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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
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Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science
Number of Followers: 19  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 2006-7003
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Climate change and agricultural production trends in Nigeria: implication
           for sustainable food production

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      Authors: S. O. Oyewole, A. F. Aderounmu , A. O. Adepoju, A. L. Oyewole
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Climate change variability is a threat to agricultural production at both global scales. The present study evaluates the link between climate change and food security in Nigeria which is a pointer to sustainable food production. Secondary data were extracted from the database of FAO and World Bank development indicator were used to assessed the staple crops such as casaba, cowpea, maize, rice and yam. The descriptive statistics (mean standard deviation and coefficient of variation) and correction model coupled with co-integration approach were used to analyse the data. The finding revealed an inconsistency in temperature and rainfall pattern which is an evident of changing climate. The average value of 11.4 tones/hectare, 0.85tons/ha, 0.25tons/ha, 0.30tons/ha and 1.83 tons/ha for cassava, cowpea, maize, rice and yam respectively were all lower than the expected global average. The result of unit root test showed that cassava and maize output are non-stationary at their level form but stationary after differencing and there is long run relationship between the variables. The result of error correction model revealed that rainfall (β = -0.263, p<0.01) and temperature (β = -0.083, p<0.01) exert positive effect on cassava and maize respectively. However, estimated parameters (β = 0.046, p<0.01), (β = 0.081, p<0.01) and (β = 0.328, p<0.01) obtained for cowpea, rice and yam respectively showed negative relationship. Temperature showed significant and negative effect on rice and yam output. This implied that temperature and rainfall are important climatic factors that determine the growth of agricultural food crops in different ecological zones of Nigeria. The study therefore recommends environmental policies that are beneficial to crop production and facilitate climate change adaptation strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Participation of households in urban agriculture and perceived effect on
           livelihood in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State of Nigeria

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      Authors: C. S. Ofordu, A. L. Oyewole, E.D. Adedoyin, B.O. Okumodi, M.A. Audu
      Pages: 15 - 28
      Abstract: Urban agriculture has a great role to play in achieving household food security. It is an important source of alternative income for many households. This study evaluated the participation of households in urban agriculture and perceived effect on livelihood in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State of Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used in selecting 206 respondents and data were collected through the use of structured questionnaires and interview schedules. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts and percentages and logit regression model. The result of socioeconomic profile of the respondents indicated that 66% were male while 44% were female. About 52% of the respondents were between 15 and 35 years while those above 46 years were 16.5%. About 42% were married. About 31% of the respondents earned monthly income between #15,001 and #30,000. About 54% of the respondents participate in urban farming. The respondents engaged in livestock farming are 33.3% while 37.2% of the respondents are into crop production. Only 19.4% of the respondents belong to association. Majority of the respondents perceived that urban agriculture provides alternative income while 14.7% perceived that it enhanced household nutrition. The challenges facing urban agriculture include limited access to farm land, inadequate access to credit and lack of farers organization to facilitate adequate advocacy. Factors influencing participation in urban farming are age, household size and income. The study recommends that urban agriculture should be integrated into land use planning of all urban centers in Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Land cover accuracy assessment in Okitipupa, Ondo State, Nigeria;
           application of atmospheric correction and machine learning algorithms.

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      Authors: O. J. Aigbokhan, C. S. Ofordu, N. E. Essien, N. C. MbaEssien
      Pages: 29 - 53
      Abstract: The interaction of solar radiation with the atmosphere causes changes in the solar radiation that the Earth's surface reflects satellite sensors. Therefore, by eliminating air influences from satellite images, applying an atmospheric correction aid in determining genuine surface reflectance values and retrieving physical properties of the Earth's surface, including surface reflectance. Perhaps the most crucial step in pre-processing data from satellites that have been remotely detected is atmospheric correction. Here, we assessed Okitipupa, Ondo State, Nigeria's land cover classification using Landsat 8 image. The acquired Landsat image was subjected to Quick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC), Dark Object Subtraction (DOS), and Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH) algorithm. The corrected image was applied to create the land cover classification using random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM) techniques. Four different classes were used in this study: built-up, shrubs, vegetation, and wetland/river. The land cover classification accuracy was in the following order: 0.98 and 0.96 > 0.97 and 0.95 for SVM_FLAASH and SVM_QUAC. This was followed by SVM_QUAC with an overall accuracy of 0.97 and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. Quick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC), Dark Object Subtraction (DOS), and Fast Line-of- Sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes are the three atmospheric correction algorithms (FLAASH).
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Farmers’ perceptions of drought and adaptation strategies in Mashi Local
           Government Area, Katsina State, Nigeria

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      Authors: I.B. Abaje, J. Magaji
      Pages: 54 - 82
      Abstract: In spite of drought’s long history in northern Nigeria and approaches to drought mitigation, losses from it have continued to rise. This study assessed farmers’ perceptions of drought and adaptation strategies employed in combating the impacts of drought in Mashi Local Government Area of Katsina State. Rainfall data spanning a period of 60 years (1961-2020) was used in the study. A total of 384 copies of a questionnaire were administered to farmers in selected communities of the study area. A second order polynomial curve fitting, 5-year moving average, and standard deviation were used in determining trends and variability of the rainfall while Rainfall Anomaly Index was used in depicting periods of different drought intensities in the area. A five-point Likert Scale was then used to assess the impact of drought on agriculture and drought adaptation strategies. The results from the second order polynomial curve fitting, the 5-year moving average and the standard deviation indicated an increasing rainfall trend in recent years. The Rainfall Anomaly Index revealed that the area has experienced different droughts intensities in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s while normal to very wet conditions dominated in the 2000s and 2010s. Findings also revealed that the most significant impacts of drought were decline in crop yields with a mean score ( ) of 4.06 an increase in the cost of food crops ( = 4.04) among others. Further findings revealed that praying for God to intervene ( = 4.46) and planting crops with early maturity ( = 4.33) among others were the most significant drought adaptation strategies. Conclusively, this study revealed that the area has been experiencing a decreasing number of droughts in recent years. It is recommended that extension workers should be trained in climate change science to enable them to pass adequate information on climate related issues and appropriate drought adaptation measures to farmers, and strategies for combating droughts should consider the traditional and religious beliefs of the people.
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Impact of lockdown due to outbreak of COVID on future climate simulations
           over West Africa: preliminary result from MRI-ESM2.0 Model

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      Authors: Vincent Olanrewaju Ajayi
      Pages: 83 - 103
      Abstract: The outbreak of Coronavirus disease (COVID 19) necessitated global lockdown to curtail its spread for the greater part of year 2020. These lockdowns led to shutting down of human activities and ultimately led to reduction in greenhouse gas emission during the period. The study seeks to assess the impact of this reduction on the climate of West Africa. A global Climate Model, MRI-ESM2.0, participating in the CovidMIP experiment is used in this assessment. The model was run at normal SSP245 scenario and SSP245-COVID scenario, the latter is when GHG reduced due to Covid lockdown, which is regarded as a forcing in the model. The difference between SSP245-COVID scenario and simulations at SSP245 scenario was used to quantify the impact of lockdown. Result shows that there is a reduction in 2 m, maximum and minimum temperature in the Sahelian part of West Africa up to anomaly of 0.5oC. There is however warming anomaly in the Guinea coast. Rainfall anomalies up to -70 mm/month anomaly is simulated in most part of Nigeria and along the coastal areas of Benin, Togo, Ghana and Cote-D’ivoire. The slowing down of warming is however not statistically significant as the lockdown is not sustained enough to have appreciable impact on on-going warming trend.
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Electrical resistivity investigation of the groundwater potential in
           Oloruntedo Community, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

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      Authors: V. O Dada , A. A Adekitan , H.O Onasanya
      Pages: 104 - 113
      Abstract: Groundwater is that water found beneath the surface of the earth which serves as a predominant source of water for human endeavours. The aim of the study was to determine viable aquiferous zones to investigate the groundwater potential using resistivity technique (specifically Vertical Electrical Soundings) in Oloruntedo Community Obantoko, Odeda Local Government area, Abeokuta, Ogun State. The highly resolution PASI Earth resistivity meter, Model 16 GL geophysical equipment was used to acquire the groundwater location. Relatively six (6) Vertical electrical soundings were carried out via Schlumberger array. The VES data generated were processed and interpreted using partial curve matching method and computer iteration techniques. The result shows four geo- electric sections with varied thicknesses and resistivity. The resistivity of the top soil ranges between 181 ohm-m and 1460.6 ohm-m, the resistivity of clay varies between 31.8 ohm-m and 789.8 ohm-m, the resistivity of the fresh basement ranges from 1049.3 ohm-m and 8961.5 ohm-m which was the only layer observed in one of the (6) VES points. The resistivity of weathered basement ranges from 90.6 ohm-m and 388.2 ohm-m, the resistivity of highly weathered ranges from 13.6 ohm-m and 49.1 ohm-m and lastly the resistivity of the lateritic sand which was only observed in one of the (6) VES points is 294.4 ohm-m. The results show that a drilling depth of 50m is feasible at VES 6, 40m depth borehole at VES 4 and 5, while 20m depth borehole at VES 1, 2 and 3 respectively is feasible in the study area. VES 6 station has the highest groundwater potential, secondly by VES 4 and 5 while VES1, 2 and 3 imprint a low groundwater zone in the study area. The study confirms that Electrical resistivity technique is a good method in identifying groundwater potential zones in an area.
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Analysis of rainfall variability for crop planning in Abeokuta, Nigeria.

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      Authors: K.O. Ayoola
      Pages: 114 - 122
      Abstract: The study analyzed temporal variability in annual, seasonal, monthly and weekly rainfall in Abeokuta. Daily rainfall data for Abeokuta was obtained from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency Abuja for a period of 21 years. Coefficient of variation was used to analyze the temporal rainfall variability. Markov Chain Model was adopted for drought analysis using the Standard Meteorological week (SMW). The Coefficient of variation of 18.3 per cent indicated that the annual rainfall of Abeokuta has a low variability over the years. The seasonal contribution to annual rainfall was 43.8% and 50.9% for early and late planting (rainy season) and 5.3% for dry season respectively. Within the rainy season, September was the highest rainfall contributing month (16.3%) followed by July (14.3%) and June (14.0%). Mean weekly precipitation amount and its assurance reaches the peak (>50 mm/week) during 18th SMW, 28th SMW, 29th SMW and 39th SMW but lower in other SMW weeks. Onset of rainy season occurred at 14th SMW and runs till the 44th SMW before decline in rainfall for the dry season to set in. There is water availability for rain water harvesting from the month of April to October which can be utilized as crop saving irrigation during the short dry spell period of the rainy season and for irrigation farming during the dry season.
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effects of thermal heat units on the phenology and yield of kenaf in the
           sorghum/kenaf/okra intercrop in the forest-savanna transition zone of
           Nigeria

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      Authors: Hassan G. Kassim, Niyi J. Bello, Faucett O. Olasantan, Gideon C. Ufoegbune, Akeem A. Makinde
      Pages: 123 - 139
      Abstract: This study investigated the effects of thermal heat units on the phenology and yield of kenaf in the sorghum/kenaf/okra intercrop at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Water Resources Management and Agricultural Meteorology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria during the 2011 and 2012 planting seasons. One kenaf (Cuba 108) and okra (NHAe 47-4) cultivars and two sorghum cultivars (Janare and Farin-Dawa) were intercropped to form 11 treatments. The treatments were randomised in a complete block design, with three replicates. Daily agrometeorological data were collected from the agrometeorological station of the Department of Water Resources Management and Agricultural Meteorology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria, to determine the growing degree days (GDD). Helio thermal units (HTU), photothermal units (PTU), relative temperature disparity (RTD), and heat unit efficiency (HUE) using empirical formulae. The results of the study showed that the accumulated GDDs, PTU, HTU, and RTD required to attain different growth stages of kenaf with sorghum and okra in the sole, two-, and three-tier stands were significantly affected. The HUE values of kenaf in the sole stand were significantly higher than those in their mixtures. HUE correlated positively and significantly with the yield of kenaf bast fibre (0.986**) and seed (0.801**), indicating that the temperature was efficiently utilised by the crops in sole and mixtures. Hence, it may be concluded that kenaf can be incorporated with sorghum and okra to give a new crop combination.
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Floods recurrence and effects on socio-economic livelihoods of communities
           in Dar Es Salaam region, Tanzania

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      Authors: Emmanuel Patroba Mhache
      Pages: 140 - 163
      Abstract: This paper assesses flood recurrence and effects on the socio-economic livelihoods of communities in Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania. Limited studies conducted focused on the effects of the recurrence of floods but none on the socio-economic livelihoods of communities in Dar es Salaam Region. Specifically, this article examines the reasons for the recurrence of floods, determines the effects of floods on communities’ socio-economic livelihoods, and evaluates measures to mitigate the recurrence. The study conducted in Ubungo and Kinondoni Districts, employed mixed research methods to triangulate the information collected, whereby in-depth interviews, field observations, and household surveys were used for data collection. The study found that the recurrence of floods is a result of heavy rainfall, building in the drainage systems, impervious surfaces, disposing of waste in the drainages, and poor drainage systems. Effects of the floods include death, injuries, damage to properties, and diseases. Remedial measures for the recurrence of floods include enlargement of the drainages, frequent cleaning of the drainage systems, avoiding disposal of waste in the drainages and demolishing all buildings which obstruct the flow of water. The study recommends reinforcement of emergencies, preparedness, resettling people living in flood-prone areas, and acting on forecasts provided by the Meteorological Authority in the study area.
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • System analysis, urban environmental planning and management: a synthesis

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      Authors: Aliyu A. Yusuf
      Pages: 164 - 183
      Abstract: Since urban places are built environments and ecosystems informed and shaped by their gestalt and complex nature due to the systemic and systematic configurations and interplay of their natural and human environmental elements; they are better synthesized, appraised, planned and managed through the methods of “systems analysis” for the synthesis and appraisal of the urban environment; with “urban ecosystems planning and management approaches” as strategic pathways for regulating different urban environmental problems relatively generated by harmful “ecological footprints” of byproducts and wastes from different urban human ecological activities, processes and material objects. It is in their respective “energy flow” and “synergy” with urban natural environment during the general processes of “urban metabolism” and “urban dynamism” that they transfer to it some harmful pollutants. Among the common urban environmental problems in Nigeria are pollution of atmosphere, land and water usually arising from the emissions of harmful greenhouse gases, spillages of harmful chemicals and byproducts and wastes that usually drain into urban water systems and land, indiscriminate cutting of trees and land excavation that respectively cause smog, green house effect, various waterborne diseases, blockages and over flooding of waterways and drainages, land erosion, de-vegetation and de-forestation. Thus, these problems if not effectively regulated may consequently militate environmental deterioration, climate change, drought, resources depletion, famine and various diseases capable of hindering urban environmental viability, livability, sustainability and sustainable development that negatively impact the living conditions, health, wellbeing and livelihood of people and other biota inhabiting urban places/ecosystems. Hence, for adequate application and result from systems analysis and ecosystems approaches; they must be supported by reliable data, effective and efficient application of Town and Country Planning Laws, proper environmental conservation and preservation through promotion of eco-friendly activities, methods and appropriate urban zoning and land-use practices capable of making urban places, “places for everything and everything in its proper place”.
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Temperature and rainfall trend in Agbani, Enugu State Southeastern Nigeria

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      Authors: Enyinnaya Okoro Okoro, Andrew Edosa Omergie, Jeremiah Ogbonna Nwankwagu
      Pages: 184 - 194
      Abstract: Complementing climate forecasts with historical data is one way to develop usable climate information for agricultural producers. Farmers are the major end-users of climate information therefore, this study analyzed the trend of rainfall and temperature in Agbani Enugu State. The daily meteorological parameters were acquired using the Automatic Weather Station (AWS) at Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT) from January 2012 to December 2019. The daily data were analyzed using the Excel package to obtain average monthly data. The Trend Regression analysis was used to predict a trend in rainfall and temperature from 2020 up to 2050. The result showed that 2018 recorded the highest rainfall followed by 2015, and 2012 recorded the lowest rainfall. The mean monthly rainfall indicated that January has the lowest rainfall of 53.5 mm, while July recorded the highest rainfall of 2,624.3 mm. The month of March has the highest mean temperature July and August recorded the lowest temperature over the eight years. The trend model forecast indicated Yt = 152.53+0.155t for rainfall and Yt = 27.747+0.02398t for temperature from 2020 to 2050. The result shows an incremental trend of 0.155 mm and 0.2398°C in rainfall and temperature, respectively, associated with every unit increase in period(t). It is recommended that farmers should expect a wetter and hotter climate from 2020 to 2050.
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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