A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.956
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 45  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1861-9533 - ISSN (Online) 0256-1530
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • The Warming of the Tibetan Plateau in Response to Transient and Stabilized
           2.0°C/1.5°C Global Warming Targets

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract As “the third pole”, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is sensitive to climate forcing and has experienced rapid warming in recent decades. This study analyzes annual and seasonal near-surface air temperature changes on the TP in response to transient and stabilized 2.0°C/1.5°C global warming targets based on simulations of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Elevation-dependent warming (EDW) with faster warming at higher elevations is predicted. A surface energy budget analysis is adopted to uncover the mechanisms responsible for the temperature changes. Our results indicate a clear amplified warming on the TP with positive EDW in 2.0°C/1.5°C warmer futures, especially in the cold season. Mean TP warming relative to the reference period (1961–90) is dominated by an enhanced downward longwave radiation flux, while the variations in surface albedo shape the detailed pattern of EDW. For the same global warming level, the temperature changes under transient scenarios are ~0.2°C higher than those under stabilized scenarios, and the characteristics of EDW are broadly similar for both scenarios. These differences can be primarily attributed to the combined effects of differential downward longwave radiation, cloud radiative forcing, and surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. These findings contribute to a more detailed understanding of regional climate on the TP in response to the long-term climate goals of the Paris Agreement and highlight the differences between transient and stabilized warming scenarios.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Influence of South Asian Biomass Burning on Ozone and Aerosol
           Concentrations Over the Tibetan Plateau

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract In this work, the influence of South Asian biomass burning emissions on O3 and PM2.5 concentrations over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is investigated by using the regional climate chemistry transport model WRF-Chem. The simulation is validated by comparing meteorological fields and pollutant concentrations against in situ observations and gridded datasets, providing a clear perspective on the spatiotemporal variations of O3 and PM2.5 concentrations across the Indian subcontinent, including the Tibetan Plateau. Further sensitivity simulations and analyses show that emissions from South Asian biomass burning mainly affect local O3 concentrations. For example, contribution ratios were up to 20% in the Indo-Gangetic Plain during the pre-monsoon season but below 1% over the TP throughout the year 2016. In contrast, South Asian biomass burning emissions contributed more than 60% of PM2.5 concentration over the TP during the pre-monsoon season via significant contribution of primary PM2.5 components (black carbon and organic carbon) in western India that were lofted to the TP by westerly winds. Therefore, it is suggested that cutting emissions from South Asian biomass burning is necessary to alleviate aerosol pollution over the TP, especially during the pre-monsoon season.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Understanding Third Pole Atmospheric Dynamics and Land Surface Processes
           and Their Associations with the Cryosphere, Air Quality, and Climate
           Change

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Impacts of Topographic Complexity on Modeling Moisture Transport and
           Precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau in Summer

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The non-hydrostatic global variable resolution model (MPAS-atmosphere) is used to conduct the simulations for the South Asian Summer monsoon season (June, July, and August) in 2015 with a refinement over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) at the convection-permitting scale (4 km). Two experiments with different topographical datasets, complex (4-km) and smooth (60-km) topography, are designed to investigate the impacts of topographical complexity on moisture transport and precipitation. Compared with the observations and reanalysis data, the simulation can successfully capture the general features of key meteorological fields over the TP despite slightly underestimating the inflow through the southern TP. The results indicate that the complex topography can decrease the inward and outward moisture transport, ultimately increasing the total net moisture transport into the TP by ∼11%. The impacts of complex topography on precipitation are negligible over the TP, but the spatial distributions of precipitation over the Himalayas are significantly modulated. With the inclusion of complex topography, the sharper southern slopes of the Himalayas shift the lifted airflow and hence precipitation northward compared to the smooth topography. In addition, more small-scale valleys are resolved by the inclusion of complex topography, which serve as channels for moisture transport across the Himalayas, further favoring a northward shift of precipitation. Overall, the difference between the two experiments with different topography datasets is mainly attributed to their differing representation of the degree of the southern slopes of the Himalayas and the extent to which the valleys are resolved.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Change in Precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau Projected by Weighted
           CMIP6 Models

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is important to local and downstream ecosystems. Based on a weighting method considering model skill and independence, changes in the TP precipitation for near-term (2021–40), mid-term (2041–60) and long-term (2081–2100) under shared socio-economic pathways (SSP1-1.9, SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSSP3-7.0, SSP5-8.5) are projected with 27 models from the latest Sixth Phase of the Couple Model Intercomparison Project. The annual mean precipitation is projected to increase by 7.4%–21.6% under five SSPs with a stronger change in the northern TP by the end of the 21st century relative to the present climatology. Changes in the TP precipitation at seasonal scales show a similar moistening trend to that of annual mean precipitation, except for the drying trend in winter precipitation along the southern edges of the TP. Weighting generally suggests a slightly stronger increase in TP precipitation with reduced model uncertainty compared to equally-weighted projections. The effect of weighting exhibits spatial and seasonal differences. Seasonally, weighting leads to a prevailing enhancement of increase in spring precipitation over the TP. Spatially, the influence of weighting is more remarkable over the northwestern TP regarding the annual, summer and autumn precipitation. Differences between weighted and original MMEs can give us more confidence in a stronger increase in precipitation over the TP, especially for the season of spring and the region of the northwestern TP, which requires additional attention in decision making.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Improving Simulations of Vegetation Dynamics over the Tibetan Plateau:
           Role of Atmospheric Forcing Data and Spatial Resolution

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The efficacy of vegetation dynamics simulations in offline land surface models (LSMs) largely depends on the quality and spatial resolution of meteorological forcing data. In this study, the Princeton Global Meteorological Forcing Data (PMFD) and the high spatial resolution and upscaled China Meteorological Forcing Data (CMFD) were used to drive the Simplified Simple Biosphere model version 4/Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics (SSiB4/TRIFFID) and investigate how meteorological forcing datasets with different spatial resolutions affect simulations over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), a region with complex topography and sparse observations. By comparing the monthly Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Gross Primary Production (GPP) against observations, we found that SSiB4/TRIFFID driven by upscaled CMFD improved the performance in simulating the spatial distributions of LAI and GPP over the TP, reducing RMSEs by 24.3% and 20.5%, respectively. The multi-year averaged GPP decreased from 364.68 gC m–2 yr–1 to 241.21 gC m–2 yr–1 with the percentage bias dropping from 50.2% to –1.7%. When using the high spatial resolution CMFD, the RMSEs of the spatial distributions of LAI and GPP simulations were further reduced by 7.5% and 9.5%, respectively. This study highlights the importance of more realistic and high-resolution forcing data in simulating vegetation growth and carbon exchange between the atmosphere and biosphere over the TP.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • The Impact of Tibetan Plateau Snow Cover on the Summer Temperature in
           Central Asia

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The current work examines the impact of the snow cover extent (SCE) of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) on the interannual variation in the summer (June-July-August) surface air temperature (SAT) over Central Asia (CA) (SAT_CA) during the 1979–2019 period. The leading mode of the summer SAT_CA features a same-sign temperature anomalies in CA and explains 62% of the total variance in SAT_CA. The atmospheric circulation associated with a warming SAT_CA is characterized by a pronounced high-pressure system dominating CA. The high-pressure system is accompanied by warm advection as well as descending motion over CA, favoring the warming of the SAT_CA. Analysis shows that the interannual variation in the summer SAT_CA is significantly positively correlated with the April SCE over the central-eastern TP. In April, higher than normal SCE over the central-eastern TP has a pronounced cooling effect on the column of the atmosphere above the TP and can persist until the following early summer. Negative and positive height anomalies appear above and to the west of the TP. In the following months, the perturbation forcing generated by the TP SCE anomalies lies near the western center of the Asian subtropical westerly jet (SWJ), which promotes atmospheric waves in the zonal direction guided by the Asian SWJ. Associated with this atmospheric wave, in the following summer, a significant high-pressure system dominates CA, which is a favorable condition for a warm summer SAT_CA.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Improved Parameterization of Snow Albedo in WRF + Noah: Methodology Based
           on a Severe Snow Event on the Tibetan Plateau

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Snowfall and the subsequent evolution of the snowpack have a large effect on the surface energy balance and water cycle of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The effects of snow cover can be represented by the WRF coupled with a land surface scheme. The widely used Noah scheme is computationally efficient, but its poor representation of albedo needs considerable improvement. In this study, an improved albedo scheme is developed using a satellite-retrieved albedo that takes snow depth and age into account. Numerical experiments were then conducted to simulate a severe snow event in March 2017. The performance of the coupled WRF/Noah model, which implemented the improved albedo scheme, is compared against the model’s performance using the default Noah albedo scheme and against the coupled WRF/CLM that applied CLM albedo scheme. When the improved albedo scheme is implemented, the albedo overestimation in the southeastern TP is reduced, reducing the RMSE of the air temperature by 0.7°C. The improved albedo scheme also attains the highest correlation between the satellite-derived and the model-estimated albedo, which provides for a realistic representation of both the snow water equivalent (SWE) spatial distribution in the heavy snowbelt (SWE > 6 mm) and the maximum SWE in the eastern TP. The underestimated albedo in the coupled WRF/CLM leads to underestimating the regional maximum SWE and a consequent failure to estimate SWE in the heavy snowbelt accurately. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of improving the Noah albedo scheme and provides a theoretical reference for researchers aiming to improve albedo schemes further.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Comparative Analysis of the Characteristics of Rainy Season Raindrop Size
           Distributions in Two Typical Regions of the Tibetan Plateau

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Mêdog and Nagqu are two typical regions of the Tibetan Plateau with different geographical locations and climate regimes. These differences may lead to discrepancies in the raindrop size distributions (DSDs) and precipitation microphysical processes between the two regions. This paper investigates discrepancies in the DSDs using disdrometer data obtained during the rainy season in Mêdog and Nagqu. The DSD characteristics are studied under five different rainfall rate categories and two precipitation types (stratiform and convective). For the total datasets, the number concentrations of drops with diameters D > 0.6 (D < 0.6) mm are higher (lower) in Nagqu than in Mêdog. The fitted normalized gamma distributions of the averaged DSDs for the five rainfall rate categories show that Nagqu has a larger (lower) mass-weighted mean diameter Dm (normalized intercept parameter, lgNw) than does Mêdog. The difference in Dm between Nagqu and Mêdog increases with the rainfall rate. Convective clusters in Nagqu could be identified as continental-like, while convective precipitation in Mêdog could be classified as maritime-like. The relationships between the shape factor μ and slope parameter Λ of the gamma distribution model, the radar reflectivity Z, and the rainfall rate R are also derived. Furthermore, the possible causative mechanism for the notable DSD variation between the two regions during the rainy season is illustrated using reanalysis data and automated weather station observations. Cold rain processes are mainly responsible for the lower concentrations of larger drops observed in Nagqu, whereas warm rain prevails in Mêdog, producing abundant small drops.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Intensity Evolution of Zonal Shear Line over the Tibetan Plateau in
           Summer: A Perspective of Divergent and Rotational Kinetic Energies

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Based on the ERA5 reanalysis datasets during 1980–2019, a total of eleven zonal shear lines (ZSLs) that caused heavy precipitation and lasted more than 60 hours over the Tibetan Plateau in summer are selected for composite analysis. By decomposing the kinetic energy (K) near the ZSL into divergent and rotational kinetic energies (KD and KR) and the kinetic energy of interaction between the divergent wind and the rotational wind (KRD), the influence of the rotational and divergent winds on the evolution of the ZSL intensity is investigated from the perspective of KD and KR. The main results are as follows. The ZSL is a comprehensive reflection of rotation and convergence. The intensity evolution of ZSL is essentially synchronized with those of K, KR, and KRD but lags behind KD by about three hours. The enhancement of K is mainly contributed by KR, which is governed by the conversion from KD to KR. Furthermore, the increase in the conversion from KD to KR is controlled by the geostrophic effect term Af, which is determined by the joint enhancement of the zonal rotational and meridional divergent wind components (uR and vD). Therefore, the joint enhancement of uR and vD controls the increase of the ZSL intensity, leading to increased precipitation.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Interannual Influences of the Surface Potential Vorticity Forcing over the
           Tibetan Plateau on East Asian Summer Rainfall

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The influences of interannual surface potential vorticity forcing over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) on East Asian summer rainfall (EASR) and upper-level circulation are explored in this study. The results show that the interannual EASR and associated circulations are closely related to the surface potential vorticity negative uniform leading mode (PVNUM) over the TP. When the PVNUM is in the positive phase, more rainfall occurs in the Yangtze River valley, South Korea, Japan, and part of northern China, less rainfall occurs in southern China, and vice versa. A possible mechanism by which PVNUM affects EASR is proposed. Unstable air induced by the positive phase of PVNUM could stimulate significant upward motion and a lower-level anomalous cyclone over the TP. As a result, a dipole heating mode with anomalous cooling over the southwestern TP and anomalous heating over the southeastern TP is generated. Sensitivity experiment results regarding this dipole heating mode indicate that anomalous cooling over the southwestern TP leads to local and northeastern Asian negative height anomalies, while anomalous heating over the southeastern TP leads to local positive height anomalies. These results greatly resemble the realistic circulation pattern associated with EASR. Further analysis indicates that the anomalous water vapor transport associated with this anomalous circulation pattern is responsible for the anomalous EASR. Consequently, changes in surface potential vorticity forcing over the TP can induce changes in EASR.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Evaluating the Ozone Valley over the Tibetan Plateau in CMIP6 Models

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Total column ozone (TCO) over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is lower than that over other regions at the same latitude, particularly in summer. This feature is known as the “TP ozone valley”. This study evaluates long-term changes in TCO and the ozone valley over the TP from 1984 to 2100 using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). The TP ozone valley consists of two low centers, one is located in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), and the other is in the middle and upper stratosphere. Overall, the CMIP6 models simulate the low ozone center in the UTLS well and capture the spatial characteristics and seasonal cycle of the TP ozone valley, with spatial correlation coefficients between the modeled TCO and the Multi Sensor Reanalysis version 2 (MSR2) TCO observations greater than 0.8 for all CMIP6 models. Further analysis reveals that models which use fully coupled and online stratospheric chemistry schemes simulate the anticorrelation between the 150 hPa geopotential height and zonal anomaly of TCO over the TP better than models without interactive chemistry schemes. This suggests that coupled chemical-radiative-dynamical processes play a key role in the simulation of the TP ozone valley. Most CMIP6 models underestimate the low center in the middle and upper stratosphere when compared with the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations. However, the bias in the middle and upper stratospheric ozone simulations has a marginal effect on the simulation of the TP ozone valley. Most CMIP6 models predict the TP ozone valley in summer will deepen in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Cloud Systems over the Eastern Tibetan
           Plateau and East China: A Cloud-resolving Model Study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The seasonal and diurnal variations of cloud systems are profoundly affected by the large-scale and local environments. In this study, a one-year-long simulation was conducted using a two-dimensional cloud-resolving model over the Eastern Tibetan Plateau (ETP) and two subregions of Eastern China: Southern East China and Central East China. Deep convective clouds (DCCs) rarely occur in the cold season over ETP, whereas DCCs appear in Eastern China throughout the year, and the ETP DCCs are approximately 20%–30% shallower than those over Eastern China. Most strong rainfall events (precipitation intensity, PI> 2.5 mm h−1) in Eastern China are related to warm-season DCCs with ice cloud processes. Because of the high elevation of the ETP, the warm-season freezing level is lower than in Eastern China, providing favorable conditions for ice cloud processes. DCCs are responsible for the diurnal variations of warm-season rainfall in all three regions. Warm-season DCCs over the ETP have the greatest total cloud water content and frequency in the afternoon, resulting in an afternoon rainfall peak. In addition, rainfall events in the ETP also exhibit a nocturnal peak in spring, summer, and autumn due to DCCs. Strong surface heat fluxes around noon can trigger or promote DCCs in spring, summer, and autumn over the ETP but produce only cumulus clouds in winter due to the cold and dry environment.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • COP26: Progress, Challenges, and Outlook

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The 26th Conference of the Parties (COP26) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was held in Glasgow a year later than scheduled, with expected outcomes achieved under a post-pandemic background. Based on the Issue-Actor-Mechanism Framework, this paper systematically evaluates the outcomes achieved at COP26 and analyzes the tendency of post-COP26 climate negotiations. Overall, with the concerted efforts of all parties, COP26 has achieved a balanced and inclusive package of outcomes and concluded six years of negotiations on the Paris Rulebook. It is fair to say that COP26 is another milestone in climate governance following the implementation of the Paris Agreement. Meanwhile, the Glasgow Climate Pact has cemented the consensus on a global commitment to accelerating climate action over the next decade and reached a breakthrough consensus on reducing coal, controlling methane, and halting deforestation. In the post-COP26 era, we still need to take concrete actions to implement the outcomes of the Paris Agreement and the Glasgow Climate Pact, innovate ways to speed up CO2 emissions reduction, and continue to strive for breakthroughs in important issues such as finance, technology, adaptation, and collaboration. In addition to avoiding the escalation of international conflicts, we need to collectively and properly handle the relationship between energy security, carbon reduction, and development and facilitate the efforts of countries to achieve their Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including climate-related goals. China will continue to maintain the existing multilateral mechanisms and processes for climate governance, unremittingly take concrete actions to address climate change, promote a domestic comprehensive green transition and global cooperation on carbon neutrality, and contribute constructively to global climate governance.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
       
  • Climate Warming Mitigation from Nationally Determined Contributions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Individual countries are requested to submit nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to alleviate global warming in the Paris Agreement. However, the global climate effects and regional contributions are not explicitly considered in the countries’ decision-making process. In this study, we evaluate the global temperature slowdown of the NDC scenario (ΔT = 0.6°C) and attribute the global temperature slowdown to certain regions of the world with a compact earth system model. Considering reductions in CO2, CH4, N2O, BC, and SO2, the R5OECD (the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development in 1990) and R5ASIA (Asian countries) are the top two contributors to global warming mitigation, accounting for 39.3% and 36.8%, respectively. R5LAM (Latin America and the Caribbean) and R5MAF (the Middle East and Africa) followed behind, with contributions of 11.5% and 8.9%, respectively. The remaining 3.5% is attributed to R5REF (the Reforming Economies). Carbon Dioxide emission reduction is the decisive factor of regional contributions, but not the only one. Other greenhouse gases are also important, especially for R5MAF. The contribution of short-lived aerosols is small but significant, notably SO2 reduction in R5ASIA. We argue that additional species beyond CO2 need to be considered, including short-lived pollutants, when planning a route to mitigate climate change. It needs to be emphasized that there is still a gap to achieve the Paris Agreement 2-degree target with current NDC efforts, let alone the ambitious 1.5-degree target. All countries need to pursue stricter reduction policies for a more sustainable world.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
       
  • Fengyun-4 Geostationary Satellite-Based Solar Energy Nowcasting System and
           Its Application in North China

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Surface solar irradiance (SSI) nowcasting (0–3 h) is an effective way to overcome the intermittency of solar energy and to ensure the safe operation of grid-connected solar power plants. In this study, an SSI estimate and nowcasting system was established using the near-infrared channel of Fengyun-4A (FY-4A) geostationary satellite. The system is composed of two key components: The first is a hybrid SSI estimation method combining a physical clear-sky model and an empirical cloudy-sky model. The second component is the SSI nowcasting model, the core of which is the derivation of the cloud motion vector (CMV) using the block-matching method. The goal of simultaneous estimation and nowcasting of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) and direct normal irradiance (DNI) is fulfilled. The system was evaluated under different sky conditions using SSI measurements at Xianghe, a radiation station in the North China Plain. The results show that the accuracy of GHI estimation is higher than that of DNI estimation, with a normalized root-mean-square error (nRMSE) of 22.4% relative to 45.4%. The nRMSE of forecasting GHI and DNI at 30–180 min ahead varied within 25.1%–30.8% and 48.1%–53.4%, respectively. The discrepancy of SSI estimation depends on cloud occurrence frequency and shows a seasonal pattern, being lower in spring—summer and higher in autumn—winter. The FY-4A has great potential in supporting SSI nowcasting, which promotes the development of photovoltaic energy and the reduction of carbon emissions in China. The system can be improved further if calibration of the empirical method is improved.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
       
  • Simulating Aerosol Optical Depth and Direct Radiative Effects over the
           Tibetan Plateau with a High-Resolution CAS FGOALS-f3 Model

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Current global climate models cannot resolve the complex topography over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) due to their coarse resolution. This study investigates the impacts of horizontal resolution on simulating aerosol and its direct radiative effect (DRE) over the TP by applying two horizontal resolutions of about 100 km and 25 km to the Chinese Academy of Sciences Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere Land System (CAS FGOALS-f3) over a 10-year period. Compared to the AErosol RObotic NETwork observations, a high-resolution model (HRM) can better reproduce the spatial distribution and seasonal cycles of aerosol optical depth (AOD) compared to a low-resolution model (LRM). The HRM bias and RMSE of AOD decreased by 0.08 and 0.12, and the correlation coefficient increased by 0.22 compared to the LRM. An LRM is not sufficient to reproduce the aerosol variations associated with fine-scale topographic forcing, such as in the eastern marginal region of the TP. The difference between hydrophilic aerosols in an HRM and LRM is caused by the divergence of the simulated relative humidity (RH). More reasonable distributions and variations of RH are conducive to simulating hydrophilic aerosols. An increase of the 10-m wind speed in winter by an HRM leads to increased dust emissions. The simulated aerosol DREs at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface by the HRM are −0.76 W m−2 and −8.72 W m−2 over the TP, respectively. Both resolution models can capture the key feature that dust TOA DRE transitions from positive in spring to negative in the other seasons.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
       
  • An Extreme Drought over South China in 2020/21 Concurrent with an
           Unprecedented Warm Northwest Pacific and La Niña

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract An extreme drought appeared in South China from October 2020 to March 2021. During that time, sea surface temperatures exhibited an unprecedented warm center over the northwest Pacific (NWP) and a cold center over the tropical eastern Pacific (La Niña). This study demonstrates the combined effects of an exceptionally warm NWP and a moderate La Niña are closely linked to the anomalous drought in South China. The sea surface temperature anomaly in these two regions induced a steeper horizontal geopotential height gradient over South China. As a result, anomalous northeasterly winds prevailed over South China, altering water vapor transport and moisture convergence. A simplified atmospheric general circulation model also verifies the influence of the NWP warm anomaly on South China precipitation. This study points out that the sea surface temperature variation in the NWP was important to the occurrence of extreme drought in South China from October 2020 to March 2021.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
       
  • Importance of Air-Sea Coupling in Simulating Tropical Cyclone Intensity at
           Landfall

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract An atmosphere-only model system for making seasonal prediction and projecting future intensities of landfalling tropical cyclones (TCs) along the South China coast is upgraded by including ocean and wave models. A total of 642 TCs have been re-simulated using the new system to produce a climatology of TC intensity in the South China Sea. Detailed comparisons of the simulations from the atmosphere-only and the fully coupled systems reveal that the inclusion of the additional ocean and wave models enable differential sea surface temperature responses to various TC characteristics such as translational speed and size. In particular, interaction with the ocean does not necessarily imply a weakening of the TC, with the coastal bathymetry possibly playing a role in causing a near-shore intensification of the TC. These results suggest that to simulate the evolution of TC structure more accurately, it is essential to use an air-sea coupled model instead of an atmosphere-only model.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
       
  • The Super-large Ensemble Experiments of CAS FGOALS-g3

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract A super-large ensemble simulation dataset with 110 members has been produced by the fully coupled model FGOALS-g3 developed by researchers at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This is the first dataset of large ensemble simulations with a climate system model developed by a Chinese modeling center. The simulation has the largest realizations up to now worldwide in terms of single-model initial-condition large ensembles. Each member includes a historical experiment (1850–2014) and an experiment (2015–99) under the very high greenhouse gas emissions Shared Socioeconomic Pathway scenario (SSP5-8.5). The dataset includes monthly and daily temperature, precipitation, and other variables, requiring storage of 275 TB. Additionally, the surface air temperature (SAT) and land precipitation simulated by the FGOALS-g3 super-large ensemble have been validated and projected. The ensemble can capture the response of SAT and land precipitation to external forcings well, and the internal variabilities can be quantified. The availability of more than 100 realizations will help researchers to study rare events and improve the understanding of the impact of internal variability on forced climate changes.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 44.192.47.87
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-