
      Abstract: The present study was carried out to determine the best heterotic combinations in terms of grain yield and its attributes in rice. For this, 5 lines are crossed with 2 testers in the Line x Tester mating design and their F1s are evaluated along with their parents and checks in randomized block design with three replications at Agriculture Research Station Kampasagar, Nalgonda during Kharif 2022.The degree of heterosis varied between traits. Six of the 10 hybrids under study showed significant positive heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis for grain yield, outperforming the best check RNR 15048. The crosses KNM 1638 x IET 23993 and JGL 27356 x PTB 33 exhibited superior heterosis for early flowering, plant height, number of productive tillers per plant, grain yield per plant, hulling, milling and good head rice recovery percent over standard check. Based on sca effect and standard heterosis these two crosses were found to be promising for grain yield and its components. Hence these cross combinations could be utilized for exploitation of heterosis in rice.
      PubDate: 2023-10-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113244
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effectiveness and Activity of Essential Oils as Bio-insecticides against
           the Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) in Different Pulses

    • Authors: Persis Herald , Anoorag R. Tayde , Ashwani Kumar
      Pages: 965 - 973
      Abstract: Callosobruchus chinensis L. is considered as the most destructive pest that attacks stored grains. The use of synthetic chemicals has many adverse effects on human health and results in environmental contamination. Essential oils can effectively combat this pest as a natural alternative to synthetic pesticides. The most frequently utilized techniques for evaluating insecticidal activity were the tests for contact toxicity, inhalation/fumigant toxicity, and repellency. As its primary mechanism of action, Acetyl cholinesterase, GABA receptors, and octopaminergic receptors are all impacted by essential oils, which also inhibit acetyl cholinesterase and play a part in GABA receptor regulation. The present review offers an overview on already published research and reports with regard to the utility of Essentials oils to combat the pulse beetle.
      PubDate: 2023-10-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113245
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Date of Sowing and Cultivars on Growth and Yield Attributes of

    • Authors: Rinku Kamle , Yashwant Gehlot , Aakash, Veer Singh , Sonali Kamle
      Pages: 974 - 988
      Abstract: The present experiment was carried out at All India Coordinated Research Project on safflower, College of Agriculture, Indore, (M.P.) during rabi season 2015-16 with the objective to test the effect of different sowing dates and cultivars on growth and yield attributes of safflower. The results showed that the cultivar A-1 accumulated maximum dry matter at 30 DAS, 60 DAS, 90 DAS and at harvest as well as took minimum number of days (86.58) for flower initiation, for 50% flowering (93.17) and for 100% flowering (99.67) as compared to other cultivars. While maximum plant height (125.54 cm), number of primary branches (10.33 plant-1) were recorded in safflower cultivar NARI-6 followed by NARI-57 at harvest. It was observed that majority of secondary branches (18.84) emerged under 1st November sowing followed by 15th November sowing. The maximum CGR and RGR received by A-1 which was significantly superior to other cultivars at up to 30 DAS, 30-60 DAS 60-90 DAS and 90 DAS-at harvest compared to other cultivar. It is concluded that cultivar A-1 and NARI-6, and 1st November sowing performed better in terms of above parameters and recommended for cultivation.
      PubDate: 2023-10-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113246
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Foliar Application of Nano Urea on Growth and Yield of Maize
           (Zea mays L.): A Review

    • Authors: Jigyasa Ninama , Rohit Rathore , Vishvajeet Dattatray Jadhav , Rajvardhan Mahadev Patil , Krushna Mohanrao Solanke , Udai Pal Singh , Dilip Choudhary
      Pages: 989 - 992
      Abstract: maize requires large amounts of nutrients for appropriate growth, production and yield, it is regarded as a crop that is nutrient-exhaustive. The nutrient requirements of the maize crop can be maintained with the use of effective nutrient management techniques. Nanotechnology is gradually making its way from the experimental to the useful realms, like the development of slow-release fertilizers, conditional release of pesticides and herbicides, on the basis of nanotechnology has become critically important for promoting the development of environment friendly and sustainable agriculture. Traditional fertilisation techniques may undergo a revolution thanks to the inherent features of nanoparticles, which enable improved nutrient absorption, precision distribution and greater bioavailability. The results, as evidenced by multiple studies, indicate significant improvements in growth parameters, seed production, and overall plant health.
      PubDate: 2023-10-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113247
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Genetic Analysis of Pearl Millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br] Lines for
           Yield and Yield Contributing Traits

    • Authors: V. Uma Maheswari , P. Sanjana Reddy , K. B. Eswari , M. Pallavi
      Pages: 993 - 1000
      Abstract: This investigation was conducted to study combining ability along with inheritance of grain yield and its component traits in 36 hybrids of pearl millet which were generated through line × tester mating design using 12 male sterile lines and 3 restorers as parental material at IIMR, Hyderabad during kharif, 2022. These hybrids were evaluated in randomized block design with 3 replications during kharif, 2022 and summer, 2023 at IIMR, Hyderabad. In results, both GCA and SCA variances were found significant for majority of characters. The ratio of GCA and SCA variance indicated the predominance of non-additive gene action for all the characters studied except for panicle length and panicle width. GCA effects revealed that parents like 274A, 269A, 04999A and 260A (female) and 123R (male) were good general combiners for grain yield and some contributing characters. On the basis of SCA effects the crosses namely 252A × 124R, 843-22A × 124R, 843-22A × 132R, 242A × 123R, 264A × 132R and 274A × 123R were identified as superior for grain yield and related traits over the seasons. Therefore, it is advised that these parents and hybrids be used in the creation of fruitful hybrids as well as for population growth.
      PubDate: 2023-10-16
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113249
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessment of Temperature of Ramgarh District, Jharkhand, India: A Case
           Study of Coalfield’s Temperature

    • Authors: Vibhanshu Kumar , Rohit Aind , Amit Raj Topno, Kumar Amarendra , Vivek Kumar
      Pages: 1001 - 1011
      Abstract: Global interest in climate variability, especially annual temperature changes, necessitates an analysis of spatiotemporal meteorological dynamics, particularly in regions relying on rain-fed coal field agriculture areas. This study examines the impacts of temperature trends and climate change in Jharkhand's Ramgarh district, India. Six sub-divisions, such as Ramgarh, Gola, Chitarpur, Mandu, Patratu, and Dulmi, are under-examined, exploring long-term temperature changes from 1981 to 2022. Leveraging the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope Test, a 42-year data set analysis uncovers a decrease in average and maximum temperatures, contrasting an increasing minimum temperature trend. Applying Sen's slope for each temperature category Maximum, Minimum, and Average at Six sub-divisions of the Ramgarh district where Mandu has the highest increasing slope of 0.01 was observed in minimum temperature. However, Gola’s maximum and average temperature observed the highest decreasing slope among all stations. Similar patterns were found at other stations. Hence, our study suggests that additional attention should be given to the variability of temperature, and it is imperative to consider the increasing temperature trend to mitigate its effects on human well-being.
      PubDate: 2023-10-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113250
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessment of Soil Fertility Status in Marori Block of Pilibhit District,
           Uttar Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Vinod Kumar Verma , Ayush Bahuguna , Prem Kumar Bharteey , G. R. Singh , Nidhi Luthra , Sudhir Pal
      Pages: 1012 - 1025
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the agricultural productivity potential of soils in several villages in Marori block of Pilibhit district during 2022-23. 40 soil samples were collected using a random sampling technique, air-dried, and analyzed for physical and chemical properties. The results showed that the soil content varied significantly, with sand content ranging from 8.2-78.4% silt content from 9.2-67.3%, and clay content from 4.2-39.2%. Bulk density, particle density, porosity, pH levels, electrical conductivity, and organic carbon were also measured. The available nutrients varied, with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulphur ranging from 149.13-265.63 kg/ha, 13.59-49.72 kg/ha, 99.34-300.53 kg/ha, 3.3-6.9 cmol (P+)/kg, 1.53-4.20 and 11.29-19.23 kg/ha, respectively. The results showed that 99.5% of the soil samples had normal pH levels, and 0.5% was acidic. The majority of the soil samples had low organic carbon, with 72.5% having the highest available P. The majority of the soil samples were adequate in terms of exchangeable Ca and Mg content, and 60% had the greatest available sulphur. In a nutshell, the study highlights the importance of soil fertility in sustainable agricultural production.
      PubDate: 2023-10-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113251
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Geographical Indication of Fruit Crops in India and Its Protection Abroad

    • Authors: A. D. Ingole , Ajay Kumar , P. J. Jadhav , S. H. Kulkarni
      Pages: 1026 - 1043
      Abstract: This paper explores the importance of Geographical Indications (GIs) as important tools to protect traditional products and knowledge unique to specific geographical regions, emphasizing India's role in this global framework. Using both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, we have analyzed the development, benefits, and challenges of the GI system in India, drawing from historical data, legal documentation, and recent GI registrations. Our findings highlight the critical impact of GIs on cultural preservation, rural development, legal frameworks, and marketing strategies. Furthermore, the study examines India's commitments under international agreements like TRIPS and the consequent domestic legislative actions. Highlighting recent GI registrations, particularly in the fruit sector, we have elucidated the various benefits of GIs to consumers, producers, and geographic regions alike. The paper is concluded by advocating for the strengthening and continuous evolution of the GI system to further harness its potential for cultural and economic enrichment
      PubDate: 2023-10-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113252
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Correlation and Path Analysis for Seed Yield and Its Component Traits in
           Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern and Coss.)

    • Authors: Swapnil Dwivedi , Mahak Singh , R. K. Yadav , Pawan Kumar Saini , Harshit Tripathi
      Pages: 1044 - 1054
      Abstract: A study for 17 agronomic traits was conducted to evaluate correlation and path analysis in Brassica juncea L. Czern and Coss. Ten lines with diverse genetic makeup and their crosses which were performed in half diallel fashion were grown in Randomized Block Design in three replications during rabi season (2021-22). At phenotypic and genotypic level, seed yield per plant exhibited significant positive correlation and positive direct effect on seed yield via plant height, total siliqua per plant and biological yield per plant in both F1 and F2 generations, while number of primary branches, seeds per siliqua and oil content showed negative direct correlation with seeds yield per plant at genotypic and phenotypic level in both F1 and F2 generations. The results of the study concluded that plant height, total siliqua per plant and biological yield per plant exerted high correlation and direct effect on seed yield per plant generations. Hence, these characters might be considered for selection and in improvement of seed yield of mustard genotypes.
      PubDate: 2023-10-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113253
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Synthetic PGR's Modify Phenology, Stress Tolerance and Mean Productivity
           in Wilt and Cold Stressed Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    • Authors: Satyendra Thakur , Gyanendra Tiwari , Rohit Kumar Kumawat , Alpana Kumhare , Sonali Singh, Richa Singh
      Pages: 1055 - 1068
      Abstract: At the Experimental Field of Herbal Garden Department of Plant Physiology JNKVV Jabalpur, the experiments were conducted in the academic years 2020–20221 and 2021–2022.  In a pot experiment, a comparison of the effects of four synthetic PGRs—Abscisic Acid (ABA), Naphthyl Acetic Acid (NAA), Salicylic Acid (SA), and Fusaric Acid (FA)—against four varieties of chickpeas that had been intentionally inoculated with the wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and exposed to low temperatures. This study sought to determine the phenophasic response to reduce stress tolerance in order to achieve the highest possible mean production. The findings demonstrated that applying ABA to plants at concentrations of 5 and 2 ppm was successful in extending the vegetative development period by delaying flowering, allowing flowering to avoid the detrimental impacts of wilt and cold and so promoting stress tolerance. This resulted in reduced percentage of wilt and cold incidence as compared to all other treatments, leading to higher mean productivity. However, Fusaric acid (FA), a fungal toxin responsible for early in flowering that allowed flower to coincide with wilt and cold occurrence timing. Flowering is also very sensitive to cold stress therefor occurrence of wilt at seedling and cold at flowering accelerated the incidence of wilt and cold, which resulted in lower mean productivity after applying Fusaric acid (FA) @ 10 and 20 ppm.
      PubDate: 2023-10-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113255
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Morphometric Study of Greater Wax Moth (Galleria mellonella L.) under
           Laboratory Condition

    • Authors: Simran Mahapatra, Subhashree Subhasmita Paikaray , Samit Pal , Chandan Kumar Panigrahi , Nishismita Parida , Amrit Mohapatra , Satya Narayan Satapathy , Swoyam Singh
      Pages: 1069 - 1073
      Abstract: The present study was carried out in PG Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha on morphometry of greater wax moth (G. mellonella L.). Under laboratory condition, we observed the incubation period of greater wax moth was 8.55±0.42 days. The seven successive larval instars lasted for the following number of days i.e.,4.64±0.36, 5.04±0.51, 6.05±0.62, 7.07±0.41, 8.15±0.  59, 8.41±0.52 and 9.12±0.47 days. Prepupa and pupa lasted, 1.69±0.52 and 8.63±0.38 days,respectively. Adult males lived for 16.79±1.48 days on average, compared to 6.92±0.49 days for females. Females had pre-ovipositional, ovipositional and post-ovipositional durations of 1.13±0.33, 3.78±0.43 and 1.19±0.28 days, respectively. On average females lay 784.01±42.77eggs per female and 167.91±43.64 eggs per female on each day.
      PubDate: 2023-10-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113256
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Estimation of Direct and Indirect Effect of Yield Attributing Characters
           on Grain Yield in Kodo Millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum L.)

    • Authors: Jyoti Thakur , R. R. Kanwar , Kiran Kumar Shyam
      Pages: 1074 - 1080
      Abstract: The present study on “Estimation of direct and indirect effect of yield attributing characters on grain yield in kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum L.)” was carried out at Instructional cum Research Farm of S.G. College of Agriculture and Research Station Kumhrawand, Jagdalpur, Chhattisgarh. In this study direct effect of productive tillers per plant on grain yield per plot was positive and high at genotypic and phenotypic level. Indicated true relationship of this trait and direct selection through this character will be effective.
      PubDate: 2023-10-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113257
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Response of Organic and Inorganic Nutrient Sources on Growth, Productivity
           and Nutrient Content of Wheat

    • Authors: Bhawana Saharan, R. S. Yadav , S. R. Kantwa
      Pages: 1081 - 1090
      Abstract: A study was conducted at college farm of Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India to evaluate the influence of integrated application of different nutrient sources on growth, yield and nutrient content of wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with three replications. Under different nutrient sources, i.e. control, 50 to 100% RDF, FYM 5 t ha-1, biofertilizers and their combined application were done. Findings exhibits that the application of 75 % RDF+5 t FYM ha-1+Azotobacter+PSB in wheat, significantly enhanced all growth (dry matter, chlorophyll content, total tillers, CGR, RGR and others) & yield attributes (Effective tillers, test weight and others), grain yield (4.12 t ha-1) and as quality, nutrient (N, P, K) content and protein content of wheat over rest of treatments, but it remained statistically at par with 100 % RDF+5 t FYM ha-1+ Azotobacter+PSB (grain yield 4.18 t ha-1). Thus, it is concluded that for better nutrient management, an integration of organic, inorganic and biofertilizers sould be done. With application of 75 % RDF+5 t FYM ha-1+Azotobacter+PSB, there is 25% saving of nutrients as compared to 100 % RDF+5 t FYM ha-1+ Azotobacter+PSB.
      PubDate: 2023-10-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113258
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Influence of Seed Priming and Growing Medium on Germination and Seedling
           Vigour of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.)

    • Authors: Suryapratap Singh , Rajnee Sharma , T. R. Sharma , Deepak Singh, Yagini Tekam , Raushan Kumar
      Pages: 1091 - 1103
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted in 2020–21 at the Fruit Research Station, Imaliya, Department of Horticulture, JNKVV, Jabalpur. The AFRBD (Asymmetrical Factorial Randomized Block Design) was set up with 20 distinct treatment combinations of soil media Soil + Sand, Soil + Vermicompost, Soil + Sand + Vermicompost, Soil +Vermicompost + Biofertisol, Soil + Vermicompost + Azatobactor + PSB + KSB and plant growth regulator i.e. GA3 0 ppm (control), GA3 100 ppm, GA3  200 ppm, GA3 300 ppm. The vigour and germination of seeds were significantly impacted by the type of media used and the usage of plant growth regulators. In regard to the growth parameter, better values for seedling height, number of leaves and stem girth at 30, 60 and 90 days after sowing were found with treatment GA3 200 ppm. Growth metrics, such as root length, fresh shoot weight, dry shoot weight and dry root weight at 120 days, revealed improved results with a higher vigour index when the combination of GA3 200 ppm + growing medium (soil+ vermicompost+ Biofertisol) were applied. The GA3 200 ppm with growing medium (Soil+ Vermicompost+ Biofertisol) were proven to be better in terms of the seed germination parameters. Minimum time was taken for seed germination and increased seed germination percentage had been recorded at 30 days after planting.
      PubDate: 2023-10-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113259
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Sesame Genotypes Based on Morphological

    • Authors: Md. Ashfaq , K. Jhansi Rani , D. Padmaja , Praduman Yadav , Usha Kiran Betha
      Pages: 1104 - 1111
      Abstract: Fifty sesame genotypes were evaluated to assess the extent of genetic diversity based on morphological characters. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the genotypes. Plant height (62.20 %) contributed most to the genetic divergence followed by number of capsules per plant (20.40 %). No relationship between geographic origin and genetic diversity was observed as genotypes from different sources were grouped in same clusters in spite of difference in their origin. Based on the intercluster distances, diverse parents from different clusters were identified for further use as parents in future breeding programmes.
      PubDate: 2023-10-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113260
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Climate Smart Foods: Nutritional Composition and Health Benefits of

    • Authors: Rashmi Singh, Ritu Singh , Prabhat Kumar Singh , Shivangi, Omkar Singh
      Pages: 1112 - 1122
      Abstract: Millets are a diverse group of small-seeded grasses that have served as staple cereal crops in many parts of Asia and Africa for thousands of years. The major millets include finger millet, foxtail millet, pearl millet, proso millet, barnyard millet, little millet, and kodo millet. Millets are highly resilient crops that can thrive in arid zones and marginal farming conditions where rainfall is limited. As climate change increases drought pressures globally, millets are gaining renewed interest for their adaptability. Millets also possess highly favorable nutritional attributes. The grains are rich in protein with balanced amino acids, dietary fiber, polyphenols, vitamins, and essential minerals such as iron, zinc and calcium. The majority of millets have a low glycemic index, which helps regulate blood glucose levels. These properties give millets functional advantages over more commonly consumed cereals such as wheat and rice. This review provides a detailed analysis of the proximate composition, nutritional profile, and potential health benefits of major millets. Evidence from animal studies and clinical trials regarding the role of millets in diabetes management, cardiovascular health, cancer prevention, gut health, anemia reduction, and bone health are examined. Millets appear beneficial for weight management and obesity control Research also indicates promising avenues for millets in gluten-free diets, enhancing nutrition security for the poor, and addressing malnutrition concerns globally. However, more human studies on bioavailability, optimal dosages, food product development, and farming practices are warranted to further realize the immense potential of these “Smart Foods”. In conclusion, millets are climate-smart, nutrient-dense grains that can play a pivotal role in holistic approaches to tackle food insecurity, malnutrition, and the escalating rates of chronic diseases worldwide. Their diverse nutritional and therapeutic properties warrant the resurrection of millets as invaluable crops for the present and future.
      PubDate: 2023-10-17
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113261
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Influence of Pre-sowing Seed Treatments with Botanical and Organics on
           Yield Attributing Traits and Seedling Parameters of Cluster Bean
           (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L) Variety: RGC1066

    • Authors: Pandula Sravani , Abhinav Dayal , Prashant Kumar Rai , Vaidurya Pratap Sahi
      Pages: 1123 - 1135
      Abstract: The current global scenario firmly emphasizes the need to enhance eco-friendly agriculture practices for sustainable agriculture. Chemical agriculture has made an adverse impact of the health care of not only soil but also the beneficial soil microbial communities and the plants cultivated in these soil. This eventually has led to a high demand of botanical and organic produce by the present day health conscious society and periodic attempts are being made by farmers all over the world to depollute. Application of heavy doses of chemical fertilizers and pesticides are being used by the farmers to get a better yield of various agricultural crops. These chemical fertilizers and pesticides decrease soil fertility and cause health problems to the consumers. The new approaches to the use of botanical and organic amendments in farming have proven to be effective means of improving soil structure, enhancing soil fertility and increasing crop yields. Botanical and organics play vital roles in increasing soil fertility and increasing yield. The study was designed to check the response of botanical and organics on yield and seedling quality parameters such as field emergence percent, plant height (30, 60, 90 DAS), days to 50% flowering, number branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of clusters per plant, days to maturity, seed yield per plant, seed yield per plot, harvest index, germination percentage, speed of germination, root length, shoot length, seedling length, seedling dry weight, seedling fresh weight, seedling growth rate, root: shoot ratio, seed metabolic efficiency, mobilization efficiency, vigour index-I, vigour index-II, electrical conductivity. For this experiment the seeds of RGC1066 variety collected from department of genetics and plant breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj during 2021-2022, to find out the influence of pre-sowing seed treatments with botanical and organics, seeds treated with panchagavya, beejamruth, jeevamruth, neem leaf extract and vermiwash at different concentrations viz 2, 3, 5, and 10% for 12hours along with control (no treatment). It is found that all treatments showed improved performance than untreated seeds, but it was observed that seeds treated with panchagavya@10% for 12 hours performed better in comparison to other treatments. This study can be helpful to reach new horizons of research in the field of sustainable agriculture, natural resource conservation and seed technology to overcome the germination problem and improve crop growth and yield eventually. 
      PubDate: 2023-10-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113262
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Pre-Storage Edible Coating on Post Harvest Quality of Guava
           Fruits cv. Lalit Under Ambient Condition

    • Authors: Archit Singh , B. K. Singh , Kalyan Barman , Anand Kumar Singh
      Pages: 1136 - 1148
      Abstract: A significant fruit crop, the guava (Psidium guajava L.), is grown around the world in a wide range of tropical and subtropical climates. The shelf life of guavas is short, and they ripen quickly after being harvested. This limited shelf life necessitates effective management techniques to ensure a consistent market supply through post-harvest treatments to extend the storage life. In this study, we aimed to assess the impact of different treatments on the quality attributes of guava fruit cv. Lalit at 3-day intervals during storage. The experiment was carried out in the Postharvest Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. The findings from our investigation revealed that guava fruits harvested at the mature green stage and treated with Carboxy methylcellulose (CMC) and sodium alginate, maintained their desirable chemical and functional qualities for an extended period, up to 12 days of storage. Specifically, the post-harvest treatment using CMC (1.5%) proved to be exceptionally effective in reducing physiological weight loss and decay loss and retarding the increase in total carotenoids and lycopene content. Additionally, it delayed the decline in total soluble solids, ascorbic acid content, chlorophyll content, total antioxidant capacity and phenolic content throughout the storage period. Therefore, this treatment showed excellent results in extending the shelf life of guava fruits and maintaining their post-harvest quality by delaying the processes of ripening and senescence, lowering spoilage, and improving marketability and appearance.
      PubDate: 2023-10-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113263
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • The Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Groundwater Quality in Some
           Coastal Areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Antai; Hope Raphael, Udom, Goddy J., Nwankwoala, Hycienth O.
      Pages: 1149 - 1160
      Abstract: This study analyzed the physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater quality in some coastal areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The study utilized primary data obtained from thirty boreholes in the area. The primary data consist of water quality parameters obtained from laboratory analysis of collected groundwater samples in the study area. Spatial distribution of groundwater constituents was carried out using ArcGIS 10.4 software. The result indicated that the groundwater in the coastal areas id acidic (pH ranges from 3.9 to 6.4); chloride ranges from 2.0mg/l to 52.0mg/l; total dissolved solids ranges from 4.8mg/l to 128.2mg/l; nitrate ranges from <0.01mg/l to 10.0mg/l; and turbidity ranges from 1.0 NTU to 3.11 NTU. The result also indicates that the groundwater is saline (salinity level range from 4.32mg/l to 85.8mg/l); turbidity at some locations also exceeds permissible standards. The study revealed that the quality of groundwater in the coastal areas is poor and not suitable for human consumption acidic and saline. Therefore, the groundwater in the coastal areas should be treated for acidity and salinity before domestic use.
      PubDate: 2023-10-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113264
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Evaluation of Morphological Traits in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.)
           Walp.] Genotypes Cultivated in North-East India

    • Authors: Khrüzho Sakhamo , Chandra Deo , Nangsol Dolma Bhutia , Siddhartha Singh, Barun Singh , Pushpendra Kumar , Rituraj Dutta , Aitormma Debbarma , Ningthoujam Mira Devi , Bangi Kyatammanavara Soumya
      Pages: 1161 - 1168
      Abstract: The present study was conducted during the kharif season 2022 at the Vegetable Research Farm, located within the College of Horticulture and Forestry at Central Agricultural University in Pasighat, East Siang, Arunachal Pradesh, India to investigate “Evaluation of Morphological Traits in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] Genotypes Cultivated in North-East India”. These morphological traits demonstrated significant variation among the twenty locally accessible genotypes. Qualitative traits such as growth habit, twining habit, foliage colour, leaflet shape, flower colour, pod shape, pod colour, seed shape, seed colour were recorded. Quantitative characters such as days to 50% flowering, plant height (cm), leaf area (cm²), number of clusters per plant, number of pods per cluster, number of pods per plant, pod length (cm), pod width (cm), days to harvest, number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight (g) and pod yield per plant (g) were studied. The mean performance revealed that CHF CP-12 gave highest pod yield per plant (589.19 g), highest 100 seed weight in CHF CP-12 (24.67 g), longest pod length in CHF CP-5 (32.77 cm), longest pod width in CHF CP-10 (1.07 cm), maximum number of clusters per plant was recorded in CHF CP-12 (14.16), maximum number of pods per plant in CHF CP-17 (11.80) and maximum leaf area was recorded in CHF CP-6 (229.30 cm²). The minimum number days taken for 50% flowering was found in genotypes CHF CP-9 (45.67).   
      PubDate: 2023-10-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113265
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Evaluation of Bioplastic Developed from Corn Starch and Euphorbia
           antiquorum Latex

    • Authors: R. K. Atchaya , U. Devipriya , K. Sreeja , P. Buvanesh
      Pages: 1169 - 1177
      Abstract: Traditional plastic materials have a negative environmental impact and one potential strategy to reduce this rising plastic pollution is to use compostable materials like bioplastic. An experiment was conducted at RVS School of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul to synthesize bioplastic from agricultural products like corn starch, latex of Euphorbia antiquorum and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Two sets of blend bioplastic film samples were prepared using solution casting method; Sample A (corn starch + latex of Euphorbia antiquorum) and Sample B (corn starch + latex of Euphorbia antiquorum + PVA). Studies on the degradation properties were carried out by solubility, swelling and soil burial test. The biodegradability of the samples was investigated by soil burial test. Based on this study, the Sample A film without PVA was found to be highly biodegradable as compared to Sample B. The solubility and swelling tests were performed using organic solvents; ammonia, acetic acid, methanol and water. The swelling property of Sample B film showed less percentage of swelling. The solubility test showed that none of the bioplastic samples were completely soluble in any of the organic solvents. Result of this research work indicated that the bioplastic with incorporation of PVA is a better alternative to conventional plastic films.
      PubDate: 2023-10-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113267
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Efficacy of Sesame Oil and mustard Oil Formulations against Red Spider
           Mite of Tea

    • Authors: Joyshree Konwar , Bidisha Hazarika , Gautam Kr. Saikia , Inee Gogoi , Somnath Roy, Anubrat Bora
      Pages: 1178 - 1184
      Abstract: Crude formulations of sesame and mustard oil at 0.5%, 0.75% and 1% concentration with or without the addition of cow urine were assessed against red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) in the laboratory. Efficacy tests on oviposition rate, egg hatchability, mortality of nymph and adult mites proved that sesame oil 1%, with or without the addition of cow urine was found to be effective in reducing the rate oviposition and egg hatchability of mites and was at par with the formulation prepared from commercial neem (1 : 1500). Formulations of sesame oil at the rate of 0.75% and 1% with or without cow urine were found to be highly effective for mortality of nymphs and adults of red spider mite respectively which were at par with the formulation prepared from commercial neem.
      PubDate: 2023-10-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113268
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Development of Nutririch Brown Rice Kichidi Mix for Geriatric Subjects
           Residing in Oldage Institutions of Bangalore District, India

    • Authors: Bhavana; A., Jamuna, K. V., Lakshminarayan, M. T.
      Pages: 1185 - 1191
      Abstract: Nutrition awareness was carried on in the old age institutions, which was one of the study area of the research. Brown rice is not only better for us, but it's better for the environment than white rice too. brown rice production is relatively sustainable, there is no known significant damage to air, water, land, soil, forests, etc. The study aimed at development of nutri-rich brown rice kichidi mix for geriatric subjects living in old age institutions located in Bangalore. The mean sensory score of the brown rice kichadi mix where BKM 3 variation having 60g of brown rice and 20g of green gram dhal had the best overall acceptability (8.31) in all the parameters: appearance (8.28), colour (8.03), texture (8.12), aroma (8.12) and taste (8.18). Extremely significant difference was observed in taste and overall acceptability and significant distinction was observed in texture. Nutrients composition of the brown rice kichadi mix consisted of energy 293. kcal, carbohydrates 73.29 g, protein 12.31 g and fat of 4.07 g and met the ¼th of RDA requirement of the geriatric subjects followed by moisture 6.35 per cent, and negligible quantity of crude fibre 3.96 g and ash 1.17 g. The kichadi mix contained fair amount of minerals: calcium 7.94 mg, magnesium 5.93 mg, iron 0.87 mg and zinc of 0.65 mg. Nutritional education using charts prepared based on practice of fine daily activities and importance of nutrients and nutrition taught to the 91 geriatric subjects (31 males and 60 females respectively). The ready to cook brown rice kichadi mix contained most of the food groups and provided for taste by the subjects. Majority of the geriatric subjects participated in the intervention had extremely accepted the product based on taste and consistency.
      PubDate: 2023-10-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113269
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Predominant Mycoflora (A. alternata and M. phaseolina) on Seed
           Quality Parameters of Sesamum

    • Authors: S. Greeshma , B. Rajeswari, T. Kiran Babu , P. Sujatha
      Pages: 1192 - 1199
      Abstract: Sesamum is an important oilseed crop affected by toxigenic fungal pathogens viz., Alternaria, Macrophomina, Fusarium and Aspergillus spp. Among these, A. alternata and M. phaseolina are seed borne pathogens causing yield loss to an extent of 20 to 40 per cent. The effect of A. alternata and M. phaseolina on seed quality parameters of susceptible cv. Swetha was investigated during 2022-2023. The A. alternata and M. phaseolina inoculated and uninoculated seeds of both test pathogens were tested for germination and seedling growth by rolled paper method and pot culture studies. Significant differences in seed germination, seedling length, seedling dry mass, seedling vigour index (SVI) - I and II and seed moisture content were observed in susceptible cv. Swetha. The results indicated that A. alternata recorded lower seed germination percentage (60.50%), seedling length (6.56 cm), dry mass (9.12 mg) and SVI-I and II (656 and 552 respectively) over untreated seeds recording high germination (82.25%), seedling length (14.84 cm), dry mass (13.17 mg) and SVI-I and II (1221 and 1116 respectively). Similar results were observed in M. phaseolina treated seeds where the pathogen treated seeds recorded lower seed germination percentage (70.75%), seedling length (9.42 cm), dry mass (8.71 mg) and SVI-I and II (667 and 599 respectively) than pathogen untreated seeds recording high seed germination (82.50%), seedling length (14.25 cm), dry mass (13.30 mg) and SVI-I and II (1175 and 1097 respectively).
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113270
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Modelling Dynamic Linkage between Climate Change and Food Inflation in

    • Authors: Hyacinth Ichoku, Ihuoma Anthony , Tosin Olushola , Apinran Martins
      Pages: 1200 - 1217
      Abstract: The study delves into the critical issue of climate change and its detrimental impact on various regions worldwide, including Nigeria. It emphasizes the urgent need for global efforts to mitigate these effects and advocates for measures to address human activities contributing to climate dynamics. Specifically, the study empirically examines the affiliation between climate change shocks and food price inflation in Nigeria using a Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (NARDL) approach. The dataset covers the period from January 2011 to December 2022.The empirical findings reveal a robust cointegrating relationship between climate change shocks and food price inflation in Nigeria. Notably, climate change shocks significantly contributed to rising food prices within the study period. Furthermore, the Error Correction Term (ECT), estimated at 52 percent, indicates that food price inflation adjusts by 52 percent in the current month to counteract the initial shock experienced in the previous month. The Dynamic Multiplier graph, along with a 95 percent confidence interval, demonstrates that the explanatory variables exert substantial influence on food price inflation in Nigeria during the study period. Considering these findings, the study recommends that Nigeria should transit from traditional agricultural practices to Climate-Smart Agriculture to address future needs and climate-related challenges. Additionally, the government and stakeholders should implement alternative practices such as irrigation and the replenishment of shrinking water bodies in the Sudan and Sahel savannah regions.
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113272
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Differential Response of Rhizosphere Microbial Diversity and Activities to
           System of Rice Intensification and Conventional Cultivation

    • Authors: B. Venkatanna , P. C. Latha , P. Akhila , R. M. Kumar , Bee Hameeda
      Pages: 1218 - 1234
      Abstract: Rice holds a vital position among staple crops worldwide, serving as a primary source of essential nutrition for a significant portion of the global population. Rice production is currently plagued by several problems causing a decline in crop yields. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a set of farming practices designed to improve the productivity and sustainability of rice cultivation. One of the reasons for the sustainability of SRI has been attributed to enhanced below-ground soil microbial processes around the SRI plant root system. This study assessed the effect of SRI and Normal Transplanting (NTP) cultivation methods on rhizospheric soil microbial populations, phyto-hormones, soil enzyme activities under four different nitrogen (N) treatments under a station trial and in on-farms experiments farmer’s. Rhizosphere soils and root samples of SRI exhibited significantly higher microbial population, microbial diversity, phyto - hormone production, enzyme activities in station trail. Among different levels of nitrogen fertilizer applications, treatments receiving 50% organic + 50% inorganic N forms possessed significantly higher microbiota and their activities. On farm trials also exhibited similar trends as the station trial. In conclusion, the study highlights the positive effects of SRI cultivation combined with a balanced organic and inorganic nitrogen treatment on soil microbial populations and phyto-hormone production and soil enzyme activities which could have an influence of system sustainability.
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113274
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Age of Seedling and Plant Spacing on Yield and Economics of
           Transplanted Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    • Authors: Shivam Singh, Sudhakar Singh , Ankit Singh , Kumar Anshuman , Pankaj Singh , Gajendra Singh , Rajesh Dutt Singh , Susheel Kumar Srivastav
      Pages: 1235 - 1242
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted at Shradhay Bhagwati Singh Agriculture Research Farm (Hajipur), Chandra Bhanu Gupta Krishi Snatakottar Mahavidyalaya, B.K.T., Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh) during the Kharif season of 2022. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications keeping three ages of seedlings viz., 21 days of the age of old seedlings, 28 days of the age of old seedlings and 35 days of the age of old seedlings in main plots and three plants spacing 20 cm x 10 cm, 25 cm x 10 cm and 15 cm x 15 cm in subplots. Results revealed that there was significant variation among different times of transplanting with respect to growth. Growth parameters were higher in paddy transplanted at 21 days of age of old seedlings as compared to the rest of the age of seedlings. The yield attributes as effective tillers m-2, panicle length (cm.), numbers of grains panicle-1, grains weight panicle-1 (g.), panicle weight (g.) and 1000 grain weight were significantly superior in paddy transplanted in 21 days of age of old seedlings. 21 days of age of old seedlings proved significantly superior in terms of grain, straw, total biological yield and harvest index when compared to the rest of the age of seedlings. The maximum N – content (%) was significantly superior in paddy transplanted in 35 days of the age of seedling in grain and straw. The N – Uptake (kg/ha.) was significantly superior in paddy transplanted in 21 days of age of seedling in grain and straw. The protein content (%) was significantly superior over in paddy transplanted at 35 days of the age of seedlings in grain and straw. The Protein – production (kg/ha.) were significantly superior in paddy transplanted at 21 days of age of seedling in grain and straw. Growth parameters such as plant height (cm.), dry matter accumulation (gm-2) and leaf area index were higher in paddy transplanted with 20 cm x 10 cm but a number of tillers (m-2) higher with 25 cm x 10 cm as compared to rest of the plant spacing. Plant spacing of 25 cm x 10 cm produced significantly more yield attributes and yield of rice. The maximum N – content (%) were significantly superior in paddy transplanted with 15 cm x 15 cm in grain and straw. The maximum N – Uptake (kg/ha.) was significantly superior in paddy transplanted with 25 cm x 10 cm in grain and straw as compared to the rest of the plant spacing. The maximum protein content (%) were significantly superior over in paddy transplanted with 15 cm x 15 cm in grain and straw. The Protein – production (kg/ha.) was significantly superior in paddy transplanted with 25 cm x 10 cm in grain and straw. Transplanting of paddy 28 days of age of old seedlings with 25 cm x 10 cm plant spacing had higher gross return, net return, and B:C ratio of rice crop.
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113275
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Exploring the Significance of Insects in Ecosystems: A Comprehensive
           Examination of Entomological Studies

    • Authors: Ram Prakash Sharma , Anasuya Boruah , Anam Khan, P. Thilagam, Akanksha, S. Sivakumar , Priyanka Dhapola, Bal Veer Singh
      Pages: 1243 - 1252
      Abstract: The dynamic and expansive field of entomology is poised for transformative changes, thanks to technological advancements and the emergence of new avenues of research. Traditional methodologies like specimen collection and observation are increasingly being complemented by state-of-the-art techniques such as environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis, CRISPR genome editing, remote sensing, and artificial intelligence. The eDNA methodology, for example, offers a non-invasive approach to monitor elusive or endangered insect species, thereby enriching biodiversity databases. Genome editing technologies like CRISPR have enabled nuanced manipulation of insect genes, providing a deeper understanding of their physiology and behavior. Moreover, artificial intelligence and machine learning contribute to automated species identification and predictive modeling of insect populations, offering invaluable insights for conservation efforts. In terms of emerging fields, insect neurobiology, microbiomics, and environmental entomology are gaining prominence. Neurobiological studies are dissecting the neural substrates of insect behaviors, which not only deepen our basic biological understanding but also have implications in robotics and AI. Microbiomics explores the symbiotic relationships between insects and their microbial communities, revealing avenues for novel pest control strategies. Environmental entomology focuses on the impacts of habitat change and climate variability on insect populations, which is crucial for biodiversity conservation. Acknowledging the concerted efforts of researchers, academic institutions, and funding bodies is essential, as these stakeholders shape the field's future direction. Thus, entomology stands at the cusp of a new era, enriched by technological innovations and multidisciplinary approaches. These advancements hold the promise of significantly broadening our understanding of insects' roles in ecosystems, their adaptability, and their importance in maintaining ecological balance. This future direction not only provides exciting prospects for scientific inquiry but also brings forth substantial implications for the sustainable management of ecosystems and conservation policy.
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113276
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Groundwater Assessment Using MIF Technique in a Small Basin of Malwa
           Region, Madhya Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Priyamvada M., M. L. Sahu , M. K. Awasthi , S. Nema , R. K. Turkar
      Pages: 1253 - 1266
      Abstract: Water, a vital natural resource and essential component for all living organisms, exists in two primary forms: surface water and groundwater. Groundwater, a significant global resource, is unevenly distributed worldwide. Enhancing groundwater recharge is a fundamental hydrological parameter for assessing, managing, and modelling groundwater resources. However, determining recharge rates is a complex and challenging task, despite its crucial role in recharge assessments. The current study has been conducted in northwest part of Madhya Pradesh. The Neemuch and Mandsaur district comes under semi-arid zones and faces the problem of scarcity of water annually. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate groundwater potential zones using an integrated approach using geospatial tools. Various thematic parameters i.e., slope, rainfall, geology, drainage density lineaments, geomorphology and soil were considered for identifying evaluate potential zones. Thematic maps were generated using SRTM DEM, Sentinel-2 Imagery, and Survey of India (SOI) toposheets at a scale of 1:50000. The selected thematic factors were integrated for the determination of the groundwater potential of the study area, with appropriate weightage factors given to different themes by means of the multi-influencing factor (MIF) approach. This process was repeated for other layers, resulting in reclassified layers. These layers were then combined to delineate zones classified as “very good”, “good”, “moderate”, “poor”, and “very poor” for groundwater potential. The assessment of groundwater potential information using geospatial techniques can aid in identifying suitable locations for providing safe drinking water to rural populations. This comprehensive integrated approach of RS and GIS in assessing groundwater potentiality offers valuable insights for effective identification of suitable areas to meet the potable water needs of rural communities.
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113277
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Profitability of Zero Tillage Wheat in Rice Fallows under National
           Innovation on Climate Resilient Agriculture Project at Chhattisgarh Plain
           Zone Durg in India

    • Authors: Kamal Narayan , Vijay Jain , Harshana Chandrakar
      Pages: 1267 - 1271
      Abstract: The research evaluated the economics of producing wheat under national innovation on climate resilient agriculture adopted village named karga using zero tillage and conventional method, and it evaluated how much technology and inputs contributed to the higher productivity brought over by zero tillage (ZT). The study found that zero tillage technology is able to increase farmers' profitability and aid in resource conservation. The difference in gross returns between zero tillage and conventional tillage approaches has been divided into 45% related to zero tillage and the remaining due to changes in input costs. This shows that zero tillage practices resulted in better performance in Rabi 2022- 2023 seasons, with an average yield increase of 7.7%. Net income per ha was Rs. 12475 with a reduced cost of cultivation due to reduced number of irrigations and lessened sowing operations cost. Higher yield is due to timely sowing, healthy crop growth, good plant population and less effect of climatic hazard.
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113278
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Forms and Distribution of Potassium and Their Relationships to Different
           Characteristics of the Soil in the Soils of Pipari Village, District
           Khargone of Western Madhya Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Neha Mujalde, Shweta Jamra , Priyanka Jadon , Yashwant Gehlot , Urvashi Manekar
      Pages: 1272 - 1284
      Abstract: Forms and distribution of potassium were examined in 150 soil samples taken from Pipari village, Khalgone (MP) district. Surface (0-15 cm) soil samples were collected from 150 parcels of land in Pipari village. The concentration range of water soluble potassium, exchangeable potassium, available potassium, non-exchangeable potassium, lattice potassium and total potassium in soil is 3.82-35.8, 95.1-371.92, 108.35-379.20, 164.0-388.8, 8599.8-15865.32, 9066.2-16249.12 mg kg -1. For all potassium forms, EC showed negative correlation. The pH showed highly negative correlation with water soluble potassium (r= -0.111**), exchangeable potassium (r= -0.45**), available potassium (r= -0.060**) and positive correlation with lattice potassium (r= 0.034*) and total potassium (r= 0.033*). Organic carbon was positively correlated with all potassium forms except water-soluble and non-exchangeable potassium (r = -0.034 *). CaCO3 has a positive correlation with water soluble potassium (r = 0.046**), lattice potassium (r = 0.090**) and total potassium (r = 0.084**) and total potassium (r= 0.084**) and highly negative correlation with exchangeable potassium (r= -0.147**), available potassium (r= -0.130**) and non-exchangeable potassium (r= -0.060**). Available nitrogen showed highly positive correlation with lattice potassium (r= 0.063**) and total potassium (r=0.062**). Available phosphorus showed negative correlation with exchangeable potassium (r= -0.046**) and available potassium (r= -0.046**) and positive correlation with lattice potassium (r= 0.090**) and total potassium (r= 0.087**). Highly positive correlation noticed between different forms of potassium except lattice potassium (r= - 0.113**) and total potassium (r= - 0.095**).
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113279
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Perspective, Challenges for Biological and Chemical Management of
           Important Diseases of Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.): A Review

    • Authors: K. Kumar , A. S. Yadav , A. Kumar , S. P. Vishwakarma , R. Prasad
      Pages: 1285 - 1292
      Abstract: Use of biological agents and fungicides like- T. viride at 2.5%, T. harzianum @ 2.5% and Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 2%, neem leaf extract at 10%, garlic extract at 10%, and carbendazim at 0.1% as a fungicide in powdery mildew disease for give the better results compare to control. A germplasms lines of mungbean were tested for resistance to Macrophomina phaseolina along with JL-781 as a susceptible check in sick plots these test lines. Among the 2 were moderate resistant, 1 germplasm was moderate susceptible, 1 germplasm was susceptible and JL-781 to highly susceptible. A visual scoring index (VSI) was used to evaluate the signs and symptoms of MYMV infection. Compared to the primed plants, which only had 14% of the same symptoms, more than 70% of the unprimed plants had symptoms that were considered serious or deadly. Whitefly control with insecticides has been deemed helpful for managing yellow mosaic virus. The environment and human health were also negatively impacted by the over usage of chemicals. Preventive and therapeutic measures using pesticides effectively is crucial for preventing soil-dwelling and seed-borne infections across all IDM strategies. All of the fungicides outperformed traditional fungicides in terms of performance.
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113280
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Studies on the Available Nutrient-Supplying Capacity of Soil in
           Degradation Vulnerable Soils of Central Dry Zone in Tumkur District,
           Karnataka, India

    • Authors: Shafnas; I., Anil Kumar, K. S. , Prakasha, H. C.
      Pages: 1293 - 1303
      Abstract: Land degradation resulting from various natural and anthropogenic activities including the loss of organic matter, decline in soil fertility, erosion, acidity, alkalinity and the effect of toxic chemical is a serious global environmental problem, which may be triggered by climatic factors and their aberrations. The detailed reconnaissance soil survey was carried out in Tumkur district of Karnataka to study plant available nutrients in degradation vulnerable soils of central dry zone in Tumkur district, Karnataka during 2021-2022 using remote sensing, GIS and field studies. Satellite imageries (Sentinal -2) of three seasons were used along with soil map to delineate the degradation soils through visual interpretation. Using this map resource characterization was carried out. Out of thirteen soil pedons studied from Tumkur district, nine pedons were studied from central dry zone of Tumkur covering six taluks. These pedons belongs to Alfisols, Inceptisols and Entisols soil order. Soils were very strongly acidic (4.54) to very strongly alkaline (9.33) with non- saline nature in all pedons. The organic carbon content was low high, with higher content in Hosahalli of Madhugiri and decreased with increased depth in pedons. Available nitrogen was low to high and available phosphorus and potassium were low to medium in range. Secondary and micronutrients is soil was low to high, except zinc and boron, showing deficiency in most of the pedon. Soil fertility status assessment of different major soils of central dry zone of Tumkur help in developing sustainable management plan for improving the productivity and also growing the suitable crop, by preventing the degradation.
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113281
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • The Trends and Growth Analysis in the Area, Production and Productivity of
           Turmeric in Surguja District of Chhattisgarh, India

    • Authors: Siya Ram , M. R. Chandrakar , Narottam Atree, Pradip Kumar Patel , A. K. Gauraha , Shashi Kiran Minj
      Pages: 1304 - 1309
      Abstract: Turmeric is an important spice crop grown in Chhattisgarh. The present study is mainly based on time series data. The secondary data on area, production and productivity of Turmeric in Chhattisgarh, were collected for the period 2001-02 to 2020-21from various publications. To analyze the trends and growth rate in the area, production and productivity of turmeric in Surguja district of Chhattisgarh state. The performance of turmeric was examined by estimating the growth rates and instability index of area, production and productivity of turmeric. Growth analysis for area, production and productivity. Focus on the Surguja district. It was positive and non-significant in the area of compound and linear growth rate, but it was positive and significant in the case of production. In terms of productivity, both compound and linear growth rate showed negatively significance. In the case of Chhattisgarh, the linear and compound growth rates in the area and production of turmeric were observed as positive and non-significant. While the growth rate in productivity in Chhattisgarh was found negatively and significant over the period.  The major of constraints faced by the selected area, unavailability of improved and high yielding varieties, package and practices and Weather fluctuation. Ensure to availability of Improved and high yielding varieties for good production, productivity and good quality and Weather based information should provide for turmeric grower region.
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113282
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • A Comprehensive Report on Environmental Sustainability: A Global

    • Authors: P. R. Kumaresan, Narmada Hidangmayum, Akhilesh Singh , Deny Yadav , Shabnam, Brajendra, Arambam Bebina Devi, Asmatullah
      Pages: 1310 - 1316
      Abstract: In the last three decades, protecting the earth's environment has become a major challenge in international relations. Hundreds of regional and bilateral agreements, as well as at least ten global environmental agreements, were negotiated. Environmentalism can be seen as a social movement that seeks to influence jobs and education to conserve natural resources and ecosystems. Concerns for environmental protection have emerged in various forms in various parts of the world throughout history. The environmental movement is a diverse scientific, social and political movement. The movement is committed to ecology, health and human rights while accepting people as workers in the ecosystem. Today, it is generally accepted that environmental protection is a part of national policies and plans. The accepted standard to achieve this reduction target is "sustainable development". In fact, all existing laws and policies on environmental protection and human development, at the national or international level, aim at achieving "sustainable development". Despite the great environmental protection that humans have used in the past three decades, global warming has not reduced the occurrence of anomalous atmospheric phenomena due to scientific knowledge and available technology. Although many environmental policies and action plans have been negotiated over the past three decades, significant gaps remain in international environmental policy law. The framework has not yet become a method or method. Rather, each is a collection of commitments related to a democratic international or regional environmental issue. Nature has become negative by affecting the climate on the one hand and the health and safety of all living and non-living beings on the other. The ecosystem resonates with abnormal noise, vibration, dust and smoke from human activities. These events remind people that the environment must be protected with all enthusiasm and energy no matter what. Given the progress we have made in destroying the earth's environment, future global environmental efforts will focus more on environmental restoration than conservation. Human rights will also provide important opportunities for better protection of the environment.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113283
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) Associated Cross Resistance Patterns in
           South Indian Crop Ecosystem

    • Authors: Upendhar S., Satyanarayana J., Vani Sree K.
      Pages: 1317 - 1330
      Abstract: Aim: To study the cross resistance patterns associated with Mahaboobnagar, Raichur, Nagpur  populations of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). Study design: Bioassay Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out from February 2010 to May 2011 at Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana. Methodology: Helicoverpa armigera was selected for indoxacarb in F1 and F2 continuously then the population subjected to different selected insecticides to know the cross resistance patterns associated. Results: Mahaboobnagar population recorded 1.109 and 0.816 fold resistance at LD50 and LD90, respectively, while Raichur population has developed still higher levels of relative resistance by 1.591 and 0.846 fold when compared with the Nagpur population at LD50 and LD90, respectively. Similarly, the Raichur population has developed 1.435 and 1.037 folds relative resistance at LD50­ and LD90, respectively as compared with the Mahaboobnagar population. The Mahaboobnagar population resistant to indoxacarb at F3, when subjected to selected insecticides like cypermethrin, methomyl, spinosad showed a negative cross resistance ratio of  0.665, 0.830, 0.916  to cypermethrin, methomyl, spinosad respectively, and a positive cross resistance ratio of 1.019  to  indoxacarb, while similar trend was displayed by Raichur population showing a negative cross resistance ratio of 0.932, 0.565, 0.803 to cypermethrin, methomyl, spinosad respectively and positive cross resistance of 1.036  indoxacarb further, same trend was shown by Nagpur population by displaying a negative cross resistance ratio of 0.610, 0.735, 0.519 to cypermethrin, methomyl, spinosad and positive cross resistance ratio of 1.026  to indoxacarb. Conclusion: Continuous application of single insecticide belonging to a specific group across the generations increases the resistance from F1 to F3. Alternating the new chemistries with old conventional chemicals resulted in no cross resistance development as it was observed in all test populations.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113284
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Examining Modern Strategies for Effective and Sustainable Agricultural
           Plant Protection Techniques: A Review

    • Authors: Sharanabasav Huded , Eurekha Savadatti , Sharanappa C. H., Lipa Deb , Anchita Borah, Veerendra Singh, Chandan Kumar Panigrahi
      Pages: 1331 - 1343
      Abstract: The advancement of plant protection strategies is integral to sustainable agriculture, food security, and ecological balance. While modern approaches i.e. chemical, biological, and technological - have contributed significantly to plant protection, they come with their own sets of challenges and limitations. Chemical methods, potent in their action, often result in environmental degradation, bioaccumulation of toxic substances, and the onset of resistance among pests. Biological approaches, although aligned with ecological principles, face difficulties related to scalability, variable effectiveness, and dependency on environmental conditions. On the technological front, innovative solutions such as drones, precision agriculture, and data analytics promise transformative change but are constrained by factors like high setup costs and technical expertise. Despite the achievements, there exist notable research gaps, especially concerning the long-term sustainability of these methods. Comprehensive studies are often lacking that holistically assess the social, economic, and environmental aspects of plant protection techniques. This article aims to provide an in-depth analysis of the limitations of current strategies, identify existing research gaps, and suggest future prospects for making plant protection more efficient and sustainable. Areas for future research include the development of nano-pesticides for more targeted and eco-friendly applications, and the incorporation of adaptive methods to address challenges presented by climate change. The paper concludes that a multidisciplinary research approach is essential for overcoming existing challenges and for the development of more effective, sustainable plant protection strategies. Through an exhaustive review of current literature and case studies, this article serves as a comprehensive guide for researchers, policymakers, and agricultural practitioners to navigate the complex landscape of modern plant protection methods, aiming to provoke thought and inspire action towards more sustainable solutions.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113285
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • A Study on Knowledge Level and Attitude of Farmers towards Organic Farming
           in Ananthapuramu District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Bhumireddy Chandhana, G. Sashikala , B. K. Kishore Reddy, K. Madhavi , Smt. K. Sudharani , S. N. Malleswari Sadhineni
      Pages: 1344 - 1349
      Abstract: Organic farming is practicing in 187 countries, and 72.3 million hectares of agricultural land were managed organically by at least 3.1 million farmers. India is home to 30% of total organic producers in the world having 2.30 million ha (NCOF, 2021). A study was conducted in ten mandals of Ananthapuramu district with sample size of 100 and farmers were selected randomly. Pearson correlation, frequency, percentage, mean were calculated. From the results it was noticed that farmers have more knowledge related to statements viz., organic farming is a type of farming system in which crops are grown without the use of chemical inputs (85%) and knowledge gap percentage was 15. Farmers have positive attitude on statement I can obtain optimum production level in organic farming if we rear livestock at our farm with score of 244 and attitude gap percentage of 20 followed by organic farming will decrease the production cost by reducing the input purchases score of 243 and attitude gap percentage of 19. Education, extension contact, information seeking behaviour and awareness about organic farming variables were positively significant and highly correlated with attitude of farmers towards organic cultivation. Major constraints faced by the farmers were lack of skill regarding the preparation and usage of organic inputs (80%) followed by complicated methods for production of organic inputs and absence of premium price for organic produce in the local market (71%). Major suggestion were direct procurement of organic produce by government and supply to Midday Meals Scheme and Public Distribution System.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113286
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Molecular Variations in Rabi Sorghum Varieties Using SSR Markers

    • Authors: Gadakh S. S., Khalekar G. D., Dalvi U. S., Kulwal P. L., Kale A. A., Shinde M. S.
      Pages: 1350 - 1359
      Abstract: Genetic diversity was assessed for 2 popular varieties and 5 promising lines of rabi sorghum by using11 SSR markers. The marker Xiabt312 reported 100% polymorphism rate followed by Xtxp15 (85.70%) and mSbCIR300 (85.71%). The sorghum varieties studied for this analysis showed the polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.25 to 0.87 with a mean of 0.67 indicates higher diversity within them. Clustering analysis based on the genetic dissimilarity grouped the 7 lines into 2 major and 4 sub clusters and grouping was in good agreement with pedigree. Cluster II was the largest cluster with 4 genotypes followed by cluster I with 3 genotypes. The rabi sorghum genotypes viz., M35-1, RSV-1876 and RSLG-2422 were placed in cluster I and Phule Anuradha, RSV-2371, RSV-1910 and RSV-1988 placed in cluster II. Clustering based on SSR molecular profile of the genotypes shows that there is a distinct variability among the genotypes under this study. The selected markers have great potential in DNA fingerprinting in sorghum which in future could be integrated with DUS data descriptors for effective cultivar identification and differentiation.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113287
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Screening of Diesel Oil Degrading Species of Aspergillus for the
           Production of Different Enzymes Using Agar Plate Assay Method

    • Authors: Ruchika, Amar P. Garg
      Pages: 1360 - 1371
      Abstract: We have earlier isolated Aspergillus luchuensis, A. violaceofuscus, A. niveus, A. terreus, A. japonicus  and A. ustus from naturally degraded diesel oil in the soils using nutrient rich technique. These species were cultured to produce enzyme complexes on 10% (w/v) diesel oil broth containing 0.5 and 1.0% (w/v) jaggery at 37 and 45℃ temperature  separately for 7, 14 and 21 days. It was observed that all 6 species of Aspergillus produced luxuriant mycelial growth at day-7 on both temperatures, however, at 45℃, the liquid broth dried on 14th day of incubation, and therefore, secretory extracellular enzymes produced at 37℃ were screened to test the activities of amylases, gelatinases, lipases, cellulases, pectinases, proteases and manganese peroxidases using agar plate assay method. These enzymes are responsible for beaking down different bonds of the complex hydrocarbons. It was found that all 6 test species of Aspergillus produced all 7 enzymes at higher concentration at day 21 on diesel oil containing 1.0% jaggery. The production of enzyme increased with increasing period of incubation from day 7 to day 21. A. luchuensis produced highest activities of proteases, A. violacefuscus - amylases, A. niveus - gelatinases, A. terreus and A. ustus - pectinases, and A. japonicus produced highest activities of manganese peroxidases. All these enzymes contribute in the degradation of diesel oil in nature. This study revealed that the production of varying amounts of different enzymes by all these 6 species of Aspergillus has significant ecological and bioremediation potential.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113288
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Different Rice Establishment Methods on Soil Nutrient Status and
           Carbon Stock in Paddy Growing Soils of Jagtial, Telangana, India

    • Authors: D. Amulya , A. Krishna Chaitanya , R. Sai Kumar , E. Rajanikanth
      Pages: 1372 - 1384
      Abstract: The study was conducted to know the nutrient status, yield, straw and harvest index in 4 different cropping systems viz., (i) manual transplanting; (ii) dry direct seeding; (iii) drum seeding and (iv) machine transplanting 120 soil samples were analysed, 30 from each establishment method. The soil fertility status from different establishment methods was studied by analysing the samples for pH, EC, bulk density, organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, iron, zinc, total organic carbon and carbon stock. The study revealed that there is a significant difference in bulk density ranged high in machine transplanting (1.48 Mg m-3) and low in dry direct seeding (1.45Mg m-3). pH of soils was neutral to slightly alkaline in nature and iron content of soils ranged from 5.75 to 8.97 mg kg-1.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113289
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Influenece of Different Irrigation Scenario's under Mulched and
           Non-mulched Condition on Soil Moisture, Yield and Wue of Ridge Gourd
           (Luffa acutangula, L.)

    • Authors: Anand Gouda , Nemichandrappa; M., Babu, M. B., Halidoddi, R. R., Mallikarjun Reddy , Ramesh, G.
      Pages: 1385 - 1391
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted on Ridge gourd during rabi season of 2021-22 and
      2022-23 at the Experimental Research Plot Soil and Water Engineering, CAE, Raichur. The study aimed to assess the efficacy of a sensor and evapotranspiration based irrigation system in varying irrigation levels, comparing the performance between mulched and non-mulched conditions. The use of sensor-based irrigation at 100% field capacity under mulched has shown positive outcomes, leading to a notable enhancement in crop production by about 9.40% additionally, this approach has resulted in a significant conservation of irrigation water, with savings of approximately 12.35% compared to the treatment involving irrigation at 100% evapotranspiration under mulched, but without the use of sensors. Across the treatments, the water application efficiency ranged from 94.13 to 91.37%. The highest water use efficiency was observed in the treatment with irrigation at 100% FC under mulched condition on pooled basis (0.20 t ha-1 mm-1). The sensor based drip irrigation system under mulched is an economically viable option to be recommended among farmers in arid and semi-arid climate. Despite the higher initial setup costs, farmers can achieve significant cost savings in the long run due to lower water usage, better yields, and minimised labour requirements.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113290
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Investigation of Physical and Frictional Properties of Mustard Seed
           Varieties to Design inclined Plate Metering Mechanism

    • Authors: Vivekanand Singh , Sheen Cline Moses , Rana Noor Aalam , Prashant M. D’souza
      Pages: 1392 - 1399
      Abstract: The physical and frictional properties were studied for three distinct mustard seed varieties: RLC-1, GSC-7, and PBR-91, with the primary objective of designing an efficient inclined plate seed metering mechanism for agricultural seeders. Mustard, a globally significant oilseed crop, plays a vital role in both agriculture and industry. Our comprehensive analysis encompassed various properties, including seed dimensions, test weight (1000 seed), moisture content, geometric mean diameters, surface area, bulk density, true density, sphericity, angle of repose, and coefficients of friction on plywood and GI sheet surfaces. The results revealed significant variations among the mustard seed varieties. For instance, RLC-1 seeds exhibited lengths of 4.029 ± 0.37 mm, widths of 2.210 ± 0.31 mm, and thicknesses of 0.851 ± 0.19 mm, whereas GSC-7 displayed lengths of 4.110 ± 0.42 mm, widths of 2.300 ± 0.35 mm, and thicknesses of 0.910 ± 0.24 mm. Additionally, GI sheet surfaces exhibited a lower coefficient of friction compared to plywood. This comprehensive dataset informs the design of tailored seed metering mechanisms, optimizing seed handling, minimizing damage and losses, and reducing blockage during seeding operations, thereby enhancing overall efficiency in mustard crop cultivation and seeding technology.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113291
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Study of Genetic Variability Parameters for Yield and Its Components under
           Normal and Late Sown Conditions in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    • Authors: Munazza Moin , Jagan Mohan Rao P., Parimala K., Anuradha Ch.
      Pages: 1400 - 1408
      Abstract: An investigation consisted of 50 chickpea genotypes including 4 checks viz., JG64, ICC10685, ICC4567 and NBeG47 was conducted during the rabi season of year 2022-23 at Seed Research and Technology centre, Rajendranagar, Telangana. The objective of the study was to estimate magnitude of different parameters of genetic variability for yield and its attributes. The observations were recorded for thirteen different yield and its contributing characters and the results obtained  indicated that in general the phenotypic coefficient of variance was found to be higher as compared to genotypic coefficient of variance for all studied traits. High heritability along with high genetic advance (% mean) was obtained for characters like number of seeds per plant, number of filled pods per plant, seed yield per plant, number of pods per plant, number of primary branches, 100 seed weight, number of secondary branches, and plant height at normal sown conditions, which determines the presence of additive gene action for these characters and in late sown conditions the characters like number of seeds per plant, number of filled pods per plant, seed yield per plant, number of pods per plant, number of primary branches, 100 seed weight, number of secondary branches, and plant height and harvest index had shown high heritability along with high genetic advance. So, it determines the presence of additive gene action for these characters. So, that selection for these characters is beneficial in the breeding programmes.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113292
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Influence of Varieties and Nutrient Levels on Growth, Yield and
           Profitability of Palak (Beta vulgaris var. Bengalensis)

    • Authors: Ilal Khedkar , R. K. Sharma , S. S. Kushwah, Roshan Gallani
      Pages: 1409 - 1417
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at the Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture, Mandsaur (M.P.) during Rabi season of year 2019-20 to study the “Influence of varieties and nutrient levels on growth, yield and profitability of palak (Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis)”. The experiment comprised of two varieties V1 (Pusa Bharati), V2 (All Green) and 6 different nutrient levels (N1- 00:00:00 NPK kg/ha, N2- 40:30:20 NPK kg/ha, N3- 60:40:30 NPK kg/ha, N4- 80:50:40 NPK kg/ha, N5- 100:60:50 NPK kg/ha and N6- 120:70:60 NPK kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in a factorial randomized block design with three replications. The variety Pusa Bharati was found significantly better plant height (26.87 cm, 31.88 cm and 32.12 cm), maximum number of leaves per plant (8.18, 13.70 and 14.02), maximum leaf area (31.28 cm2, 76.53 cm2 and 79.88 cm2), maximum fresh green yield per plant (19.12 g, 20.64 g and 21.79 g), maximum fresh green yield per hectare (191.19, 206.36 and 217.90 q/ha) at 1st, 2nd and 3rd cuttings, respectively. The significantly higher economic performance in terms of gross income (Rs. 246180.00/ha), net income (Rs. 196695.63/ha) and B:C ratio (3.95) was observed with variety Pusa Bharti.Among nutrient levels, N6 (120:70:60 NPK kg/ha) found better for growth, yield and economics i.e., plant height (30.92 cm, 35.04 cm and 35.66 cm), maximum number of leaves per plant i.e. 9.60, 16.10 and 17.99, maximum leaf area i.e. 34.16 cm2, 83.31 cm2 and 88.76 cm2, maximum fresh green yield per plant i.e. 20.27 g, 22.31 g and 24.46 g, maximum fresh green yield per hectare i.e. 202.72, 223.12 and 224.62 q/ha at 1st, 2nd and 3rd cuttings, respectively, highest gross income (Rs. 268180/ha), net income (Rs. 215587.30 /ha) and B:C ratio (4.10) was found with nutrient level N6 (120:70:60 NPK kg/ha). It may be concluded that variety V1 (Pusa Bharati) and nutrient level N6­ (120:70:60 NPK kg/ha) showed better performance for growth, yield and economics in spinach.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113293
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessing the Growth, Yield, and Quality of Different Varieties of Cherry
           Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill. Var. Cerasiforme) Under Polyhouse

    • Authors: Narendra Nath Hansda , Umesh Thapa , Shubham Kumar Kulshreshtha , Sourav Kundu
      Pages: 1418 - 1432
      Abstract: Aim: Cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum Mill. var. cerasiforme) are highly favored for their delectable flavor and plentiful small-sized fruits that form clusters on the plant's stems and branches. This study focused on examining the “Assessing the Growth, Yield, and Quality of Different Varieties of Cherry Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill. var. cerasiforme) under Polyhouse”. Study Design: In the first and second years of varietal evaluation, the experiment was set up using a Complete Randomized Block Design (C.R.B.D.) with nine treatments (varieties) and three replications Nine cherry tomato are collected from different sources and the varieties are BSS-834, Nagmani, Nagmoti, Rosa, Sheeja, Laila, Darjeeling Local, Ken and Red Cherry. Place and Duration of Study: The current study was carried out in the naturally ventilated arched sawtooth polyhouse at the Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya in Mohanpur, Nadia (West Bengal) in the years 2021–2022 and 2022–2023. Methodology: The dimensions of the experimental plot were 2.5 m x 1 m2, with a row spacing of 50 cm and a plant spacing of 50 cm. The tests used the ridge bed approach, with two rows per bed. During the two years of the experiment, a number of significant characteristics were noted, such as the number of primary branches and the plant height (in centimeters) related to vegetative development. For every replication, a statistical analysis of the mean values was performed. Results: Out of all the cultivars evaluated, BSS-834 and Laila showed the best yield and yield-related attributes. Conclusion: It is therefore advised to cultivate these two excellent kinds, "BSS-834" and "Laila," in light of the findings.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113294
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Exploring the Effects of Enriched Urban Compost and Wastes on Growth and
           Yield Parameters in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    • Authors: Shantha Murthy B., Sathish A., Seenappa C., Saralakumari J., Umashankar; N.
      Pages: 1433 - 1438
      Abstract: Maize (Zea mays L.) is a crucial global crop, vital for food security and diverse applications. Maize cultivation heavily depends on fertilizers, particularly nitrogen-based ones and their widespread use poses risks like nutrient runoff, causing pollution and economic challenges. Balancing growth optimization with environmental/economic considerations requires optimizing fertilizer application and sustainable practices. This study aims to reduce reliance on chemical fertilizers by replacing them with microbial-enriched urban compost and wastes in various combinations with inorganic fertilizers to enhance maize yields. A treatment incorporating 75% NPK + 7.5 t ha-1 of microbial-enriched urban solid waste compost demonstrated the highest plant height, leaf count, cob length, kernel yield, and stover yield. The combined use of enriched compost and chemical fertilizers resulted in increased nutrient availability, improved soil properties, and a favorable microbial environment, contributing to enhanced overall yield.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113295
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Farm-Scale Mapping of Soil Microbiological Indicators Using Geostatistical

    • Authors: Tapan Gorai , Nayan Ahmed , Rabi Narayan Sahoo
      Pages: 1439 - 1451
      Abstract: Soil microbiological properties viz. soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) are sensitive soil quality indicators. Spatial modeling and prediction map of soil MBC and DHA were generated for a semiarid agricultural farm, New Delhi, India from 288 geo-referenced grid samples spaced 100 m × 100 m distance using geospatial techniques and geo-statistics. Soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) ranged from 19.7 to 519.7 µg g-1 with standard deviation of 84.1 and soil DHA varied from 1.2 to 17.2 µg TPF g-1 dry soil hr-1 with sample variance of 10.89. Soil MBC and DHA had high data viability with coefficient of variation (CV) of 42.5 % and 53.2%, respectively. The best fit semivariogram for both soil MBC and DHA was exponential model and had practical spatial range of 1500 m and 1473 m respectively. Environmental disturbances or extrinsic factors dominantly influenced the spatial variability of soil MBC, expressing its weak spatial dependency.  Besides, both soil structural/internal factors and extrinsic factors controlled soil DHA variability with moderate level of spatial dependency. Spatial variability map of soil MBC and DHA, prepared with good accuracy through ordinary kriging in GIS software, showed that major area of the farm had soil MBC ranging from 150 to 250 mg kg-1 and had DHA from 1.2 to 10 µg TPF g-1 dry soil hr-1.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113296
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Correlation between the Seasonal Incidence of Aphids and Coccinellids on
           the Indian Mustard in Different Varieties and Sowing Dates

    • Authors: Ram Kishor , Y. P. Malik , Sirajuddin, Pramod Kumar Mishra , Dhananjay Kushwaha , Shravan Kumar Verma
      Pages: 1452 - 1466
      Abstract: Ecological engineering plays an important role in Integrated Pest Management. Considering this, a field experiment was conducted at the Students’ Instructional Farm (SIF), Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur during the rabi season of 2020-21. The severity of the mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) in mustard (Brussica juncea L.) crop and its period of occurrence were not uniform in two successive crop seasons. The highest aphid intensities of 120.8 aphids per plant, 138.0 aphids per plant, 148.7 aphids per plant, and 176.1 aphids per plant were recorded on mustard varieties Varuna, Varuna, Azad Mahak, and Ashirwad, respectively, during mid-February (6th MSW) when the mustard was planted on 13th November, 23rd November, 25th November, and 10th December 2020. A negative correlation was established between the average temperature (r = -0.3599) and the actual intensity of aphids, as well as the weekly increase of aphids (r = -0.5838). On the other hand, average relative humidity had a positive influence on aphid incidence. The potentiality of predatory beetles (coccinellids) in the mustard ecosystem was found to be weather-dependent. The weather factors favourable for aphid multiplication did not support the enhancement of the population of predatory ladybird beetles.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113297
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Genetic Analysis of Quantitative Traits, Gall Midge and Brown Spot
           Tolerance in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes under Irrigated Ecosystem

    • Authors: P. Gonya Nayak , P. Madhukar , B. Laxmi Prasanna , B. Srinivas
      Pages: 1467 - 1478
      Abstract: Gall midge and brown spot of rice are a fungal disease that affect both seedlings and mature plants. To investigate resistance of rice to this disease twenty nine rice cultures were evaluated under irrigated ecosystem at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Jagtial during kharif, 2020. High heritable estimates were observed for all the 8 traits studied. High estimates of heritability was recorded for important yield attributes viz., days to 50% flowering (91.4, 11.24), plant height (77.8, 9.53), 1000-grain weight (98.4, 54.5), number of grains per panicle (78.3, 40.18) and grain yield (98.7, 33.87) indicated that these traits were under the control of additive genes. Significantly positive correlations were recorded with plant height, Number of productive tillers per plant and 1000 seed weight at both genotypic and phenotypic levels, the results clearly indicated that long duration genotypes with more height and bolder grains contribute for more grain yield. Among the eight traits studied, 1000 grain weight contributed highest (67.8%) towards total divergence followed by days to 50% flowering (11.5%), number of grains per panicle (6.06) and Galls midge incidence percentage (6.06%). Genotypes, JGL 38957 of cluster II, JGL 38950 of cluster III, JGL 38935 of cluster IV and JGL 38921 of Cluster VII could be the best source to develop brown spot, gall midge resistance and high yielding rice varieties.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113298
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessing Genetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance for
           Morphological Traits in Different Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.)

    • Authors: Abhishek Chandra , Sunil Malik , Mukesh Kumar , Satendra Kumar, Mukesh Kumar , Manuj Awasthi
      Pages: 1479 - 1486
      Abstract: Gladiolus, commonly known as the gladiola or simply "gladiolus," is a popular flowering plant known for its striking and vibrant flowers. It belongs to the genus Gladiolus and is part of the family Iridaceae. The present investigation was carried out at the Horticultural Research Centre of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh during Rabi season (Mid Nov - April) 2020-21 to determine the extent of genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for twenty-five genotypes of Gladiolus. For all of the traits, the analysis of variance indicated extremely significant variations between genotypes. Number of spikes per plant had the highest phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV), (35.81 and 23.41, respectively). For all of the traits studied, the phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was higher than the genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV), while the differences were very small, indicating that the environmental influence on traits was low. The heritability estimates ranged from 42.75 (number of spikes per plant) to 99.01 (spike weight). This indicated that environmental variables had the least influence on these features. For most features, the estimated genetic progress as a percentage of mean varied from moderate to high. This finding, together with the high heritability values observed, suggested that additive gene action may exist and that simple selection for such traits may be used to improve them.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113299
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Different Sowing Time and Cultivars on Oil Content, Yield
           Attributes and Yield of Safflower

    • Authors: Rinku Kamle , Yashwant Gehlot , Aakash, Sonali Kamle , Veer Singh , Narendra Kumar
      Pages: 1487 - 1495
      Abstract: The present experiment was conducted at All India Coordinated Research Project on safflower, College of Agriculture, Indore, (M.P.) during rabi season 2015-16 to study the effect of date of sowing and cultivars on number of capitula plant-1, total seed weight, 100 seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, straw yield, harvest index, oil content and oil yield. The experiment was performed in split plot design using three sowing dates and three cultivars. The maximum capitula (31.26 plant-1) and total seed weight (25.11 g plant-1) were recorded with 1st November sown crop. The cultivar A-1 registered the highest 100 seed weight (5.42 g) which was significantly superior over cultivar NARI-6 and NARI-57. The highest seed yield (1565.42 kg ha-1), straw yield (7771 kg ha-1) and biological yield (9336.42 kg ha-1) were obtained under 1st November of sowing. The maximum oil content (35.36 %) was received with NARI-57 followed by NARI-6 and A-1. The highest oil yield (509.35 kg ha-1) was observed with 1st November sown crop. Based on the findings it is concluded that for obtaining maximum yield of safflower, use of A-1 cultivar and sowing done at 1st November is recommended.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113300
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • A Comprehensive Approach to Manage Eriophyes prosopidis Mite induced
           Flower Galls in Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce

    • Authors: Shiwani Bhatnagar, Sangeeta Singh , Ameen Ullah Khan , Neha Sharma , Bundesh Kumar
      Pages: 1496 - 1507
      Abstract: The Khejri tree (Prosopis cineraria), is a vital resource in the Thar Desert. Sangri, the name of its pods, is the key ingredient in the Rajasthani vegetable dishes Panchkutta and Trikuta. There is severe gall formation and significant pod reduction in P. cineraria caused by the eriophyid mite Eriophyes prosopidis. The gall-infested trees look unwell because they have a lot of disorganized and deformed green galls hanging from them. During the field trials of the present study, we found that the infestation of this mite can be managed by an integrated management approach. The mechanical removal of dried galls fallen on surface and lopping at an interval of one year can reduce the infestation considerably. Treatment with botanicals Putranjiva roxburgii (10%) leaf extract, Balanites aegyptiaca (10%) leaf extract, spray of Metarhizium anisopliae 2.5 x 107 conidia /ml and chemicals Abamectin 1.9% EC @1ml/L and Diafenthiuron 25% WW + Pyriproxyfen 5% WW @ 2ml/L can be utilized for effective management of flower galls of P. cineraria.
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113301
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Influence of Pseudomonas and Biofertisol as a Foliar Spray on Soil
           Properties under STCR Approach

    • Authors: Yagini Tekam , Rakesh Sahu , Risikesh Thakur , Garima Padwar , Deepak Singh
      Pages: 1508 - 1515
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during the rabi season in the Experimental field, Department of Soil Science, JNKVV, Jabalpur (M.P.) under RBD design with four replications comprising five treatments of two types of biofertilizers: Pseudomonas and Biofertisol and scheduled combinations of inorganic fertilizers based on STCR (Soil Test Crop Response) for achieving targeted yield by using variety of vegetable pea, PSM-3. The best response was recorded from the application of treatment T5 (TY120 q(87:147:74) +5tFYM) for increasing the content of soil available nutrients (N, P and K) by 7.89, 29.95 and 8.25%, respectively over that from control. Effect due to T4 was significantly prominent on the proliferation of microorganisms viz., Rhizobium sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Lactobacillus sp. better by 6.79 log cfu (61.38 x 105 cfu g-1 soil), 6.44 log cfu (27.67 x 105 cfu g-1 soil) and 4.42 log cfu (26.18 x 103 cfu g-1 soil), respectively over control. The same treatment T4 induced the enzyme activity of dehydrogenase by 86.99% as compared to that of the control (5.23 µg TPF hr-1 g-1). Yields of the crop were best harvested due to T4 by 81.91% over that of control 56.93 kg ha-1. The vegetable pea (Pisum sativum L.), a cool-season crop and an important pulse crop in India. One of the impediments to supporting vegetable pea production and productivity is low soil fertility. Anthropogenic causes such as heavy use of fertilizer exacerbated the problem. A combination of fertilizers, biofertilizers and FYM are the solution to the problem since it makes use of available organic and inorganic nutrients and microbes to create an environmentally sound and economically sustainable farming system.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113302
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Predicting, Validation of Frequency of Transgressive Recombinant Inbred
           Lines and Minimum Population Size Required to Recover them in Groundnut
           (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    • Authors: Shilpa; N, Marappa N., Manjunatha, M., Jahir Basha, C. R.
      Pages: 1516 - 1522
      Abstract: Background: Identification of transgressive recombinant inbred lines (RILs) that can be use as pure-line cultivars is the prime objective of a breeder in self-pollinated crops including groundnut. Aim: Thus, identification of such promising segregating generations assumes importance. This can be achieved by predicting the transgressive RILs that could be derived from advanced generations of segregating population. Materials and Methods: In our study we predicted and validated transgressive RILs derived from cross TMV 2 × GPBD 4 for five quantitative traits based on estimates of mid parental value [m], additive genetic effects [a] and additive genetic variance [σ2A]. Results: the frequency of transgressive RILs was higher for all the five traits. Primary branches per plant had highest frequency of predicted transgressive RILs with minimum population size of 6.95. Narrow difference between the predicted and realised frequency of RILs was seen. Conclusion: Our results indicate that this approach could be the efficient in selecting the best breeding population out of many number of crosses made.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113303
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Evaluation of Broad Bean (Vicia faba L) Genotypes for Genetic Variability,
           Heritability and Genetic Advance

    • Authors: Sunil Kumar , Deepa H. Dwivedi , Putan Yadav , Virendra Kumar , Rameshwar Dayal
      Pages: 1523 - 1529
      Abstract: The study investigated the phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation (PCV and GCV) and heritability estimates for various agronomic and nutritional traits in Broad bean (Vicia faba). The analysis aimed to identify traits with optimum variability and heritability, as well as to explore the potential presence of additive genetic variance in specific characteristics.The 18 genotypes were grown in randomized block design with the 3 replication during Rabi season in the year 2021-22 at the Research Farm- 1, Department of Horticulture, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Vidya-Vihar, Raebareli Road, Lucknow-226025 (U.P.). The results showed that umber of seed per plant, number of pod per plant and seed yield per plant exhibited high estimates of both PCV and GCV, indicating the presence of adequate variability for these particular characters within the population. Additionally, the heritability for the characters of 100 seed yield, number of seed per plant, titratable acidity (g/l), total soluble solids (TSS) and genetic advance for the number of seed per plant, number of pod per plant, seed yield per plant, 100 seed weight were found to be significant indicating that these characters were predominantly governed by additive gene action. The findings of this study hold significant implications for future breeding programs and genetic improvement strategies. The high heritability and genetic advance for the above-mentioned characters suggest that these characteristics can be effectively manipulated through selective breeding to develop improved and high-yielding plant varieties.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113304
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Genetic Diversity for Fruit Quality Traits in Elite Capsicum (Capsicum
           annuum L.) Germplasm Lines

    • Authors: Sahiini Ronald , Kambham Madhavi Reddy , V. Keshava Rao , Luwangshangbam James Singh , Lichamo J. Yathan
      Pages: 1530 - 1536
      Abstract: The study aimed to assess the genetic diversity of twenty-two elite capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.) germplasm lines across nine quanlitative traits. The research was conducted at the research farm of ICAR-Indian Institute Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Bengaluru, Karnataka, during 2014-2015 period. The experimental design employed was a randomized complete block design with three replications. The quality parameters under study included fruit length (cm), fruit width (cm), pericarp thickness (mm), placenta length (cm), placenta width (cm), total soluble solids (°Brix), fruit to seed ratio, seed number and total capsaicinoids (Scoville Heat Units). Based on the performance of the study, a cluster analysis of twenty-two chilli germplasm lines were grouped into three clusters. Cluster I had a maximum of sixteen genotypes and clusters III had a minimum of one genotype. The highest inter–cluster distance (60.521) was observed in between clusters I and II and the lowest (17.964) in between clusters I and III. Among the traits examined, fruit length and total capsaicinoids contributed the most to the genetic divergence. Considering group cluster analysis, mean performance and variability, it is recommended to explore inter genotypic crosses between cluster I and cluster II, as well as cluster I and cluster III, for future hybridization programmes in chilli crop improvement.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113305
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Farmer’s Sagaciousness on Climate Change and Adaptation Strategies in
           Agriculture: A Case Study in Hyatimundaragi Village of Koppala District of
           Karnataka, India

    • Authors: Naveesh Y. B., Raaga R., Ashwini M., Sagar N., Jayashree A., Sushma R., Krishnamoorthy P., Siju S. J., Patil S. S., Suresh K. P.
      Pages: 1537 - 1545
      Abstract: Climate change is recognized as one of the leading challenges affecting the performance of agriculture and the livelihood of people. Farmers are the hardest hit as they have to continuously respond to climate variations. In order to know farmers' perception of climate change and its impacts and to identify adaptation needs semi-structured questionnaire surveys were carried out in Hyatimundaragii village of Koppala district, Karnataka. Farmers have faced climate variability and noticed increasing temperature, delayed onset of rainfall, intermittent rainfall, prolonged drought conditions, depletion of the water table, untimely filling of water bodies, increased incidence of pests and diseases, livestock diseases, and decreasing soil moisture as the critical factors affecting their cultivation, decrease yield and quality of crop produce. Some of them have started to adapt to these changes by soil conservation measures like the construction of graded bunds, mulching, green manuring and sorghum+pigeonpea intercropping, crop rotation, cultivating drought, pest and disease resistance short duration varieties, providing lifesaving irrigation to crops.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113306
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Constraints Perceived by Farmers in Fish Farming: A Review Analysis

    • Authors: Shubham, P. K. Chahal , B. S. Ghanghas , A. K. Rohila , R. Mukteshawar , Arulmanikandan B., Rohtash Kumar
      Pages: 1546 - 1550
      Abstract: The adoption of scientific fish farming faces multiple constraints encompassing economic, infrastructural, technological, marketing, societal, and extension-related challenges. Economically, the substantial upfront investment required for infrastructure and operational costs deters potential fish farmers, especially small-scale operators. Inadequate access to financing further exacerbates this issue. Insufficient infrastructure, including poor transportation networks and processing facilities, hampers the efficient distribution and marketing of fish products. Limited access to scientific farming technology and disease management techniques hinders the adoption of advanced practices, while price fluctuations and a lack of organised markets pose marketing-related challenges. Cultural norms and societal dynamics can influence fish farming practices, sometimes hindering the adoption of sustainable farming. To overcome these constraints, collaborative efforts among the government departments, institutes, banks, NGOs etc. are essential. Strategies include providing financial support mechanisms, infrastructure development, dissemination of latest technical known how and training, establishing market chain, and respecting local social norms. Addressing these issues collectively could unlock the full potential of fish farming, promoting food security, livelihood enhancement and sustainable development.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113307
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessment of Farmer Knowledge Level about Recommended Production
           Technology in Maize (Zea mays) Crop

    • Authors: Ruchi Priya , Chandan Kumar Panda , Anil Paswan , Suborna Roy Choudhary , Sunil Kumar , Fozia Homa
      Pages: 1551 - 1558
      Abstract: The present research work was conducted in the Darbhanga and Bhagalpur district of Bihar to assess the knowledge level of farmers about recommended maize production technology. The ex-post facto research design was used. Three villages are purposefully chosen for each district and   a total of 210 respondents were selected randomly. Results shown that the majority of respondents (40.5%) fall into the 40–54-year age group followed by most the respondents have educational background up to the level of senior secondary. It was observed that most the respondents have farming experience range of 9 -14 years followed by BAO (Block Agriculture Officer) is the most preferred extension exposure by the respondents, most of the respondents had the membership of panchayat. The average knowledge level of respondents is determined by knowledge test which contains question regarding different cultivation practices of maize further data from result revealed that the average knowledge level in planting time, soil and land preparation, method of sowing, seed rate and spacing, irrigation management, insect- pest management is higher in Bhagalpur respondents compare to Darbhanga district respondents. Average knowledge level in insect -pest management is low in both districts compare to other cultivation practices.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113308
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Foliar Application of Potassium Silicate on Growth Attributes of
           Jamun (Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels.) cv. Goma Priyanka

    • Authors: Monika Kumari Meena , P. Bhatnagar , Moomal Bharadwaj , Usha Shukla , Yogendra Kumar Sharma
      Pages: 1559 - 1569
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out on the Instructional Farm, which finds its location intricately linked to the Department of Fruit Science at the esteemed College of Horticulture and Forestry in Jhalarapatan, a prominent site within the Jhalawar region. during (2021-22 and 2022-23) with the object of assessing the response of foliar humic acid on growth attributes of Jamun (Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels) cv. Goma Priyanka. Four doses of Potassium silicate (KS) 0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm were tried in 4 treatments in a factorial randomized block design. The foliar response of Potassium silicate KS3 (3000 ppm) treatment registered relatively better plant growth parameters viz. rootstock girth, scion girth, plant height, canopy volume, canopy spread E-W, N-S, of Jamun cv. Goma Priyanka plants.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113309
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Impact of Herbicides on Soil Fertility and Nutrient Uptake by Transplanted
           Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Eastern U.P, India

    • Authors: Peeyush Kumar Jaysawal , S. K. Verma , Vijay Pratap , Deepak Kumar Yadav , Niketa Tirkey , Sachin Singh
      Pages: 1570 - 1575
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Varanasi during kharif 2017 and 2018 to evaluate the nitrogen intake by transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.) and the available nutrient status of soil under ten weed control treatments. The treatment bispyribac-Na 9.1% (24.57 g/ha) + metsulfuron-methyl 1.2% (3.24 g/ha) + chlorimuron ethyl 1.2% (3.24 g/ha) recorded higher Organic carbon (0.47%), pH (7.38), EC(0.18 dS m-1), available N193.48 kg/ha, P22.46 kg/ha, and K 221.56 kg/ha in soil, higher nutrient (N, P and K)  content in grain 1.14, 0.33, 0.38%,  and straw  0.74, 0.12, 1.74% and protein content 6.81 & 4.42% in grain and straw, respectively. improved N, P, K uptake in grain 58.57, 17.06, 19.23 kg/ha and straw 71.00, 11.36, 166 kg/ha, respectively over weedy check (grain 46.09, 13.35, 15.10 kg/ha and straw 58.58, 9.38 and 137.65 N, P and K respectively). This treatment exhibited positive performance of soil fertility and N, P and K uptake by transplanted rice.
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113310
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Genetic Variability and Correlation Studies in Hybrids of Bottle Gourd
           (Lagenaria siceraria)

    • Authors: Yash Pratap Singh , Yash Kumar Singh , V. M. Prasad
      Pages: 1576 - 1583
      Abstract: The present investigation was carried out with ten bottle gourd hybrid varieties including one check arranged in a randomized block design with three replications and observations were recorded on five randomly selected plants for eleven quantitative traits at Vegetable Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, U.P. A detailed analysis of the results on ten bottle gourd hybrid varieties revealed that from analysis of variance it is revealed that all the traits have high significant variability and thus can be used in further analysis. Shreeman 152 showed higher days to first male and first female appearance, number of branches per vine, vine length. F115 hybrid variety found the highest fruit diameter and SW906 were found high in fruit yield per and fruit yield per ha GCV were recorded higher for Fruit yield per ha, Fruit length, Vitamin C and Fruit diameter, indicating a good amount of variability present in the material under investigation. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent mean is observed in Fruit yield per ha, Fruit length, Vitamin C, TSS and days to first female appearances suggesting that selection of these traits would be effective for the desired improvement in bottle gourd. A significant positive correlation was reported between fruit yield per plant with Vitamin C, TSS, fruit yield per ha. A significant negative correlation was reported between vine length and days to first harvest, days to first male and female appearances.
      PubDate: 2023-10-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113311
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Mulching and Tillage Practices on Yield & Yield Attributs of

    • Authors: K. Arun Kumar , Y. S. Satish Kumar , K. Prabhakar , M. Jayalakshmi, K. Satish Babu , K. Mohan Vishnuvardhan , ESV Narayana Rao
      Pages: 1584 - 1590
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of mulching and tillage practices on  yield & yield attributs of sorghum at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Andhra Pradesh during 2020-21 & 2021-22 Kharif seasons. Mulching, Tillage practices and their interaction showed no significant influence on growth parameters viz., plant height and dry matter production at harvest, days to 50 % population. Whereas, panicle weight, panicle length, grain yield, straw yield and harvest index were significantly higher with zero tillage and with residue mulch. The interaction between tillage and mulch practices was non significant. Maximum gross and net returns were observed with zero tillage with residue mulch practice in grain sorghum. The economic evaluation of mulching and tillage practices in sorghum crop revealed that maximum gross returns (Rs 1,18,659), net returns (Rs 78,579) and B:C ratio (2.96) were obtained with zero tillage practice with mulching practice.  The study indicated that tillage and mulching had significant effect on soil fertility and grain yield of sorghum crop.
      PubDate: 2023-10-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113312
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Influence of Different Portions of Vine and Plant Growth Regulators on
           Growth Parameters of Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.]

    • Authors: Lingamurthy; K. R., Vasant M. Ganiger , Ramachandra Naik, K., T. B. Allolli , Venkateshalu, G. Bhuvaneshwari , S. M. Prasanna
      Pages: 1591 - 1602
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to study the potentiality of different portions of vine and plant growth regulators on growth performance of sweet potato during 2019 and 2020 at vegetable block, College of Horticulture, Munirabad (Koppal), located in the northern dry zone of Karnataka. The experiment was laid out in a Factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with thirteen treatments. Among the two factors, the first factor was different portions of vine for planting consisting basal portion (P1), middle portion (P2) and top portion (P3) and the second factor was plant growth regulators consisting CCC @ 500 ppm (G1), CCC @1000 ppm (G2), Ethrel @ 150 ppm (G3) and Ethrel @ 300 ppm (G4). The control treatments were basal portion of vine (C1), middle portion of vine (C2) and top portion of vine(C3) all without application of growth regulator. Among the different portions of vine used for planting, the top portion of vine recorded significantly higher vine length, Vine inter nodal length, Number of branches per plant and Leaf area. Application of CCC @ 500 ppm was recorded significantly higher growth attributes. The interaction effect of top portion of vine with CCC @ 500 ppm (P3G1) was found to be significantly superior with respect to growth parameters of sweet potato.
      PubDate: 2023-10-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113313
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Influence of Irrigation Scheduling on Weeds among Different Sowing Dates
           in Wheat under Vertisol

    • Authors: Mrinali Gajbhiye , Manish Bhan , K. K. Agrawal, Narendra Kumar
      Pages: 1603 - 1610
      Abstract: Wheat is an important cereal grain crop and is staple to millions. Weeds are the major constraint that lower the wheat yield. The knowledge of weeds under different sowing dates and Irrigation can assist in controlling weeds.  A field experiment was conducted during the rabi season of 2020-21 at Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur, M.P. to study the influence of irrigation scheduling on weeds at different sowing dates in wheat. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with three replications. The main plot consisted of three sowing dates, i.e., 3rd December, 18th December and 2nd January and four Irrigation Water/Cumulative Pan Evaporation (IW/CPE) based irrigation scheduling, 1.0, 0.9, 0.8 and 0.7 in the sub-plots. The results revealed that lowest weed density and dry weight were observed in 2nd January sown date, as compared to 3rd December and 18th December sown date. Among the irrigation schedules, 0.7 IW/CPE observed lowest weed density and dry weight than 1.0, 0.9, 0.8 IW/CPE ratio. 3rd December sown date exhibited highest grain yield (4637 kg ha-1) and straw yield (6788 kg ha-1) than 18th December and 2nd January sown date. Among the irrigation schedules, 1.0 IW/CPE ratio exhibited maximum grain yield (4510 kg ha-1) than 0.9, 0.8 and 0.7 IW/CPE ratio. The results of the study concludes that sowing dates and irrigation schedules had crucial role for controlling weeds.
      PubDate: 2023-10-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113315
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Rapeseed-Mustard Farming in Begusarai, Bihar, India: A Holistic
           Exploration of Growth, Economic Viability, and Hindrances

    • Authors: Sachin Rathour, Meera Kumari , Gawhare Atul Anil
      Pages: 1611 - 1622
      Abstract: The present study conducted a comprehensive analysis of the rapeseed-mustard sector's economic dynamics in India, with a focus on Bihar's Begusarai district. The study has been carried out with the objectives of analyzing the trend in area, production and productivity along with the cost and return from rapeseed-mustard production. Further the constraints faced by the famers were also documented and ranked. Primary data was collected from 120 rapeseed-mustard growers of District from a cluster of three villages each from two blocks through SRSWOR Technique and secondary data were collected from different published sources. A negative growth rate (CGR) in area (-0.05%) was observed while the growth in production and productivity of Rapeseed-Mustard during 1998-99 to 2018-19 in Bihar was positive and significant. Districts wise analysis in entire period together there was positive Growth in the area, production and productivity. The average cost of cultivation per hectare was ₹ 63,873.1, while the gross income stood at ₹ 83,746.92, yielding a favourable return-to-cost ratio of 1:1.39, implying that rapeseed–mustard fetched an additional return of 39 paisa on each rupee spent. Primary constraints identified included the absence of high-quality seed varieties and elevated transportation expenses, both warranting attentions. To bolster the future of rapeseed-mustard, widespread dissemination of advanced farming techniques and the establishment of processing facilities among smallholders is recommended.
      PubDate: 2023-10-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113316
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Predictive Modeling and Comparative Analysis of Reference
           Evapotranspiration with Machine Learning Algorithms

    • Authors: Venkatesh Gaddikeri , Malkhan Singh Jatav , Siddharam, K. R. Asha, L. Aiswarya , Preeti, Bandi Nageswar
      Pages: 1623 - 1634
      Abstract: Accurate estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is crucial for a multitude of applications, encompassing drought detection, irrigation scheduling, water resource management, and disaster risk reduction. This investigation utilized the FAO-PM equation for ET0 estimation and subsequently incorporated meteorological variables as input variables with machine learning (ML) models to enhance ET0 predictions. The dataset was bifurcated into training and testing data segments. Four distinct machine learning models were deployed in this study, namely Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM), and Linear Regression (LR). The performance of these models was evaluated using various statistical indices, including Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Sum of Error (MSE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and the coefficient of determination (R2), to pinpoint the most efficacious ML algorithm. After conducting a comprehensive analysis involving both training and testing data, the results unequivocally identify GBM with MAE values of 0.054 and 0.077, MSE values of 0.005 and 0.011, MAPE values of 0.014 and 0.022, RMSE values of 0.072 and 0.107, and an R2 value of 0.096 and 0.092 during training and testing, respectively. This model has been selected as the optimal choice for precise ET0 estimation within the study region. Subsequently, SVM, RF, and LR follow as alternatives in terms of performance, in descending order.
      PubDate: 2023-10-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113317
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Influence of Maternal Contact on Hormonal, Growth, and Behavioral
           Responses of Murrah Buffalo Calves in Winter

    • Authors: Nripendra Pratap Singh , M. L. Kamboj
      Pages: 1635 - 1645
      Abstract: Aims: The study was conducted to reveal the effect of calf-mother contact and ameliorative measures on cortisol, growth rate and behaviour of Murrah Buffalo calves during the winter season. Place and Duration of Study: Livestock Research Centre (LRC) of ICAR-NDRI, Karnal, India and between November 2021 to February 2022. Methodology: A total of 21 advanced-pregnant Murrah buffaloes were carefully chosen and the buffalo-calf pairs were divided into three treatment groups, each consisting of 7 pairs. In the first group (T0), the Murrah buffalo mothers were permitted to nurse their calves with colostrum and later milk twice a day. In the second group (T1), the buffalo mothers had direct contact with their calves during the first five days, allowing free-choice colostrum suckling. Afterward, they were housed near their calves, separated by a fence line. These buffalo mothers were allowed to nurse their calves twice a day, following a similar routine as the T0 group. In the third group (T2), all conditions were similar to those of the T1 group, a notable distinction was that the calves in the T2 group were provided with halogen lights in the shed. Results: Minimum temperature in T2 shed was significantly (p <0.05) higher than that in T0 and T1 shed. The mean cortisol level of T1 (6.64±0.71 ng/mL) and T2 (6.21±0.67 ng/mL) was significantly lower (P<0.05) as compared to T0 (7.88±0.70 ng/mL) group of calves. The findings indicated that within the experimental calf groups, both T2 and T1 exhibited higher (P<0.05) average daily gain (ADG) compared to the T0 group basis every week. Moreover, calves in T2 and T1 spent significantly (P<0.05) more time resting, eating, and engaging in rumination compared to the calves in the T0 group. Conclusion: The findings show that offering fenceline mother-calf contact can reduces stress and enhances growth, behavior, and welfare of calves more effectively than calves with restricted contact during winter season.
      PubDate: 2023-10-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113318
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Polyethylene Terephthalate Microplastics on Tomato Plant:
           Experimental and AI Modeling

    • Authors: Shubham Raj , Uma Kant Singh
      Pages: 1646 - 1657
      Abstract: Microplastics impacts on terrestrial ecosystem have gained attention in recent times, after about a decade of research being limited to aquatic systems. Although the impacts on soil physical characteristics and soil organisms are beginning to manifest, there is also a noticeable negative influence on plant growth and vitality. The Plant height, branches per plant, days to first fruit set, fruits per plant, fruit diameter, fruit weight (gm), and overall yield (q/hec) overall performances were explored. The tomato (Solanum lycoper­sicum Linn.) plant variety used in our study is Pusa ruby and the MPs used was Polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Different experimental parameters were also varied like MPs weight percentage (2%-5%), Nitrogen content (0.05 % -0.15%), Carbon content (1.5 %-2%), C-N ratio (14-15) and Phosphorus content (65-75). Furthermore, numerical modeling using artificial neural network (ANN) for validating the experimental results demonstrated an overall R2 value > 0.99. Our results showed that overall yield of fruit was decreased and it has also effects on different plant morphological characteristics. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT
      PubDate: 2023-10-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113319
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • A Probe into Shifts in Cropping Pattern in Telangana State, India: A
           Markov Chain Approach

    • Authors: Kotla Saritha , Md. Ali Baba , D. A. Rajini Devi , K. Madhu Babu
      Pages: 1658 - 1661
      Abstract: Assessing variations in cropping patterns across various locations is crucial for a better understanding of the agricultural development plan. The goal of the current study was to look at Telangana state's changing cropping patterns. Data spanning the years 2000-01 to 2020-21 were gathered from the Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Telangana and they were then evaluated using the Markov chain method. The research's key findings showed that none of the crops in Telangana kept their acreage; instead, the area devoted to each crop changed continually during the course of the study, from one crop to another. The area under crops other than cereals, major oil seeds, pulses has more retention while it lost area to rice, cotton, black gram, chillies, cow gram, ground nut, jowar and mesta. This indicated that there was greater shift in cropping pattern in Telangana State. The selection of crops holds immense potential to elevate agriculture to the forefront of property growth, and it should be a focal point in research and extension programmes.
      PubDate: 2023-10-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113320
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Sowing Methods and Nitrogen Levels on Growth, Yield and
           Economics of Oats (Avena sativa L.) under Mid-Hills of Himachal Pradesh,

    • Authors: Parv Sharma , Kartikeya Choudhary
      Pages: 1662 - 1667
      Abstract: In Himachal Pradesh, farmers typically possess small land holdings where machinery isn't practical for various sowing techniques, limiting them to broadcasting. Regarding nitrogen, it facilitates more vegetative growth by enhancing the photosynthetic rate. The higher the nitrogen content, the greater the vegetative growth potential. Therefore, present investigation titled “Effect of Sowing Methods and   Nitrogen Levels on Growth, Yield and Economics of Oats (Avena sativa L.) under Mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh, India” was conducted during rabi season of 2022-23 at Chamelti Agriculture Farm, MS Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan, Himachal Pradesh. The field experiment was laid out in Split Plot Design comprising twelve treatments with three replications. The experiment consists of three sowing methods in main plot i.e., (S1) Broadcasting, (S2) Line sowing and (S3) Crisscross and four levels of nitrogen N0 (0 kg ha-1), N1 (75 kg ha-1), N2 (100 kg ha-1) and N3 (125 kg ha-1) as sub plot. OL 12 variety of oats was used for sowing. Sowing methods and nitrogen levels were done as per treatment. Other crop management practices were followed as per the recommendation of the area. Results indicated that among the sowing methods, (S3) crisscross, recorded significantly higher growth and yield, over line sowing and broadcasting which was on par with (S2) line sowing over the rest of the treatments except for grain, straw and biological yield.  In case of nitrogen levels, (N3) application of 125 kg N ha-1 recorded significantly higher growth and yield of oats, over rest of the nitrogen levels and was on par with 100 kg N ha-1. Economically, (S3) crisscross sowing with application of (N3) 125 kg N ha-1 resulted in higher gross returns, net returns and B: C ratio under Mid Hills of Himachal Pradesh.
      PubDate: 2023-10-26
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113321
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Soil Carbon Sequestration in the Age of Climate Change: A Review

    • Authors: M. Murali , M. Gayathri , Vikash Singh , Sumit Raj , Veerendra Singh , Chandrakant Chaubey , Fatima Inamdar
      Pages: 1668 - 1677
      Abstract: Soil carbon sequestration has garnered attention as a pivotal strategy in mitigating climate change. Its relevance is accentuated by the soil's dual role in both storing carbon and supporting agriculture, thereby contributing to both environmental and food security. The purpose of this review is to analyze the various facets of soil carbon sequestration in the Indian context, specifically focusing on case studies that highlight both successes and failures in this realm. Key findings indicate that multifaceted approaches, such as agroforestry models in Tamil Nadu and community-led natural farming in Andhra Pradesh, have been effective in enhancing soil carbon stocks. These approaches are not only beneficial for carbon sequestration but also demonstrate positive implications for farm yield and biodiversity. However, the study also uncovers shortcomings in soil management practices, evident in the decline of soil carbon levels in regions such as Punjab due to monoculture and excessive fertilizer use. The consequences of such practices manifest in reduced soil fertility, emphasizing the urgent need for sustainable agricultural methods. In fragile ecosystems like the Himalayan region, soil erosion has further reduced the soil's ability to act as a carbon sink, indicating the necessity for immediate conservation efforts. These findings imply that an integrated approach, coupling agricultural innovation with policy support, can substantially improve the effectiveness of soil as a carbon sequester. Moreover, it is essential for policies to be adaptive and region-specific, accounting for the diverse geographical and climatic conditions across India. This review aims to serve as a comprehensive guide for policymakers, researchers, and agricultural practitioners, emphasizing that soil carbon sequestration is not an isolated goal but must be integrated into broader environmental and agricultural objectives.
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113322
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Character Association Study in Maize Hybrids Developed through Integration
           of Rapid Cycle Genomic Selection and Doubled Haploid Technology for Heat
           Stress Tolerance

    • Authors: Swamy; N., Kuchanur, P. H., Ayyanagouda Patil , Zaidi, P. H., Vinayan, M. T., Arunkumar, B., Sowmya, H. C., Dhanoji, M. M.
      Pages: 1678 - 1693
      Abstract: Heat stress is becoming a major constraint for maize production; therefore heat stress resilience has emerged as an important aspect in maize hybrids targeted for post rainy spring season. Selection of genotypes based on high grain yield under heat stress condition is often misleading and the identification of secondary traits also associated with grain yield may help in development of heat tolerant cultivars. Hence, the present research work to study the association of traits was conducted during summer and kharif 2018 and rabi 2018-19 at Bheemarayanagudi and Raichur using 111 testcross progenies of doubled haploids derived from C1, C2 and C3 cycles of multi-parental synthetic population 1 and 2 improved through rapid cycle genomic selection for heat stress tolerance. The phenotypic correlation analysis under heat stress and optimal conditions, number of kernels per cob and cob girth exhibited the strong positive association with grain yield per plant. Further, under early spring condition number of kernels per cob, cob length, cob girth and 100 grain weight recorded the strong positive association with grain yield per plant. However, when considering across heat stress, early spring and optimal conditions, the grain yield per plant showed positive and significant strong to moderate association with the traits viz., number of kernels per cob, cob length and cob girth under all the seasons. In addition, days to 50% silking showed significant negative correlation with grain yield per plant under heat stress and optimal condition. Hence, the simultaneous selection criteria for the genotypes that exerts early silking, higher number of kernels per cob, higher cob girth and lengthy cob should be the priority of breeders to achieve higher grain yields in maize under heat stress condition as well as optimal conditions.
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113323
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Different Farming Types on Growth, Yield and Yield Attributing
           Parameters of Finger Millet under Finger Millet Based Intercropping

    • Authors: Abdulgani Nabooji , H. K. Veeranna , M. Dinesh Kumar , Narayana S. Mavarkar , Ganapathi, Nandish M. S.
      Pages: 1694 - 1704
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted on performance of finger millet based inter cropping system under different farming types during kharif 2019-20 and 2020-21 at College of Agriculture, KSN UAHS Shivamogga. The Experiment was laid out with split-plot design having Three farming types as main plots (conventional, organic, and natural farming) and finger millet based inter cropping system as subplots (Finger millet + red gram, finger millet + field bean, Sole finger millet, sole red gram and sole field bean) in three replications. Among different farming types, conventional farming type recorded significantly higher yield parameters viz., number of productive tillers hill-1 (5.14), number of ear heads hill-1(3.83), number of fingers per ear head (6.31), number of grains ear head-1 (4002.50), and test weight (3.71 g) there by achieved significantly higher grain yield (2449.83 kg    ha-1) and straw yield (3957.42 kg ha-1) as compared to organic (2039.67 kg ha-1 and 3297.30 kg ha-1) and natural farming (1470.83 kg ha-1and 2328.35 kg ha-1) respectively. Among the finger millet based inter cropping system, the higher grain and straw yield (2225.67 kg ha-1 and 3561.13 kg ha-1) respectively was recorded in sole finger millet as compare to finger millet + redgram (1991.67 kg ha-1 and 3243.17 kg ha-1) respectively and finger millet + field bean (1743.00 kg ha-1 and 2778.77 kg ha-1) respectively. Whereas, the interaction effect between farming types and finger millet based intercropping systems was found non-significant.
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113324
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Development and Validation of a Scale Measuring the Attitude of farmers
           towards Climate Smart Agriculture

    • Authors: Rohit, Harish Chandra Singh , Mayank Singh , Kumari Asha , Shani Kumar Singh, Abhijeet
      Pages: 1705 - 1712
      Abstract: The measurement of attitudes is a critical endeavour in the realm of social and psychological research, enabling a deeper understanding of human behaviours, preferences, and beliefs. Constructing a reliable and valid scale to assess attitudes requires a systematic approach that encompasses various stages, such as conceptualization, item generation, scale refinement, pilot testing, psychometric analysis, and validation. A summated (Likert) rating scale was used to develop the scale. A total of 60 statements, consisting of 45 positive and 15 negative statements, were framed, of which 22 statements (19 positive and 3 negative) were retained in the final scale. The reliability of the scale was calculated by using the split-half method. The validity of the scale was tested by experts’ judgment. The psychometric properties of the scale include: the Pearson product-moment correlation between two sets was 0. 0.598; reliability of the test 0.748(P<0.01) and Cronbach = 0.759, which means the scale is consistent in measurement. This scale can be used to measure the attitude of students in similar situations outside the study area with suitable modifications. 
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113325
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Screening of Pearl Millet Lines against Downy Mildew Incited by
           Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc.) J. Schrot in Madhya Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Anil Kumar Sharma, Rajni Singh Sasode, Sanjay Kharte , Ravi Kant Pandya
      Pages: 1713 - 1718
      Abstract: Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) is the oldest cultivated crop prone to attack by many pathogens viz., Sclerospora graminicola, Moesziomyces penicillariae and Puccinia substriata. The present investigation is on the management of the downy mildew pathogen by exploiting the resistance mechanism of the host. Out of 163 lines and two checks were tested against downy mildew disease. The germplasms were screened in the downy mildew sick plot. The finding exposes that 40 lines were never present of downy mildew and another 68 lines showed < 5% and > 10% downy mildew incidence was recorded in 23 lines and remaining 33 lines were recorded in the category of 5-10% incidence, while a maximum of 83.27 and 97.05% downy mildew incidence was noted in 7042-S at 30 and 60 days after sowing. When compared to all the test lines, the susceptible check 7042-S showed considerably greater incidence of downy mildew at 30 and 60 days. The present investigation suggests that the resistance in the Pearl millet germplasms can be exploited for the management of the pathogens and is an effective management practice with less use of inputs.
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113326
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Nitrogen and Boron on Growth and Yield of Foxtail Millet
           (Setaria italica L.)

    • Authors: Yeshamalla Shashma , Umesha C., Kowagana Kalpana
      Pages: 1719 - 1726
      Abstract: The field experiment titled “Effect of Nitrogen and Boron on Growth and Yield of Foxtail Millet” was conducted during Zaid 2023 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj. The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.8), low in organic carbon (0.62%), available nitrogen (225 kg/ha), available phosphorus (38.2 kg/ha) and available potassium (240.7 kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with ten treatments which are replicated thrice. Results obtained that significantly higher plant height (83.52 cm), plant dry weight (14.06 g), length of ear head (15.70 cm), number of grains/ear head (1,413.09), test weight (3.64 g), grain yield (1.68 t/ha), stover yield (3.88 t/ha), harvest index (33.79%) higher gross return (69,291.48 INR/ha), net return (48,099.98 INR/ha) and B:C ratio (2.27) were recorded in treatment 9 with the application of (Nitrogen 60 kg/ha + Boron 0.03%).
      PubDate: 2023-10-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113327
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Optimisation of Seed Priming Techniques in Paddy

    • Authors: M. Veerendra , K. Srinivasulu , B. Sreedevi, S. Ratna Kumara, V. Srinivasa Rao
      Pages: 1727 - 1737
      Abstract: Aim: To determine the ideal concentration of each priming agent among several selected concentrations which could produce robust paddy seedlings under laboratory conditions. Place of Study: The present investigation was carried out at College farm, Agricultural College, Bapatla. Methodology: Certain seedling vigour traits such as germination percentage, shoot length, root length, seedling length, seedling dry weight, seedling vigour index-I & II were recorded and analysed using crompletely randomized block design (CRD). Best concentration is the one with higher vigour indices. Result: The results revealed that, 1% Nacl, 40 ppm ascorbic acid, 150 ppm gibberellic acid, 2 % neem leaf extracts, 0.5 & 0.1 % P & Zn were optimum concentrations under each priming technique. When compared among all the techniques, priming with gibberellic acid @ 150 ppm performed better in terms of all the vigour traits.
      PubDate: 2023-10-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113328
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Climate Change Adaptation in Chandrapur District of Vidarbha Region of
           Maharashtra, India: An Investigation into Individual and Collective
           Agricultural Actions

    • Authors: Atul Anil Gawhare , Sachin Rathour , Vaishnavi Singh , Prakash Singh Badal , Virendra Kamalvanshi
      Pages: 1738 - 1745
      Abstract: Climate change impacts are global, countries like India are particularly vulnerable due to their large populations and heavy reliance on agriculture. Climate change has substantial economic effects on agriculture, including shifts in productivity, crop patterns, profitability, prices, supply, and trade. Adaptation involves measures to adjust to present or anticipated future conditions, differing from mitigation, which focuses on risk reduction. This study focused on adoption rates and influencing factors for climate change adaptation measures in Maharashtra's Vidarbha region. Data from 120 farmers in Chandrapur district showed that over 50% implemented strategies like crop diversification, land fallowing, well installation, integrated fertilization, and agroforestry. These choices were influenced by local conditions and socioeconomic factors, with a positive connection to climate awareness, land size, weather information access, cropping practices, institutional support, and assets. Notably, awareness, land size, cropping patterns, and institutional support significantly affected farmers' adaptation levels.
      PubDate: 2023-10-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113329
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Varietal Mean Performance of Garden Pea (Pisum sativum var. hortense L.)
           Under Subtropical Conditions of Punjab, India

    • Authors: Arkit Neupane , Vishal Tripathi , Aparnna Rani Swain , Jitendra Kumar Sharma , Yaman Kumar , Etalesh Goutam
      Pages: 1746 - 1755
      Abstract: This study on genetic variability and character association in fourteen genotypes of garden pea was conducted during the period spanning from 2022 to 2023. The research was carried out at the Agricultural Farm, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara (Punjab), India. The results obtained from this study revealed a significant variation in the mean performance among genotypes concerning various parameters, including days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of nodes per plant, number of primary branches per plant, node to 1st flower appears, node to 1st pod appears, internodal length, length of pod, number of seeds per pod, number of pods per plant, 100 seeds weight, number of seeds per 100g pods, number of pods per 100g, pod yield per plant and total soluble solids. Among these parameters, it was observed that the number of primary branches per plant was highest (4.60) in the Tako-11 genotype, followed by GS-10 (4.46) and Samag (4.46). In terms of plant height, BKS pea recorded the highest measurement (91.28 cm), closely followed by Peas A-1 (90.85 cm). The genotypes GS-10 and AP-3 demonstrated superior performance in terms of yield as 104.70 g and 102.97 g, respectively. Furthermore, the assessment of total soluble solids content revealed that genotypes like GS-10 with 19.82°B and Nirali with 18.81°B exhibited higher sweetness levels in their pods compared to the other genotypes. Results of analysis of variance in this study indicated a substantial variance across the traits considered under investigation. Furthermore, it revealed that there are ample opportunities exist for the selection of promising genotypes with favorable characteristics for further agricultural development and breeding programs. From the obtained results it can be concluded that a notable variation in various agronomic traits was observed and these findings would be helpful in providing valuable insights for future research and breeding efforts aimed at enhancing garden pea cultivation and productivity.
      PubDate: 2023-10-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113330
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Influence of Pseudomonas and Biofertisol as Foliar Spray on Nodulation
           Attributes and Yield of Vegetable Pea under STCR Approach

    • Authors: Yagini Tekam , Rakesh Sahu, Deepak Singh , Monika Masram, Priyanka Jain , Divya Bhayal
      Pages: 1756 - 1764
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out during the rabi season in the Experimental Field, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, JNKVV, Jabalpur (M.P.) under RBD design with four replications consisting of five treatments of two types of biofertilizers: Pseudomonas and Biofertisol, and scheduled combinations of inorganic fertilizers based on STCR (Soil Test Crop Response) to achieve the desired yield using the vegetable pea variety PSM-3. The response due to treatment of T4 (TY 100 q (58:110:47) + 5 t FYM+1 spray of Pseudomonas+1 spray of Biofertisol) was significantly effective in increasing nodulation attributes (nodulation enumeration, biomass and leghaemoglobin content) by 28.46, 47.15, and 35.29%; 78.33, 95.86, and 86.17%; and 21.70, 65.70, and 20.26%, respectively, relative to that of control. Yields of the crop were best harvested due to T4 by 85.97 % over that of control 56.70 kg ha-1. The continuous application of chemical fertilisers has decreased the fertility of the soil and degraded the soil. The reduction in the fertility of the soil has resulted in poor crop yields. The nutrient management of all the treatments involves the judicious use of organic and inorganic fertilizers, along with microbes, to meet the nutrient needs of the crop while minimizing environmental impacts.
      PubDate: 2023-10-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113331
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessing the Potential Seed Vigor of Rice Varieties

    • Authors: V. Vakeswaran
      Pages: 1765 - 1769
      Abstract: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a fundamental staple crop, feeding billions and sustaining livelihoods worldwide. Amid the global food security context, rice holds a pivotal role, demanding increased efficiency and productivity to meet the dietary demands of a growing global population. Emphasizing seed quality and vigor is crucial in achieving these goals. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) responds to the dynamic agro-climatic conditions by introducing rice varieties tailored to Tamil Nadu's unique agricultural landscape. This research paper examines the seed vigor of TNAU released rice varieties within the seed chain. The study was conducted in a completely randomised design, the study assessed seed vigor in terms of radicle emergence time, mean germination time, germination percentage, speed of emergence, shoot length, root length, days to first count, days to final count, vigour index – I, vigour Index – II, electrical conductivity, and field emergence. Seed vigor also impacts storage potential. This study results shows that the rice varieties were categorized into three groups based on seed vigor. Twelve exhibited high seed vigor potential including ADT 51, CO52, TRY 1, TRY3, TKM13, ADT39, ADT 54, BHAVANI, ASD16, ADT37, ADT43, and ADT 53. Six showed medium potential including CO 53, ASD 19, IW Ponni, TKM 9, ADT 42, and ADT 45. Eight had low seed vigor potential including CO 50, ADT 52, TPS5, VGD 1, ADT 38, ADT 46, CO 51, and MDU 6. These classifications aid informed seed management and cultivation decisions, highlighting the suitability of high-vigor varieties for direct seeding and improved agricultural productivity.
      PubDate: 2023-10-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113332
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Integrated Nutrients Management for Future Production: A Review

    • Authors: A. K. Chaubey , Suraj Mishra , S. K. Singh , C. Chaubey , K. P. Pandey
      Pages: 1770 - 1779
      Abstract:   As per the estimate by the United Nations, the world population will increase to 11 billion, by 2050. This rapid increase in the population is of global concern, creating responsibilities on the shoulders of the scientists to fetch the rapidly increasing population along with the problem of reduced land holding, sudden climatic challenges, and imbalanced nutrition coupled with deficiencies of nutrients. It is necessary to continuously review and modify agricultural practices and technologies in order to meet human demands while respecting the ecological boundaries of our planet. Among these technologies application of fertilizers has been crucial for raising crop yield, agricultural productivity and food security. However, the application of fertilizer has an environmental cost and they haven't been a very productive factor in helping many poor farmers to escape poverty economically, especially in the areas where the fertilizer application has an imbalance and inappropriate fertilizer has been applied on the lower fertile soils which have little or no desirable effect on the crop yield. The efficient use of fertilizers can be increased by using agronomic practices to apply existing mineral fertilizers, which generally contain N, P, and K, at the proper time, place, amount, and composition. However, the overall progress made to minimize the negative consequences is insufficient to bring about the necessary change toward sustainable agriculture in underdeveloped nations. Farmers must integrate the management of nutrients and soil fertility into their farming practices in order to meet the increasing population's demand for food. This paper reviews the concepts of integrated nutrient management in the context of its eco-friendly nature and sustainability.
      PubDate: 2023-10-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113333
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Occurrence and Distribution of Lentil Wilt in Major Lentil Growing Regions
           of Madhya Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Sanjay Kharte , Ashish Kumar , Stuti Sharma , R. Shiv Ramakrishnan , Vedant Gautam , Smita Puri , Sanhita Malvi
      Pages: 1780 - 1789
      Abstract: In the present investigation, roving survey was conducted during the October to February of 2020–2021 and 2021–22 to acquire information on the natural disease incidence and distribution of lentil wilt in the farmers’ fields in eight different districts of Madhya Pradesh. A pooled mean of disease incidence ranging from 6.62%–20.36% was observed during 2020–22. The district wise scenario of lentil wilt over a period of two consecutive years revealed that maximum average incidence of 18.96% was recorded in Sagar district followed by 17.67% in Khandwa district. However, minimum average wilt incidence of 12.17% was recorded in Mandla district followed by 12.55% in Jabalpur district. Looking to the occurrence of lentil wilt, Sagar, Khandwa, Damoh, Katni and Dindori were identified as hotspot pockets for occurrence of lentil wilt in surveyed districts of Madhya Pradesh. Further, reduction of 26.28% in wilt occurrence was recorded in the farmers’ practice advocated as seed treatment before sowing. Under the seven cropping patterns observed, the minimum wilt incidence of 13.96% was recorded in rice followed by lentil which is the most predominant cropping pattern across the surveyed locations. Further different varieties were screened for occurrence of lentil wilt at Sagar. Among the 14 varieties, maximum incidence of lentil wilt was recorded in PL 5 followed by Shekhar masoor 3. However, two varieties namely JL 1 and L 4076 were found free from wilt incidence in selected hot spot pocket for lentil wilt.
      PubDate: 2023-10-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113334
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Scion Dip Treatments and Growing Condition on Physiological
           Parameter of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Wedge Graft cv. Dashehari

    • Authors: Lokesh Nagar, C. S. Pandey , S. K. Pandey , Deepak Singh, Sandeep Raipuriya, Shivam Chaursiya
      Pages: 1790 - 1801
      Abstract: The current study was carried out on wedge grafting in Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Dashehari during the2022-23 at the Fruit Research Station, Imaliya, Department of Horticulture, JNKVV Jabalpur. This research includes the use of many different plant growth regulators, ZnSo4, and growing conditions. The research was carried out using a statistical design known as Factorial Completely Randomized Design (FCRD).The primary objective of this study is to determine the influence that different scion dip treatments and growing conditions have on the physiological characteristics of the plant. According to the findings, among the various treatments, IAA 200 ppm + ZnSo4 500 ppm under shade net condition was proved superior with respect to maximum chlorophyll content index (27,18.5), leaf area duration (2720.67 cm2/day, 2,620.67 cm2/day), leaf area index (8.65,1035) and light transmission ratio (24.05,18.15) at 60 and 120 days after grafting (DAG). It was also noticed that scion dip treatments with IAA 200 ppm in combination with ZnSo4 500 ppm under the shade net condition were favorable as compared to the open condition.
      PubDate: 2023-10-28
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113336
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • A Comprehensive Review on Role of Plant Tissue Culture in Ornamental
           Crops: Cultivation Factors, Applications and Future Aspects

    • Authors: Nitesh Kaushal , Vishal Srivastava , Satvaan Singh , Rohit Gangwar , Piyush Singh , Vinay Dansena , Mohd Wamiq , Manoj Kumar Paikra
      Pages: 1802 - 1815
      Abstract: Ornamental plants are grown largely for their artistic value, floriculturists must prioritize the proliferation and improvement of quality traits, as well as the production of unique diversity. Micropropagation, clonal reliability and conservation are all crucial factors to consider. Application of in vitro techniques in ornamental plant such as in vitro embryo rescue, somatic hybridization, in vitro pollination and in vitro ploidy manipulation but to enhance, techniques like as embryo rescue and somatic hybridization are commonly employed. The creation of synthetic seed allows for season-independent seed producing and long-term seed preservation. Many factors influence ornamental plant tissue culture, including plant genotype, explants type, and the physical environment (light, temperature, humidity, and CO2), in addition to medium composition and growth regulators. We compiled and reviewed an overall update on cultivation factors, application procedures in ornamental plant tissue culture, in vitro plant enhancement approaches and future prospects in this study.
      PubDate: 2023-10-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113337
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Response of Onion (Allium cepa L.) to Foliar Application of Nano Urea and

    • Authors: Priyanka Mishra Dubey , Jagrati Upadhyay , Sayan Chowdhury , Vijay Bagare
      Pages: 1816 - 1821
      Abstract: A field study was conducted during Rabi season 2022at the Horticultural Research Farm, Mangalayatan University, Jabalpur to study the effect of foliar application of nano urea and urea on growth and yield of onion. The experiment was laid out in RBD with three replications and consisted of 9 treatments viz., T1-100% RDF (100:50:50 kg NPK ha1), T2-75:50:50 kg NPK ha-1 + foliar spray of 0.4% nano urea on 30 and 60 DAT, T350:50:50 kg NPK ha-1 + foliar spray of 0.4% nano urea on 30 and 60 DAT, T4-75:50:50 kg NPK ha-1 + foliar spray of 0.4% nano urea on 30 DAT, T5-50:50:50 kg NPK ha-1 + foliar spray of 0.4% nano urea on 30 DAT, T6-75:50:50 kg NPK ha-1 + foliar spray of 0.5% urea on 30 and 60 DAT, T7-50:50:50 kg NPK ha-1 + foliar spray of 0.5% urea on 30 and 60 DAT, T8-75:50:50 kg NPK ha-1 + foliar spray of 1% urea on 30 and 60 DAT, and T9-50:50:50 kg NPK ha-1 + foliar spray of 1% urea on 30 and 60 DAT. Each treatment showed their significant effects on the recorded growth and yield parameters. Among all the treatments, treatment T2 with 25% reduced nitrogen application plus foliar spray of 0.4% nano urea on 30 and 60 DAT recorded maximum plant height on 90 DAT (57.82 cm),number of leaves (9.13), equatorial diameter (5.51 cm), polar diameter (5.17), average bulb weight (69.56 g), bulb yield (336.40 kg) than other treatments.
      PubDate: 2023-10-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113339
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Evaluation of Different Integrated Disease Management Approaches for
           Rhizome Rot of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.) Caused by Ralstonia
           solanacearum (Smith.) under Field Conditions

    • Authors: Nagaraja H., Murali R., Narayanaswamy H.
      Pages: 1822 - 1834
      Abstract: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.,) is a slender herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, medicinally important and commercial spice crop. India is the largest producer of ginger and accounts for about 1/3rd of the total world output. Ginger is grown in Kerala, Karnataka, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim and other parts of India. The production of ginger is greatly influenced by diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, mycoplasma and nematodes. One of the diseases of ginger is bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, which causes yield loss of up to 80 percent. A field experiment was conducted with integrated approaches to manage the ginger rhizome rot caused by R. solanacearum (Smith). The experiment was laid out with a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) including nine treatments and four replications. The experiment results revealed that, rhizome treatment with Streptocycline @ 0.5 g + COC @ 3.0 g/l of water + soil application with neem cake 3q/ha followed by drenching with bleaching powder (33%) @ 2.0 g/l + Metalaxyl MZ @ 1.0 g/lit for water three times at 20 days intervals + Ginger special spray 45 DAS, starting with the initiation of the disease was significantly most effective and recorded a higher yield of 110.27 q/ha with least disease incidence of disease (14.23 %). Integrated management of rhizome rot of ginger through soil solarization revealed that, among the different treatments, the treatment treated with soil solarization + rhizome treatment with Streptocycline @ 0.5 g + Copper Oxy Chloride @ 3.0 g/lit of water + Soil application of Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 kg along with 25t FYM /ha recorded higher yield of 115.23 q/ha with less percent disease incidence (8.20 %).
      PubDate: 2023-10-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113340
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Soybean Bacterial Endophytes against Anthracnose Disease Collected from
           Karnataka State: An in-vitro Study

    • Authors: Sapna Jaiswal , Laxman Singh Rajput , Jayant Bhatt , Hemant S. Maheshwari , Mahaveer Prasad Sharma , Sanjeev Kumar, Vennampally Nataraj , Shivakumar M., Rajneesh Sharma , Vibha Pandey , Karishma Behera, Saloni Mandloi
      Pages: 1835 - 1845
      Abstract: Endophytes trigger various defence mechanisms within their host plants, engaging primary and secondary protective pathways. This investigation primarily aimed to isolate bacterial endophytes from diverse agroecological regions in Karnataka. Subsequently, these endophytes were assessed for their inhibition against Colletotrichum truncatum using the in-vitro streak plate technique. A total of 43 bacteria isolated from soybean plants and key endophytes showing the inhibition against       C. truncatum were in different zones namely, DHW-9(87%), BID-2(85%), BID-13(85%), BID-14(82.50%), DHW-15(80%), BID-15(75%),and BID-16(75%) exhibited notable efficacy against C. truncatum in decreasing order. Among these, the DHW-9 (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain P4-32) bacterial endophytes isolated from the North Transition Zone (Dharwad) were highly effective against the pathogen, possibly due to employing many direct and indirect mechanisms. Furthermore, the inhibition potential of the bacterial endophytes varies with and within the place of agroecological zones. In conclusion, it has been observed that the bacterial endophyte DHW-9 inhibited the progression of anthracnose disease caused by C. truncatum in controlled in vitro. Hence, it is imperative to conduct additional experiments, including pot and field studies, to explore its potential to enhance the growth and yield of soybean plants.
      PubDate: 2023-10-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113341
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Natural Enemies Role in Cost Reduction: An Analysis of Rice Cultivation in
           Kerala, India

    • Authors: Hema M., Divya K. M., Berin Pathrose, Sisira P.
      Pages: 1846 - 1857
      Abstract: Kerala, the state with the highest human development indices, is always concerned about its citizens' health. People's rising knowledge of the adverse effects of chemical inputs on agriculture has resulted in the development of eco-friendly agricultural techniques like organic farming. However, how natural enemies support pest control services in organic farming remains to be discovered at different scales and in diverse landscape contexts. The present study examined the natural enemy population in Kerala's paddy cultivation under conventional and organic systems. The reduction in the cost of cultivation in organic farming was primarily due to reduced labour charges due to the avoidance of pesticides and fertiliser application. Even though the effect of natural predators on organic farming was found to be, the farmers were unaware of the importance of natural enemies. Thus, the study highlighted the significance of organising more awareness programmes, especially the on-farm ones.
      PubDate: 2023-10-30
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113342
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Role of Allelopathy in Plant Disease Management

    • Authors: Ritesh Kumar , Naveen Kumar , Poonam Srivastava , Aryan Arya , Kawsar Rasool , Manisha
      Pages: 1858 - 1870
      Abstract: Allelopathy is a natural and eco-friendly process causes agricultural plants to generate phytotoxins called "allelochemicals" that hinder or promote growth. The chemical substances generated through allelopathy can be potential tool to control agricultural important pests. Allelopathy can replace agrochemicals for crop disease and pest management. Agrochemical used in agriculture pollute the environment, lowers food quality, and increases disease-resistant biotypes. An agronomist can collaborate with a molecular scientist or plant breeder to selectively boost disease suppression by understanding allelopathy's physiological foundation. Allelochemicals are natural pesticides that fight disease, weeds, and insects, according to experts. Disease management strategies have been redesigned recently. Frequently, structural modifications or the synthesis of chemical analogs increase their bioactivity. Even though the progress in this regard is sluggish, some encouraging results are emerging, and many more are anticipated in the near future. This review attempts to discuss these characteristics of allelopathy for the rational management of diseases.
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113343
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Estimation of Correlation Coefficient and Path Analysis in Field Pea
           (Pisum sativum L.)

    • Authors: Simran Panwar , Sanchit Thakur , Muntazir Mushtaq , Anurag Kumar
      Pages: 1871 - 1877
      Abstract: The present study was conducted during the rabi season of 2021-22 at Crop Cafeteria farm of Shoolini University, Solan (H.P.). The experiment consisted of 245 genotypes of pea with three check varieties viz., PB-89, PP and Arkel. The present investigation was carried out in order to find yield and its contributing traits in pea germplasm. As per correlation analysis and path analysis, the results indicated that seed yield/plant (g) exhibited positive and high significant correlations with 100-seed weight (g), biological yield/plant (g), harvest index (%) and number of pods/plant. Path analysis identified biological yield per plant (g) and harvest index (%) as important direct components for seed yield per plant. High yielding genotypes are- SHP 21, SHP73, JCR/JV-29, JCR/JV-39, IC 107452, 6363/P-3342, IC-629738, P-2236, P-2380, SHP 19, SHP17, SHP 51.
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113344
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Application of Substrate Supplements to the Yield Oyster Mushrooms
           (Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida)

    • Authors: Vivekanand Sharma , Mukesh Kumar Dhaked , Sanju Singh , Akshat Pandey, Mukesh Kumar
      Pages: 1878 - 1885
      Abstract: Oyster mushroom is an edible, saprophytic, and lignocellulolytic fungi. The folic acid present in oyster mushrooms helps to cure anemia. Oyster mushroom contains most of the mineral salts necessary for the human body. The amount of niacin is almost ten times higher than that of any other vegetables. In this study, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida (Jacq: Fr) Kummer) were grown with various substrate additions to determine their effects on yield. We ran tests to know different supplements affected the yield and growth of mushrooms. The substrate, composed primarily of sawdust and straw, served as the growth medium. The research encompassed controlled environmental conditions, including temperature, humidity, and light, over a defined study period. Our findings revealed significant variations in mushroom yield and growth parameters across the different supplement treatments. The best supplements to the substrate treatment combination were observed T14- Wheat Straw (60%), + Rice Straw (34 %) + Gram Flour (2% of the substrate) (451.69g) and (452.33g) followed by T11 – Rice Straw (60%), + Wheat Straw (34 %) + Maize Flour (2% of the substrate) which increased the yield of oyster mushroom, while others exhibited nuanced effects on mushroom quality. Statistical analyses supported these observations. The implications of this research extend to both commercial and amateur mushroom cultivators. Understanding the influence of substrate supplements on Oyster mushroom growth can lead to more efficient and cost-effective cultivation practices. By optimizing substrate composition, growers can enhance yields, potentially increasing profitability and sustainability in the mushroom industry. This study also highlights the need for further exploration in the field, including investigations into the specific mechanisms underlying supplement-substrate interactions.
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113345
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Phytodiversity of Herbaceous Flora in the Grasslands of Jannaram Division,
           Kawal Tiger Reserve, Telangana, India

    • Authors: K. Kumaraswamy , M. Mamatha , D. Ravivarma , Bochu Jeevan , D. Ananda shiny , Madhava Rao Siripurapu
      Pages: 1886 - 1893
      Abstract: Aims: To study the diversity and composition of herbaceous species in the grasslands of Jannaram division, Kawal Tiger Reserve, Telangana, India. Place and Duration of Study: Grasslands of Jannaram division, Kawal Tiger Reserve, Telangana, July 2022 to August 2023. Methodology: The study was carried out by laying out 223 sample plots in the Jannaram division by dividing Jannaram division into 3 ranges. The plot size was 1 x 1 m. Varied diversity indices such as Simpson, Shannon–Weiner, species evenness, and IVI were calculated according to standard formulae. Vegetation analysis and IVI value of each species were calculated and analysed. Results: A total of 65 species, comprising 53 genera and 21 families, were reported. The dominant family in the study area was Poaceae, followed by Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Asteraceae and Euphorbiaceae. The Shannon–Weiner index was 3.46 and the Simpson index was 0.05, indicating high diversity with less dominance of herb layer in the study area. Top five species holding highest IVI value are Iseilema laxum (29.94), Cynodon barberi (12.19), Eragrostis amabilis (12.15), Dichanthium annulatum (11.20), and Apluda mutica (10.21). Conclusions: This research produced fundamental information regarding the types of herbaceous plants and grasses present at the Jannaram, Kawal Tiger Reserve. This would serve as a guide to the systematists, ethnobotanists, amongst several others researchers who are interested in identifying.       
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113346
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Organic Manures and Biofertilizers on Herb Yield and Economics
           of Kalmegh (Andrographis panniculata Wall. Ex. Nees. ) var. CIM Megha

    • Authors: D. Amala , M. Raj Kumar , A. Kiran Kumar , B. Naveen Kumar , P. Gouthami , G. Sathish
      Pages: 1894 - 1900
      Abstract: Aim: To study the effect of organic manures and biofertilizers on growth, herb yield and economics of kalmegh. Study Design: The experiment was carried out with 13 treatments in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. Place and Duration of Study: The research trial was carried out at P.G students research block, College of Horticulture, Rajendranagar, SKLTSHU, Hyderabad during Kharif, 2021. Results: Among the organic and biofertilizer treatments combinations the results reported that the (T6): 75 % N through VC + 12.5 % N through NC + 12.5 % N through PM + AMC recorded the highest herb yield and Benefit cost ratio compared to other treatments. Conclusion: Organic produce fetches higher price in market compared to inorganic produce, which helped in increasing the gross returns, net returns and highest B:C ratio.
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113347
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Estimation of Chlorophyll Using SPAD meter

    • Authors: Megha Vishwakarma , P. S. Kulhare , G. S. Tagore
      Pages: 1901 - 1912
      Abstract: A chlorophyll meter measures the greenness of leaves and can indicate the chlorophyll content and N status. Therefore, by using a chlorophyll meter, proxy information related to the leaf N content could be obtained and this would avoid the need of laborious laboratory analysis. Keeping in this view a field experiment was conducted during winter (Rabi) 2019 growing season at the experimental field of JNKVV, Jabalpur to estimate crop nitrogen (N) and chlorophyll content in wheat using SPAD. The treatment comprised of 3 sources of nutrient M1- Inorganic sources (NPK fertilizers), M2- organic sources (FYM, vermicompost, biofertilizers Azotobacter and PSB) and M3- Integrated sources (50% Inorganic + 50% organic) as main treatments and 5 NPK levels S1- control, S2- 100% RDF, S3- 150% RDF, S4- 200% RDF, S5- Based on soil test value for target yield of 6t ha-1 as sub treatments were replicated thrice in a split plot design. The results showed that the correlation (r = 0.94, 0.90, 0.92 and 0.94, respectively) and coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.96, 0.94, 0.83 and 0.94, respectively) was significantly and positively correlated with SPAD and nitrogen concentration in leaf. Similarly significant and positive correlation (r = 0.84, 0.76, 0.78 and 0.71, respectively) found with SPAD and total chlorophyll values. Coefficient of determination (R2) SPAD with chlorophyll and leaf N concentration proved to be significant (R2 = 0.75, 0.76, 0.54 and 0.85, respectively) at different growth stages. It was concluded that SPAD meter are useful for the determination of proxy chlorophyll and total nitrogen content of wheat plant.
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113348
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • A Review of Medical Waste, its Environmental Consequences and Management
           Strategies: A Burning Issue of the Present Day Society

    • Authors: Haleema Bano , Fozia Hamid, M. Ashraf Bhat , Burgish P. Bhat , Umar A. Mir , Tariq Ahmad Bhat , Rauoof Ahmad Rather
      Pages: 1913 - 1926
      Abstract: Medical waste has enormous consequences for human health and the environment. It has the potential to cause severe disease, if not death. If drugs end up near wildlife refuges like parks, lakes, and other natural environments, whole populations of species might be wiped off therefore its  management is vital due to the potential for environmental and public health hazards, especially in countries which are in the process of development. It is crucial to collect data and examples from a developed nation or a nation with an efficient medical waste management system. Cities are expected to accommodate 65 percent of the globe's population by 2030. The amount of residential waste produced in Mumbai on a regular basis is approximated to be the equal of an eight-story building complex. The atmosphere in cities is so bad that an estimated two million kids under the age of five die from respiratory problems each year.  Hospitals, retail stores selling vegetables, seafood, and other items, as well as bus stops, train stations, and amusement parks, are all filthy and serve as breedi­ng grounds for dangerous diseases. In developing nations like India, the amount of trash generated by hospitals is significantly rising, hence monitoring is important. The growing interest for public health excellence and pollution management, necessities that the large quantity of hazardous waste be rendered as innocuous very quickly, prior to its disposal. The main aim of this paper is to highlight the issues surrounding medical waste, its environmental repercussions, and the management procedure.
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113349
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Investigation of Heat Stress among Greenhouse Workers in Chhattisgarh,

    • Authors: Purvi Tiwari , A. K. Shrivastava , A. K. Dave
      Pages: 1927 - 1935
      Abstract: Greenhouse cultivation is spreading as it offers the grower a higher net yield per hectare from high quality crops as it reduces the likelihood of yield decline. The greenhouse is kept at 30-40˚ C with a relative humidity of up to 70%, which could be ideal for plant growth, but is not suitable for workers. Heat exposure in the workplace causes discomfort to the human while working. So, the main goal of conducting this research is to address the extent of heat stress and associated health issues for the greenhouse workers. The study was planned for 2022 in the Raipur district of Chhattisgarh. Prior to the assessment, a questionnaire survey was conducted among 50 greenhouse workers to learn perceptions of heat exposure, heat-related health issues and awareness of heat management. To get the heat exposure air temperature, wet bulb temperature, relative humidity, black globe temperature were measured on hourly basis. The wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) was measured along with greenhouse workers' physiological parameters to quantify heat exposure. With the help of clock diagram showing Humidex Index (HI). The time period at which farmers most likely to suffer from heat stress was estimated. It was reported that in April, May, June, July, August and September WBGT index reaches varied between 30 and 34°C. According to ISO 7243 the recommended WBGT for comfortable workplace should be less than 31°C. Further study was conducted to get physiological responses of the 21 farm workers in three different type of greenhouses and at three time slots. It resulted that heart rate was maximum i.e. 156 bpm in walk in tunnel at 11 am to 1 pm. The average working heart rate was 20 % more than the open field condition. Hence, the study will help to make the strategies to reduce the exposure of heat stress conditions to the greenhouse workers.
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113350
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessment on Endangered Plant Biodiversity of Shirui National Park,
           Ukhrul, Manipur, India

    • Authors: Yumlembam Lichingamba Meitei , Abhishek James
      Pages: 1936 - 1941
      Abstract: Five different random sites were analyzed for the study of the plant species using quadrat methods from Shirui National Park. The plants were measured and recorded by random sampling with 20 quadrats of 10m ×10m in each study site during the period between January 2023  and April 2023.Site 4 Showed the maximum parameter for IVI value of Plant Species which was represent by Bidens Pilosa with the value of 130.7 Site 5 Showed the minimum parameter for IVI value of Plant Species which was represent by Lliliummackliniae with the value of 24. The IVI results show that the plant species importance values differs from site to site. From the study Llilium Mackliniae (Shirui Lily) is found decreasing in population, a species which is only endemic to Shirui National Park, Manipur.
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113351
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Harnessing Millets for Climate Resilience and Nutritional Security in

    • Authors: Shubhi Patel , Anwesha Dey , Anju Yadav , Rakesh Singh
      Pages: 1942 - 1949
      Abstract: Millets have been widely recognized as ‘nutricereals’ as they are rich in nutrients. India is the leading producer of millets. These are crops which require low moisture, are short duration and can bear elevated temperatures. It is known that the effects of climate change will have a negative impact on Indian agriculture by reducing yields, deteriorating quality of grain, increase in price, etc. Hence, there is a demanding need to look for solutions that ensure food security, income security as well as nutritional security. This study is an attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of status of millets in India in terms of growth, nutrition and climate resilience. Annual growth trends were calculated for pearl millet, finger millet, sorghum and small millets. The results revealed that the growth rate of area & production for small millets has shown negative trends while the yield has shown positive trend. In decadal analysis the highest negative growth was witnessed in the last decade i.e., 2010-2020. While varied trends were reported for jowar, bajra and ragi individually. Literature review showed that be it pearl millet, finger millet or small millets are used as antidiabetic food option. And are proven to be a solution for food and nutritional security in case of climate change events. It is required that these crops be incentivised by government through proper market linkage and remunerative price.
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113352
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.)- Pulses Intercropping
           System with Nutrient Management on Growth and Yield of Pearl Millet

    • Authors: V. N. Shiyal , V. M. Patel , M. K. Gamit , K. K. Patel , P. L. Kotadiya
      Pages: 1950 - 1959
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at the College Farm, N. M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari (Gujarat) to study the effect of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) - pulses intercropping system and nutrient management on growth and yield of pearl millet during summer season of the years 2021 and 2022. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design consisting 24 treatment combinations replicated thrice. The main plot treatments comprised of four intercropping system viz., sole pearl millet (I1), pearl millet + greengram (I2), pearl millet + blackgram (I3), pearl millet + cowpea (I4) and six nutrient management practices in sub plot viz. control (F1), 100% RDF to pearl millet through inorganic fertilizer (F2), 5 t/ha FYM + 100% RDF through inorganic fertilizer (F3), 5 t/ha FYM + 100% RDF through inorganic fertilizer on base of STV (F4), 25% RDN through FYM + 75% RDF through inorganic fertilizer (F5) and 50% RDN through FYM + 50% RDF through inorganic fertilizer (F6). Among main plot effect, significantly higher dry matter accumulation per plant, number of effective tillers per plant, earhead length, earhead weight, grain weight per earhead, grain and straw yields of pearl millet were noted in sole pearl millet (I1) during both the years of investigation as well as in pooled analysis. Whereas plant height and pearl millet equivalent yield was significantly higher in pearl millet + greengram (I2) intercropping system. In case of sub plot nutrient management practices, significantly higher values of plant height, dry matter accumulation per plant, number of effective tillers per plant, earhead length, earhead weight, grain weight per earhead, grain and straw yields as well as pearl millet equivalent yield were recorded in F4 (5 t/ha FYM + RDF through inorganic fertilizer on base of STV) which remained statistically at par with treatment F3 (5 t/ha FYM + 100% RDF through inorganic fertilizer) treatment. Interaction effect of I1F4 (sole pearl millet along with 5 t/ha FYM + RDF through inorganic fertilizer on base of STV) resulted in significantly higher dry matter accumulation per plant at 60 DAS and harvest, earhead weight, grain weight per earhead, grain and straw yield of pearl millet.
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113353
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Nitrogen Levels and Mepiquat Chloride on Yield and Economics of
           HDPS Cotton

    • Authors: K. Srikala, T. Prabhakar Reddy, K. Pavan Chandra Reddy, S. G. Mahadevappa
      Pages: 1960 - 1967
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during Kharif, 2022 at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Palem, to evaluate the effect of nitrogen levels and mepiquat chloride on the yield and economics of HDPS cotton. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. The results of this experiment revealed that application of T9: 125% RDN applied in splits at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 DAS along with 2 sprays of 5% mepiquat chloride at 45 and 60 DAS recorded significantly higher number of bolls plant-1 (11.7), boll weight (4.49 g) and seed cotton yield (2484 kg ha-1). In terms of economic analysis, this treatment also exhibited the highest gross returns (₹ 1,78,872 ha-1), net returns (₹ 1,03,878 ha-1) and BC ratio (2.39). Conversely, the application of T1: 75% RDN in recommended splits of 20, 40, 60, 80 DAS recorded the lowest number of bolls plant-1 (8.0), boll weight (2.53 g) and seed cotton yield (1402 kg ha-1), as well as lower gross returns (₹ 1,02,766 ha-1), net returns (₹ 33,802 ha-1) and BC ratio (1.50).  Based on these findings, it is recommended to adopt the practice of applying T9: 125% RDN (150 kg N ha-1) in splits at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 DAS along with 2 sprays of 5% mepiquat chloride at 45 and 60 DAS to achieve maximum yield and economic returns of HDPS cotton.
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113354
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Crop Classification and Crop Acreage Estimation Using Geospatial
           Technology in the Upper Gangetic Plains of Uttarakhand, India

    • Authors: Arjun Shreepad Hegde, Rajeev Ranjan, Ankita Jha, Samarth Shreepad Hegde
      Pages: 1968 - 1978
      Abstract: Timely and accurate crop mapping plays an important role in food security, economic and environmental policies. Crop maps are also utilized for agro-environmental assessments and crop water usage monitoring. As a result, accurate and timely crop classification is essential for agricultural management and monitoring. Because it provides periodic large-scale observations of ground objects, satellite remote sensing has been regarded as an advanced tool to characterize crop types and their distributions on a regional scale. High-resolution, multispectral images of October 13, 2021, December 7, 2021 and March 6, 2022 of sentinel-2 satellite released by the European Space Agency (ESA) have been used for classification. Ground truth points have been collected manually with the android app ‘Mapmarker’ and Google Earth. Further, pre-processing of satellite imageries such as resampling, mosaicking and sub-setting have been done with the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP) software. Crop classification and acreage estimation was conducted using Maximum Likelihood approach. It is the first time an attempt was made to estimate cropping intensity using geospatial technology in the upper Gangetic plains of Uttarakhand state. Rice and sugarcane areas of 108,884 ha and 11,479 ha, respectively, were estimated from the October 13, 2021 image. Pea crop area was estimated as 6,227 ha from December 7, 2021 image. Using March 6, 2022 image, wheat and mustard crop areas were estimated as 105,334 ha and 2,018 ha, respectively.
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113355
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Nutrient Efficient and Productive Cropping Systems for Northern Telangana
           Zone, India

    • Authors: Firdoz Shahana, G. Kiran Reddy, M. Goverdhan, M. Venkata Ramana
      Pages: 1979 - 1989
      Abstract: The field experiment was carried out during 2018-19 at AICRP on Integrated Farming Systems, Regional Sugarcane and Rice Research Station, Rudrur in vertisols of Northern Telangana Zone, Telangana state, India. The experiment was performed with twelve cropping systems as treatments in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. The twelve combinations of cropping systems tested during kharif (June-October) and rabi (November – March) were rice-rice (check), maize-soybean(2:4)-tomato, maize-soybean (2:4) - rice, sunflower-chickpea (2:4), maize - chickpea, Bt cotton-soybean (1:2) on broadbed–sesame-groundnut(2:4), Bt cotton - sesame -blackgram (2:4), soybean-wheat, soybean-sunflower -chickpea (2:4), turmeric-sesame, turmeric-soybean (1:2) on flat bed-bajra and turmeric-soybean (1:2) on broadbed-sesame - blackgram (2:4).Cropping system turmeric-soybean(1:2 )  (on BBF) sesame – blackgram (2:4) recorded productivity in terms of rice equivalent yield of 23413kg ha-1 and production efficiency of 75.53Kg ha-1 day-1followed by  sole turmeric-sesame (22597 kg REY ha-1 ) and 72.89Kg ha-1 day-1 and Bt.cotton+soybean (1:2) (on BBF) sesame+groundnut (2:4) (22568kg ha-1) and 75.23 Kg ha-1 day-1 over existing rice-rice (14395 kg REY ha-1 ) and 56.45Kg ha-1 day-1. Higher nutrient uptake was recorded with maize+soybean (2:4)–tomato system with 361.73 kg N ha-1, 114.43 kg P ha-1 and 318.89 kg K ha-1. Hence under nutrient stressed environment and low input management system maize+soybean (2:4) –tomato, can be recommended in comparision to existing rice-rice cropping system in irrigated situations for vertisols of Telangana.
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113356
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Post Harvest Handling of Fruit Crops

    • Authors: Shubham Jain , Saransh Saxena , Varsha Minz , Swosti Debapriya Behera , Korani Harini , Shivani, Satyam Mishra , Nivedita Nidhi
      Pages: 1990 - 1999
      Abstract: Fruits are classified as perishable agricultural commodities. When fruits are harvested prematurely or when they are overripe, their storage life is shortened and their quality deteriorates. Therefore, it is important to harvest fruits at the appropriate stage of maturity in order to ensure good quality and better storage. Nevertheless, the inadequate implementation of proper handling techniques for agricultural produce has led to a significant occurrence of post-harvest losses, resulting in the wastage of valuable resources such as time and financial investments. The lack of appropriate handling procedures and chemical treatment methods are leading to significant losses in commodities. Therefore, it can be deduced that producers are currently experiencing significant economic detriment as a result of inadequate handling techniques, insufficient understanding of the underlying factors contributing to postharvest loss, and a dearth of effective preservation methodologies. However, the mitigation of loss can be achieved through the implementation of appropriate management and handling procedures. This review focuses on various aspects of post-harvest handling methods for preservation of fruits for longer time for processing and value addition.
      PubDate: 2023-11-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113357
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Economics of Lac Production on Annual Host Cajanus cajan under Different
           Plant Density and Soil Moisture Condition

    • Authors: Gopilal Anjana , Moni Thomas, Rahul Kumbhare , Deep Kumar Pahalwan , Manish Bhan , Alok Bajpai , Anil Kumar Singh
      Pages: 2000 - 2009
      Abstract: Inclusive of cash crop in crop production system a small and marginal farmer is an important state to shift them from sustainable farming to an economical farming. Lac is a cash crop while Cajanus cajan is a popular pulse crop in India. The present attempt was to evaluate economics of lac and grain production on C. cajan indifferent plant densities and soil moisture conditions. The two year data revealed that the highest net returnRs. 125.21 per plant, Rs. 149749.08 per hectare, in (S2W3) medium plant density (S2) and higher level of irrigation (W3), also highest input-output ratio (2.95) and B:C ratio (1.95).
      PubDate: 2023-11-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113358
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Seaweed Extract's Effect on Carrot (Daucus carota. L) Growth. Super

    • Authors: Vendra Sai Kavya , Y. S. Parameswari , M. Venkateswara Reddy , B. Anila Kumari
      Pages: 2010 - 2014
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during rabi 2022 on carrot variety ‘Super kuroda’ in sandy loam soil at Horticultural Garden, Professor Jaya Shankar Telangana State Agriculture University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. To study the effect of seaweed extract on the growth parameters of carrots. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with eight treatments and replicated thrice. The treatments include various sources of biostimulants viz., Seaweed extract liquid, seaweed granules, vermicompost and vermiwash given as foliar application on three stages viz., first spray on 2-3 leaves stage and thereafter at every 20 days interval and as soil application twice at the time of sowing as well as 30 DAS.The various growth parameters were recorded. The results revealed that on application of RDF + soil application of seaweed extract twice at the time of sowing and at 30 DAS + foliar spray thrice 2.5 ml l-1 of water significantly increased the growth parameters viz., plant height, number of leaves per plant, chlorophyll content.
      PubDate: 2023-11-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113359
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Variability Parameters, Correlation Studies and Path Analysis of Yield and
           Yield-Related Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.): A Comprehensive Review

    • Authors: Nagaraju B., K. Basavaraj , C. Gireesh , Sasipriya S.
      Pages: 2015 - 2022
      Abstract: Rice, a staple food crop of global importance exhibits substantial diversity in terms of yield and other agronomic traits, influenced by genetic, environmental, and management factors. Variability parameters, including genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation, heritability, correlation, and path analysis provide crucial insights into the extent of trait variation and their potential for improvement through breeding programs. Furthermore, correlation studies unveil the interdependencies between different traits, shedding light on potential connections influencing yield. This analysis uncovers important trait associations, guiding breeders and researchers in the pursuit of crop improvement strategies. By identifying both positive and negative correlations, this research offers a deeper understanding of trait interplay and informs targeted trait selection efforts. Path analysis, a pivotal aspect of this review, describes the underlying causal relationships between traits and their direct and indirect effects on yield. This analysis facilitates the ranking of trait contributions and guides decisions for trait prioritization in breeding programs. By illuminating the pathways through which traits influence yield, path analysis enhances the precision of trait selection for improved rice cultivars. The synergy of variability parameters, correlation studies, and path analysis presents a holistic framework for unraveling the complexities of rice yield determination. Understanding these parameters enhances our ability to select and develop high-yielding and resilient rice varieties, contributing to food security and sustainable agriculture. This abstract delves into the significance of variability parameters in unraveling the complexities of rice yield and trait dynamics, guiding effective crop improvement strategies for the future. This review provides a valuable synthesis of existing knowledge, offering insights that can aid researchers, breeders, and agronomists in their pursuit of enhancing rice yield and overall agricultural sustainability.
      PubDate: 2023-11-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113360
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Population Dynamics of Leafhopper (Empoasca flavescens) and Thrips
           (Scirtothrips dorsalis) of Castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    • Authors: G. Madhuri , K. Sadaiah , P. Duraimurugan , V. Divya Rani , G. Eswara Reddy, G. Neelima , N. Nalini , M. Sujatha , G. Goverdhan
      Pages: 2023 - 2029
      Abstract: The experiment on population dynamics against leafhopper and thrips  of castor,a field experiment was conducted during 2021 & 2022 on castor (Ricinus communis) at Regional Agricultural Research Station Palem, PJTSAU. The studies on population dynamics of leafhopper (Empoasca flavescens) revealed thatthe activity of leafhoppers was moderate to heavy with maximum of 120.8 leafhoppers/3 leaves/plant was recorded during the second fortnight of December (52 SMW, 24th-31st Dec). Leafhopper population had non-significant and negative correlation with  maximum temperature (r = -0.24 and r = -0.29, respectively), whereas it had significant assocation and negative correlation with minimum temperature, morning relative humidity, evening relative humidity as well as rainfall (r = - 0.64 - 0.50, r=-0.61 and - 0.52, respectively). Thrips infestationwas observed from October first fortnight (40 SMW 1st Oct -7th Oct) to December second fortnight (52 SMW, 24th-31st Dec) with peak infestation 31.1 thrips/spike.Thrips population had non-significant and negative correlation with  maximum temperature ( r = -0.29), whereas it had significant assocation and negative correlation with minimum temperature, morning relative humidity, evening relative humidity as well as rainfall (r = - 0.68, r= -0.55, r=-0.63 and, r=- 0.49 respectively). Leafhopper and thrips has significant association and positive correlation with sunshine hours (r=0.55 & r=0.51).
      PubDate: 2023-11-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113361
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Availability of Raw Material for Wood Based Cricket Bat Industry in
           Kashmir Valley, India

    • Authors: Nawaz Ahmad Teeli , Anup Raj , P. A. Khan , Jauhar Rafeeq
      Pages: 2030 - 2036
      Abstract: Kashmir Himalayas is known for its abundant supply of high quality wood suitable for cricket bat industry. The present study aimed to gather comprehensive data on the availability of raw material for the cricket bat industry in Anantnag and Pulwama districts of Kashmir during the specified time period (2017-2018). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the major problems faced by the industry and to assess quality parameters of cleft and the wood used for making these clefts. Shortage of quality raw material, absence of proper marketing channels and irregular electricity supply were the major factors responsible for production shortfall. The units used wood of Salix alba var. caerulea as main raw material while Populus deltoides wood was also used for low quality bats. For the study, latest available official records of Government of Jammu and Kashmir as well as questionnaire based sample survey data were used. The industry produced 15.10 crore clefts that consumed 17,28,532 ft 3 of wood. Sample survey revealed that in 2016, the selected 62 units procured 5,84,557 ft3 of wood with an average of 9,428.33 ft3 per unit.
      PubDate: 2023-11-01
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113362
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • A Comparative Study of Various Substrate Combinations on Mass
           Multiplication of Trichoderma lexii (T-94a)

    • Authors: Smriti Dhruw , A. S. Kotasthane , Akanksha Shukla
      Pages: 2037 - 2042
      Abstract: The high cost of raw materials has long hindered the large-scale commercialization of Trichoderma sp. conidiophore formulations. This study addresses the need for affordable, nutrient-rich alternatives by exploring the use of lignocellulosic residues, comprising lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose, as a carbon source for cultivating Trichoderma. These fungi possess unique attributes, such as filamentous growth and prolific spore production, which make them valuable for composting lignocellulosic waste. Using different substrates with a combination of straws effectively helps in the decomposition of straw and enhances the mass multiplication of Trichoderma lexii (T-94a). Different substrates such as broken rice, grounded maize, gram flour, sorghum & broken wheat were used in combination with paddy straws. A combination of Maize + straw induced an early response in the mycelial growth of Trichoderma lexii (T-94a). After 5 and 10 days of inoculation, physical parameters such as growth and sporulation characteristics of T. lexii (T-94a) show highly uniform growth and profuse sporulation on maize and straw combination as compared to broken rice & straw, sorghum, and straw combinations. This finding has promising implications for improving agricultural practices and waste management. Further research can fine-tune the optimal substrate ratios to enhance the efficiency of biocontrol agents and waste decomposition. Scaling up the application of these substrate combinations in real-world farming scenarios and assessing their long-term environmental impact will be essential for realizing the full potential of these sustainable agricultural practices.
      PubDate: 2023-11-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113363
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Nanomaterial-induced Changes in Plant Physiology and Genetics:
           Implications for Crop Improvement Strategies

    • Authors: Achyuta Basak , S. B. Amarshettiwar , Nilakshi Bordoloi , Yumkhaibam Sonia Shahni , Mubeen, Shreedhar Beese , Triyugi Narain Kushwaha , Shanti Bhushan
      Pages: 2043 - 2048
      Abstract: The utilization of nanomaterials in agriculture has gained significant attention due to their potential to induce changes in plant physiology and genetics, thereby offering new avenues for enhancing crop improvement strategies. This paper delves into the intricate interplay between nanomaterials and plants, shedding light on their molecular mechanisms of uptake and interaction. It explores the physiological responses that ensue following nanomaterial exposure, unraveling the intricate network of signaling pathways and stress responses. Moreover, the paper delves into the alterations in genetic expression triggered by nanomaterials, providing insights into the underlying regulatory mechanisms. The influence of epigenetic factors and potential transgenerational effects further accentuates the complexity of these interactions. Underpinning this understanding, the paper discusses the prospects of harnessing nanomaterial-induced changes to enhance crop traits. It investigates how these changes can be employed to boost crop resilience, nutrient uptake, and stress tolerance. The integration of nanomaterial-induced alterations into breeding and genetic modification strategies offers a promising approach for developing improved crop varieties. Ultimately, this comprehensive exploration of nanomaterial-induced changes in plant physiology and genetics highlights their far-reaching implications for revolutionizing crop improvement strategies in the face of evolving agricultural challenges.
      PubDate: 2023-11-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113364
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Status of River Water in India: A Review

    • Authors: Pooja Kumari, Mohan Singh Jangra
      Pages: 2049 - 2059
      Abstract: Water means life which is a cyclic, inexhaustible, renewable prime natural resource. It is both a basic human need and a valued asset possessed by all living creatures. Hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere are all sources of water around the world. Water covers 71 % of the earth’s surface but only 1% of water is potable. Rivers like the Ganga, Yamuna and Sabarmati are revered throughout India. River water is critical for commercial and industrial development, hydroelectric power generation, agriculture, new multipurpose dams and tourism attractions. However, the presence of different contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals, organic waste, chemical waste and direct sewage discharge has harmed the river's water quality. In India, river water pollution is a major issue that has harmed not only human and animal health, but also the economy of the country. In this review, a substantial number of studies on river water pollution in India are examined. Data on various physical, chemical, and biological characteristics are carefully analysed and interpreted, and it is discovered that river water in India is severely polluted. Furthermore, after careful interpretation of data and discussions published in research articles, this review explains the interrelationships among distinct physical and chemical parameters. EC and TDS are complementary to each other and temperature has a direct impact on pH and DO levels. Also, BOD and DO are reciprocally related with each other. This review provides a concise set of guidelines for assessing river water pollution and calculation of water quality index.
      PubDate: 2023-11-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113365
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Nano Biochar for Sustainable Agriculture and Environmental Remediation: A
           Comprehensive Review

    • Authors: Om Prakash Sharma , Dheerendra Singh, Nishita Kushwah , Aman Pratap Singh Chauhan
      Pages: 2060 - 2072
      Abstract: To safeguard soil, water, and air throughout intensive agricultural operations as well as significant industrial and transportation endeavors, it is imperative that the environment and agriculture are managed sustainably. Application of biochar might be a potential approach to solve these issues. The use of biochar (BC) in agricultural techniques and for environmental remediation has shown to offer a variety of benefits, despite certain drawbacks. Superior physicochemical characteristics of nanobiochar include strong catalytic activity, distinctive nanostructure, large specific surface area, and excellent mobility in soil environments. Nanobiochar is a prime contender for sustainable agriculture to pollution remediation and catalytic reactions. Despite growing interest in biochar research for agricultural and environmental uses, it is unclear how important nanobiochar is. So, in this study, we identified several fundamental uses of nanobiochar with an emphasis on its efficacy for environmentally and agriculturally sustainable practices.
      PubDate: 2023-11-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113366
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Predicting Potential Evapotranspiration for Kalaburagi District using a
           Seasonal Arima Model

    • Authors: Shrikant, G. V. Srinivasa Reddy , M. K. Manjunath , Rahul Patil , Prasad S. Kulkarni
      Pages: 2073 - 2082
      Abstract: Forecasting potential evapotranspiration (PET) is of great importance in effectively managing irrigation systems. This article centers around models designed to simulate future PET levels for the Kalaburagi district. The study calculates potential evapotranspiration using temperature data in degrees Celsius, employing the Thornthwaite method, and prediction is performed using the Seasonal Autoregressive Moving Average (SARIMA) method. These models are developed based on autocorrelation function (ACF) and partial autocorrelation function (PACF) analysis. Model selection is based on minimizing Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) values. The chosen models for different stations in Kalaburagi, Chincholi, Sedam, Chittapur, Aland, Jewargi, and Afzalpur respectively are SARIMA (1,0,1)(2,1,0)12, SARIMA(1,0,1)(2,1,0)12, SARIMA(1,0,0)(2,1,0)12, SARIMA(1,0,1)(2,1,0)12, SARIMA (1,0,1) (2,1,0) 12, and SARIMA(1,0,1)(2,1,0)12. The results indicate that the models developed for Jewargi and Chincholi stations show particular promise compared to the other two stations, with all four models performing well. These models have the potential to significantly enhance decision-making in irrigation planning and command area management practices, contributing to improved water resource management.
      PubDate: 2023-11-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113367
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Response of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Nitrogen Application in Wheat
           (Triticum aestivum L.) Crop

    • Authors: Vipin Patel , Ashok Kumar Yadaw , Anil Kumar, Dwarka, Rupali Singh
      Pages: 2083 - 2086
      Abstract: An experiment conducted at Agriculture Research Farm, Shri Durga Ji Post Graduate College, Chandeshwar, Azamgarh, Uttar Pradesh during winter session of 2019-20. Among the initial plant population per square meter was not influenced significantly due to various treatments. All the growth characters viz. plant height (cm), no. of shoots per meter row length and accumulation of dry matter, increased significantly at all the stages of crop growth with the application of 100% nitrogen through inorganic source except 30 DAS regarding to number of shoots.
      PubDate: 2023-11-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113368
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Length‐weight Relationships of Four Indigenous Freshwater Fishes of
           Longshen Stream, Indo-Myanmar Borderline of North-East of India

    • Authors: Diamond Rajakumar Tenali , Praveena Madina, Shashi Bala Rokkala, Temjen Bursanen Jamir, Vedika Masram, Lekiningroy Dann , Nitesh Kumar Yadav
      Pages: 2087 - 2092
      Abstract: Length-weight relationships (LWR) are reported for four indigenous fish species of longshen stream, Indo-Myanmar boundary line North-Eastern Ghats of Indian region, for the period of June 2020 to September 2022. Specimen species were collected during different exploratory surveys, using through traditional bamboo made fishing gears. The b value for LWRs varied from 2.09(Barilius vagra) to 2.63(Garra lissorhynchus). R2 values varied from 0.85 to 0.95, indicating unique values. The results providing baseline information for the need of sustainable ecological as well as economical management and conservation of indigenous fish species in Indo-Myanmar borderlines
      PubDate: 2023-11-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113369
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Factors Influencing the Deterioration of Groundnut Seed Health and Its
           Implications on Storage Capacity

    • Authors: P. Anuroopa , B. Pushpavathi , P. Sujatha , S. Hari Kishan
      Pages: 2093 - 2100
      Abstract: Aims: The current study aimed to investigate the factors influencing seed deterioration in groundnut. Study Design: Three factorial CRD. Place and Duration of Study: The research was conducted at the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Seed Research and Technology Centre, PJTSAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, between february 2022 to march 2023. Methodology: Groundnut seeds harvested at different stages (early, normal, and late) were considered, each with varying seed moisture levels (8%, 10%, and 12%). These seeds were stored under ambient conditions for one year and evaluated for percentage of seed infection, seed rot, and bruchid infection. The assessments were carried out with three replicates, each consisting of 100 seeds. The study was conducted using a three-factorial design as the experimental setup involved three independent variables. Results: Results showed that among the different seed moisture levels, seeds harvested early with 8% moisture content exhibited the lowest percentages of seed infection, seed rot, and bruchid infection at 62.75% and 59.58% respectively after one year of storage. Conversely, seeds from the late harvesting window with 12% seed moisture content displayed the highest percentages of these seed health parameters at 53%, 00%, and 49.42% respectively. Notably, there was significant variation in seed infection rates observed in both 8% and 12% seed moisture content groups. Conclusion: These discoveries reveal the vital significance of timely harvesting and maintaining the right moisture levels to safeguard the quality and health of seeds.
      PubDate: 2023-11-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113370
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Sustainability, Livelihood Security and Resilience to Climate Variability
           of Small Holders through Small Onion and Jasmine Cropping in NICRA Village
           of Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India

    • Authors: Sharmila Bharathi; C.
      Pages: 2101 - 2105
      Abstract: In Vadavathur & Jambumadai village, small onion is the major vegetable crop cultivated as an annual crop in more than 400 acres and it is the only source of income. In scarce rainfall situations in National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture NICRA village of Vadavathur and Jambumadai, practice of sole cropping (Small onion) is predominant but it is risky and often results in low yields or sometimes even in crop failure due to erratic monsoon rainfall and skewed distribution. To alleviate these problems in such areas of drought villages of Namakkal district crop diversification with perennial crop is a feasible option to minimize risk in crop production, ensure reasonable returns with limited care. Additional crop of onion with Jasmine is more profitable and is a key drought coping strategy especially for small and marginal farmers. Hence jasmine (20 cent) + small onion (80 cent) cultivation model is demonstrated in crop component mode in NICRA village instead of cultivating small onion as a sole crop in an area of 1 acre/ 0.4 ha. Considering the yield, jasmine flower yield was obtained in the range of 545 to 747 kg/ 20 cent and in case of small onion, the bulb yield of 4800 kg was harvested from 80 cent/season. Highest net returns of Rs.134622 / 20 cent was obtained from Jasmine cultivation compared to small onion of Rs.48,810 / 80 cent /season.
      PubDate: 2023-11-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113371
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • A Study about Temperature Induction Response (TIR): Novel Physiological
           Approach for Thermotolerant Genotypes in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    • Authors: S. Surekha , M. M. Dhanoji , M. K. Meena , P. H. Kuchnoor , Ayyangouda Patil
      Pages: 2106 - 2113
      Abstract: Pulses have been described as a "poor man's meat and affluent man's vegetable" in India. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the third most legume crop grown during rabi season under receding soil moisture. Chickpeas is known to flourish in drought-prone conditions, but it seems to be sensitive to heat stress exceptionally during reproductive development, resulting in considerable yield loss. The performance of chickpeas under heat stress is more variable. It is crucial to develop screening tools to identify thermotolerant chickpea genotypes because of the increase in average global temperatures. In this view, a lab experiment was conducted to standardize the temperature induction response (TIR) protocol for chickpea seeds. The 70 % hydrated seeds were used for the experiment. This technique can be used as a potential tool to identify and select temperature tolerant lines at the seed stage itself from a large population. A set of six chickpea genotypes were screened for intrinsic tolerance using the standardized Thermo Induced Response (TIR) protocol. Among the genotypes JG-14, JG-11 and A-1 showed highest thermo tolerance in terms of higher survival of seeds (germination percentage) and seedlings with less per cent reduction in seedling survival, root and shoot growth. The genotypes with intrinsic heat tolerance can be explored for the development of varieties suitable for late sown conditions in Karnataka where chickpea is prone to terminal heat stress. The results of the study concluded and standardized the sub lethal temperature as 32 ºC to 50 ºC for 5 hours and 30 min, lethal temperature i.e., challenging temperature as 58 ℃ for 3 hours and LD 50 as 52 ℃ for 3 hours at seed level itself.
      PubDate: 2023-11-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113372
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • A Review on Advances in Biocontrol Techniques for Managing Insect Pests in
           Sustainable Agriculture

    • Authors: P. Thilagam , C. H. Sharanappa , Shalini Roy , Lipa Deb , Sudipta Padhan, S. Srividhya , Prachi Awadhiya
      Pages: 2114 - 2125
      Abstract: Biocontrol techniques represent a vital avenue in the quest for sustainable agricultural practices. This approach, integrating ecological intelligence with modern scientific advancements, is seeing increasing adoption in various regions, notably in India. Drawing inspiration from nature's own mechanisms, biocontrol employs specific organisms or their biological derivatives to manage and mitigate pests, thereby decreasing the dependency on chemical agents. Through an in-depth exploration of biocontrol applications, this study places a special emphasis on India's initiatives and contrasts them with global endeavors. Noteworthy examples include the innovative use of parasitic wasps to combat the papaya mealybug menace in Tamil Nadu, the strategic application of fungi like Trichoderma for disease control in Maharashtra, and the successful introduction of parasitoid wasps to manage olive flies in regions like California. Rooted in foundational ecological principles, these methodologies exhibit potential benefits that span improved crop yields, economic viability, and most importantly, reduced environmental adversities. Effective deployment and scaling of these techniques require an integrated approach, emphasizing collaboration among researchers, farming communities, and industry stakeholders. By presenting a detailed analysis of these synergistic efforts, this review accentuates the transformative potential of biocontrol. As the global community faces the dual challenges of an expanding population and the unpredictable impacts of climate change, the promise of biocontrol looms large, offering a sustainable pathway for the agriculture of the future.
      PubDate: 2023-11-02
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113373
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Productivity of Bt Cotton under Different Levels of Irrigation and
           Nitrogen in Alfisols

    • Authors: Mahadevappa S. G., G. Sreenivas , D. Raji Reddy , A. Madhavi , S. S. Rao
      Pages: 2126 - 2134
      Abstract: Aims: To determine the optimum irrigation schedule and nitrogen level for Bt cotton in alfisols in Southern Telangana. Study Design:  Split plot design. Place and Duration of Study: ARI, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during kharif 2014. Methodology: The experiment was laid out with three irrigation schedules (I1- 0.8 IW/CPE, I2 - 0.4 IW/CPE and I3 - Rainfed) as main plots and four nitrogen levels (N1- 0 kg ha-1, N2 - 75 kg ha-1, N3 - 150 kg ha-1 and N4 - 225 kg ha-1) as sub plot treatments replicated thrice. Treatments imposed as per the schedule and data recorded on yield, yield attributes, nitrogen uptake by adopting standard procedures Results: Irrigation at 0.8 IW/CPE recorded significantly higher plant height (79 cm), drymatter at first picking (195 g plant-1), bolls plant-1 (16), seed cotton yield (1435 kg ha-1), lint yield (541 kg ha-1), stalk yield (2057 kg ha-1) and nitrogen uptake (63 kg ha-1) and was not differed significantly with 0.4 IW/CPE and these were significantly superior to rainfed cotton. Among nitrogen levels, significantly higher plant height (90 cm), drymatter at first picking (214 g plant-1) stage, days to reach boll development (90) stage, bolls plant-1 (15), boll weight (5.3 g), seed index (9.9 g), seed cotton yield (1435 kg ha-1), lint yield (547 kg     ha -1) and stalk yield (2214 kg ha -1) were found with application of nitrogen at 225 kg ha-1 was comparable with 150 kg N ha-1 and were significantly superior over lower levels of nitrogen application. The substantial increase in yield and yield attributes might be due to favorable effect on growth attributes like plant height, increased bolls plant-1, drymatter accumulation plant-1 and its subsequent translocation towards sink improved the seed cotton yield. Conclusion: It can be concluded that, higher seed cotton yield can be obtained with the irrigation scheduled at 0.4 IW/CPE and application of nitrogen at 150 kg ha-1 in Bt cotton grown in alfisols.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113374
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Growth, Yield and Quality of Garilic (Allium sativum L.) Influenced by the
           Application of Sulphur and Salicylic Acid

    • Authors: Priyanka Mishra Dubey , B. R. Pandey, Vijay Bagare , Jagrati Upadhyay
      Pages: 2135 - 2139
      Abstract: A research experiment was conducted at vegetable research Complex, Maharajpur, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, JNKVV Jabalpur. The experiment was done to study the effect of sulphur and salicylic acid on Yamuna safed -2 variety of Garlic. The growth, yield, and quality of garlic can be influenced by various factors, including nutrient availability and plant growth regulators like salicylic acid. Sulphur is an essential nutrient for plant growth and plays a crucial role in the development of garlic plants.  The experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design with combination of different concentrations of sulphur (0 kg/ha, 30 kg/ha and 45 Kg/ha) and salicylic acid (60 ppm and 120 ppm). Growth parameters like plant height, number of leaves and pseudostem diameter were found maximum in treatment T-9 (sulphur 45kg/ha and SA 120ppm). Yield parameters like average bulb weight (22.27 gm), Polar diameter (4.41 cm) and Equatorial diameter (3.79 cm) average weight of 10 cloves (9.10 gm), Total soluble solids and Pyruvic acid were also maximum in T-9 (Sulphur 45kg/ha and SA 120 ppm) (42.30 oBrix and 66.09 µmol/gm respectively). From the above findings it can be concluded that for garlic plant the best doses for salicylic acid and sulphur were found to be 120 ppm and 45 kg/ha. Also with graded levels of salicylic acid and sulphur various parameters increased effecttively.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113375
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Enhancing Gerbera Micropropagation Efficiency and Genetic Fidelity through
           Cytokinin and Auxin Combination Strategies

    • Authors: Satish Kumar, S. K. Sehrawat , D. S. Dahiya, Shikha Yashveer , Arvind Malik , Kanchan Kumari
      Pages: 2140 - 2148
      Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to assess the impact of 6-benzyladenine (BA) in conjunction with Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on gerbera explant establishment under micropropagation. Additionally, the effects of BA, either individually or in combination with Kinetin (KIN), on shoot proliferation in two Gerbera cultivars, namely Kormoran and Dolores was experimented too. Throughout the experiment, various morphological changes were documented occurring during these micropropagation phases and also monitored potential genetic alterations using SSR markers. The studies revealed that the combination of BA and IBA yielded exceptional results, achieving a 100% success rate in explant regeneration within the shortest time frame. Notably, when BA and IBA were applied at lower concentrations, the number of shoots generated was reduced. However, the most substantial proliferation of shoots was observed when the growth medium contained 4 mg of BA and 0.5 mg of IBA per litre. Furthermore, our investigation into genetic fidelity using SSR analysis revealed no detectable polymorphism between the mother plant and the micropropagated plantlets in both the Gerbera cultivars, affirming the reliability of the micropropagation method in preserving genetic consistency.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113376
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Remote Sensing and GIS Applications in Soil Salinity Analysis: A
           Comprehensive Review

    • Authors: K. M. Gojiya , H. D. Rank , P. M. Chauhan , D. V. Patel , R. M. Satasiya , G. V. Prajapati
      Pages: 2149 - 2161
      Abstract: Soil salinity is a pressing global issue with far-reaching implications for agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. The expansion of cultivated lands and the need for food production have intensified the challenges associated with soil salinization. This paper reviews the significance of monitoring and assessing soil salinity, especially in regions where traditional irrigation practices and inadequate drainage systems exacerbate the problem. The paper highlights the importance of satellite-based technologies for spatial and temporal mapping of soil salinity, providing cost-effective, rapid, and efficient sources of qualitative and quantitative spatial information. Multispectral remote sensing data have significantly improved the monitoring of soil salinity. The spectral characteristics of salt-affected soil, visible and near-infrared bands, enable the detection of salinity in both barren and vegetated areas. Various salinity and vegetation indices have been developed, with their effectiveness depending on the context and the extent of vegetation cover. Proper timing of fieldwork and measurement is essential for accurate results. The paper presents a comprehensive review of the remote sensing and GIS based methods of soil salinity estimation including salinity indices, vegetation indices, regression methos, neural network methods plus, sensing approaches, and satellite data utilized in soil salinity mapping. The majority of recent studies favour remote sensing technology over traditional methods due to its cost-effectiveness and efficiency. The choice of mapping approach is context-dependent, and there is no universally superior method. This review underscores the critical role of remote sensing in addressing the challenges posed by soil salinity, offering a promising avenue for monitoring and managing this imperative global concern.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113377
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • SunSync Innovation: Empowering Traditional Solar Flat Plate Collectors
           with Autonomous Sun-Tracking for Tea Leaf Drying

    • Authors: Preeti Bhagat , Ajay Kushwah , Rashmi Yadav , Ramineni Harsha Nag , Manojit Chowdhury, Gopal Carpenter, Rohit Anand
      Pages: 2162 - 2171
      Abstract: Aim: This research focused on post-harvest technology for preserving tea leaves. The research introduces an innovative approach by incorporating an autonomous solar tracker into a flat plate solar collector, strategically optimizing its orientation towards the sun. The solar tracker, a low-cost and fully automatic prototype, plays a pivotal role in maximizing incident solar rays, thereby enhancing the overall energy absorption efficiency of the system at the same time increasing the quality of dried tea leaves. Methodology: The investigation delves into the realm of indirect solar drying methodologies, with a specific focus on the Sun-Tracking Solar Dryer (STSD). This sophisticated apparatus, engineered through the integration of light-dependent resistors, a wiper DC motor with gearbox, and a microcontroller, was developed within the confines of the Agricultural and Food Engineering department at IIT Kharagpur. Subsequent to its development, the study entails a comparative analysis wherein the position of the absorber in the dryer, as ascertained by the developed prototype, is juxtaposed with the ideal position requisite for optimal solar light incidence. Moreover, an examination of the dried tea leaves produced by the prototype is conducted, involving a comprehensive comparison with those dried using the conventional open sun drying method. Results: The instantiated prototype demonstrated commendable efficacy in aligning with the ideal position, exhibiting an average deviation of 3.25 degrees. Facilitated by this prototype, the attainment of the targeted moisture content in tea leaves was expedited, culminating 2 hours earlier than the conventional open sun drying method. The resultant dried product manifested a water activity of 0.531 and a DPPH radical scavenging activity of 73.53%, both registering a reduction in comparison to the open sun drying counterpart. Concurrently, the total phenolic content exhibited an increment of 11.48% when contrasted with the open sun drying process. Conclusion: The affordably developed prototype demonstrated exceptional capabilities in sun tracking, showcasing the promising potential for augmenting the efficiency of conventional flat plate solar collectors. Additionally, its performance in preserving the quality attributes of dried tea leaves was commendable.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113378
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Analyzing the Variability in Maize (Zea mays L.) Genotypes Using Principal
           Component Analysis under Varied Ecosystems

    • Authors: K. R. V. Sathya Sheela , T. Selvakumar, S. Lakshmi Narayanan, R. Radhajeyalakshmi
      Pages: 2172 - 2179
      Abstract: Maize is a cereal cross-pollinated crop which belongs to the family poaceae. It is grown over a wider range of environment than any other cereal crop. The present study was conducted to study genetic variability using principal component analysis. Twenty maize genotypes were used in the study. Ten characters viz., plant height, ear height, days to 50 % tasselling, days to 50 % silking, ASI, cob length, number of rows per cob, hundred seed weight, shelling percentage and yield were recorded for the study. In the PCA, four principal components exhibited eigen value more than 1.0 exhibiting 84.54 percent of the variability for the characters under irrigated conditions. The PC1 negative loadings for the flowering traits, viz., days to 50 % silking (-0.3886), ASI (-0.3233) and days to 50 % tasselling (-0.2972) and positive loadings with higher contribution from cob length (0.4033), no of rows per cob (0.3480) followed by shelling percentage were observed. Positive loadings were exhibited by days to tasselling (0.4780), plant height (0.4670) and hundred seed weight (0.4518) in PC2. In PC3 positive loadings for the characters viz., number of rows per cob (0.5338), ASI (0.5226) and cob length (0.3299) and negative loadings for the traits grain yield (-0.3815), ear height (-0.2658) and plant height (-0.2437) and in PC4 positive loadings for plant height (0.4953), ear height (0.2546) and negative loadings were shown by days to grain yield (-0.6632), shelling percentage (-0.3751), ASI (-0.2369) and 50 % silking (-0.0648) were observed. In rainfed conditions, the two principal components had eigen value of more than 1. Under normal irrigated condition,  PC1 and PC2  had eigen value of 5.689 and 1.6439. Plant height (0.3866), cob length (0.3726), number of rows per cob (0.3551), shelling % (0.3196), grain yield (0.2941), and hundred seed weight (0.2847) contributed positively to PC1. PC 2 had highest positive contributions from days to 50 % tasselling (0.5676), days to 50 % silking (0.5249), shelling % (0.3885), hundred seed weight (0.3763) and grain yield (0.2007). Negative loadings were shown by ear height (-0.1356) and plant height (-0.0093). Positive loadings were contributed by days to 50 % tasselling (0.5676), Days to 50 % silking, shelling percentage (0.3885) and hundred grain weight (0.3763).
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113379
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Physical Properties of Ginger Based on Different Varieties

    • Authors: T. Mahesh Babu, Preman P. S.
      Pages: 2180 - 2190
      Abstract: Ginger is a plant recently gaining attention in the food and pharmaceutical industries because of its spice and medicinal importance. The measurements of physical properties were conducted at the Food Processing Laboratory, Kelappaji College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology in Tavanur Kerala. The physical and engineering properties of different ginger varieties viz., Athira, Aswathy, Chithra and Karthika were determined to design the hopper and cell sizes, better flowability in the hopper without any clogging in the electronic seed metering unit of a sensor-based tractor drawn ginger planter.  The research looked at some physical properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes such as major, minor, intermediate diameters, geometric mean, sphericity, bulk volume, bulk density, surface area, angle of repose and coefficient of friction which are essential for the design of hopper. The properties were determined using ASAE standards. The average value obtained for ginger rhizomes those are, major diameter, minor diameter, intermediate diameter, geometric mean, sphericity, surface area, bulk density, bulk volume, moisture content and angle of repose of the different varieties of the ginger rhizomes are geometric mean of the athira variety of ginger having major diameter is 69.72 mm (X), intermediate diameter is 20.6 mm (Y), minor diameter is 51.84 mm (Z).  Geometric mean is 40.24 mm, Sphericity is 0.58, Surface area is 5086.5 cm2, Bulk density is 0.43 g/cm3, 24 cm3, Moisture content is 71.1%, and angle of repose is 34.43̊ respectively. The coefficient of friction was obtained three different structural materials, the obtained values are 0.58 on wood, 0.52 on mild steel and 0.48 on stainless steel. Aswathy variety of ginger having major diameter is 88.96 mm, minor diameter is 53.84 mm, intermediate diameter is 20.92 mm, Geometric mean is 44.02 mm, sphericity is 0.50, surface area is 6240.2 cm2, bulk volume is 25 cm3, bulk density is 0.38 g/cm3, moisture content is 74.53 % and angle of repose is 36.87̊ and obtained values of the coefficient of friction was 0.60 on wood, 0.58 on mild steel and 0.50 on stainless steel. Chithra variety of ginger having major diameter is 81.2 mm, minor diameter is 55.32 mm, intermediate diameter is 18.64 mm, geometric mean is 41.88 mm, sphericity is 0.52, surface area is 5571 cm2, bulk density is 0.43 g/cm3, bulk volume is 40 cm3, moisture content is 72.45 % and angle of repose 36.54̊ . The obtained values of the coefficient of friction were 0.54 on wood, 0.51 on mild steel, 0.46 on stainless steel. Karthika variety of ginger having major diameter is 85.08 mm, minor diameter is 49.8 mm, intermediate diameter is 17.2 mm, geometric mean is 38.96 mm, sphericity is 0.48, surface area is 5078 cm2, bulk volume is 20 cm3, bulk density is 0.38 g/cm3, moisture content is 76.01, angle of repose is 38.24̊, and coefficient of friction were 0.59 on wood, 0.53 on stainless steel and 0.45 on stainless steel respectively. Based on the physical properties of ginger, it was concluded that above mentioned parameters are sufficient to design the hopper and cell sizes are suitable for the mechanical planters or any other sensor-based tractor drawn ginger planters. All the physical properties of ginger based on varieties are measured and showed in this research.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113380
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Tillage, Crop Residue Management and Nutrient Levels on Growth
           and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.)

    • Authors: Parangi Naveen , Y. Siva Lakshmi , K. Bhanu Rekha , T. Anjaiah
      Pages: 2191 - 2199
      Abstract: A field study was conducted during rabi season of 2022 at Maize Research Centre, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agriculture University, Agricultural Research Institute, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana. The experiment comprised of 12 treatment combinations laid out in a split–plot design with three replications. The main–plot treatments included four different tillage practices:M1-Conventional tillage (Plough + Cultivator + Rotovator), M2-Residue incorporation (After 10 days of spreading the haulms, only rotovator was run), M3- Residue incorporation (After spreading the haulms, microbial consortium was sprayed and after 10 days only rotovator was run) and M4- Zero-tillage (only microbial consortium was sprayed on the haulms). Sub–plot treatments included three nutrient levels: N1- 100% RDF (240-80-80 N-P2O5-K2O kg ha-1), N2: 100% RDN & P and 50% RDK (240-80-40 N-P2O5-K2O kg ha-1), and N3: 87.5% of RDN, 75% RDP and 75% RDK (210-60-60 N-P2O5-K2O kg ha-1). Results revealed that, among the tillage practices, residue incorporation (M3) had recorded significantly higher growth attributes like plant height, leaf area, dry matter production and chlorophyll content (SPAD) at 30, 60 DAS and at harvest stages and yield of maize and it was on par with zero-tillage (M4) whereas all the parameters were significantly lower in conventional tillage (M1). Among the different nutrient levels, N1(100% RDF) had shown significantly superior performance in terms of  growth attributes and yield of maize and it was on par with N2 (100% RDN & P and 50% RDK) whereas N3(87.5% of RDN, 75% RDP and 75% RDK) recorded significantly lower growth attributes and yield of maize .The interaction effect due to tillage and nutrient levels on plant height, leaf area, dry matter production, chlorophyll content (SPAD) at 30, 60 DAS and at harvest and yield was non- significant.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113381
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • An Evaluation of the Use of Drills and Transplanted Paddy Cultivation
           Techniques in Bhandara District of Maharashtra, India

    • Authors: Shubhangi G. Parshuramkar, B. C. Nandeshwar , Padmaja H. Kausadikar , Devyanee K. Nemade
      Pages: 2200 - 2208
      Abstract: In order to compare the costs, savings, and returns for the drill and transplanted methods of paddy cultivation, the current study, was conducted as a Research Review Committee Project in the Bhandara district of Nagpur division in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India.  The method utilized was an exploratory social research design. Using the purposive population sampling technique method, a total of 72 sample paddy-growing beneficiary farmers from KVK, Sakoli Dist. Bhandara were chosen, and they were interrogated using a structured interview schedule.  As a result, this study was limited to a sample of 72 paddy growers who were cultivating their paddy crops using both the transplanted and drill paddy methods. Findings of present study revealed that majority of the paddy growers were young with high education level, possessed small and marginal type of land holding with annul income in the range of Rs.75001/- to 1,50,000/-, medium level of scientific orientation,economic motivation,innovativeness respectively and favourable attitude towards to drill paddy technology. Further the findings of the study revealed that the highest gross returns received to farmers adopting were Rs. 85807.50/- and 81000.80/- per ha for transplanted and drill paddy cultivation methods respectively. The highest net returns at Cost A realized by the paddy farmers adopting drill paddy method of cultivation i.e. Rs.54738.28 per hectare. The highest benefit cost ratio (BC ratio) was released by the farmers adopting drill method of paddy cultivation at Cost A, Cost B and Cost C respectively.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113382
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Meteorological Parameter on Growth and Yield of Different
           Varieties of Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) in the Bundi District,
           Rajasthan, India

    • Authors: Gopal Kushwah , Bishwarup Mehera , Kuldeep Singh
      Pages: 2209 - 2215
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted in a farmer field of Bundi district, Rajasthan, Department of Environmental Science and Natural Resources Management College of Forestry, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences Prayagraj, during Rabi 2020-2021. The experiment used a factorial randomized block design with three different planting dates: D115 October, D2–5 November, and D3– 25 November, as well as three different varieties: V1- Annapurna, V2-Azad -111, and V3- SS- 10. The findings discovered The maximum germination percentage (78.51%) and lowest germination percentage (66.78%) of seeds per plot were found in plots D1 and V1 (15th October + Annapurna). The maximum number of branches (4.00) were found in D1 and V3 (15th October + SS-10), while the lowest number of branches were found in D3 and V1 (25th November + Annapurna) (2.33). D1 and V1 (15th November + Annapurna) reported the highest plant height of 26.00, 91.38, and 124.15cm at 30, 60, and 90 DAS, whereas D3 and V3 (25th November + SS-10) recorded the minimum plant height of 19.00, 25.54, and 67.95cm at 30, 60, and 90 DAS. D3 and V3 (05th November + SS-10) had the highest blooming percentage (50.41), whereas D3 and V2 (25th November + Aazad-111) had the lowest flowering percentage (46.18). D1 and V3 (15th October + SS-10) had the highest seeds/pods (7.0), whereas D3 had the fewest (4.0).D2 and V3 (05th November + SS-10) had the highest grain yield (12.68), whereas D3 and V1 (25th November + Annapurna) had the lowest grain yield (11.01). Variety-1 plant height was shown to have a substantial positive relationship (Annapurna).
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113383
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Nutrient Management Practices on Carbon Pools Following 13 Year
           of Cropping with Soybean (Glycine max) Based Cropping Systems in Vertisol
           of Central India

    • Authors: Priyanka Jain, Brijlal Lakaria , Rekha Shrivastav , Yagini Tekam
      Pages: 2216 - 2224
      Abstract: Organic manure application has its significant impact on the soil health. Low organic matter in tropical soils is a major factor contributing to their poor productivity. Soil properties have been continuously influenced by the management practices and land uses, in which latter one has been, identified as profound influence on soil properties especially on soil organic carbon. A thirteen year experiment on soybean based cropping system in a vertisol of central india under organic farming was used for this investigation An investigation was carried out on “Soil organic carbon dynamics under long-term nutrient management in soybean based cropping system” at the Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal on an on-going research project on organic farming. The effect of organic, integrated and inorganic nutrient management was assessed in three cropping systems viz. soybean (JS 335)-wheat (Malwa Shakti), soybean-mustard (Pusa Bold) and soybean-gram (JG 130) on aggregate size fractions, carbon content in aggregate as well as soil organic carbon pools dynamics on a split plot experimental design with three replications. The study relevant to dynamics of soil organic carbon pools revealed higher content of soil organic carbon, labile carbon, water soluble carbon, SMBC as well as dehydrogenase activity that varied between 1.04 and 0.86 percent; 440 and 538 mg kg-1, 52.97 and 70.43; 288 and 375 mg kg-1, 88 and 137 µg TPF g-1 soil d-1, respectively in surface 0-15 cm soil under organic nutrient management.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113384
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Evaluate the Effect of Different Packaging Materials on the Shelf Life and
           Quality of Banana Fruit

    • Authors: Abhishek Pradhan , Poonam, Rahul Singh Sikarwar , Asha Kushwah
      Pages: 2225 - 2232
      Abstract: The experiment was carried out to determine the impact of shelf life on banana cv. grand naine under various packing materials during storage for the current study in the Department of Horticulture lab at ITMU from October to December 2022. In this experiment, low-density polybags and black newspaper bags were employed as packing materials. paper bag, cardboard gunny bag high-density polybag white paddy straw with banana leaves Banana samples were taken at intervals of four days after each treatment to test a range of biological and physical traits, including pH, physiological weight, and peel colour. As these values were given for the analyses of variance and ANNOVA, the treatment group showed the greatest physiological weight reduction as compared to the control group; however, the Treatment T6 high-density white polybag showed the lowest physiological weight loss and the most appealing colour. is recorded in the treatment T6 high-density white polybag, whereas the peel's least yellow hue is observed throughout treatment to regulate the highest total soluble solid brix value was recorded in Treatment T1 low-density black polybag, and the minimum values recorded for these parameters are found in Treatment T0 control, while the maximum ph value was recorded in Treatment T7 banana leaf and the minimum ph value was noted in Treatment T0 control. According to the observational data, the banana fruit's pH rose as it ripened, further from the present experimental findings. The best packaging material suitable for the enhancement of shelf life and maintenance of visual appearance and quality for bananas is low-density black polythene Treatment T1.
      PubDate: 2023-11-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113385
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessing Low-cost Capacitive Soil Moisture Sensors: Accurate, Affordable,
           and IoT-ready Solutions for Soil Moisture Monitoring

    • Authors: Srijeeta Majumder , Gummadala Kasirao , Perli Himavarsha , Himanshi, Sonu Chaudhary , Khauhelo Patricia Sekopo , Taj Tanwar, Jatin Verma
      Pages: 2233 - 2242
      Abstract: This research, conducted at G D Goenka University, assesses the performance of low-cost capacitive soil moisture sensors in comparison to the standard Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) sensors, with a focus on accuracy, reliability, cost-effectiveness, and IoT integration. The results indicate that these sensors are highly accurate, exhibit low error rates, and are a cost-effective alternative to TDR sensors, making them well-suited for large-scale deployments in agricultural and environmental applications. The study's findings support the integration of these sensors into IoT-based soil moisture monitoring systems, with recommendations for optimizing their performance in specific use cases, thereby contributing valuable insights to the field of soil moisture measurement.
      PubDate: 2023-11-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113386
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Population Dynamics of Defoliator Pests of (Arachis hypogea L.) in
           Different Staggered Sowings

    • Authors: N. Priyanka , O. Shaila , M. Anuradha , V. Divya Rani , M. Rajashekhar
      Pages: 2243 - 2250
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to assess the incidence of defoliator pests of groundnut in three different staggered sowings. The experiment was laid with three treatments and seven replications which was carried out at RARS (Regional Agricultural Research Station), Palem, Nagarkurnool district, Telangana state which is having hot and dry climate.  The data has been correlated with various weather parameters, including Maximum temperature, Maximum temperature, RH-I and RH-II. The variety K-6 was grown in three staggered sowings (D1: 1st Oct; D2: 15th Oct; D3: 1st Nov). There was a less population of leaf miner during D1 the correlation studies revealed that tobacco caterpillar showed a non-significant negative correlation with the Tmax ºC (r= -0.233) and a significant positive correlation with Tmin ºC (r= 0.370) and RH-Ⅱ (r=0.640). whereas gram caterpillar showed a positive significant correlation to Tmax (r= 0.256) and Tmin (r= 0.097) and a negative significant correlation towards RH-Ⅰ (r= -0.186) and RH-Ⅱ (r= -0.501).
      PubDate: 2023-11-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113387
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Geospatial Land Evaluation of Medinapur Sub-watershed for Crop Suitability
           and Sustainable Crop Plan

    • Authors: N. L. Rajesh , K. Basvaraj , Krishna Desai , Chaitra, Kirana Kumara , Sahana
      Pages: 2251 - 2273
      Abstract: A study was conducted to reveal the land capability and its suitability to crops in the semi-arid region of North-Eastern Karnataka state, India. Alternate crop plan was proposed with suitable interventions at soil phase level, based on the prevailing climatic regimes and soil-land limitations. Cadastral parcels of Medinapur sub-watershed overlaid on IRS-P6 LISS-IV merged Cartosat-1 satellite imagery was used for interpreting soil units. Soil profiles and morphological studies were made to classify entire sub-watershed (covering 4890.46 ha) into ten soil series and these soil series, further classified into 23 soil phase/management units. The results revealed that major area of 1163 ha (23.79%) covers the soil phase unit “KMLmC2” with deep (100-150 cm) clay textured, gently sloping (3-5 %) and moderately eroded (e2) lands. Two land capability classes (IIIes and IVes) were found in the study area with topography, soil erosion, texture, drainage and soil fertility as major limitation factors. Red gram (59.64%) and Sorghum (18.86%) covering maximum area in the sub watershed were assessed for crop suitability to land. To estimate the significance of crop suitability criteria to land, linear regression analysis was performed with assigned rank values of independent variables. Suitability of these crops was found that the 77.84 % of land was moderately suitable (S2) to redgram with limitations of rooting condition, erosion and topography, only depth showed significant contribution to redgram suitability with R2 = 0.744. Sorghum was highly suitable (S1) to 21.12 % of land and soil depth and pH were significantly contributing to suitability of sorghum with R2 = 0.746. The estimation of criteria for land suitability to Sorghum and Redgram was significant at 5 per cent level. In common soil depth resulted as major contributing factor in deciding land suitability to crops.
      PubDate: 2023-11-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113388
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • An Overview of Solid Waste Management Scenario and a Comparative Analysis
           of its Related Legislation in India

    • Authors: Amrendra Bhushan, Nishita Giri
      Pages: 2274 - 2282
      Abstract: Solid waste poses a major threat to the environment, aesthetics, and human health which also includes the spread of various communicable diseases. Due to rapid industrialization, urbanization, and uncontrolled population growth, India is witnessing an unresolved problem in terms of solid waste management (SWM). The appropriate execution of SWM can play a pivotal role in achieving sustainable development and is highlighted in many global agendas, visions, and charters. A sustainable SWM may help achieve some of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which is also known as Agenda 2030. It is a set of 17 interlinked global goals that are to be achieved by the year 2030. However, the government is putting in various efforts in terms of bringing various sector-specific stringent laws that make authorities more powerful in the proper enforcement of the rule, and Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016 (SWMR) is one among them. This paper presents a general overview of the solid waste generation and management scenario of our country and a comparative analysis of prevailing SWMR with the Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000.
      PubDate: 2023-11-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113389
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessment of Genetic Variability for Morpho-physiological and Yield
           Traits in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    • Authors: Babita Bhatt , Swati, Jai Prakash Jaiswal, Rubina Khan , Sivendra Joshi , Divya Chaudhary
      Pages: 2283 - 2291
      Abstract: In order to estimate genetic variability parameters for seventeen traits of wheat, 28 F1s were obtained by crossing 8 parents in 8×8 diallel fashion, excluding reciprocals and evaluation trial was laid down in randomised complete block design at Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. Analysis of variance revealed that highly significant differences between genotypes exist for all seventeen characters. Eleven out of seventeen characters were observed to exhibit elevated values for both the PCV and GCV. The observed phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) values was determined to be greater than the genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) values, indicating that the expression of traits is comparatively less influenced by environmental factors. A significant degree of heritability, along with a notable genetic advance, was observed for various traits, including flag leaf area, followed by grain yield, biological yield, canopy temperature depression (CTD), harvest index, tillers per plant, peduncle length, grains per spike, awn length, plant height, grain filling duration, spikelet per spike, spike length, and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) content. This study has thus identified significant genetic variability in wheat traits, highlighted traits with high heritability and genetic advance, and suggested that these traits could be targeted for improvement in wheat breeding programs.
      PubDate: 2023-11-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113390
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Study on G x E Interaction of Sorghum Lines (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    • Authors: Charu Jamnotia , Usha Saxena , Somya Arora , Kirti Singh , Jyoti Singh, Megha Baghel
      Pages: 2292 - 2299
      Abstract: The study was conducted to determine the stability of sorghum germplasm for grain yield as well as the amount and nature of genotype by environment interactions for grain yield in order to find and recommend stable high yielding variants. The trial was arranged in a randomized block design (RBD) in three replications. Germplasm were evaluated in 2 environments in Indore in 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 in main cropping seasons. 60 sorghum germplasm was evaluated under Thirteen morphological traits viz., Days to 50% flowering, Days to maturity, plant height (cm), Number of leaves per plant at the time of flowering, Leaf length of 4th leaf (cm), Leaf width of 4th leaf (cm), Panicle length (cm), Panicle width (cm), No. of Primary branches per panicle, No. of grains per primary branch, Grain yield/Plant (g), Leaf Area of 4th leaf (cm²), 100 seed weight (g) were recorded for 3 randomly selected plants for each germplasm per replication. Linear regression model for stability suggested by Eberhart and Russell was employed. Genotype x Environment interactions were found significantly in similar trend for the traits namely, days to 50% flowering, number of leaves per plant, leaf length of fourth leaf, leaf width of fourth leaf, panicle length, panicle width, number of primary branches per panicle, number of grains per primary branch, leaf area of the fourth leaf, grain yield per plant and 100 seed weight. It shows consistent results over years. Genotype x Environment interaction also revealed that the genotype SEB12025 found consistent for primary branches per panicle, grain yield. The germplasm E- 246 found suitable for seed weight, panicle width, Width of fourth leaf. Apart from POP-18, POP 27-1, EC-6, ERN-32, Gird-30, Gird 33-1, VKG 34/47, VKG 34/37, ER-15, EC- 16, ER-1, SEB 12025, E-207, ER-21, Gird-36, EGN-1, E-207, ER-3, Gird-41, E- 284,E-246, ER-3,Gird-41,Gird-5,ERN-32,GGUB-20, ELG-25,Sor 86,NCC-1,E-246 and ELG-31 no genotypes found consistent for any of the character. The characters which were found stable for a particular genotype should further be improved to develop stable and high-yielding genotypes for sustainable production. More locations and years could be taken to obtain a database about genotype x environment interaction to draw a more valid conclusion.
      PubDate: 2023-11-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113391
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Protein and Total Free Amino Acid Content Evaluation of Improved and Local
           Varieties/Germplasm of Spine Gourd Momordica dioica Roxb. (Family -

    • Authors: Pankaj Kumar , Jay Singh , R. N. Kewat, Ajay Pratap Singh , Prem Kumar , Yogendra Pratap Singh
      Pages: 2300 - 2305
      Abstract: Spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb., 2n = 2X= 28) is a nutritionally rich, perennial and dioecious cucurbit with good assortment of adaptability. Varieties of spine gourd improved germplasm/varieties collected from farmers' field and were sown in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with Three replications at Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh, India during monsoon season 2020. Biochemical characteristics of spine gourd analysis revealed that maximum Protein content (3.09mg/100g) was found in variety Kheri-3,1. Total free amino acid content (6.90mg/100g) was found in variety NDMD-2. Minimum protein content was found in the variety Arka Bharat (2.94mg/100g) and Total Free Amino acid content was reported in the variety Ambika-K-13,6 (6.27mg/100g). Based on observation, variety Kheri-3,1 and NDMD-2 were found superior in both Protein and Total Free Amino acid parameters followed by germplasm Arka Bharat and Ambika-13,6 respectively.
      PubDate: 2023-11-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113392
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Weed Population Dynamics under Organic, Bio-dynamic, Conventional Bt and
           Non-Bt Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    • Authors: D. V. S. Akshay , N. D. Parlawar , J. P. Deshmukh , A. S. Riar , N. M. Konde
      Pages: 2306 - 2314
      Abstract: Aim: In order to compare the weed seed bank and population dynamics under organic, biodynamic, Bt-conventional, and non-Bt conventional management systems of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), a field experiment was carried out. Study Design: Randomized Block Design (RBD) Place and Duration of Study: bioRe-FiBL research trails, bioRe Association, Kasrawad, Khurgone, Madhya Pradesh during the kharif season of 2020-21. Methodology: Five distinct crop management techniques were used in the field experiment, each duplicated four times, and the experiment was set up using a randomized block design. The treatments were distributed at random to different plots. The five management treatments were Absolute Control (no fertilizers), Conventional management of non-Bt cotton, Conventional management of Bt cotton, Bio-dynamic and Organic management of cotton. For the duration of the experiment, four 1 m × 1 m (1 m2) quadrats were randomly placed on each experimental plot's four sides, and different biometric observations were recorded from each quadrant according to its treatment. For the purpose of collecting the necessary observations, two of these quadrants were regularly weeded every 20 days, while the other two were left unweeded for the duration of the experiment. Results: The dominant weed species includes Panicum dichotomiflorum, Cyperus rotundus, Paspalum dilatatum, Euphorbia hirta, Acalypha indica and Digeria arvensis. Poaceae was the dominant family in terms of composition. There was very less variation in the weed flora between the treatments. Significantly higher weed seed bank, weed species, weed density and weed dry weight were observed in Organic and Biodynamic cotton than in the Conventional cotton. Weed control efficiency was found to be maximum in the Conventional cotton compared to the Organic and Biodynamic cotton. Conclusion: From the experiment, it can be concluded that the Conventional cotton especially Conventional management Bt Cotton was found to be most efficient among all the treatments. However, the Organic cotton was observed with high number of overall plant species and best in conserving the plant species biodiversity.
      PubDate: 2023-11-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113393
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Herbicide on Root Nodules, Phytotoxicity and Economics of
           Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    • Authors: Santosh Kumar Dubey , Arun Kumar , Ved Prakash
      Pages: 2315 - 2321
      Abstract: The field experiment was done during Rabi season of 2011-12 at Agronomy Research Farm of NDUA&T, Kumarganj, Faizabad, UP. The fresh biomass and dry biomass nodules plant-1 (mg), branches numbers and grain yield significantly supreme was noted in weed free plot. Fresh and dry biomass, branches number was obtained statically at par with treatments pendimethalin 1000 g ha-1 PE, or fb quizalofop 60 g ha-1 PoE or clodinafop 60 g ha-1 PoE at 45 and 60 DAS, 60 DAS and at 90 DAS. The minimum Fresh and dry biomass, branches number was noted with rest all the treatments. Whereas drastic toxicity was detected tracked by oxyfluorfen 200 g + fb clodinafop 60 g ha-1 PoE and pendimethalin 1000 g PE fb imazethapyr 75 g + quizalofop 60 g ha-1 PoE, separately. The greatest drop in grain yield of chickpea were noted in PE application of pendimethalin 750 g tracked by mutual PoE application of quizalofop-ethyl 60 g + oxyfluorfen 200 g ha-1 at 35 DAS. The utmost net economic returns and B-C ratio were noted in PE application of pendimethalin 1000 g and PoE application of clodinafop 60 g ha-1 and PE application of pendimethalin1000 g and PoE application of quizalofop-ethyl 60 g ha-1 at 35 DAS and the net monetary returns and B-C ratio were in negative with application of pendimethalin 750 g PE followed by mutual PoE application of quizalofop-ethyl 60 g + oxyfluorfen 200 g ha-1at 35 DAS and PoE application of oxyfluorfen200 g + quizalofop-ethyl 60 g ha-1 PoE.
      PubDate: 2023-11-04
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113394
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Population Dynamics of Mustard Aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) on
           Cauliflower in Relation to Biotic and Abiotic Factors

    • Authors: Sushila Choudhary , Ram Kishor Meena , B. L. Jat , Akhter Hussain, Pooja Sharma
      Pages: 2322 - 2328
      Abstract: The field experiment was conducted at Horticulture Farm, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner during Rabi 2021/22 to know the population dynamics of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach). The incidence of aphid started in the first week of December and second week of December remained active throughout the crop season during both years. The population of aphid gradually increased and reached to its peak  in the second week of February  and first week of February  in Rabi, 2021/22, respectively. The correlation studies indicated that the aphid population had non-significant correlation with temperature, relative humidity and sunshine hours in both the years. Both the predators, ladybird beetle and syrphid fly had significant positive relationship with aphid population during both the years.
      PubDate: 2023-11-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113395
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessment of Yield Criteria in Bread Wheat through Correlation and Path

    • Authors: Rashmi Bhardwaj , Sanchit Thakur , Muntazir Mushtaq
      Pages: 2329 - 2336
      Abstract: Path coefficient analysis was used by plant breeders to help identify traits that could be useful as a selection criterion for improving crop yield. The path coefficient divides correlation coefficients into direct and indirect effects within the correlation system of traits. When there is a genetic correlation between two traits, the selection for one of them will produce a change in the other trait. In other words, the response of the correlation to the act of selection will take place. The present investigation was conducted during rabi season of 2022-23 at Chamelti Agriculture Farm, MS Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Shoolini University, Solan, Himachal Pradesh. The experiment consisted of 75 genotypes of wheat with three check varieties viz., RAJ 3765, PBW 343 and HP 1633. The experimental field was divided into three blocks of equal size. Twenty-four entries including checks were accommodated in each block. Results indicated that grain yield per plant(g) have a positive and highly significant correlation with biological yield per plant (g), number of productive tillers per plant, harvest index (%), number of grains per spike. Path analysis identified biological yield per plant and number of productive tillers per plant as important direct components for grain yield per plant (g). As per the analysis of variance, variations due to blocks and checks were found to be significant for all the traits. Ten clusters were formed according to Non- hierarchical Euclidean cluster analysis and the maximum inter cluster was recorded between cluster 6 and 8 (86.478), followed by cluster 4 and 8 (83.180). Early maturing genotypes were contained in cluster 1 whereas cluster 4 contained the genotypes which gave the maximus grain yield per plant. High yielding genotypes identified were: DBW- 187, DBW-303, DBW-222, HD-3226 and HS-240. The identified superior can be further utilized in wheat improvement breeding programs.
      PubDate: 2023-11-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113396
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Enzymase Activity of Gut Microbes Isolated from the Rugose Spiraling
           Whitefly Aleurodicus rugioperculatus

    • Authors: Ameer Pasha; B., Muthuraju, R., G. Sivakumar
      Pages: 2337 - 2341
      Abstract: This study investigated the enzymatic diversity among various bacterial isolates of Rugose Spiraling Whitefly (Aleurodicus rugioperculatus), shedding light on their potential industrial applications. Notably, Bacillus cereus (MRSW01) exhibited remarkable amylase and lipase activities, aligning with its reputation as a prominent amylase producer. These enzymes are crucial in the food industry, particularly in starch and lipid degradation processes. Pseudomonas helleri (CHRSW028) demonstrated substantial cellulase activity, essential for breaking down cellulose in plant materials, suggesting its relevance in biofuel production and waste management. Pseudomonas psychrophila (CRSW024) stood out with the highest pectinase and significant lipase activities, both of which find applications in the food and textile industries and the hydrolysis of fats and oils, respectively.  Proteus vulgaris strains MRSW05 and CHRSW02 displayed significant amylase, cellulase, and protease activities, making them versatile candidates for various industrial applications, including detergent formulations and bioremediation processes. Conversely, Hafnia paralvei exhibited comparatively lower enzymatic activities, indicating limited industrial potential. The rich enzymatic diversity within these bacterial isolates and highlight their potential contributions to various industrial sectors, ranging from food and textiles to biofuel production and waste management. Such insights can inform the development of biotechnological applications and processes, ultimately benefitting both industrial and environmental domains.
      PubDate: 2023-11-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113397
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Evaluation of Genotypes for Yield and it’s Contributing Traits in Garden
           Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    • Authors: Putan Yadav , Sunil Kumar , Arjun Singh , Lokesh Yadav, Ramesh Rajbhar
      Pages: 2342 - 2346
      Abstract: The experiment was  conducted  to find out the diversity 44 diverse genotypes during year 2019-20 for quantitative and qualitative traits. Wide range of variations was observed among the studied traits viz., days to 50 per cent flowering, primary branches per plant, node to first flower appears, node to first pod appears, length of pod (cm), pod diameter (cm), number of seed per pod, number of pod per plant, number of pod per 250g, number of seed per 250g, weight of seed per 250g, shelling(%), T.S.S.(0B), pod yield per plant and two visual observation were pod shape and pod colour were recorded. Perusal of per se performance of the genotypes for all the traits studied revealed a wide range of mean values which indicated that the genotypes involved in this study were genetically diverse and have good breeding value, which confirmed the predictions of analysis of variance. Out of 44 genotypes, eighteen genotypes produced significantly higher yield than best check PC-521.
      PubDate: 2023-11-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113398
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Study of the Different Forms of Soil Potassium in Ujjain Tehsil of Ujjain
           District of Madhya Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Sonali Kamle , Yashwant Gehlot , Rinku Kamle , Puspanjali Shukla
      Pages: 2347 - 2353
      Abstract: The current research was carried out in the Ujjain tehsil (Ujjain) district of Madhya Pradesh state, India, with the aim of estimation the different forms of soil potassium and different characteristics of the Soil. Throughout the research region, 150 surface soil samples with a depth of 0 to 15 cm were collected. Collected soil samples were analyzed for physico-chemical properties namely texture, pH, Electrical conductivity, organic carbon and different forms of potassium (K) i.e. Water Soluble Potassium, Exchangeable Potassium, Available Potassium, Non-exchangeable Potassium, Lattice Potassium and Total Potassium. To observe that the soil texture of Ujjain district is varied from silty clay to clay, soil pH ranged from 7.01 to 8.15, electrical conductivity was varied from 0.10 dSm-1 to 0.79 dSm-1, organic carbon is varied between 0.30 to 0.60 % and The research region's ranges for different forms of potassium i.e. Water Soluble Potassium, Exchangeable Potassium, Available Potassium, Non-exchangeable Potassium, Lattice Potassium and total K were 3.10-24.00 mgkg-1, 118.38-196.12 mgkg-1,129.95-206.70 mgkg-1,200.0-410.0 mgkg-1 ,7943.75-17515.71 mgkg-1 and 8500-18000.0 mgkg-1, in that order. The mean value of Water Soluble Potassium, Exchangeable Potassium, Available Potassium, Non-exchangeable Potassium, Lattice Potassium and Total Potassium was 11.47 mg kg-1, 148.67 mg kg-1, 160.11 mg kg-1, 330.16 mg kg-1, 12478.11 mg kg-1 and 12968.96 mg kg-1, respectively.    
      PubDate: 2023-11-06
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113399
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Studies on Reproductive Biology of Yellow Stem Borer, Scirpophaga
           incertulas Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the Changing Climate

    • Authors: Gangappa Nayak , Prabhuraj A., Sujay Hurali , S. G. Hanchinal , M. Bheemanna, B. G. Koppalkar , J. M. Nidagundi
      Pages: 2354 - 2361
      Abstract: Studies on reproductive biology of yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas walker in the changing climate scenario conducted at Agriculture Research Station, Gangavathi during 2020-22.Results on post eclosion behavior of yellow stem borer revealed that the maximum female moths emerged between 18:00 and 21:00 hrs from among the emerged moth the female calling was observed between 23:00 and 02:00 hrs. The time of mating commenced after the calling period and was observed between 23:00 and 03:00 hrs. The average pre-oviposition period, oviposition period and post-oviposition period were completed in 1.09 ± 0.09, 1.28 ± 0.17 and 0.85 ± 0.25 days, respectively. The longevity of adult females and males was about 3.23 ± 0.29 and 2.66 ± 0.33 days, respectively. The total number of eggs laid varied from 68 to 221 in number with an average of 146.95 ± 43.98 per female. The Operational and intrinsic sex ratio of YSB were observed to be female-biased with 1:1.35 and 1:1.44 of male to female moths, respectively.
      PubDate: 2023-11-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113400
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Carbon Sequestration Potential of Trees in Urban Vegetation Islands: A
           Case Study

    • Authors: Pragya Dadhich , Anita Malav , Poonam Jaiswal
      Pages: 2362 - 2371
      Abstract: Aim: Increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and other “greenhouse” gases contribute to an increase in atmospheric temperature. Trees act as a sink for CO2 by fixing carbon during photosynthesis and storing excess carbon as biomass. The current study focuses on the contribution of vegetation within Janki Devi Bajaj Government Girls College, Kota towards carbon sequestration potential and climate regulation. Study Design: Non-destructive method of biomass estimation was used to measure the GBH of individual trees on the campus. Place and Duration: The study was conducted in Janki Devi Bajaj Government Girls College, Kota in Rajasthan, India from July 2022 to June 2023. Methodology: Above-ground biomass (AGB) and below-ground biomass (BGB) were calculated with the help of field measures of diameter at breast height (DBH) of the trees using allometric equations and Carbon equivalent was calculated with scientifically verified formula. Results: The present study enumerated a total of 849 trees belonging to 43 tree species on the campus. The most dominant species was Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels with a total of 163 trees followed by Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb (121 trees) and Eucalyptus obliqua L'Her (97 trees). The above-ground biomass (AGB) and below-ground biomass (BGB) of all the trees on the campus are equivalent to 373937 kg and 56090.54 kg, respectively. The total biomass accumulated is 430027.5 kg and the total carbon content of the campus trees is equal to 215013.75 kg. The total carbon sequestered by all the trees in a year is 788.38 tons. In other words, on average carbon sequestered by an individual tree on the campus is 928.60 kg/year or 0.93 tons/year. Conclusion: Urban green islands are likely to have a wider impact on biomass accumulation in turn carbon storage and sequestration in comparison to other structural parameters like species richness or density. Thus, in urban areas, the amount of potential carbon storage is positively influenced by increasing biomass.
      PubDate: 2023-11-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113401
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Genetic Variability, Correlation and Path Coefficient analysis in
           Multi-parent Derived F2 Population of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    • Authors: Eshwar, O. Sridevi , Mahmadshafi, Anil Jadhav , Revanasiddayya, Channabasava, V. C. Raghavendra , Prem Sagar S. P., Rohit Kumar , Sainath, Khaja Mohinuddin D.
      Pages: 2372 - 2379
      Abstract: Genetic variability, correlation and path coefficient analysis for 8 yield contributing traits were studied in multi-parent derived F2 population obtained from crossing 4 commercial hybrids (S-85×IndamRohini) × (Mahyco-701×Indus-1105). For the current study, 285 multi-parent derived F2 plants were used. The study indicated the presence of immense variability for all the traits under study viz, days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight and fruit yield per plant.  High variability was witnessed due to the higher values of PCV and GCV and large variation in the F2 range for all the traits in comparison with the parental range of all the traits. This might be due to the involvement of the genome constitution from multiple parents. All the characters exhibited high estimates of heritability coupled with high genetic advance, hence all the characters can be improved through selection. Correlation indicated that yield per plant was significantly and positively associated with average fruit weight and number of fruits per plant. Average fruit weight and number of fruits per plant showed the highest positive direct effect on fruit per plant. Direct selection can be executed considering these traits as the main selection criteria to minimize the indirect effect of other traits. The genetic variability displayed in the present study can be well exploited to broaden the genetic base of the crop. Meantime, the efficient use of significant correlation and the relatedness in the commercially target traits can yield fruits of rapid trait improvement in near future.
      PubDate: 2023-11-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113402
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Different Sowing Dates and Spacing on Soybean Varieties for Seed
           Quality during Rabi Season

    • Authors: Mohod N. B., Verma A. K., Seema Nemade , Paslawar A. N., Magar A. S., Langangmeilu G.
      Pages: 2380 - 2384
      Abstract: Soybean, the number one oil seed crop in the world has recently occupied an important place in the edible oil and agricultural economy of the country. Lack of good quality seed is one of the major problems encountered in soybean production. Soybean as commercial crop is successful in kharif season as the agro-climatic conditions are found suitable. But climatic conditions may cause the adverse effect on seed production of different soybean varieties in kharif season. Hence, to fulfill the demand of quality soybean seed, efforts has been made to produce the soybean in rabi season. The research trial on rabi season soybean seed production was conducted during 2021-22 at the Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola. The field experiment was laid out in split-split plot design having three replications. Total nine treatment combinations were there, consist of three sowing dates viz., 16 Dec, 31 Dec and 15 Jan in main plot and three spacing as 30 x 10 cm, 45 x 10 cm and 60 x 10 cm in sub plot and three varieties are AMS 100-39, RSC 10-46 and KDS-753 in sub-sub plot. It can be revealed from the experimental results that graded seed yield (kg ha-1) and weight of graded 100 seed (g) were extensively greater in early sown crop of 16 Dec., variety RSC 10-46 and spacing 45 x 10 cm. Sowing date 16 Dec recorded minimum under size seed weight.  In variety RSC 10-46 recorded minimum under size seed weight followed by variety AMS-100-39 (44.96 kg ha-1) and spacing of 45 x 10 cm. Treatment combination D1V2(sowing on 16 Dec. and variety RSC 10-46) recorded minimum under size seed yield. Significantly maximum weight of graded 100 seed was recorded by sowing date 16 Dec. (10.44 g) ,variety RSC 10-46 and spacing 45 x 10 cm.
      PubDate: 2023-11-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113403
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Tillage and Crop Residue Management on Weed Dynamics and Productivity of
           Direct Seeded Rice

    • Authors: Piyush Kumar Bhargaw , S. Karmakar , C. S. Singh , Arvind Kumar Singh , Kuldeep Kumar
      Pages: 2385 - 2394
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during 2019 and 2020 to evaluate the effect of tillage and residue management on weed dynamics and productivity of direct seeded rice with four tillage systems; Conventional tillage in rice and wheat, Zero tillage in rice and wheat and two rotational tillage sequences that alternated between Conventional tillage and Zero tillage whereas four residue management practices; residue applied in both season, residue applied in kharif season only, residue applied in rabi season only and without residue in both season. The experiment was carried out at research farm of Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, Jharkhand. Results revealed that in direct seeded rice having highest grain yield (10%), straw yield (8%) and yield attributes (10-15%) as well as lesser weed density and weed dry matter found under Conventional tillage during both the seasons of experiment but performance of zero tillage was slightly better (3-4%) in second year as compared to all treatments. Whereas surface retention of residue @5 tonne/ha was significantly more effective in controlling different category of weeds, it decreased up to 60-75% weed population, resulting increment in grain yield up to 19% and 23% during first and second year, respectively, as compared to plot receiving no residue.
      PubDate: 2023-11-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113404
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Bulking Agents on Physical, Chemical and Biological Properties
           of Latex Sludge Waste

    • Authors: T. Sreeshna , B. Aparna , B. Rani , Gowri Priya
      Pages: 2395 - 2400
      Abstract: Aim: Production of latex sludge waste biocompost by co composting with different bulking agents like sawdust, zeolite and cattle manure in various ratios and checking its feasibility in agriculture use. Study Design: The experiment was conducted by completely randomized design with ten treatments and three replications Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Kerala Agriculture University between November 2022- February 2022 Methods: The latex sludge waste collected from HLL, Trivandrum was used for the study. The latex sludge waste is mixed with different bulking agent like sawdust, zeolite and cattle manure in different ratios. Composting inoculum is used equally in all the treatments to fasten the composting process. The resultant composts were analysed for physical, chemical and biological properties.   Results: The compost prepared from latex sludge, zeolite, sawdust and cattle manure resulted higher values of major macro and micro nutrients and good physical properties compared to other treatments. A gradual decrease in C:N ratio and carbon dioxide emission was observed for a period of 120 days of composting in all the experiment. The results showed that the co-composting of latex sludge with sawdust, zeolite and cattle manure produces quality compost. All the ratios of the mixture of composts were found to be a better growth medium for crops compared to application of latex sludge alone Conclusion: Composting of latex sludge is found to be one of the economic and environmentally viable option for the management of large quantity of latex sludge waste. The compost showed optimum physical, chemical and biological properties and can be utilize for crop production.
      PubDate: 2023-11-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113405
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Economic Analysis of Low-Cost Tractor Drawn Plastic Mulching Machine

    • Authors: Bhupendra Singh Parmar , Atul Kumar Shrivastava , Satish Kumar Singh , Anurag Patel , Sachin Gajendra
      Pages: 2401 - 2408
      Abstract: The global yearly use of plastic mulching in agriculture is 2.1 million tonnes in 2020.  Agriculture is the second most significant source of GHG emissions, accounting for around 13.5% of total global anthropogenic emissions. Plastic mulching is of paramount importance in horticulture for its numerous benefits. It reduces weed development, conserves soil moisture, regulates soil temperature, and prevents soil erosion by forming a protective barrier. Traditional method of mulching is laborious, time consuming having lower efficient and accurate mulching as compared to developed low cost tractor operated mulch laying machine. It comprises soil bed preparation, drip laying, mulch laying, mulch covering, and making holes for transplanting simultaneously. This paper contains the cost analysis of developed machine and its comparison with traditional mulching method. The draft, operational speed, power requirement effective field capacity, field efficiency, and energy consumption of developed machine were found as 175 kgf, 3.5 km.h-1, 21.93 kW, 0.36 ha.h-1, 85.6 %, and 21.43 MJ.ha-1 respectively. In cost estimation it is found that the cost of operation and overall cost of developed machine were 1048.3 ₹.ha-1 and ₹13000 respectively. It turned out that the machine was economical, saving time, energy, and operating costs. By introducing the concept of affordability and simplicity, the machine has the potential to change cultivation practices, increase yields and improve farmers’ livelihoods in agricultural regions.
      PubDate: 2023-11-07
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113406
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Stability Analysis for Seed Yield and Related Traits of Oat (Avena sativa
           L.) under Varied Conditions of North-Western Himalayas

    • Authors: Rajni Devi , V. K. Sood , Arushi Arora
      Pages: 2409 - 2418
      Abstract: This study was undertaken to determine the stability of oat genotypes for seed yield under different environmental conditions prevalent in north- western Himalayas. One hundred and twenty-one genotypes including five checks were evaluated in simple lattice design for three years (Rabi 2015-16 to 2017-18). The stability was estimated using Eberhart and Russell model for six traits viz., days to 50% flowering, days to 75% maturity, biological yield per plant, harvest index (%), 1000-seed weight (g) and seed yield per plant (g). The pooled analysis of variance showed that genotypes behaved differently for all the traits over the environments. The most stable performing genotypes identified were S8-217, UPO-119, Oats-17 and Oats-8655, respectively. However, the best performing and stable genotypes for seed yield were JPO-24 and Oat- 79. Thus, the genotypes identified as stable and well adapted over test environments could be exploited as valuable gene pool in further breeding programme, for developing stable genotypes with high yield potential or could be tested in multi-locational trials to release as a cultivar.
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113407
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Enhancing Nutrient Content and Uptake in Chickpea through Phosphorus and
           PSB Inoculation in Custard Apple Based Agri-horti System

    • Authors: Makhan Singh Karada , Yashpal Singh , Riya Mishra , Dheer Agnihotri , Kamal Kishor Patel , Niraj Kumar Yadav , Deepak Singh
      Pages: 2419 - 2428
      Abstract: The field experiment was conducted during the Rabi season of 2018-19 at the Agricultural Research Farm of Rajiv Gandhi South Campus, Banaras Hindu University, Barkachha, Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh, India. This study aimed to investigate the effects of varying levels of phosphorus and inoculation with Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) on nutrient content and uptake in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in a custard apple-based agri-horticultural system. The experimental design employed a Factorial Randomized Block Design with three replications and twelve treatments, resulting in a total of 36 plots. The treatments ranged from different levels of phosphorus and PSB inoculation, denoted as T1 to T12. The study assessed the impact of these treatments on nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) content in grain and straw, as well as their uptake by chickpea. Findings reveal that higher PSB levels and phosphorus applications led to increased nitrogen and phosphorus content and uptake in both grain and straw, demonstrating a significant synergistic effect. Conversely, potassium content and uptake exhibited limited response to PSB inoculation. Moreover, protein content and yield in grain and straw significantly improved with these treatments.
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113408
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Estimation of Genetic Variability, Correlation and Path Analysis for Yield
           and Some Yield Contributing Traits in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    • Authors: Pankaj Kumar Singh , Lokendra Singh , Som Veer Singh , Shiva Nath , Vikash Yadav, Aman Mishra , Chandramani Kuswaha
      Pages: 2429 - 2440
      Abstract: A study was conducted at the Student Instruction Farm, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, during the rabi season of 2022–2023, to estimate the genetic variability, correlation, and path coefficient analysis of yield and its contributing traits in cross combination. Ten wheat cultivars were grown in a randomized block design with three replications. The analysis of variance revealed that the treatments were highly significant for all the characters. The higher magnitudes of genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were recorded for grain yield, biological yield, harvest index and plant height. The high heritability in broad sense was estimated for all the characters except for day to 50% heading, flag leaf area (cm2), number of leaves/main tiller, number of spikelets/ear and protein content (%).A high value of heritability suggests that it could be due to a higher contribution of genotypic components. High heritability associated with high genetic advantage as a percentage of the mean was found for plant height, harvest index, biological yield, and grain yield, indicating a predominance of additive gene action in the inheritance of these traits. The estimated correlation coefficients showed high direct genotypic and phenotypic correlations for days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, productive tillers/plant, test weight, biological yield, and harvest index. In contrast, flag leaf area (cm2), number of leaves/main picks, number of kernels/spike, and seed hardiness were negatively correlated with grain yield. Path analysis showed that biological yield had the largest direct positive effect on grain yield, followed by harvest index, ear length, plant height, and days to 50%, indicating that these factors were the largest contributors to grain yield.
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113409
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Unravelling the Genetic Potential of Buckwheat Genotypes through Yield and
           Yield Attributing Parameters in Semi-tropical Climate of India

    • Authors: Sunil Kongari , Vaidurya Pratap Sahi , Vallala Chanukya Varma , Dongala Manoj Kumar
      Pages: 2441 - 2452
      Abstract: In this comprehensive study on buckwheat genotypes conducted in the semi-tropical region of Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India during the rabi, 2021 growing season, a range of critical agronomic traits, including plant height, flowering time, days to maturity, test weight, and economic yield, were systematically analyzed. The analysis of variance highlighted the significance of both replicates and treatments in explaining variations across these traits. The genotypes exhibited remarkable diversity, with notable differences in plant height, with IC-26755 exhibiting the tallest plants at 99.75 cm, while IC-582972 displayed the shortest at 14.93 cm. Moreover, flowering time varied widely, with IC-582972 and IC-329201 being non-flowering genotypes. These variations in plant height and flowering time can have significant implications for crop management and breeding strategies. Assessment of genetic variability and genetic advancement underscored the substantial potential for improving traits such as economic yield and days to flowering through selective breeding efforts. Genetic coefficients of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) were calculated, with "Economic yield" displaying the highest values, signifying significant inherent variability among genotypes for this trait.Phenotypic and genotypic correlation analyses unveiled intriguing relationships among traits, offering valuable insights for crop management and breeding strategies. There were strong positive correlations between days to 50% flowering and total weight, suggesting that genotypes taking more time to flower tend to produce greater total weight.Phenotypic and genotypic path analyses further elucidated the intricate interplay of traits, providing actionable insights for trait improvement through selective breeding. In the phenotypic path analysis, it was observed that total biomass fraction had a direct positive effect on days to 50% flowering and days to 80% maturity, suggesting that genotypes with higher biomass fractions tend to have later flowering and maturity.
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113410
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Influence of Different Plant Growth Regulators and Boron on Growth, Yield
           and Sex Expression of Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Mol.) under
           Garhwal Valley

    • Authors: Mukesh Choudhary , D. K. Rana , Abha Rawat
      Pages: 2453 - 2459
      Abstract: The present investigation was carried out at Horticultural Research Centre, Department of Horticulture, H. N. B. Garhwal University, Uttarakhand, India during summer season, 2018-19. The existing experiment was laid out in randomized block design following 13 treatments replicated thrice. The various growth parameters as well as yield attributes and yield were recorded during the experimentation. The result of the present investigation showed that GA3 @ 50 mg/kg was registered as the best treatment in terms of vine length (376.13 cm), fruits per vine (6.60), sex ratio (F:M) 1:11.07 and yield per vine (1357.33 g) and NAA @ 200 mg/kg+ Boron @ 0.1% with relation to the number of main branches per vine (10.87), length of fruit (24.57 cm), diameter of fruit (90.10 mm), yield per plot (10.29 kg/plot) and yield per hectare (457.33 q) in bottle gourd. However, GA3 @ 50 mg/kg+ Boron @ 0.1% number of node per vine (24.27), number of node bearing first flower GA3 50 @ mg/kg(4.20) and NAA @ 150 mg/kg(4.20), weight of fruit NAA @ 100 mg/kg+ Boron @ 0.1% (838.0 g) , total soluble solid GA3 @ 30 mg/kg(5.04 ºBrix) and NAA @ 200 mg/kg ascorbic acid (12.90 mg/100g). The cultivar (Pusa Naveen) gives better response with the application of GA3 @ 50 mg/kg for sex expression and NAA @ 200 mg/kg+ Boron @ 0.1% for various growth and yield parameters. It can be recommended to enhance the production of bottle gourd under Garhwal valley of Uttarakhand.
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113411
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Extent of Adoption of Agro Advisories Disseminated Through Annapurna
           Krishi Prasar Seva (AKPS) at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Palem in Telangana
           State, India

    • Authors: Banda Rajashekar, Mandla Rajashekhar , Thalla Prabhakar Reddy , Maligi Jagan Mohan Reddy , Adhi Shankar , Kommagoni Ramakrishna , Ongole Shaila , E. Jyoshna, Afifa Jahan
      Pages: 2460 - 2464
      Abstract: Agriculture is the most sector in developing countries like India, the majority of them depending on it, to upliftment of their economic status. Most farmers have adopted traditional agricultural practices for farming in the last several years. In this context, the extension system depends on the ICT platform, and it plays a greater role in uplifting the livelihoods of rural people by effectively providing need-based and location-specific information. ICT’s today serving many purposes in agriculture, business, and social development activities, etc., especially in agriculture from crop production technologies to marketing, facilitating forward & backward linkages to the farm produce. In this study impact of agro advisories disseminated through AKPS inferred that 42.50 per cent of the respondents were grouped under the medium category of adoption followed by high (40.00%), low (10.83%) and very low (06.67%) respective categories. Most of the respondents irrespective of the crop had a high level of knowledge about modern technologies. It was also found that the knowledge level of the farmers changed with what they had been growing seasonal crops. 
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113412
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Energy Consumption in Wheat Crop Production in Central Region of Uttar
           Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Anand Chaudhari , Sheen C. Moses
      Pages: 2465 - 2474
      Abstract: The research investigated energy usage in the production of wheat crops in the central region of Uttar Pradesh, India among different groups of farmers. The study involved surveying a total of 250 farmers from 59 villages, gathering data about various inputs utilized in wheat crop cultivation during the period of 2020-22. Using standard energy equivalents, the inputs required for wheat production were quantified in terms of energy. The findings indicated that the overall energy input for wheat production in the region amounted to 20497.1 MJ/ha, with fertilizers, fuel, and seeds contributing to 85% of this energy consumption. Specifically, fertilizers represented 50.2% of the total energy, followed by fuel at 22.6%. The study also revealed that larger and medium-scale farmers utilized more energy compared to those with smaller landholdings, but they also achieved higher grain yields. Among different farming operations, energy usage was highest in fertilizer application, followed by tillage. The average output-to-input energy ratio was calculated at 3.02. Additionally, this ratio differed among farmer categories: 3.26 for large farmers, 3.15 for medium farmers, 3.14 for semi-medium farmers, 3.11 for small farmers, and 2.95 for marginal category farmers. In conclusion, the research established a positive correlation between energy consumption and crop yield.
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113413
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Enhancement of Growth and Physiological Parameters of Marigold (cv.
           'Bidhan-2') through Hydrogels, Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN), and Sodium
           Nitroprusside (SNP) during Hot Summer Conditions in Rayalaseema Region of
           Andhra Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Gandham Aditya , V. Vijaya Bhaskar , K. Swarajya Lakshmi , M. Siva Prasad , V. V. Padmaja , Lalitha Kadiri
      Pages: 2475 - 2489
      Abstract: Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) is a popular ornamental flower known for its vibrant colors and pleasant fragrance. To enhance its growth and productivity, various agricultural inputs like hydrogels, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) have been employed in this study. The present research investigates the impact of these treatments on growth analysis parameters such as Crop growth rate, Relative growth rate, Net assimilation rate and Specific leaf weight in marigold cv. 'Bidhan-2' over a two-year experimentation period (2019-2021) at College of Horticulture, Dr. Y.S.R Horticultural University, Anantharajupeta, Annamayya district of Andhra Pradesh. The experiment consisted of 12 treatments, laid out in factorial randomized block design with three replications under open field condition. Significant variations were observed among different treatments with respect to growth analysis parameters. The results highlight the positive influence of Pusa hydrogel on Crop Growth Rate (CGR) and the benefits of applying 50% nitrogen in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) to stimulate Net Assimilation Rate (NAR). The complex interplay among moisturizing agents, the concentration of CAN and the timing of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) application, offering insights into the intricate mechanisms that influence Specific Leaf Weight (SLW).
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113414
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Evaluation of Physical, Anti-nutritional and Optimisation of Milling
           Characteristics of Quinoa Grains for Sustainable Food Security

    • Authors: Mahendra Kumar , Alpana Singh, Anubha Upadhyay , R. S. Thakur
      Pages: 2490 - 2498
      Abstract: Quinoa is a popular pseudo-cereal belonging from Andean region of South America. Post-harvest processing of quinoa plays important role in product development, further processing storage and shelf life extension of grains. The aim of present study was evaluation of physical properties, anti-nutritional factors of quinoa and quinoa grain were milled in order to investigate milling yield, milling loss, broken quinoa and head quinoa as the effect of milling in pearling. Post-harvest processing of quinoa was done in the form of pearling after dehulling process and obtained intermediate products. Pearling process of quinoa was done for a constant period of 5 minutes and different milling proportions were evaluated under different runs of the machine. In this study, thousand seed weight of quinoa grain observed about 2.50 to 2.58g in different runs. True density of quinoa ranged between 990 kg/cm3 (Max.) to 983 kg/cm3 (Min.) whereas bulk density of quinoa was stated between 680 to 691 Kg/cm3. Porosity of quinoa showed between 0.302 to 0.308. Saponin content in quinoa samples varied between 3.02 and 3.05% whereas phytin was found about 0.81 to 0.93%. Obtained results also showed L and b value increased after processing while a value decreased. Results obtained from processing showed that husk percentage found maximum as 19.01% whereas highest broken quinoa proportion was 23.63%. It was also observed that highest milling yield or recovery percentage was 63.58% while maximum milling loss recorded as 40.63%. Furthermore, the influence of pearling on the milling characteristics of quinoa were investigated. The milling fractions can be used to obtain new bread products with improved nutritional profiles.
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113415
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Investigations on Genetic Variability and Character Association in
           Triticum dicoccum under Salinity Stress

    • Authors: Srivijay S. Malipatil, Suma S. Biradar , Rohit kumar , S. A. Desai , S. S. Gundlur , Sadashiva Tippimath
      Pages: 2499 - 2508
      Abstract: Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting crop yield and quality. Wheat is regarded as a moderately salt tolerant crop; wheat species exhibit high variability that can be conveniently explored to improve wheat species for salt tolerance. Hence, the magnitude of variability for salt tolerance was studied in dicoccum wheat germplasm accessions. High phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variance were observed for grain yield and yield attributes like tillers per meter, biomass, spikelets per spike and harvest index. The heritability and genetic advance over mean were moderate to high for grain yield, thousand grain weight, tillers per meter, biomass, spikelets per spike, harvest index, plant height, days to 50 per cent flowering and days to maturity. Character association studies revealed that harvest index and SPAD at anthesis stage exhibited a positive significant correlation under both saline and control condition. Path coefficient analysis revealed that traits like harvest index, biomass, tillers per meter and days to 50 per cent flowering were showing a high direct effect on grain yield under both saline and control condition. Thus, the present study provides valuable genetic resources for grain yield and yield parameters improvement which are associated with the salt tolerance in wheat species.
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113416
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Occurrence, Ecological and Health Risks of Organic Pollution of the Waters
           from a Tropical Lake System

    • Authors: Konan Kouadio Fabrice Arthur , Yao Marcel Konan
      Pages: 2509 - 2521
      Abstract: The monitoring of the organic pollution level and the ecological and health risks of the waters from the Déganobo lake system were the subject of this study. In its implementation, the water samples were collected monthly in this aquatic ecosystem over a year (from August 2021 to July 2022). The organic pollution level of these waters was assessed using their Chemical Oxygen Demand, determined in accordance with NF T 90-101 standard. The ecological and health risks were assessed based on the SEQ-Eau V2 water quality guidelines. Their COD seasonal mean values were between 220,000±51,872 and 361,333±48,273 mg/L O2. So, their organic pollution was relatively very significant, with the corollary of the zero of its seasonal transparencies and of its seasonal dissolved oxygen contents. The seasonal dynamics of organic matter in these waters was essentially linked to the hydroclimate (rainfall and ambient temperature) on the watershed of this lake system. The low meteorite waters inputs in dry seasons favoured the increase of their COD by the important punctual wastes inputs of various origins (domestic, agricultural, industrial, hospital, etc.); in opposite of the important meteorite waters inputs in rainy seasons causing their renewal. The consequences of their important COD values are severe ecological and health risks, as highlighted by SEQ-Eau V2 water quality guidelines. So, this lake system is under the strong anthropogenic pressures. This study could serve as complementary information on its pollution level and contribute to decision-making for its rehabilitation, its protection within the framework of its sustainable development.
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113417
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Strategies for Management of Pink Boll Worm Pectinophora gossypiella
           (Saunders) in Cotton through Different Methods

    • Authors: G. Narendar , B. R. Madhushekar, K. Avil Kumar
      Pages: 2522 - 2527
      Abstract: The present study of experiment entitled on the strategies for management of pink boll worm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) in cotton though different methods was conducted in famers fields as a form of Frontline Demonstration (FLD). The experiment was conducted in 30 locations in Nalgonda and Yadadri bhuvangiri distrits of Telangana during kharif 2018, 2019 and 2020 respectively. The results revealed that, due to the adoption of IPM practices in addition to good agricultural practices, the average kapas yield was high in IPM demonstration plots (1857.0 kg/ha) with 12.0% increase over the farmers’ practice (1658 kg/ha) during three years of study. The average gross returns of Rs.1,01,007/ha, net returns of Rs.52,027/ha, and Benefit-cost ratio of 2.05 was recorded as higher in the demonstration plot as compared to farmers practice Rs. 90,121/ha, Rs.37,430 and 1.69 respectively during the study period. The additional average net returns of Rs.14,597/ha and reduction in the cost of cultivation of Rs.1912/ha were saved per year.
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113418
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Study the Seasonal Incidence of Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella
           (Linn.) on Cabbage

    • Authors: Chandra Kant , D. V. Singh , Dhruv Singh, Bhupendra Singh, Ritesh Pratap Singh, Lingutla Geethanjali, Rajneesh Pal
      Pages: 2528 - 2535
      Abstract: The present investigation entitled ‘Study the seasonal incidence of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linn.) on cabbage’ was carried out on variety ‘Golden Acre’ during Rabi, 2021 and 2022. At Crop Research Centre, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut (UP). The data were recorded on five randomly selected plants once in a standard week. Diamondback moth population reached a maximum level of 9.67 and 9.33 larvae/five plants during 3rd week of January in Rabi 2021 and 4th week of January in Rabi 2022. The P. xylostella was active throughout the year with a varying degree of infestation.
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113419
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessing the Performance of Latest Greengram Varieties under Improved
           production Packages in Thiruppur, Tamil Nadu, India

    • Authors: Kathiravan M., Vanitha C., Ayyadurai P., Krishnaveni A., Yuvaraj M.
      Pages: 2536 - 2540
      Abstract: On Farm Testing (OFT) in Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMV) resistant and high yielding greengram varieties was conducted by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Tirupur in farmers field during kharif 2020. Totally 15 farmers each with one acre were selected in three villages of Pongalur Block in Tirupur district of Tamil Nadu.  Critical input viz., seeds of greengram varieties CO 8 and DGG 1 were distributed to the farmers and the varietal performance were assessed along with the existing variety under cultivation VBN 2. The plant physiological parameters viz., plant height, number of nodules / plant and yield attributing parameters such as number of pods / plants, number of branches/plant, Mung bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMV) disease incidence (%), yield (q ha-1) and B:C ratio were recorded. The results revealed that, among the three varieties, Greengram CO 8 was recorded more number of pods (42) and minimum incidence of Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMV) disease incidence of 3.2 per cent resulting in the highest yield of 9.5 q ha-1 followed by DDG  1 with 34 pods/plant, MYMV disease incidence of 7.3 per cent  and yield of 8.4 q ha-1 compared to the existing variety VBN 2, which recorded  the lowest number of pods (31 Nos.), yield (7.6 q ha-1) with the highest MYMV disease incidence (12.5%). The highest B:C ratio was recorded in greengram variety CO 8 (2.92) which was followed by DDG 1 (2.58). It was concluded that, farmers of Tirupur district in Tamil Nadu were satisfied with cultivation of greengram CO 8 variety due to the lowest disease incidence, higher yield and Benefit Cost Ratio.
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113420
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Problems and Suggestions under Extent of Adoption of Recommended Mushroom
           Production Technology by Mushroom Growers of Jabalpur District (M. P.),

    • Authors: Kanta Kumar Sahu, Anushka Khare, Devanshu Dixit, Jitendra Chandravanshi
      Pages: 2541 - 2545
      Abstract: Mushroom production technology offers a promising avenue for income generation and sustainable agriculture. However, the extent of adoption of recommended mushroom production technology by mushroom growers in Jabalpur District, Madhya Pradesh, remains a matter of concern. This study aimed to identify the key problems hindering the widespread adoption of recommended practices and propose suitable suggestions to overcome these challenges. The researches involved conducting surveys and interviews with mushroom growers in Jabalpur District to assess their current practices and level of technology adoption. The study revealed several critical issues, including limited awareness and knowledge about modern mushroom cultivation techniques, inadequate access to training and extension services, and the lack of financial resources for adopting advanced technologies. Additionally, the absence of supportive policies and market linkages posed significant barriers for mushroom growers.To address these challenges, several practical recommendations were put forth. First, targeted awareness campaigns and training programs should be organized to educate mushroom growers about the benefits of adopting recommended practices. Secondly, government agencies and agricultural institutions should enhance extension services and provide hands-on technical support to mushroom growers. Moreover, financial institutions should introduce specific loan schemes and subsidies to facilitate the adoption of modern technologies. Strengthening market linkages through farmer-producer organizations and value-chain development initiatives will enable mushroom growers to access better markets and improve their income prospects.Overall, this study sheds light on the obstacles faced by mushroom growers in Jabalpur District concerning the adoption of recommended mushroom production technology. The suggested interventions offer practical solutions to enhance technology uptake and promote sustainable mushroom cultivation practices. Implementing these recommendations can potentially lead to increased productivity, income diversification, and improved livelihoods for mushroom growers in the region.
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113422
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Unveiling the Nutritional Spectrum of Millet: An In-depth Review

    • Authors: Neelendra Singh Verma , Om Prakash Prajapati, Rajkumar Prajapati, Ramesh Lohare, Aditya Shukla
      Pages: 2546 - 2559
      Abstract: A comprehensive analysis of millets, small-seeded Poaceae family grains that have been traditionally cultivated in semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia. The primary objective is to elucidate the multi-faceted advantages of millets, encompassing nutritional, metabolic, and immunological benefits, in addition to their significance in sustainable agriculture and ethical trade. Millets are rich in essential macronutrients and micronutrients, including but not limited to, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. They also contain bioactive compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, and antioxidants. The ethical dimensions of millet cultivation are emphasized, focusing on fair trade protocols that could significantly elevate the socio-economic status of marginalized farmers. Millets also hold distinct cultural and traditional relevance in various indigenous communities, thus positing a loss in millet agriculture as a loss of cultural heritage. A critical gap in current literature is identified in the domains of farming practices, climate adaptability, and socio-economic implications of millet cultivation. Although millets have been evaluated for their nutritional profile, research is scant in areas like optimal agronomic practices, the potential impact of climatic variations, and social-economic ramifications of millet-based agriculture. Future research paradigms could profitably focus on the utility of millets in managing chronic lifestyle disorders and their integrative role in sustainable agricultural frameworks.
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113423
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Optimization of Seed Priming Techniques for Seed Enhancement in Sunflower
           (Helianthus annus L.)

    • Authors: Pavitramata G. B., Bindu Priya P., Pallavi M., Rajeswari B.
      Pages: 2560 - 2568
      Abstract: Seed invigoration treatments are crucial for enhancing germination and seedling growth, particularly under adverse environmental conditions. Various techniques, such as hydropriming, seed hardening, osmopriming, and pre-sowing dry heat treatments have been proved to improve seed quality. Sunflower is an important oilseed crop, however, its area is now confined to specific niches and therefore any efforts to increase its production and bring back its glory are highly welcome. Sunflower crop is highly susceptible to environmental stresses further limiting its cultivation. Hence identification and standardization of suitable techniques to improve the germination capacity and planting value of sunflower especially under stress conditions is the need of the hour. The present study is taken up in aged and fresh seeds of two sunflower hybrids viz., DRSH-1 and GK-2002 to standardize hydropriming, thermo priming and pre-chilling treatments so as to the enhance planting value when sown under sub optimal conditions. It was found that hydropriming for 16 hrs, thermopriming for 6hrs at 35oC and pre chilling for 7 days at 10oC showed highest improvement in the seed quality parameters like germination percentage, seedling vigour indices I and II, field emergence and speed of germination. These findings offer promising avenues for improving seed quality and viability in sunflower.
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113421
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Spatial Variability in Soil Micronutrients and Soil Separates of Ujjain
           Tehsil of Ujjain District of Madhya Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Yashwant Gehlot , Aakash, Roshan Gallani, Sonali Kamle , Veer Singh , Rinku Kamle
      Pages: 2569 - 2579
      Abstract: Mapping of soil properties is an important operation as it plays an important role in the knowledge about soil properties and how it can be used sustainably. Knowledge of soil variability of any region is crucial for development of site-specific management practices for that region as this will enhance the crop productivity and maintain the good soil health. With this background, present study was conducted to quantify the spatial variability of different soil physical properties and soil available micronutrients in Ujjain tehsil (Ujjain) district of Madhya Pradesh state, India. A total one hundred fifty geo-coded surface (0-15 cm depth) soil samples, were collected across the study area. These samples were analyzed using standard method for different some soil properties viz: soil texture (sand, silt and clay) and soil available micronutrients, viz. extractable zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) in laboratory. The range of sand, silt, clay, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn in the study region were varied from 9.15 to 24.06 %, 24.00 to 41.55 %, 40.20 to 58.60 %, 0.12 to 1.66 mg kg-1, 2.06 to 6.22 mg kg-1, 3.70 to 10.40 mg kg-1, and 2.41 to 14.64 mg kg-1, respectively. The data were analyzed using standard statistical methods and geostatistics, which included creating semi-variograms and mapping by standard kriging procedures. Semi-variograms were produced for soil properties and their regional distributions were plotted. The observed soil parameters were best represented by four models: Exponential, Circular, Gaussian, and Hole effect. The modelled variables showed strong and moderate spatial dependencies, as demonstrated by the Nugget/Sill (Co/Co+C) ratio. The distribution maps of soil features may serve as a reference for implementing site-specific crop management in soils with comparable characteristics. Further, this research indicates the relevance of GIS- application in soil variability investigations.
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113424
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Impact of Demonstration of Nutrition Garden for Year-round Nutrition
           Security in Farm Families of Prakasam District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Suneetha B., Durga Prasad N. V. V. S.
      Pages: 2580 - 2585
      Abstract: Malnutrition is a nationwide issue that is quickly getting worse. Malnutrition hinders social and mental development in addition to slowing down a child's growth and development and also pregnant, lactating women, adolescent girls. It also increases the likelihood and length of illness.Long-term consequences of under nutrition include cognitive and development deficiencies as well as lowered infection resistance.With the purpose of evaluating the nutritional security of farm households, the current study seeks to comprehend the value of nutrition gardens. The current study was carried out in Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, consecutively for two years.From the recipients of the KVK front line demonstration programme on nutrition security, 90 respondents (50 with nutrition gardens and 50 without) were chosen at random.The 200 m2 area wasfound appropriate for the medium family group of five members. Among the vegetables cultivated in nutria garden, highest benefit was obtained from the cultivation of okra (1: 2.38) followed by spinach (1: 1.48). There was increase of 90g of consumption of vegetables after nutri garden.  After nutri garden the normal weight percentage of individuals was 51.1% and underweight individuals were 35.5%.The nutritional garden encouraged families to include freshly picked vegetables in their daily diets, which helped to improve their families' nutritional condition.
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113425
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of the Combined Nutrient Fertilization on Elephant Foot Yam under
           Coastal Condition

    • Authors: A. P. Gokul, J. Preethi Fetricia
      Pages: 2586 - 2590
      Abstract: As the demand for chemical fertilizers has seen a steep upward trend which has resulted in damage of soil as well as human health. Integrated use of chemical fertilizers along with organic manures has been seen as a alternative method to reduce the dependence upon chemical fertilizers. Hence a the field experiment was carried out to study the effect of intergrated nutrient management practices on available nitrogen, phosphorus, potash in soil along with uptake and economics of elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeonifolius (Dennst.) Nicolsan) cv. Gajendra. The study was laid out in randomized block design with thirteen  treatments with three replications. Corms were cut into pieces weighing 800 g for planting, dipped in cow dung slurry and placed for drying. After drying, they are placed in the  pits and covered with soil. The treatments comprised of three levels of Farmyard manure (FYM) (20 t ha-1), Vermicompost (5 t ha-1), consortium bio fertilizer (5 Kg ha-1) and organic manures of different combinations. The observations of soil properties were recorded before and after harvesting. From the study it was observed that soil organic content was increased significantly due to the application of organic manures along with biofertilizers, whereas soil physical and chemical properties were unaffected.
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113426
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Evaluation of Insecticides against Cowpea Sucking Insect Pests in Madhya
           Pradesh's Gird Region

    • Authors: Suman Choudhary , P. D. Singh , Prince Mahore, Dheerendra Mahor , Mitesh Makwana
      Pages: 2591 - 2596
      Abstract: During the Kharif season of 2022–2023 at Research Farm, Rajmata Vijyaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, a field experiment was carried out to assess the effectiveness of seven treatments: T1 - Dimethoate 30 EC (1000 ml); T2 - Imidachloprid 17.8 SL (125 ml); T3 - Acetamiprid 20 SP (125 gm); T4 - Flubendiamide 48 SC (500 ml); T5 – Emamectin benzoate 5 SG (100 gm); T6 – Fipronil 15% SC (2000 ml); and T7 - Un-treated. The observations were made three, seven, and fifteen days after the first and second pesticide sprayings, respectively. The data indicated that Imidachloprid 17.8 SL @ 125ml ha-1 was the most effective insecticide out of the six, and that it was better at controlling the incidence of sucking insects in cowpea, such as aphids (Aphis craccivora (Koch)), thrips (M. distalis (Karny)), whiteflies (A. rachipora (Singh)), and jassids (E. kerri (Pruthi)). However, it was found that Acetamiprid 20 SP was least successful in controlling sucking insects.
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113427
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • A Comprehensive Review of Application of RS, GIS and GPS in Agriculture

    • Authors: Sakshi Bajaj, Shrankhla Mishra , Deepak Chouhan , S. S. Bora , Swati Parashar , Uma Shankar Bargi, Vaishalee Billore
      Pages: 2597 - 2608
      Abstract: Food and fibre, two of humanity's most fundamental requirements, are met by agriculture. In the last century, new farming methods have been introduced, such as the Green Revolution, which has enabled agriculture to keep up with the increasing demand for food and other agricultural goods. But population growth, rising income levels, and increased food demand will probably put more stress on the planet's natural resources. As the detrimental effects of agriculture on the environment become more widely acknowledged, new methods and strategies need to be able to meet future food needs while preserving or lessening the environmental footprint of agriculture. Informed management decisions aiming at increasing crop production could be made with the help of emerging technologies like artificial intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), big data analysis, and geospatial technology. Many scientists, engineers, agronomists, and researchers use a variety of technologies each year to boost agricultural output while minimising pollution, yet these efforts have a negative environmental impact. Precision agriculture examines how technology might be applied to enhance agricultural practises relative to traditional methods while minimising negative environmental effects. Precision agriculture greatly benefits from the deployment of remote sensing technologies, which also presents new chances to enhance agricultural practises. Geographically, latitude and longitude data can be recorded for field data (slope, aspect, nutrients, and yield) using the global positioning system (GPS). Because of its ability to continuously determine and record the right position, it can build a larger database for the user. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which can handle and store these data, are needed for the additional analysis. This review will offer you an overview of Remote Sensing technology, GPS, and GIS, and how it might be used for precision agriculture.
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113428
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Studies on Genetic Diversity and Stress Indices for Salinity Tolerance in
           Triticum dicoccum

    • Authors: Srivijay S. Malipatil, Suma S. Biradar , S. A. Desai , S. S. Gundlur , Rohit kumar , Karthik Narayanaswamy , T. Harish Vikram , Vishwasgowda C.
      Pages: 2609 - 2621
      Abstract: Salinity stands out as a crucial abiotic stress factor that significantly impacts both crop yield and quality. Wheat, considered a moderately salt-tolerant crop, offers a wealth of variability and diversity within its species, presenting an accessible avenue for enhancing wheat's salt tolerance. Consequently, this study investigated the extent of genetic diversity for salt tolerance among sixty Triticum dicoccum germplasm accessions. In both saline and control condition, the genotypes were divided into three and nine separate clusters respectively, showing that there was a significant level of genetic variability among the genotypes by multivariate analysis. It was observed that biomass was the largest contributor (85.19 %) to the divergence in the saline situation. Among the yield parameters under saline condition, tillers per meter followed by thousand-grain weight and spike length were observed to be important. Thirteen genotypes were salt-tolerant, according to the Stress susceptibility index (SSI). The stress tolerance index (STI) was defined as a useful tool for determining the high yield and potential stress tolerance of genotypes. Based on the stress tolerance index, only eight genotypes were said to be tolerant.
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113429
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Cultural Characteristics of Rhizoctonia solani Causing Sheath Blight of

    • Authors: Sonu Sharma , S. K. Tripathi , Vijay Kumar Kashyap , Bharti Rajput , Bahrat Kumar
      Pages: 2622 - 2627
      Abstract: Sheath blight of rice caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn is emerging as a very destructive disease causing heavy yield losses. The present study was conducted at Department of Plant pathology, JNKVV, College of Agriculture, Rewa, (M.P.) with eight culture media  viz., Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Czapek’s Dox Agar (CDA),Richards medium (RMA), Corn Meal Agar (CMA), Oat meal agar (OMA), Rice leaf extract agar (30%),Rice seed extract agar (10%) and Rice seed extract (10%)+ (2%) sucrose were evaluated against R. solani. It can be concluded that Potato dextrose agar (88.0 mm) and Czapek’s dox agar (87.7 mm) medium supported maximum mycelial growth of R. solani isolated from rice. Whereas, least mycelial growth (75.8 mm) was observed in Rice seed extract agar and Richards agar medium. Mycelial growth was excellent fast, abundant and off white on Potato dextrose agar. Whereas it was fast, abundant and on Czapek’s dox agar. Sclerotia of the fungus initiated within 3 - 4 days in different culture media. Maximum number of sclerotia was produced in Oat meal agar (54.0) closely followed by Potato dextrose agar (51.2) and Czapek’s dox agar (44.6). Maximum weight of 10 sclerotia was recorded in potato dextrose agar (1030.6 mg) followed by Czapek’s dox agar (920.3 mg) and Oat meal agar (884.7 mg). Maximum size of sclerotia were formed in Potato dextrose agar followed by Rice seed extract agar and Corn meal agar.
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113430
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Liquid Organic Manures on the Performance of Sweet Corn (Zea
           mays L. saccharata)

    • Authors: M. Sushmitha , B. Rajendra Kumar , P. Amara Jyothi , P. Gurumurthy
      Pages: 2628 - 2632
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during rabi 2022 at Block D of the College Farm, Agriculture College, Naira. The experiment was laid out in Split-plot design with three main plots.M1:100% RDF (180-60-60 NPK Kg ha-1) + FYM @10 t ha-1, M2:75% RDF (135-45-45 NPK Kg ha-1) + FYM @10 t ha-1. M3:0% RDF- Control and four sub-plotsS1: Liquid azospirllum+PSB+KRB+ZnSB+@1.25 L ha-1 each at knee high stage, S2: Vermiwash spraying twice @5% at knee high and tasseling to silking stages, S3: Panchagavya spraying twice @3% at knee high and tasseling to silking stages andS4: Drava Jeevamrutham spraying twice @10% at knee high and tasseling to silking stages Results revealed that 100% RDF (180-60-60 NPK Kg ha-1) + FYM @10 t ha-1 (M1) recorded maximum fresh cob yield (16409 kg ha-1) and stover yield (17481 kg ha-1). Among the subplots: Liquid azospirllum+ PSB+ KRB+ ZnSB+@1.25 L ha-1 (S1) recorded maximum fresh cob yield (14091 kg ha-1) and stover yield (15623 kg ha-1). The interaction effect of different doses of RDF and liquid biofertilizers on fresh cob yield, stover yield and HI was found to be nonsignificant. Hence, it can be concluded that different doses of RDF and liquid biofertilizers are advantageous for weet corn cultivation on sandy loam soils of North costal region.
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113431
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Seed Priming and Moisture Conservation Measures on Growth and
           Yield of Baby Corn (Zea mays L.) under Rainfed Upland Situation

    • Authors: Himashree Goswami , Jayanta Kalita , Nikhilesh Baruah , Nandita Baruah , Hemendra Choudhury
      Pages: 2633 - 2641
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during rabi, 2019-20 and 2020-21 at the PG experimental plot of the Department of Agronomy, BNCA to assess seed priming and moisture conservation measures on productivity and profitability of baby corn under the rainfed situation. The soil of the experimental site was acidic (pH 4.64), sandy loam in texture, medium in organic carbon (0.64%), low in available N (232.06 kg ha-1), P2O5 (13.84 kg ha-1) and K2O (115.27 kg ha-1). The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with 4 levels of seed priming methods. S0: No priming; S1: Seed priming with 1% urea solution; S2: priming with 1% potash solution (MOP); S3: priming with 3 times diluted cow urine and 3 levels of soil moisture conservation measures viz. M0: No mulching; M1: use of bio mulch; M2: use of black polythene mulch. Results revealed that the highest and quickest seedling emergence (11.96 numbers m-2) was recorded under the treatment of seed priming with three times diluted cow urine which was at par with the treatment of seed priming with 1% urea and 1% KCl (MOP) solution. The total number of leaves m-2, total leaf area plant-1 and leaf area index (LAI) of baby corn were also changed significantly due to different moisture conservation measures but those parameters remain static due to different seed priming methods. The CGR (g m-2 day-1), RGR, (g g-1 day-1) and NAR (mg cm-1 day-1) of baby corn were also changed significantly due to different soil moisture conservation measures. The highest and most significant baby corn yield without husk(22.59 q ha-1) with 305.61 q ha-1 of green fodder yield along with harvest index (6.00), production efficiency (25.67 kg‑1 day-1 ha-1) and nutrient use productivity (9.41 kg‑1 ha-1 kg-1) were recorded under the treatment where black polythene mulching was used as soil moisture conservation measure.
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113432
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Influence of Different Pulsing Solutions on Postharvest Life of Tuberose
           (Polianthes tuberosa L.) cv. Prajwal

    • Authors: Vishal Srivastava, Satendra Kumar, Sunil Malik , Mukesh Kumar , Shishu Pal Singh , Bhim Singh
      Pages: 2642 - 2653
      Abstract: Tuberose flower (Polianthes tuberosa L.) is a perennial and bulbous flowering plant, related to the Amaryllidaceae family and now it is placed in family Agavaceae. The investigation entitled “Influence of different pulsing solutions on postharvest life of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) cv. Prajwal” was carried out at the experimental farm and laboratory of Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, College of Horticulture, SVPUAT, Meerut during the year of 2021-22 & 2022-23. Experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design with 10 treatments and 3 replications. In the present experiment we aimed at prolonging the vase life and improving the quality of cut spike of tuberose by Pulsing or hydration procedure using different noble treatments in tuberose, as the main challenge was to reduce abscission of buds, initiation of bud opening mechanism and leaf yellowing due to the sensitivity, vascular infections, high rate of respiration and inhibition of ethylene production. These differences in physiological behavior of cut stem dipped in different pulsing solution are very important to consider when developing post harvest physiology of tuberose. In the present finding we have primarily focused and observed under the light of pertinent literature available substantiated with robust evidence thus we derived the overall best treatment for different parameters for improving the vase life of tuberose that were recorded under the treatment T9 (Sucrose 15% + 8-HQC 300 ppm) followed by the treatment T6 (Sucrose 10% + 8-HQC 300 ppm) and T8 (Sucrose 15% + 8-HQC 200 ppm) resulted in most of the postharvest parameters such as amount of pulsing solution consumed (13.16, 15.82 ml), days taken to opening of floret (2.53, 2.54 days), floret diameter (3.38, 3.40 cm), vase life (10.78, 10.80 days), weight change/loss in cut spike (13.29 %, 14.52 %), fungal infection, fragrance score (2.95, 2.96), freshness index (4.97, 4.98) and moisture content (89.89, 85.60, 83.21%).
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113433
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Decadal Rainfall Trends and Variability Across Nigeria

    • Authors: Ugochukwu Kingsley Okoro
      Pages: 2654 - 2665
      Abstract: This work examined the decadal trends and variability of rainfall data over Nigeria from 1979 to 2021 (42 years). Observational monthly rainfall data was obtained from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NiMET). The data underwent statistical analysis to illustrate its spread and variability using metrics such as mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation, linear regression was applied to reveal the trends or changes over time, the coefficient of correlation was employed to assess the statistical relationships of rainfall across the distinct climate regions of Guinea, Savanna, and Sahel, respectively.  There were varying levels of annual and seasonal rainfall across the regions, with Port Harcourt receiving the highest annual and seasonal rainfall in the Guinea region. Sokoto and Maiduguri exhibit the highest annual rainfall in the Sahel region. The decadal analysis highlights the fluctuations in rainfall anomalies, as some decades showed surplus rainfall while others displayed negative deviations, indicating the changing nature of regional rainfall patterns.
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113434
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Photovoltaics: Panacea to Africa Sustainable Development

    • Authors: Ugochukwu Kingsley Okoro
      Pages: 2666 - 2675
      Abstract: African countries are falling behind in attaining the sustainable development goals. They are in dire need of electricity, which had been declared the essential tool to achieve most goals, to meet their population’s utilizable energy requirement. With renewables being globally adopted energy options to save the changing climate and preserve the environment and biodiversity, photovoltaic (PV) is advocated to remedy the energy deficiency for sustainable development. All over Africa indicates viability in PV energy owing to the incident global solar radiation (Gh). Nigeria being a case study shows awareness of PV energy, which has manifested in the attitude towards its penetration and the expected benefits. With the anticipated threat of climate change on PV performances, the projected incident Gh across Nigeria has shown two epochs which are yet viable for PV energy by the year 2100. Foreseeable challenges in the PV penetration and investments have been presented as wrongdoings and whistleblowing is advocated as the policy that will ensure the PV penetration for sustainable development.
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113435
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Farmers’ Perception towards Climate Change and its Effect on Agriculture
           in Kolar District of Karnataka, India

    • Authors: Harish Kumar H. R., Sreenivasa Murthy D., Ajayakumar, Suman K. M., Karuna Sri K.
      Pages: 2676 - 2683
      Abstract: This study aimed to assess farmers' perception of climate change and its implications for agriculture in Kolar district, Karnataka, during the year 2021-22. Data from 80 respondents were collected using a multi-stage random sampling technique, employing a well-structured, pre-tested questionnaire administered through personal interviews. Descriptive statistics, regression analysis, and Garret's ranking technique were employed for data analysis. The results revealed that 40% of the respondents had been aware of climate change for the past five years, with farmers' personal observations being a primary source of information. Most farmers identified climate change through rising temperatures, irregular rainfall patterns, and increased overall rainfall. Respondents also noted climate change effects on agriculture, such as increased pest and disease occurrences, altered sowing periods, and heightened competition from weeds. Regression analysis indicated that factors such as education, the use of social media, sources of weather information, and farming experience had a positive and significant influence on farmers' perception levels. As a result, this study suggests the development of climate-based advisory services, including weather alerts, climate-resilient crop varieties, adaptation strategies, and enhanced weather forecasting systems by relevant government departments to mitigate the impacts of climate change on agriculture in the region.
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113436
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • A Study on How Climate Change Affects the Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene
           (Wash) Sectors in Barguna Sadar Upazila, Bangladesh

    • Authors: Amitav Kumar Kundu
      Pages: 2684 - 2696
      Abstract: Aims and Study Area: A study conducted to identify how climate change affects water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector for Barguna Sadar Upazila. Methodology: This study applied inductive reasoning methods with inductive and statistical generalization criteria. Used mixed method approach where both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from study areas. However, this study also triangulated findings from literature review and conducted Geo Spatial Analysis that enhanced the strength of the study findings. Results: From the quantitative findings it was identified that 32% reported they don’t even know what the risk factors of climate change are, among them 41% female which is very alarming for WASH. However, from the KII respondents reported to have waterlogging, increase of temperature, heavy rainfall, and scarcity of water in their locality. 37% of respondents reported to not available the drinking water in all year round and they mentioned it happens due to lower groundwater level, increase salinity in water, damage of water source and draught. 60% of the respondents reported that their latrines were destroyed by a cyclone/tidal surge/water lodging and 33% reported to experience water borne disease in the past three months. Only 10% of respondents agreed that they have sufficient knowledge of the result of climate changes in the WASH sector. Only 5% of women agreed they have access to WASH Management systems during cyclone/tidal surge/water lodging. A total of 30% respondents reported that climate change resulted in extra burden for women and girls in WASH sector. Conclusion: This study identified that mostly climate change impacts women and girls as have less knowledge on impacts of climate changes in WASH. From those findings this study identified some recommendations which can improve the conditions in WASH sector in Barguna as well as Coastal belt of Bangladesh.
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113437
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Impact of Krishi Bhagya Yojana (KBY) Farm Pond Technology on Semi-Arid
           Farmers in North Eastern Transition Zone of Karnataka State in India

    • Authors: Seedari Ujwala Rani , Pramod Kumar , Naveen P. Singh , S. K. Srivastava , Ranjit Kumar Paul , R. N. Padaria , Modem Ravi Kishore , B. N. Sandeep Naik , Sirisha Tadigiri
      Pages: 2697 - 2706
      Abstract: Efficient water management through farm pond technology is a great initiative by Krishi Bhagya Yojana scheme in 2015. Out of 240 sample farmers, about 180 farmers are adopters and 60 are non adopters of farm pond technology in Bidar and Gulbarga districts of Karnataka. Majority of farmers prefer farm pond of size 30 m × 30 m × 3 m as during Kharif season with storage capacity of 2700 cubic metric which is able to   irrigate 1.5 ha land area .Through analysis, it is found that, the cropping intensity was increased to 225 per cent from 203.75  which accounts 9.47  per cent change  to that of the base year. The percent change in area under rabicrops was relatively more when compared with farm ponds which directly increase their income by sale of crops in market. The number of migrating people decreased from six to three persons after adoption of KBY by the beneficiary farmers. The most influencing factors in adoption of farm pond technology by farmers are access to rural credit, diffusion of information and adoption of high value crops.
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113438
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Growth and Quality Profiency of Onion (Allium cepa L.) by Application of
           Biofertilizer, GA3 and Humic Acid

    • Authors: Himanshu Verma , B. R. Pandey , B. P. Bisen , B. K. Verma , Manoranjan Biswal , Lallu Ram Awasthi
      Pages: 2707 - 2715
      Abstract: During the Rabi season in 2022-2023, a comprehensive trial was carried out at the Department of Horticulture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya. Employing a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD), the research assessed twelve different interventions, consisting of biofertilizers, GA3, humic acid and a reference group. Notably, the combined application of Azotobacter, Azospirillum, GA3 and humic acid (T10) showcased substantial improvements in several growth parameters. These encompassed plant height (62.23 cm), number of leaves (10.18), length of leaves (54.08 cm), leaf area (624.65 cm²), leaf area index (4.16) and leaf diameter (8.14 mm). Additionally, this treatment recorded the highest Total Soluble Solids (TSS) at 12.37 °Brix. Moreover, the inclusion of sulphur and humic acid significantly affected the pyruvic acid content, with T10 recorded the highest pyruvate values (5.28 µmol/g). Conversely, the reference group (T12) only recorded slight improvements, emphasizing the noteworthy impact of the interventions on both the growth and qualitative characteristics of the onions.
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113439
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • High-tech Farming Techniques in Fruit Crops to Secure Food Demand: A

    • Authors: Praveen Kumar Ausari, Pooja Sanjay Gharate , D. R. K. Saikanth , Okram Bijaya Devi , Raj Bahadur , Yumnam Somi Singh
      Pages: 2716 - 2730
      Abstract: After China, India is the second-largest fruit producer in the world. India produces a wide range of fruits, the most common of which are mango, banana, citrus, guava, grape, pineapple, and apple. In addition to these, a sizable area is dedicated to the cultivation of fruits such peach, pear, almond, walnut, apricot, and strawberry in the temperate group and papaya, sapota, sapota, annona, phalsa, jackfruit, ber, and pomegranate in the tropical and sub-tropical groups. Despite having the second-largest fruit production in the world, the supply of fruits still falls far short of dietary needs. The demand for horticulture produce is on the rise and is predicted to continue to rise as per capita income rises and the population becomes more health conscious, which will lead to a need for more production. However, the production must be affordable while maintaining a high level of quality. The available potential must therefore be utilised in order to sustain progress. The technologies must increase agricultural output, quality, and yield variability while decreasing post-harvest crop losses. Additionally, actions will be required to guarantee the prompt supply of high-quality seed and planting supplies. So, it is anticipated that technology-driven horticulture would solve issues related to complementary and nutritional security, health care, and ultimately economic development.
      PubDate: 2023-11-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113440
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Impact of Long-term Use of Fertilizers and Manure on Distribution of
           Soil-inorganic Phosphorus Fractions in a Vertisol

    • Authors: Anil Muniya , B. K. Dixit , P. N. Tripath, Vikas Gupta, Yagini Tekam , Aruna Meravi , Jamu Singh Damor
      Pages: 2731 - 2741
      Abstract: The field experiment was conducted during the kharif season under the AICRP on Long-Term Fertilizer Experiment at the Research Farm, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, JNKVV, Jabalpur (M.P.), India. The investigation was carried out to assess the distribution of P fractions in Vertisol after the harvesting of the soybean crop. Eight treatments were imposed with four replications in a simple randomized block design. The treatments were applied in combination with different doses of fertilizer viz., T1 (50% NPK), T2 (100% NPK), T3 (150% NPK), T4 (100% N), T5 (100% NP), T6 (100% NPK+FYM), T7 (100% NPK-S), and T8 (control). Through the findings, the soil pH and electrical conductivity (dS m-1) did not show significant changes even after the long-term application of various fertilizer levels compared to their initial values. The treatment with 100% NPK + FYM exhibited the highest organic carbon (g kg-1) content and available N, P, and K (kg ha-1) content over the control. The various forms of phosphorus in the soil were observed in the following order: Ca-P > Fe-P > Al-P > Occluded-P > Saloid-P . The Ca-P content was highest when 100% NPK fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) were used together. The analysis showed that the presence of saloid-P significantly influences the availability of phosphorus in Vertisol soil. Based on the current investigation, it is recommended to use integrated nutrient management, which includes both 100% NPK fertilizer and FYM, to prevent phosphorus deficiency in soybean cultivation in Vertisol.
      PubDate: 2023-11-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113441
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessment of Genetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance among
           Different Characters in Tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (Mill.) Wettsd]

    • Authors: Diksha Sangh Mitra , Sanjay Kumar , Shatrunjay Yadav , Shweta Verma, Lokesh Yadav
      Pages: 2742 - 2750
      Abstract: The field experiment was carried out at Horticulture Research Farm No.1, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow during Rabi season 2021-22. In this, twenty genotypes including check cultivars were evaluated to estimate the genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for different characters. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. Characters viz., days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of primary branches per plant, polar diameter of fruit, equatorial diameter of fruit, total soluble solids, number of fruits per cluster, average fruit weight, number of fruits per plant, marketable fruit yield per plant, unmarketable fruit yield per plant and total fruit yield per plant were studied during the experiment. Analysis of variance showed significant differences among genotypes for all the characters under study during the investigation. The Phenotypic coefficient of variance (PCV) was higher than the genotypic coefficient of the variation (GCV) for the characters studied. The highest genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) was observed for unmarketable fruit yield per plant. The moderate GCV was reported for total fruit yield per plant followed by plant height and average fruit weight, polar diameter of fruit, no. of primary branches per plant, marketable fruit yield per plant and equatorial diameter of fruit whereas it was least for TSS followed by days to 50% flowering and number of fruits per cluster. Therefore these characters exhibited high heritability coupled with genetic advance thus show some scope for improvement through selection.
      PubDate: 2023-11-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113442
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Estimation of Crop-coefficients and Evapotranspiration of Field Pea (Pisum
           sativum L.) Using Lysimeter and Empirical Models under Temperate Climate

    • Authors: Yogesh Pandey, Nifa Mehraj , Sushmita M. Dadhich, Yasmeen Akhtar , Zeenat Lateef
      Pages: 2751 - 2758
      Abstract: During Rabi 2020-21, a field experiment was conducted at SKUAST-K, Shalimar, India, focusing on field Pea (Pisum sativum L.). The aim of this study was to determine the water requirement and single crop coefficient (Kc) of pea using a lysimeter setup. Four empirical models were employed to calculate the reference evapotranspiration and were then compared with the actual crop evapotranspiration at different growth stages. The Kc values for field pea were 0.50, 0.80, 1.15, and 1.10 during the initial, development, mid-season and late season stages, respectively. The water requirement was found as 239.9 mm for the whole cropping period of the pea. Among the models, the Penman Montieth crop evapotranspiration model exhibited the closest agreement with the corresponding values obtained in the field through water balance study, yielding RMSE, RSR, and NSE values of 0.97, 9.5, and 11.6, respectively. These findings highlight the significance of using Penman Monteith crop evapotranspiration model for estimating crop evapotranspiration in temperate regions.
      PubDate: 2023-11-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113443
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Evaluating Soil Erosion within the Neyyar Basin in Kerala through RUSLE
           and Geospatial Analysis

    • Authors: R. Gladis , G. V. Asha Rani , Rema K. P., B. Rani , Biju Joseph , M. R. Rehana
      Pages: 2759 - 2771
      Abstract: Soil erosion represents a significant issue in the Western Ghats, especially within the Neyyar river basin in the southern region of Kerala. To address this problem, a research project was conducted in three sub-watersheds of the Neyyar river basin, specifically Neyyar, Mullayar, and Chittar, with the primary goals of quantifying annual loss of soil and creating erosion maps. To predict this, researchers employed the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) in conjunction with Geographic Information System (GIS). To compute the RUSLE factors viz., R, K, LS, C and P for these sub-watersheds, monthly and yearly rainfall, soil texture and organic matter content, length and steepness of slope, crop cover and conservation practices data were used.The results showed that the extent of soil loss varied among the three watersheds. Soil loss ranged from 0 to 92, 257, and 28 tons per hectare per year for Chittar, Mullayar, and Neyyar sub-watersheds, respectively. In 38% of Mullayar, 41% of Chittar, and 45% of Neyyar watersheds, soil loss was relatively low, being less than 10 tons per hectare per year. However, in 35% of Mullayar, 30% of Chittar, and 25% of Neyyar sub-watersheds, soil loss was moderate to very high, ranging from 15 to over 40 tons per hectare per year. These variations in soil loss were attributed to factors beyond just rainfall, such as slope (LS) and soil erodibility (K), indicating that other elements influenced the soil erosion risk. Moreover, it was observed that Mullayar had the highest erosion risk, followed by Chittar watershed, highlighting the significance of factors like slope and soil erodibility in contributing to the loss of soil.
      PubDate: 2023-11-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113444
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Survey and Surveillance on Major Rice Diseases Severity in Karnataka,

    • Authors: Shivakumar, M. B. Patil
      Pages: 2772 - 2780
      Abstract: Rice blast, sheath blight and Grain discoloration diseases of rice were becoming a serious threat to rice crop in Karnataka. The patterns of spatio-temporal distribution of disease incidence were examined in two seasons (Kharif 2012 and 2013) with main objective of statues of rice diseases in paddy growing areas of Karnataka and variability with climatic condition.  Most of the fields in the paddy growing areas of Karnataka were diseased, but significant differences in disease incidence occurred among the some sites in paddy growing areas of Karnataka. The leaf blast severity showed that the highest mean per cent disease incidence 37.20 was observed in Mandya district.and sheath blight severity showed that the highest mean per cent disease incidence 41.76 was observed in Yadgir district. The spatio-temporal distribution of grain discoloration incidence in Kharif 2012 and 2013 varied with districts, the maximum disease was in Bellary (33.82% and 31.24%) followed by Koppal (31.78% and 27.16%), for sheath blight, maximum disease was in Yadgir (36.23% and 41.76%) followed by Raichur (27.16% and 30.59%) and maximum leaf blast disease was in Mandya (37.20% and 36.91%) followed by Ramanagar (36.67% and 36.54%) respectively. Many fungi have been isolated from discolored grain, Curvularia lunata (Wakker) Boed. were found as a dominant pathogen. Survey and surveillance were serve as a precursor for evolving management strategies against the disease effective for the zone in an integrated way for sustainable development of crop in the state.
      PubDate: 2023-11-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113445
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Physico-chemical Characterization of Biochar from Different Biomass

    • Authors: R. Diya , A. V. Meera , B. Rani, N. Leno , J. John
      Pages: 2781 - 2787
      Abstract: Aim: To conduct the physico-chemical analysis of biochar derived from various organic residues, an examination of the physical characteristics including bulk density, water retention capacity, and the chemical properties such as pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, total organic carbon, as well as the concentration of macro and micro nutrients were evaluated. Study Design: Experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with 7 treatments and 3 replications. Place and Duration of Study: The investigation was conducted at Integrated Farming System Research, Karamana, Kerala Agricultural University during 2021-2023. Methods: Organic residues from different sources were converted into biochar utilizing a double barrel Biochar Kiln, and subsequently, the biochars were analyzed in a Soil and Plant Analysis laboratory to determine their physical and chemical properties. Result: Physio-chemical properties of biochar vary significantly with the choice of feedstock material. Banana pseudostem biochar reported the lowest bulk density (0.21 Mg m-3) and highest water holding capacity (327.74%). All the biochar produced were alkaline in nature, and they contained high cation exchange capacity ranging between 9.34 to 14.10cmol (+) kg-1. Macro and micro nutrient contents were comparatively higher in Limnocharis flava biochar and Banana pseudostem biochar. Conclusion: Organic residues can be successfully converted to biochar and results obtained show the suitability of application of produced biochar as a soil amendment.
      PubDate: 2023-11-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113446
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Hormones on Rooting of Apical Cuttings for Propagation of Guava
           Cv. Lucknow-49

    • Authors: S. Yogesh , P. Harikanth , T. Suresh Kumar , B. Madhavi
      Pages: 2788 - 2795
      Abstract: An attempt was made on the propagation of Guava cv. Lucknow-49 during the period of 2022-23 from apical cuttings under mist chamber conditions was undertaken. The apical cuttings were collected from shoot tips measuring about 10 to15 cm treated with different hormones of concentrations viz., IAA @ 2000, 3000 and 4000 ppm; NAA @ 2000, 3000 and 4000 ppm along with IBA @ 3000, 4000 and 5000 ppm and these were compared with control, the treated apical cuttings were planted in 40 cavity protrays and kept till 30 days for root induction under mist conditions. The different growth hormonal applications and its varied concentrations excerted a significant effect on root development in cuttings. Apical cuttings treated with IBA @ 5000 ppm was found better for rooting percentage (69.90 %), survival percentage (67.50 %), time taken to root (23.75 days), number of roots per cutting (15.15, 16.25, 17.53 and 24.64) and root length (7.33, 9.78, 13.85 and 18.33 cm) respectively at 30, 60, 90 and 120 DAP, fresh root weight (3.93 and 10.15 g), dry root weight (1.13 and 2.18 g) at 60 and 120 DAP, respectively. The rooting hormone IBA performed better in formation of rooting in apical cuttings when compared to IAA, NAA and untreated control. It can be revealed from the current study that propagation of guava through apical cuttings when treated with IBA @ 5000 ppm was proved as a better propagation method for rooting of cuttings.
      PubDate: 2023-11-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113447
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Evaluation of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Genotypes for Growth, Phenological
           and Yield under North-Eastern Dry Zone of Karnataka, India

    • Authors: Priyadharshini D., A. R. Kurubar , Ashok Hugar , Kapil Patil , B. V. Tembhurne
      Pages: 2796 - 2802
      Abstract: Eight grape genotypes were evaluated during 2021-2022 at New orchard, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka. The experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design with three replication. The grape cultivars of five year old vines planted at spacing of 3.0m× 1.5m and trained on Y system of training. The forward pruning was done on 21st October, 2021. There were eight table grape genotypes under the evaluation study, i.e., Thompson Seedless, Manik Chaman, Sharad Seedless, 2A Clone, K.R. White, Manjari Naveen, Fantasy Seedless and Medica. Among genotypes, Medica recorded the maximum pruning weight (1.39 Kg vine-1), number of fruitful canes vine-1(36.00). Thompson Seedless observed maximum shoot length (126.49 cm). Manik Chaman recorded maximum cane diameter (10.31 mm). The genotype Thompson Seedless has recorded earliness in bud sprouting (7.10 days), minimum number of days to anthesis (29.12 days) and fruitset (35.25 days). The early ripening genotypes was Sharad Seedless (98.70 days). The maximum bunch weight was recorded in the genotype 2A Clone (598.87 g). The genotype Medica recorded the maximum number of bunches vine-1(112.00) with highest bunch yield (41.32 kg vine-1)
      PubDate: 2023-11-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113448
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Medicinal Plant-Derived Copper Nanoparticles Effectively Manage Early
           Blight Disease in Tomato: An In vitro Study

    • Authors: Anju Shukla , Mihira Kumara Mishra , Sanat Kumar Dwibedi , Madhusmita Bal
      Pages: 2803 - 2814
      Abstract: Aims: Early blight of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) incited by Alternaria solani is an economically important disease. This paper analyses the efficacy of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) as an alternative to its existing management practices that predominantly rely on toxic fungicides which are potentially harmful to humans and the environment. Study Design: The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with 7 treatments viz. T1:Cu-NPs from tulsi leaves, T2:Cu-NPs from neem leaves, T3:Cu-NPs from bael leaves, T4: Cu-NPs  from chemical A (prepared from 0.2 M of Cu(NO3)2.3H2O + 0.2 M Ascorbic acid), T5: Cu-NPs  from chemical B (0.2 M Cu(NO3)2.3H2O + 0.2 M CuCl2 + 0.4 N NH4OH), T6: Carbendazim 50 WP as check and T7: Control. Each treatment was tested at two levels of in vitro concentrations (i.e. 300 and 500 ppm) and the treatments were replicated thrice. Place and Duration of Study: Considering the importance of the disease and for developing an effective management strategy, the present study was carried out in the Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar during 2020-21. Methodology: Stable Cu-NPs were synthesized through three green synthesis methods by using bael (Agel marmelos L.), tulsi (Ocimum sanctum L.), and neem (Azadirachta indica L.) leaves and two chemical synthesis methods (i.e. chemical A and B). Results: The size (diameter) of the Cu-NPs from Agel marmelos, Ocimum sanctum, and Azadirachta indica were 427.4, 1,019, and 246.5 nm, and that from the aqueous solution reduction method and precipitation method were 1,537 and 867.8 nm, respectively. The synthesized Cu-NPs were evaluated against Alternaria solani at 300 and 500 ppm while Carbendazim 50 WP served as the standard check. The Azadirachta indica leaf-derived Cu-NPs at 300 and 500 ppm in the in vitro potato dextrose ager (PDA) medium exhibited the maximum mycelial growth inhibition of 60.24% and 75.9%, respectively. The size of Cu-NPs showed an inverse relation with the antifungal efficacy that indicated greater cellular penetration of smaller nanoparticles whereas much lower inhibition of mycelial growth in Carbendazim 50 WP as a check showed the lowest growth inhibition of 39.75% (300 ppm) and 59.03% (500 ppm). Conclusion: The results thus indicated higher efficacy of nanoformulations at lower concentrations that can be effectively used for the development of new nano-based plant protection agents against the early blight of tomatoes.
      PubDate: 2023-11-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113449
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Climate Change Knowledge Assessment for Farmers in Bundelkhand, Uttar
           Pradesh: Test Development and Validation

    • Authors: Pratiksha, M. A. Ansari
      Pages: 2815 - 2821
      Abstract: An assessment of climate change knowledge is important to understand farmers' knowledge. There are several tests available to measure it, but they are all dispersed, making the study tedious. The present study, conducted in 2022-23, aimed at developing a composite climate change knowledge test that would aid in the amalgamation of various aspects to holistically study climate change such as farmers’ knowledge of climate change; climate change extreme events knowledge (rainfall, temperature, relative-humidity, drought and so on); and adaptation strategies. Initially, items from diverse literature were collected and discussed with specialists. A total of 63 items were selected. At two levels, the knowledge item was judged and screened. For the first level of screening, 63 items were sent to 100 experts for review. 39 items were chosen for item analysis based on the opinions of 60 experts. These 39 items were distributed to 60 non-sample farmers for second-level screening. The difficulty and discrimination indexes were calculated using the item analysis score. Items with difficulty index of 0.30 to 0.80 and discrimination index of 0.25 and higher were chosen. Following that, 29 items were selected for the final climate change knowledge test for farmers. Finally, the split-half method reliability of the test was 0.85. The developed knowledge tool aids in identifying knowledge gaps and planning the future policy for better adaptation. Furthe, enhancing farmers' knowledge can also help them solve problems more effectively and with a more optimistic outlook when dealing with the challenges posed by climate change.
      PubDate: 2023-11-11
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113450
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Productivity and Profitability of Sesame / Green Gram / Urdbean –
           Mustard Based Cropping Systems under Moisture Conservation Practices

    • Authors: Radha Morya , Anjni Mastkar , Rahul Morya , Anjali Bhargava , H. S. Kushwaha
      Pages: 2822 - 2828
      Abstract: A field experiments was conducted on sandy loam soil during 2016 -17 and 2017 -18 at M.G. chitrakoot Gramodaya Vishwavidyalaya, Chitrakoot, Satna (M.P.) to find out the most productive and profitable mustard based cropping system under different moisture conservation practices. Treatment consisted three cropping systems viz. Sesame –mustard, green gram-mustard and urdbean –mustard and four moisture conservation practices (no irrigation, life saving irrigation, straw mulch @4 t/ha and kaolin 5% spray). Results revealed that on pooled basis of two years mulching @4 t/ha produced significantly higher grain yield of sesame (512 kg/ha), green gram (1023 kg/ha) urdbean (2349 kg/ha) and mustard (2558kg/ha) than no irrigation while numerical enhancement were recorded under life saving irrigation and kaolin 5 % spray treatment in seed yield of sesame, green gram, urdbean and mustard crop. The maximum mustard equivalent grain yield of 3759 kg/ha, system production efficiency of 33.52 kg/ha/day and system profitability of 339.00 Rs/ha/day was recorded under green gram – mustard system. Among the moisture conservation practices, straw mulch treatment had highest mustard equivalent grain yield of 4021 kg/ha, production efficiency of 35.83 kg/ha/day and system profitability (35.83 Rs/ha/day). The gross returns (Rs 182764/ha), net returns (Rs 139644/ha) and benefit: cost ratio (3.24) were maximized under green gram- mustard system x straw mulch @4 t/ha treatment on pooled basis.
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113451
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Stability Analysis in Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Genotypes under Various
           Environmental Conditions

    • Authors: Neelesh Patel, J. P. Lakhani, Sanjay Kumar Singh , Pankaj Chauhan , Dhuruv Dangi , Pramod Kumar Prajapati
      Pages: 2829 - 2833
      Abstract: Present study was undertaken to estimate the G x E interactions and identify the stable genotypes for yield traits in field pea. A total of 43 field pea genotypes were evaluated in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in three replications along with three different dates of sowing at BSP Soybean Unit, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, JNKVV, Jabalpur during Rabi Season 2022-2023. The analysis of variance was applied on 16 different quantitative traits both individually and pooled under various environmental conditions. The stability analysis for seed yield per plant was assessed using Eberhart and Russell's model, revealing significant variations among different genotypes and environmental conditions. The mean squares attributed to both environments and genotype-environment interactions (E + G x E) indicated significant interactions between genotypes and environments. Further, partitioning of genotype-environment (linear) interactions was found to be highly significant for seed yield per plant. Genotypes Shikha, KPMR 485 and HFP 94-12 were found ideal and stable genotypes for seed yield per plant as that possessed mean value higher than general mean, regression coefficient near to unity (Bi=1) with minimum deviation from regression (S2di~0). Thus, identified stable genotypes can be utilized for different seasons and regions for obtaining the stable yield performance.
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113452
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Impact of Long Term Integrated Plant Nutrient System (IPNS) in Rice
           –Wheat Cropping System on Population Dynamics and Dominance of Weed
           Species in Wheat

    • Authors: Gunjan Guleria , S. S. Rana
      Pages: 2834 - 2844
      Abstract: Weeds are the serious constraints in field crops. In 2014-15 and 2015-16 long term experiment was conducted which was earlier established from the year 1994 on IPNS in rice-wheat cropping system using randomized block design with four replications at Badiarkhar farm of the university. Twelve treatments viz., control (no fertilizer/manure), 50, 75 and 100% NPK each to rice and wheat through fertilizers, 50% NPK to rice and 100% NPK to wheat through fertilizers, 50% substitution of Nitrogen through FYM, wheat straw and green manure in rice and 100% NPK through fertilizers in wheat; 25% substitution of Nitrogen through FYM, wheat straw and green manure in rice and 75% NPK through fertilizers in wheat; and farmers’ practice (40% NPK through fertilizers to each crop plus 5 t FYM/ha on dry weight basis to rice) were evaluated for a period of two years (2014-15and 2015-16). Phalaris minor was the most dominant weed during both years followed by Alopecurus sp., Vicia sativa, Polygonum hydropiper, Lathyrus aphaca and Polygonum alatum. Artemisia sp. and other weeds had a little infestation during rabi 2014-15. While Cynodon dactylon, Anagallis arvensis, Centella asiatica and other weeds had shown their invasion during rabi 2015-16.
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113453
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Life Span Changes of Coffee White Stem Borers, Xylotrechus quadripes
           (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Response to Directed Homosexual and
           Heterosexual Interactions

    • Authors: Prashant Mangalgikar , Karumuru Raja Madhura Bhanu , Vasuki Belavadi , Shashank Pathour , Chandrashekharaiah Muniyappa , Byrappa Ammagarahalli
      Pages: 2845 - 2852
      Abstract: Our study on coffee white stem borers, Xylotrechus quadripes investigated the influence of different sex-based clustering factors on beetle survivorship and life spans. Our experiments involved various groups, including individually isolated virgin males, individually isolated virgin females, groups of only males, groups of only females, and mixed-sex groups. First, survivorship reached 100% within the initial 15 days for all groups except for isolated virgin males. In contrast, the survivorship rates of both groups involving only virgin females and only virgin males ranged from 80% to 90% compared to the maximum survival duration.  Notably, in scenarios with males in groups or mixed-gender groups, survival dropped to zero percent after 45 days. Our study also highlighted the comparable costs incurred by males engaging in both homosexual and heterosexual interactions. Males interacting with females and other males exhibited similar survival curves, displaying shorter median life spans compared to isolated virgin males, suggesting that both courting and mounting behaviors, regardless of the recipient's sex, might affect the life span of males. Furthermore, our research revealed that female-female interactions, while less costly than male-male interactions, still reduced survival periods in only the female group. These findings highlight the cost possibly associated with same-sex interactions and shed light on the dynamics of mating behaviors in this beetle. In conclusion, our findings underscore the significance of studying behavioral and life history traits in different environmental contexts. Social circumstances and ecological factors significantly influence sexual differences in lifespan and highlight the complexity of the interplay between reproductive strategies and survival rates in Xylotrechus quadripes.
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113454
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Estimation of Variability, Correlation Coefficient and Path Analysis in
           Improved Restorer Lines of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    • Authors: Gunda Kavya, P. Senguttuvel , D. Shivani , Kalyani M. Barbadikar
      Pages: 2853 - 2862
      Abstract: The present investigation was conducted to estimate genetic variability parameters such as genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV), phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV), heritability (h2) and genetic advance (GA) along with correlations and path coefficients from data collected on 40 F4-F5 population derived from a cross between aerobic restorer AR 9-18 and blast resistant donor MSM 1212 possessing Pi54. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the genotypes for all the characters studied. Moderate GCV and PCV was observed for number of productive tillers per plant, number of grains per panicle, per day productivity and single plant yield. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean were observed for number of productive tillers per plant, number of grains per panicle, per day productivity and single plant yield, whereas high heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance as percent of mean were observed for panicle length, spikelet fertility, thousand grain weight and plant height. Grain yield per plant showed positive correlation with per day productivity, days to 50% flowering, panicle length, number of productive tillers per plant, thousand grain weight and spikelet fertility, while, negative association with number of grains per panicle and plant height. The trait per day productivity had highest direct effect on single plant yield followed by days to 50% flowering, panicle length, number of productive tillers per plant, thousand grain weight, spikelet fertility (%). Hence, per day productivity and number of productive tillers per plant are identified as key traits for developing high yielding genotypes of rice for future breeding programme.
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113455
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Different Concentrations of Auxin Hormone (IBA) Upon Promoting
           Root Development of Stem Cuttings in the ‘Scented Geranium’,
           Pelargonium graveolens L

    • Authors: Kancharla Ashok Kumar , M. Sreenivas, J. Cheena , G. Vidya , S. Praneeth Kumar
      Pages: 2863 - 2869
      Abstract: The present investigation entitled “Effect of different concentrations of auxin hormone (IBA) upon promoting root development of stem cuttings in the ‘Scented Geranium’, Pelargonium graveolens L” was carried out at Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Station, (MAPRS) Rajendranagar, Sri Konda Laxman Telangana State Horticultural University, Hyderabad during December 2022 to February 2023. The experiments were conducted using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications under a shade net house. Each replication consisted of seven treatments, which included a control group and six different concentrations of IBA (500 mg L-1, 1000 mg L-1, 1500 mg L-1, 2000 mg L-1, 2500 mg L-1, 3000 mg L-1). The results indicated, that among the various IBA concentrations tested, specifically IBA @ 2000 mg L-1 for stem cuttings, proved to be more effective than all other treatments in terms of various root parameters. It recorded the minimum days taken for root initiation and also recorded better results for the number of roots per cutting, average length of roots per cutting, length of longest root per cutting, fresh weight of roots per cutting, and dry weight of roots per cuttings.
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113456
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Assessment of Yield Potential of Paddy Variety CR 1009 Sub 1 to Impart
           Resilience to Farmers in NICRA Village, Thiruvarur District, Tamil Nadu,

    • Authors: A. Anuratha , R. Ramesh , M. Ramasubramanian , V. Radhakrishnan , S. Kamalasundari , Shibi Sebastian , M. Selvamurugan , V. Krishnan
      Pages: 2870 - 2878
      Abstract: The study was conducted in the villages of Rayapuram and Keezhapattu in Tamil Nadu, as part of the National Innovation on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) project in the Needamangalam district of Thiruvarur from 2015 to 2018. These villages frequently experienced floods, particularly impacting the rabi season's crop growth and maturity. The monsoon season (September to December) contributed to about 71% of the total rainfall. A comparative analysis was carried out to assess the economic performance of the flood-resistant paddy variety CR 1009 sub 1 in contrast to the commonly grown CR 1009. Traditionally, farmers in Rayapuram and Keezhapattu favored CR 1009 due to its high market value during the monsoon period. However, they faced low income due to flooding in the rabi season. To address this challenge, scientists from KVK, Thiruvarur, recommended the flood-tolerant paddy variety CR 1009 sub 1 for cultivation during the rabi season under the "National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA)" project. Specific climate-resilient technologies, including flood-tolerant paddy variety "CR 1009 sub 1" and a high-yield, long-duration rice variety, were tested and demonstrated in the project villages to ensure rice production despite climatic variations leading to floods. It was crucial to assess how these varieties responded to climate vulnerabilities and how receptive farmers were to adopting them. Calculations were made to compare paddy productivity and economic returns under the improved technology with the traditional practices of farmers. The results indicated that the "CR 1009 sub 1" variety yielded higher harvests compared to the farmers' practices in the years 2015–16, 2016–17, and 2017–18, with increases of 12.60%, 11.69%, and 12.95% respectively. Furthermore, using improved technologies for paddy cultivation generated higher net returns of Rs. 57233, 60768, and 57728 per hectare in 2015–16, 2016–17, and 2017–18, respectively, in contrast to the farmers' practices (which yielded Rs. 49147, 50295, and 46266 per hectare in the same years). In comparison to the farmers' practices (with an average net return of Rs. 48569 per hectare and a benefit-cost ratio of 2.37), the demonstration fields showed an average net return of Rs. 58576 per hectare and a benefit-cost ratio of 2.56.
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113457
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • A Comprehensive Review on Role of Bio- Regulators in the Growth and
           Development of Fruit and Vegetable Crops

    • Authors: Shubham Jain, Nivedita Nidhi , Satishkumar Kale , Manjunath Rathod , Lalit Dhurve , Halkebhaiya Mehara , Bijay Kumar Baidya , Shivani
      Pages: 2879 - 2892
      Abstract: This comprehensive review focuses on the role of bio-regulators in the growth and development of fruit and vegetable crops. Bio-regulators, also known as plant growth regulators or plant hormones, play a crucial role in regulating various physiological processes in plants, including cell division, elongation, differentiation, and fruit ripening. The review explores the major types of bio-regulators commonly used in fruit and vegetable cultivation, including auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, and ethylene. It examines their functions and effects on plant growth, flowering, fruit set, fruit development, and post-harvest characteristics. The review also discusses the widespread application of bio-regulators in horticultural practices, including seed treatment, foliar application, and post-harvest treatments. It highlights the potential benefits of using bio-regulators, such as improving crop yield, enhancing fruit quality traits, delaying senescence, and reducing post-harvest losses. Moreover, the review delves into the mechanisms of action of bio-regulators at the molecular, physiological, and biochemical levels. It investigates their interactions with various plant growth processes, signaling pathways, and gene expression patterns. Furthermore, the review addresses the challenges and limitations associated with the use of bio-regulators in fruit and vegetable production, such as dosage optimization, application timing, and potential negative impacts on the environment.
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113458
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Seed Quality Behaviour Variation of Moth Bean during Storage in Different

    • Authors: Vijaysingh Thakur , C. M. Nawalagatti , M. B. Chetti , J. S. Hilli , R. V. Patil
      Pages: 2893 - 2898
      Abstract: An experiment was carried out in order to assess the behavior of the moth bean seed quality in 4 types of packaging including cloth, gunny, HDPE, and vacuum-packed bags for 18 months. After two months of storage, the moisture content of the seeds fluctuated greatly in cloth, gunny, and HDPE bags (conventional packaging) because these materials are pervious, but the moisture content of the seeds did not vary in vacuum packed bags as the polythene bag used for the vacuum package was thicker, had a lower water vapor and oxygen transmission rate. Further, seeds in conventional packaging’s developed bruchid infestations after 4 months of storage but no infestation was found in vacuum-packed bags until 18 months. The bruchid infestation caused the germination rate of the seeds to drop to less than 20%.  In comparison to the initial state, even after 18 months of storage, there was little change in the parameters used for measuring seed quality (germination, total seedling length, seedling dry weight, moisture content, and protein content). Therefore, without the use of chemicals, moth bean seeds can be safely stored using vacuum packaging technology.
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113459
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Auger Size and Depth of Operation on Bulk Density, Cone Index,
           Germination, Root Length, Root Weight and Cob Weight for Maize Crop

    • Authors: Kripanarayan Shukla, Pankaj Gupta, Shubham Dhakad, Ghanshyam Panwar
      Pages: 2899 - 2911
      Abstract: Minimum tillage methods offer numerous benefits compared to conventional tillage, including reduced farm operations to establish a good seedbed. Spot tillage, in particular, has advantages such as preserving soil structure, preventing erosion, saving time and energy, and reducing input costs. For this study, the effect of different auger size (40, 50 & 70mm) which was operated by 12V DC motor at different depth of operations (80, 120 & 160mm) were determined. The different parameters were measured such as bulk density, cone index, germination percentage, root length, root weight and cob weight for maize crop (GAYMH-3) and same for traditional sowing method. The results showed that auger size (40, 50 & 70mm) and depth of operation (80, 120 & 160mm) significantly influenced bulk density as bulk density of the soil increased with depth and decrease with increase in auger size. The larger auger (70mm) resulting in lower values in bulk density due to more soil removal. However, cone index was not significantly affected by auger size (40, 50 & 70mm) and depth of operation (80, 120 & 160mm). Seed germination for maize was consistently around 90%, with no significant effects of auger size and depth of operation were observed. An auger size (70mm) was associated with shorter root lengths. Increasing depth resulted in greater root development, leading to longer roots was observed in small size augers. Larger auger size and deeper depths generally resulted in higher root weights. Cob weight increased with auger size (70mm) and deeper depths. Auger size and depth significantly impacted cob weight. Overall, results showed that auger having the size of 70mm and depth of operation at 160mm was desirable compared to other auger size in terms of lower bulk density and cone index but increased root weight and cob weight of maize crop.
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113460
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Evaluating the Behaviour of Sahiwal Calves under Azolla pinnata Feeding
           During the Cold Season

    • Authors: Ninad Bhatt , Ramesh Chandra , Suresh Kumar , Deepesh Bharat Mishra , Asish Debbarma , Rajneesh
      Pages: 2912 - 2917
      Abstract: The purpose of the present research was to evaluate the feeding behaviour of Sahiwal calves raised under Azolla pinnata feeding throughout the cold season in the morning hours. Eighteen female Sahiwal calves weighing 56 kg at four months of age were used for this experiment, and they were split into three treatment groups. Treatment groups T1 and T2 received 15% and 30% of their concentrate's protein supplementation from Azolla pinnata, respectively, whereas the control group received diet that was complied with ICAR, 2013 feeding guidelines. Feeding behaviour of calves were analysed with the help of instantaneous scan sampling technique and weekly 8 hours of behaviour was recoreded ( 2 hours in a day, four times per week) in early morning hours from 09.00 to 11.00 am. Eating behaviour at 1st month of study was statistically significant in treatment groups T1 (26.5±0.29) and T2 group (26.5±0.20) as compared to control group (24.375±0.23) while numerically higher in treatment groups over the whole study period as Azolla pinnata has better mineral profiling and protein rich source, rumination time period was higher in T1 and T2 group and it might be due to the better resting behaviour in the treatment groups. However, better health status was reported in treatment groups over the control groups.  From, this study it may be concluded that Azolla pinnata feeding may acts as an alternate protein source by improving the feeding and resting behaviour without affecting the overall performance of calves.
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113461
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Drone Based Bird Hazer for Sunflower Crop

    • Authors: Anand B. A., Suvarna C. Hedge , Kathyayini H. S., B. A. Sunil Raj
      Pages: 2918 - 2925
      Abstract: Bird's damage to agricultural crops is an important cause for the reduction of yield resulting in huge economic losses for the farming fraternity across the world. The natural habitats' of flocks across the world, for their feeding, largely depend on field crops. This would in turn cause problems to farmers, in large scale crop losses measuring up to 10 to 30% of total yield. To mitigate this huge crop loss due to the instincts of birds, we developed a technology to solve the problem permanently by adopting the latest available user-friendly techniques in the form of bird hazer. Numerous methods have been used in controlling birds, e.g. chemical, auditory, visual and lethal. In this research, visual and auditory methods were applied, where reflective boards and speakers were installed on a drone and were flown at different altitudes and intervals. The scaring approach was divided into four (4) categories; UAV, a combination of UAV and High DB Buzzer, a combination of UAV and signal generator and a combination of UAV, High DB Buzzer and signal generator respectively. The test was conducted at a sunflower field in GKVK, Bangalore. The findings indicate that a combination of UAV, High DB Buzzer and signal generator techniques scared the highest number of birds at a height of 2 m. The interval of flight does not show any correlation with the number of birds that flew away. In this research work, we developed an unmanned aerial bird hazer to mitigate and minimize flocks menace in the field for the reduction of crop damages by flocks.
      PubDate: 2023-11-15
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113462
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Correlation Studies for Morphological and Biomass Traits in Half-sib
           Progenies of Peltophorum pterocarpum

    • Authors: Avni Kumari , Shivani Rawat, Amit Larkin, Afaq Majid Wani
      Pages: 2926 - 2938
      Abstract: The current research was conducted on twenty plus trees of Peltophorum pterocarpum from different locations in Bihar to study the association among different morphological and biomass traits. It was found that PPT12 (Rajgir Park) and PPT4 (Muraura, Nalanda) performed better for germination metrics under open field and greenhouse conditions, respectively. PPT6 (Nari, Nalanda) and PPT13 (Sathopur, Nalanda) outperformed all other superior tree progenies in terms of morphological and biomass attributes in green house and open field conditions, respectively. The phenotypic coefficient of variability was greater than the genotypic coefficient of variability for all morphological and biomass variables tested under green house and field conditions, showing that the environment played a greater role. Germination value heritability was found to be high in both environments. High heritability with high genetic advance was associated with shoot length in greenhouse condition, indicating additive gene action. Under greenhouse conditions, the phenotypic correlation coefficients among the seedling parameters evaluated varied from a non-significant 0.211 (P=0.01) between shoot root ratio and root dry weight and between shoot length and collar diameter to a very significant 0.967 (P=0.01).Accessions showing higher values for one or the other attributes could be selected as parents for further improvement.
      PubDate: 2023-11-15
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113463
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Organic Carbon and Biological Properties of Soils in Various
           Agro-Ecological Units of Kerala, India

    • Authors: Adilakshmi K., Aparna B., Rani B., Gladis R., Naveen Leno , Usha C. Thomas, Visveswaran S.
      Pages: 2939 - 2949
      Abstract: A study was carried out in four agro-ecological units (AEUs), viz., southern laterites (AEU 8), south central laterites (AEU 9), north central laterites (AEU 10), and the northern laterites (AEU 11) of Kerala, with the objective of detailing the soil fertility status of the study area and unveiling the relationship between organic carbon (OC) and various biological properties of soils, like population of phosphorus solubilizers and acid phosphatase activity, by following one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings of the study revealed that the average values of OC among the four AEUs varied from 0.63 to 0.82%, and remarkably, 98% of the collected soils displayed OC content ranging from 0.5 to 1.5%. The mean values for the population of phosphorus solubilizers ranged from 3.12 to 3.34 log cfu g-1 soil. The acid phosphatase activity also varied across the study area, with mean values ranging from 24.84 to 30.70 µg p-nitrophenol produced g-1 soil h-1, and most of the collected soils showed activity between 25 and 50 µg p-nitrophenol produced g-1 soil h-1. Implementation of effective soil management practices, in accordance with soil test results, is imperative for the preservation and enhancement of organic carbon levels through the incorporation of organic matter, such as compost and cover crops, while minimizing the excessive use of chemical fertilizers. This approach not only augments organic carbon content but also enhances the biological properties of soils, thereby improving soil fertility and overall soil health.
      PubDate: 2023-11-15
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113464
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Performance of Quinoa under Rainfed Alfisols of South Peninsular India

    • Authors: Y. Pavan Kumar Reddy , B. Sahadeva Reddy
      Pages: 2950 - 2955
      Abstract: Quinoa, an ancient crop to contribute to world food security and it is a crop with high potential to contribute to food security in various Regions worldwide, especially in those countries where the population does not have access to protein sources or where production conditions are limited by low humidity, reduced availability of inputs, and aridity. An attempt was done at ARS, Ananthapuramu to study the feasibility to raise the quinoa under rainfed conditions during kharif, 2015 and 2016 under RBD with 6 treatments in four replications. The crop was grown on 24th standard week and harvested at 40th standard week. Among the different varieties highest yield was recorded with under transplanting with 2150 kg/ha, with water use efficiency of 7.32 kg hamm-1 with IC-411824. Further highest germination percentage was recorded with the vermicompost when compared with soil when germination was kept under trays.IC-411824 recorded highest germination percentage (98 %) with vermicompost. The seed vigour and viability characters viz., germination index, seedling length and seed vigour index was highest with IC-411824. Under transplanting all the varieties matures earlier than direct sowing. The vegetative characters viz., plant height increases from vegetative to flowering in all varieties and recorded highest with IC-411824.
      PubDate: 2023-11-15
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113465
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Effect of Organic Manures and Natural Farming on Quality and Economics of

    • Authors: Sumit Kumar, V. P. S. Panghal , Rahul, Chasin, Vipul
      Pages: 2956 - 2962
      Abstract: The objective of the experiment was to examine the effects of organic manures and natural farming on the quality and economics of carrots. It was conducted at the research farm of the Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Centre of Excellence for Organic Farming of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, during the rabi season. Three replications and eight treatments were included in the RBD design of the experiment. Three different organic manures were applied: FYM, vermicompost, poultry manure and in combination with biofertilizer (Azatobacter and PSB). Treatment of cow based bio-formulations (Ghanajeevamrit and Jeevamrit) and control was also included as treatment where no biofertilizer and manure were used. The study revealed significant improvements in almost all quality attributes due to the combined application of organic manures along with biofertilizer. Among different treatments, vermicompost + biofertilizer surpassed all other treatments by giving maximum root yield (283.4 qha-1), maximum content of the total sugar (8.79%), reducing sugar (4.09%), non-reducing sugar (4.64%), TSS (11.5°Brix) and Chlorophyll content in leaves (4.37 nmol cm-2). Also, the treatment vermicompost + biofertilizer gave maximum gross return (Rs. 425100 ha-1), net return (Rs. 232873 ha-1), and Benefit Cost ratio (2.21). It was also observed during the study that control treatment showed lowest findings among all the treatments.
      PubDate: 2023-11-15
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113466
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Exploring the Multi-Seasonal Relationships between Yield Traits with
           Natural Screening of Rice Blast Disease Under Hot Spot Conditions

    • Authors: Hosagoudar; G. N., Honnappa M., Padmashree R, Sheshaiah, Dushyantha Kumar, B. M., Umesh Babu B. S., Basavaraj S. Kovi
      Pages: 2963 - 2982
      Abstract: The experiment was conducted to study the comparative performance and blast disease screening  80 diverse rice cultivars including land races, obsolete varieties, modern cultivars and released varieties, local prevailing cultivars and advanced breeding/varietal lines as AICRIP testing trials for two successive seasons during Kharif-2021 and Kharif-2022 at AHRS Ponnampet, Karnataka- India, The results from ANOVA revealed that, MSS due to genotypes, were significant (p<0.01 and p<0.05) for all the yield traits studied. GYKH was varied from 270.65-6039.89, while 940.17-6039.88 with mean grain yield Kg/ha of 3596.01 and 3483.92 kg/ha during Kh-21 and Kh-22. High GCV and PCV with high heritability coupled with high GAM were observed for GYKH, while the remaining traits revealed low to medium GCV and PCV, heritability coupled with low to medium GAM. Correlation analysis revealed that significant and positive association was observed for PH, DFF, PL and GYKH. PCAs revealed that PC1, PC2 and PC3 showed 32.45%, 29.66% and 14.83% of contribution with 76.94% of total variation during Kharif-21 and 33.20%, 29.67% and 14.33% of contribution with 77.20% of variation for the studied traits during Kharif-22 respectively. Field screening of leaf and neck blast under natural hot spot area among 80 diverse genotypes resulted in identification of resistant sources as KPR-1, KPR-2, KHP-5, Mud-1014, IET-28515 and Kajajaya with promising yield performances.
      PubDate: 2023-11-15
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113467
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)
  • Evaluating the Effects of Sclerotinia Rot Resistant Genotypes on Different
           Indian Mustard Traits and Yield Using Generation Analysis

    • Authors: Manjeet Singh, Ram Avtar, Neeraj Kumar, Manjeet Singh Ghanghas, Neeru Redhu, Atul Loyal, Ankit Dhillon, Mandeep Redhu
      Pages: 2983 - 3000
      Abstract: Sclerotinia stem rot caused by the pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a serious threat to Indian mustard cultivation and causes up to 90% loss in seed yield. The present investigation was conducted to understand the inheritance pattern of Sclerotinia stem rot resistance through generation mean analysis, as a first step in addressing the problem. Six generations i.e.., P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1P1 and BC1P2 of a cross between a sclerotinia stem rot resistant genotype viz., RH 1222-28 and two susceptible genotypes viz., EC 766300 and EC 766123 were evaluated for sclerotinia stem rot resistance, yield and its component traits at timely sown conditions. For resistance assessment, plants were artificially inoculated with 5 days-old pure culture of S. Sclerotiorum at the post-flowering stage and stem lesion length was measured (cm) from each inoculated stem at 20 days after inoculation. Sclerotinia stem rot resistance, seed yield, and their component traits were adequately explained by the epistatic interaction model. Furthermore, additive, dominance, and epistatic gene effects were implicated in the expression of resistance, yield, and traits associated with it. In order to generate Indian mustard cultivars with high yielding potential and resistant to sclerotinia stem rot, reciprocal recurrent selection would be the most successful method.
      PubDate: 2023-11-15
      DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113468
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2023)