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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
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Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.117
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2174-3487 - ISSN (Online) 2174-9221
Published by Universitat de Valencia Homepage  [33 journals]
  • Rites of Janus: The educated life and crimes of Dr. Hans Beutelspacher

    • Authors: Oleg Beyda, Igor Petrov
      Abstract: The history that follows will show that the limits of (in)humanity are malleable and readily shifted. Whirled in the chaos of life, ordinary people may suddenly be transformed into monsters, and later, may return calmly to their former nature. It remains unclear why these limits prove so diffuse. Dr. Hans Beutelspacher, whose life story took us ten years to reconstruct, traced this path in both directions, and thus came to embody yet another mystery of the human mind. The possessor of an educated and inventive intelligence, he toyed with monstrous behaviour during World War II, before returning just as effortlessly to his «human» and even benevolent state, later developing a prominent career in the field of soil biochemistry.
      PubDate: 2023-07-26
      DOI: 10.7203/metode.14.26228
  • Introducció: Parents primats

    • Authors: Anna Albiach-Serrano
      Abstract: The order Primates includes more than three hundred species, among which are us, human beings. Perhaps that is why we are so fascinated by their study, because of the diverse forms and behaviours of the taxon and because to understand primates better is to understand ourselves better.
      PubDate: 2023-07-26
      DOI: 10.7203/metode.14.27177
  • The fossil record of primate intelligence: From the earliest primates to
           human origins

    • Authors: David Begun
      Abstract: Animals collect and process the information they need to survive and reproduce. The means by which they process information is through the capacity of intelligence, which is in turn a function of the brain, its morphology, size, organization, and cytoarchitecture. While the internal organization and cellular interconnectivity of the brains of fossilized animals are invisible to paleontologists, the size and surface morphology of the brain are sometimes preserved, usually only in part, in the form of endocasts (casts, either natural or artificial, of the inside of the brain case). This broad survey of the evolution of intelligence in primates as interpreted from the fossil record of endocasts is primarily focused on the lineages that inform us more directly about the evolutionary events leading to the origin of human intelligence.
      PubDate: 2023-07-26
      DOI: 10.7203/metode.14.25418
  • Primate social behaviour: Benefits, challenges and diversity of relations

    • Authors: Federica Amici
      Abstract: Primates usually live in groups and interact with other group members, sometimes forming preferential long-term relationships. Sociality provides primates with benefits like support and learning opportunities that ultimately increase their fitness. Sociality also poses challenges in terms of competition and coordination, though, which primates face with the use of different behavioural and cognitive strategies. Moreover, primates show important variation in sociality, both between species, between groups, across individuals and through developmental stages. Overall, observational studies are a powerful tool to understand the richness in primate sociality, and the factors that explain the emergence and maintenance of specific forms of sociality and behavioural traits.
      PubDate: 2023-07-26
      DOI: 10.7203/metode.14.25454
  • Hunting roles in chimpanzees' Cognitive aspects of group activity in
           this species

    • Authors: Anna Albiach
      Abstract: Observations of chimpanzees in their natural habitat show that as well as competing, these primates often cooperate by forming coalitions, patrolling the boundaries of their territories, and hunting in groups. Perhaps because of the important role it is thought to have played in the evolution of our own species, group hunting behaviours have attracted considerable research interest. The underlying question is to what extent do chimpanzees hunt cooperatively in a human-like manner' To answer this question, we must consider not only their behaviour, but also the cognitive abilities required, given that any two similar behaviours may respond to different psychological mechanisms. Research on the cognitive aspect of cooperation has been carried out mainly through experiments with chimpanzees in captivity. The available evidence suggests that, with experience, chimpanzees are capable of coordination between individuals, but it is unclear whether they can also cooperate, i.e., act according to a common strategy.
      PubDate: 2023-07-26
      DOI: 10.7203/metode.14.25583
  • A primatological perspective on human cultural origins: When did
           cumulative culture evolved in our lineage

    • Authors: Alba Motes-Rodrigo
      Abstract: Humans are one of the most successful species in the planet as we inhabit almost every ecosystem on Earth. This success has been attributed to our cultural proficiency, which allows us to store in the collective minds of our populations complex knowledge that no single individual could innovate on its own. In this way, we acquire most of our behavioural repertoire from experts in our communities and, contrary to any other species, we build upon this collectively-stored information to create novel solutions to face ever-more-challenging problems. This ratcheting of behavioural complexity has led to our culture being coined cumulative. The fact that not even our closest living relatives, the great apes, possess this type of culture begs the question of when did cumulative culture evolve in our lineage. In this piece, I discuss how the field of experimental primate archaeology has contributed to this question by describing several stone-tool experiments conducted with great apes.
      PubDate: 2023-07-26
      DOI: 10.7203/metode.14.26517
  • The interface between humans and other primates: The case of the Republic
           of Guinea-Bissau

    • Authors: Catarina C. N. Casanova, Susana Gonçalves Sousa
      Abstract: With this paper we invite the reader to join us to a field trip to Guinea-Bissau through our eyes as primatologists and to explore the entanglements between humans and non-human primates. The first time we went to the field was in 2003. After staying with an NGO for a while, we set up a field station in a protected area that was home to chimpanzees (Madina Field Station). However, soon we realized that «protected areas», «high-quality forest», or «suitable habitat for chimpanzees» would not make any difference for research – and, most importantly, for this ape’s conservation – without taking into consideration the locals’ attitudes. Humanized landscapes most probably will become the rule in the future, so finding a way for a peaceful coexistence is urgent.
      PubDate: 2023-07-26
      DOI: 10.7203/metode.14.25532
  • The legacy of the dinosaurs

    • Authors: Luis Alcalá
      Abstract: «Children find them exciting» is an unoriginal comment that those involved in dinosaur research have often heard. Popular appreciation of these animals dates almost as far back as their scientific discovery in the mid-19th century, and for much of the time since then, dinosaurs have been popularly regarded as entertainment. In recent decades, however, society has become more aware of the geological and biological aspects, rather than the recreational ones. Why are there so many sites in certain regions and none in other nearby areas' Which were the largest, and why did they reach such gigantic proportions' How do we know what colour they were' We hear these questions every day in lecture halls full of people eager to learn more about the mysteries of palaeontology.
      PubDate: 2023-06-27
      DOI: 10.7203/metode.14.26964
  • The dinosaurs of the Maestrat Basin: Evolution of hadrosauriforms in the
           eastern Iberian Peninsula

    • Authors: Andrés Santos Cubedo
      Abstract: The Maestrat Basin, in the Iberian System, has proved to be a key point for the study of the hadrosauriform dinosaurs of the Lower Cretaceous period in Europe. The Aliaga, Galve, and Morella sub-basins have all yielded abundant fossils of Mesozoic vertebrates, among which dinosaurs, and especially hadrosauriform styracosternal ornithopods, are the most abundant group from these areas. In this article, we review recent findings in the Maestrat Basin, which suggest that the diversity of this clade during the Barremian–Albian period was greater than originally thought, providing us with valuable information for the study and understanding of the evolution of these dinosaurs.
      PubDate: 2023-06-27
      DOI: 10.7203/metode.14.24534
  • What is the most giant sauropod from Argentina' Diversity of large
           titanosaurs from Patagonia

    • Authors: Jorge Orlando Calvo
      Abstract: This work’s intent is to establish which was the most giant titanosaurid sauropod from Argentina. The evidence is scarce; however, we have tried to select the largest bones of the nine most giant titanosaurids. Argentinosaurus has been proposed as the largest titanosaurid, but recently a new king has been erected: the Patagotitan. In this review, we will see that there are some inconsistences and difficulties to define which is the largest. In other words, giant titanosaurids were a group of sauropods with a variable morphology and probably the overall shape was different. Among the largest titanosaurids, we have included Argyrosaurus superbus, Antarctosaurus giganteus, Argentinosaurus huinculensis, Puertasaurus reuili, Futalognkosaurus dukei, Traukutitan eocaudata, Dreadnoughtus schrani, Notocolossus gonzalezparejasi, and Patagotitan mayorum.
      PubDate: 2023-06-27
      DOI: 10.7203/metode.14.24556
  • Virtual sauropods: A revolution in the study of long-necked dinosaurs

    • Authors: Daniel Vidal
      Abstract: Over the past 20 years, the study of fossils using 3D visualisation techniques, better known as virtual palaeontology, has revolutionised the study of organisms from the past. The study of the popular sauropod dinosaurs is a clear example: the complex mounting systems or expensive replicas once used to study their skeletons are now easily achievable thanks to advances in computing. Thus, questions such as the position of their long necks, their movement capabilities and functional implications, or even how they copulated, are easier to address than ever before. Therefore, the insights gained through traditional methods, together with the contributions of new technologies, are opening up new frontiers in the study of these titans.
      PubDate: 2023-06-27
      DOI: 10.7203/metode.14.24689
  • Dinosaurs in Spain and the rural environment: Research at the service of
           territorial development

    • Authors: Alberto Cobos Periáñez
      Abstract: In some rural areas, the impact of palaeontological research on dinosaurs and their geological environment is a very important scientific, cultural, and socio-economic catalyst. The proliferation of places that showcase these types of resources (such as palaeontological parks, museums, geoparks, interpretation centres, and guided routes, etc.) has multiplied in recent years, and they are visited by thousands of people interested in the history of life on Earth. Spain is one of the most representative countries in the world regarding the use of dinosaurs as a factor for territorial development in rural areas. In some cases, such as in the province of Teruel, this is enhanced by the permanent presence of specialists who carry out their research in the immediate environment from which the fossils originate.
      PubDate: 2023-06-27
      DOI: 10.7203/metode.14.24615
  • Introduction: Moments of science. Photography and the understanding of

    • Authors: Roberto García-Roa
      Abstract: The search for certainty in a world that is often so binary – where choosing between two options seems to be the better (and simpler) alternative – gives meaning to the expression «a picture is worth a thousand words». But if we are running away from simplicity, why choose between the two'
      PubDate: 2023-05-17
      DOI: 10.7203/metode.14.26680
  • Madame Davit: Enjoying nature: Botanical illustration from a gender

    • Authors: Àngels Viladomiu, Àngel Romo
      Abstract: Suzanne Davit (Paris, 1897 – Barcelona, 1973) is little known and studied, despite the relevancy of her legacy to the Catalan botanical illustration of the early and mid-20th century. Great botanists such as Pius Font i Quer greatly valued her unique way of capturing nature. As a woman and an artist who was passionate about nature and who was also scientifically very curious, her representation of plants was different from the typical work of the time. Her innovations are interpreted as an alternative artistic discourse to the dominant patriarchal dialogue and a manifestation of the female touch. Access to unpublished documents – Davit's correspondence with a friend – has made it possible to reconstruct some of the key aspects of her work, involving the crossroads between the aesthetic exaltation of flowers and a gender perspective.
      PubDate: 2023-03-24
      DOI: 10.7203/metode.14.25553
  • A picture and a thousand words: The pairing of photography and science

    • Authors: Roberto García-Roa
      Abstract: Photography was born at the beginning of the 19th century as a tool for representing the world around us. With its advent, the scientific community found an ally to push back the frontiers of knowledge. Since then, the pairing of photography and science has evolved considerably. Photography has positioned itself not only as an effective means of collecting data, but also as a tool for sharing scientific information, both inside and outside the academic world. In addition, technological developments in recent decades have encouraged almost constant interaction between photography and the public, including the research community. This has further opened up possibilities for integrating photography into scientific career development.
      PubDate: 2023-03-24
      DOI: 10.7203/metode.14.25534
  • Photography and biodiversity awareness: The use of images in conservation

    • Authors: Santiago Carreira
      Abstract: Since its inception, photography has played an important role as a documentary tool. It has been used to communicate and disseminate biodiversity research and conservation projects in different parts of the world. Today, the extraordinary technological development and popularity of photography has allowed it to be used to collect data for different types of scientific projects and to facilitate a much more fluid exchange of information between the scientific community and the public, for example in citizen science programmes. However, a paradigm shift is now being proposed for photography to move beyond its purely artistic sense to reveal its informative and knowledge-generating potential in the field of conservation.
      PubDate: 2023-03-24
      DOI: 10.7203/metode.14.24705
  • Scientific photography and animal behaviour: A historical perspective

    • Authors: Enrique Font
      Abstract: Louis Daguerre imagined that his invention would be useful mainly for artistic purposes or for personal use (portraits and travel diaries, etc.), but photography actually became a valuable ally of science. The observation and documentation of natural phenomena is one of the pillars of the scientific method. In this context, photography guarantees objectivity and authenticity in a way that other alternative techniques cannot. Moreover, as a visual tool, it gives us access to phenomena that cannot be perceived or processed by the human eye. A book on the expression of emotions published by Charles Darwin 150 years ago marked the beginning of scientific photography.
      PubDate: 2023-03-24
      DOI: 10.7203/metode.14.24660
  • Scientific photography and astronomy: Technology applied to understanding
           the universe

    • Authors: Fernando Abalos Vazquez, Javier Ábalos
      Abstract: In 1925, Edwin Hubble took the first step towards increasing the size of the known universe by several orders of magnitude by using the precarious photographic methods available at the time: glass plates and photosensitive emulsions. Analysing periodic variations in the brightness of certain stars (Cepheids) by using photographs, Hubble was able to show that the distance between Andromeda and the Earth was much greater than previously thought. Thus, Andromeda, previously thought to be a nebula, had to be a galaxy different from our own. Suddenly, the estimated size of the universe went from a few hundred thousand light years to a few billion light years. Since then, the synergy between photographic technology and astronomy has continued to grow.
      PubDate: 2023-03-24
      DOI: 10.7203/metode.14.24625
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