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Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change
Number of Followers: 25  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2218-4422 - ISSN (Online) 2541-9307
Published by Eco-Vector LLC Homepage  [15 journals]
  • Development of a water-vegetable frame of an urban area (Isilkul city,
           Omsk region)

    • Authors: Petr V. Bolshanik, Svetlana B. Kusnezova, Boris V. Usovich
      Pages: 4 - 20
      Abstract: The formation of a comfortable urban environment is inextricably linked with the planning of an anthropogenic landscape that performs environmental, reclamation and recreational functions. "Ecological frame of the city", "landscape-ecological frame", "water-green city frame", "landscape-recreational frame of the city" - these are essentially synonymous phrases that are used in scientific and special literature depending on the scale and detail of the study. and urban landscape planning [Targaeva, 2022]. The term "ecological frame" was introduced into the everyday life of researchers by V.V. Vladimirov (1980, 1986). Later, the terminology of urban landscape ecology was developed in [Runova, 1993; Kuleshova, 1999; Georgita, 2011; Tukmanov, 2012]. Among the scientific works of contemporaries devoted to the history and development of the theory of urban landscape planning, the works of E.Yu. Kolbovsky et al. [2008, 2018]. In foreign literature, the ecological structure of cities has been defined as ecological network (ecological network) or green infrastructure (green infrastructure) [Green infrastructure..., 2013; Podoinitsyna, 2016; Klimanov, 2018]. According to its functional purpose, green infrastructure corresponds to the domestic green frame of the city [Baro et all., 2014]. This paper discusses the issues of landscape planning of the city of Isilkul, the center of the district of the same name in the Omsk region. Given the size and specialization, the current geo-ecological problems of the settlement and the natural and climatic conditions of the forest-steppe, the term water-plant urban frame is used. The water-vegetation urban frame is a structured set of adjacent territories with vegetation cover and water bodies within the city limits and its immediate environs, which performs environment-forming, reclamation and recreational functions. Currently, the western regions of the Omsk region are characterized by the processes of rising groundwater levels, which caused flooding in 24 zones, with a total area of about 60 thousand hectares. Within one of these zones is the city of Isilkul. An unfavorable geo-ecological situation has developed in the city and in the adjacent territories, associated with swamping, and in some cases, salinization of soils. The purpose of this article is to substantiate measures for the creation of a water-vegetation frame of Isilkul, located on the southern outskirts of Western Siberia within the Ishim Plain. Among the objectives of the research: the study of the infrastructure of the city; reconstruction of natural landscapes; determining the causes of flooding of the territory, designing the water-vegetation frame of the urban area.   Objects and methods of investigation The territory of the study object is located in the central part of the eastern half of the Ishim Plain and forms an ellipse in plan, elongated from north to south (Fig. 1). Within the boundaries of the object of study are located Isilkul with its suburbs, partly the land of rural settlements of the Isilkul administrative district - Solntsevo, Boevoye, Lesnoye. In the north, the study area includes a fragment of the territory of the Kamyshlov log tract, in the south - the basin of the lake. Settlement. The choice of research methods was determined by the specifics of the tasks being solved and the landscape features of the study area. First of all, this concerns a significant transformation of natural landscapes in the vicinity of the city and the need to reconstruct ecosystems in the built-up area. Another important methodological task was the development of recommendations for the localization of processes that cause flooding of the urban landscape. The use of traditional landscape methods and techniques for solving the set tasks turned out to be ineffective. This required a combination of field and office methods of landscape ecology and environmental protection, which included. In total, 30 observation points were described during the research. Two landscape profiles of 12 km (along the line Kamyshlov Log - Lake Gorodishche) and 2 km (from west to east through Isilkul) were broken up and examined. Natural, introduced and ruderal vegetation has been studied. Surveyed urban engineering networks, ways of surface water runoff. As part of office work, reports and cartographic materials of the State Historical Archive of the Omsk Region were analyzed; landscape map of the Omsk region.   Results of research Prior to the start of construction, the territory of Isilkul was a flattened isometric upland typical of the Ishim steppe with a relative excess of height above the surrounding area of 1-5 m. The gentle slopes of the upland were occupied by grass-forb steppe meadows on carbonate chernozems and solods. Locally, in the hollows of the flat top and in moist relief depressions along its periphery, spiked aspen-birch forests grew in a mosaic pattern, which alternated with small lakes. The shores of reservoirs were occupied by reed and reed-sedge bogs. Increased mineralization was characteristic of the waters of endorheic lakes and soils along their banks. There is no centralized rain sewerage system in the city. Rain, melt, groundwater is collected in ditches and flows down them into natural and artificial reservoirs (pits), as well as into natural relief depressions in the city. In the off-season, excess surface water is partially transferred using mobile pumps from the center of the northern part of the city to the southern part, and then, through a dug channel, is diverted to Lake Gorodishche. Partially, surface runoff is discharged naturally and by force through ditches outside the central part and accumulates in depressions and ditches of the city's bypass roads. The total length of ditches in...
      PubDate: 2023-07-26
      DOI: 10.18822/edgcc110762
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Annual growth and primary production of sphagnum in raised bog Mukhrino
           (four-year observations: 2019-2022)

    • Authors: N. V. Filippova, N. P. Kosykh, I. V. Filippov, A. V. Niyazova
      Pages: 21 - 37
      Abstract: The linear growth and primary production of Sphagnum is an important parameter for estimation of carbon balance of peatland ecosystems, given large areas these landscapes cover in the Western Siberia. Sphagnum represents the largest pull of biomass in raised bogs, which in anoxic conditions becomes peat, storing the preserved sources of carbon. Primary production estimates of different Sphagnum species are well studied globally, different authors studied many parameters of growth and production in natural and experimental conditions. The main parameters defining the growth and primary production are: the species biology, humidity, nutrient balance and photosynthetic radiation. Regional monitoring of carbon balance requires local estimates of Sphagnum linear growth and production, registered for specific regional species for a number of years, covering temporal and spatial dynamics. This was the scope of the monitoring program, initiated in Mukhrino field station of Yugra State University in middle taiga zone of Western Siberia 4 years ago. To cover biological, spatial and temporal variability of Sphagnum linear growth and productivity, a series of permanent plots was established in Mukhrino field station in October 2018. The plots were located along the boardwalks of the station to protect the surface of peatland during permanent monitoring. Eight species of Sphagnum were chosen, each species was measured in 2-3 plots to cover spatial variation, totaling in 27 plots. Each plot contains about 20 markers established to measure growth of a particular species in an exact location. Two types of markers were used for upright-growing (“wire brush”) and side-growing (“individual ring”) species of Sphagnum. The markers were attached at the end of vegetation season (October) and were measured a year after (the exact dates of measurements were 09.10.2019, 17.10.2020, 09.10.2021 и 13.09.2022). Additionally, a sample of Sphagnum carpet 1 dm3 was extracted from each plot on the date of measurements for estimation of Sphagnum productivity (to calculate the dry weight of 1-cm shoots per 1 dm2, which is then multiplied by a mean annual increment on this plot). To estimate the parameters of linear growth and production, we measured the water level below the surface and described vegetation composition on each plot. Part of plots were established under experimental warming conditions using Open Top Chambers which raised temperature on 1.5˚C on average. Climatic parameters were measured using an automatic weather station in the near proximity to the plots. Totally 1574 measurements of Sphagnum linear growth increment and 200 estimates of Sphagnum primary production were made during the four-years period.           The collected data were organized in a dataset using Darwin Core standard and published through Global Biodiversity Information Facility to be Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable by any researcher or project in this discipline. The analytical tools (R scripts) which were applied for the analyses of these data were published in GitHub and could be accessed and reproduced. Additionally, we made a literature database to integrate data of Sphagnum linear growth from published sources and compare our data with the previous results. The following results were estimated during the study. The linear growth increment of eight species of Sphagnum varied from 1.6 to 3 (mean between species 2.1) cm per year. The species in ascending order of annual growth: S. divum (1.6 cm per year), S. fuscum (1.7), S. capillifolium (1.7), S. papillosum (1.9), S. jensenii (2.7), S. angustifolium (3), S. majus (4.5 cm per year). The annual primary production varied from 1.2 to 3.7 (mean between species 2.3) g/dm2. The species in ascending order of annual primary production: S. divum (1.2 g/dm2 per year), S. papillosum (2.1), S. fuscum (2.1), S. jensenii (2.2), S. angustifolium (2.2), S. balticum (2.3), S. capillifolium (2.5), S. majus (3.7). There are statistically significant differences in annual growth increments and primary production between some species, while others are the same. The specific year has significant influence on growth increment and primary production on average for Sphagnum species, but different species have positive or negative impact. There is statistically significant correlation between bog water level and growth increment for four species: two species with positive impact and two species with negative impact. When averaged for two habitats (treed bogs and Sphagnum lawns), the annual growth increments statistically differ, while the primary production is the same. There wasn’t statistical effect of raised temperature (Open Top Chambers) on Sphagnum linear growth. We used literature data to compare our estimates of linear growth increment and primary production with other studies. The statistical analysis proved some difference for three species, but in general our data confirm the global trends. The following conclusions could be used in modelling of carbon stock in regional models of raised bog ecosystems: 1) there is statistical difference between mean growth increment and primary production of different species of Sphagnum; 2) the specific year weather parameters influence growth and production, based on interannual variation; 3) the averaged linear growth estimates of two habitats (treed bogs and Sphagnum lawns) differ significantly, but there wasn’t statistical difference for primary production between habitats; 4) the linear growth of some species could be influenced by water level, negatively or positively for different species; 5) the mean estimates of species-specific linear growth increment and primary production coincide with literature-based information and could be used in modelli...
      PubDate: 2023-07-26
      DOI: 10.18822/edgcc472141
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • The northern range of rare plant species in the NE Fennoscandia between
           historical and recent climatic changes: the case of Eriophorum gracile

    • Authors: I. V. Blinova
      Pages: 38 - 58
      Abstract: Determinants of range limits for a concrete plant species are still debated because of their complexities [Roy et al. 2009]. In periods of climatic changes, the responses of plants of rare species are more pronounced in comparison to those of common plant species because their adaptation limits, especially climatic, may be depleted [Nielsen et al., 2019; Niskanen et al., 2019; Tyler et al. 2020]. A large-scale historical path of species which reflects past climates compared to small-scale trends of current climate could be prognostic for an estimation of extinction rate [Liu et al., 2017]. The Murmansk Region (66–70° N), located in the north-eastern corner of Russian Fennoscandia, is a part of the Atlantic-Arctic zone of temperate belt with a rather mild climate. The snow cover period extends from the middle of October until the end of May, and the thermal growing season from early June until the middle of September. The average amount of precipitation varies from 800 to 1200 mm in mountainous regions and from 500 to 800 mm in the greater part of the lowland area [Yakovlev 1961; Yakovlev, Kozlova 1971]. Murmansk Region is geomorphologically part of the Baltic Shield, and its topography generally becomes lower from northwest to southeast [Geologiya SSSR, 1958]. It contains the oldest rocks of the European continent which are mainly composed by granites and gneisses with local alkaline intrusions in its eastern part [Pozhilenko et al., 2002; Ivanyuk et al., 2008]. Two latitudinal vegetation zones can be distinguished: tundra and taiga [Ramenskaya 1983]. The taiga zone is divided into the transitional forest-tundra zone and the northern taiga [Chernov 1971]. The biogeographic provinces of Eastern Fennoscandia were first described by Finnish botanists in 1859 and further developed at the end of the 1800s and early 1900s [Hämet-Ahti et al., 1998; Uotila, 2013]. Of the eight provinces, Lapponia petsamoënsis (Lps), Lapponia tulomensis (Lt), Lapponia murmanica (Lm), Lapponia Imandrae (Lim), Lapponia Varsugae (Lv), Lapponia ponojensis (Lp) have borders entirely within Murmansk Region. Only small parts of the two southern provinces Regio kuusamoënsis (Ks) and Karelia keretina (Kk) are included in Murmansk Region. The largest part of Kk is situated in the Republic of Karelia. Of Ks the largest part lies in Finland and another small part is in Karelia. Eriophorum gracile is rare plant species from Cyperaceae. It is included in many regional Red data books of the Russian Federation and also in Murmansk Region [Krasnaya…, 2014]. In Fennoscandia the species is inserted in the Red data list of Norway [Kålås et al., 2010]. E. gracile is a specialist species of rich fens which occur sporadically in Europe and rarely north of the Arctic Circle [Lansdown, 2011]. Specimens of E. gracile from the following herbaria were examined: KPABG, H, KAND, LE, MW, INEP, PTZ, S, TROM and the Pasvik Nature Reserve. Additionally, the Moscow Digital Herbarium [Seregin, 2023], the Kasviatlas [Lampinen, Lahti, 2021], the Cryptogamic Russian Information System [CRIS, 2023] and the «Flora of Russian Lapland» [Kozhin, Sennikov, 2020] have been checked. The list of occurrences and distribution map are composed. The ordination of occurrences goes according to the biogeographic provinces from west to east latitudinally. The number of geographic dots (T) and the number of populations (T) are given in brackets after the province acronym. All the records are divided into confirmed and excluded (on the basis of ecological characteristics). The later are in the end of the list. The nearest occurrences (within 25 km) are indicated as one sign on the map. The map (Figure 1) is compiled in Arcview GIS 3.2. A base temperature of 5°C has been used for the definition of the thermal growing season (the onset and length). The length of the growing season has a tendency to shortening from south-south-west to east-north-east [Blinova, Chmielewski, 2015]. For a simplified termic division of surface of Murmansk Region the map of the onset of the growing season [Yakovlev, Kozlova, 1971) has been used (Figure 2). The records of E. gracile have been proved on an association of localities and the occurrences of rocks with a content of CaO higher 5% mass according to literature [Perevozchikova, 1971; Pozhilenko et al., 2002; Arzamastsev et al., 2008; Filina et al., 2022] and with a help of the previously made list of Ca-rocks with chemical content [Blinova, 2009]. pH of the surface water is measured directly in the field 1-2 times from June to August of 2014 in four different water logged sites with population subsets of the species (the record № 11.1 from the list) using a PH-009 (Kelilong Instruments) pen with a 0.0-14.0 scale divided into units of 0.1; soil salinity, using a TDS 5 (HM Digital) pen with a 0-9990 mg/l scale divided into units of 1 mg/l. Hypotheses concerning historical path of the species are based on the chorological study and data concerning climatic characteristics and vegetation of geological periods. Relic status of E. gracile is assumed according to paleorecords in certain geological periods (taxonomical relicts). The relic range of the species is proposed but not proved. Geographic distribution at the northern range of the species has been defined in Murmansk Region where this species has its northern border. The regional population data set are collected for further the IUCN-red data book testi...
      PubDate: 2023-07-26
      DOI: 10.18822/edgcc567769
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Synergy effect of the Research and Educational Center – UNESCO CHAIR
           "Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change" as a driver of Yugra
           educational environment

    • Authors: I. D. Akhmedova
      Pages: 59 - 65
      Abstract: The Strategy of socio-economic development of the Russian Federation with low greenhouse gas emissions until 2050 sets the task of including individual subjects of the Russian Federation in the experiment to work out mechanisms for achieving carbon neutrality with the subsequent scaling of the obtained experience, so the priority is the development of integrated research in the field of adaptation to climate change, monitoring and modeling of carbon flows, assessing the absorption capacity of ecosystems, searching for and implementing advanced technological approaches to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, including decision-making management based on Big Data and artificial intelligence, environmental management technologies based on ecosystem principles. This article presents the experience of Yugra State University in organization of research in the field of greenhouse gas monitoring, information on the main ongoing projects and possibilities of integrating the research agenda into the design of educational programs. Yugra State University is a participant of urgent ecological agenda at regional, federal and international levels, carrying out researches in the field of environmental dynamics and global climate changes at the international field station "Mukhrino". At the station there is a unique infrastructure for multi-year year-round observations of hydrometeorological parameters, greenhouse gas fluxes and biodiversity. All studies conducted by YSU are aimed at obtaining reliable actual data on background volumes of natural carbon dioxide emissions (CO2 and CH4) and carbon dioxide accumulation by natural ecosystems, establishing the role of peat bogs in maintaining the gas composition of the atmosphere comply with the demands of the modern Russian climate agenda. At present, the University participates in significant federal projects: a pilot project of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation to create carbon testing sites on the territory of Russian regions to develop and test technologies to control the carbon balance and the Federal Scientific and Technical Program for Environmental Development of the Russian Federation and Climate Change in 2021 - 2030, as well as implementing a number of key projects for industrial partners to assess the greenhouse gas budget, study biomass and biogas emissions. In order to integrate the results of scientific research and the best research practices into the educational space in 2020 the Higher Ecological School of Yugra State University became a part of the Scientific and Educational Center which allowed to launch new educational programs of higher and additional education. The Higher Ecological School implements new educational programs for training highly qualified personnel in the field of control, monitoring of carbon balance and decarbonization of the economy: - higher education in the direction of 05.04.06 Ecology and Nature Management "Carbon regulation in a changing climate". The program is focused on training specialists in the field of greenhouse gas monitoring, assessment of carbon balance, corporate carbon regulation, implementation of climate projects; - Additional professional education "Experience in organizing the work and technical equipment of the carbon landfill", at the request of companies - "Carbon management and reporting of companies", "ESG transformation of companies in the context of new challenges". The demand for personnel trained in eco-climatic education programs is due to the adoption of documents and programs in Russia aimed at decarbonization of the economy and green transformation. Given the emerging educational landscape in the field of eco-climatic education, the university plans to implement relevant programs of additional education for children and youth on the basis of the children's carbon site in Shapsha: - eco-climatic school for educators in the format of supplementary education program - "CLIMATLAB" (in a distance format) to improve the level of methodological training and mastering the formats and mechanisms of designing educational content for students within the global climate agenda. - The program of additional education "Children's carbon polygon" for 8th-10th graders of school organizations of Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Ugra to form primary theoretical and applied competencies in the field of eco-climatic education; - The program of additional education for youth "Eco-climatic principles of urban space transformation (eco-reconstruction)" (in a distance format) - to form basic applied competencies in the field of ecological design thinking, technological entrepreneurship and creative technologies, climatic design of urban space. The prospect of commercialization of the scientific results of the Project is the use of data to determine the "baseline" for climate projects, consulting on the development and in the process of implementation of climate projects commercial, public-private (municipal-private) and state enterprises and organizations of the regions of Russia to achieve carbon neutrality, reducing transboundary carbon tax of exporting enterprises and the subsequent entry into existing and newly created markets of international and Russian The key events of the beginning of the 2023 field season are the implementation of additional education programs in the format of advanced training courses for specialists of carbon test site "Experience of organization and technical equipment of carbon test site" (https://vk.link/mukhrino, VKontakte page - https://vk.com/mukhrino) and the Summer School for young researchers (https://vk.link/mukhrino_summer_school, VKontakte page - https://vk.com/mukhrino_summer_school) for undergraduate and graduate students. During several days the leading experts will acquaint the students with the experience of greenhouse gas monitoring at the polygon, equipment and research programs, and on June 5, all the p...
      PubDate: 2023-07-26
      DOI: 10.18822/edgcc567770
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
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