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Advances in Atmospheric Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.956
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 48  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1861-9533 - ISSN (Online) 0256-1530
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Preface to the Special Collection on the July 2021 Zhengzhou, Henan
           Extreme Rainfall Event

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      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Response of the North Pacific Storm Track Activity in the Cold Season to
           Multi-scale Oceanic Variations of Kuroshio Extension System: A Statistical
           Assessment

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, a statistical method called Generalized Equilibrium Feedback Analysis (GEFA) is used to investigate the responses of the North Pacific Storm Track (NPST) in the cold season to the multi-scale oceanic variations of the Kuroshio Extension (KE) system, including its large-scale variation, oceanic front meridional shift, and mesoscale eddy activity. Results show that in the cold season from the lower to the upper troposphere, the KE large-scale variation significantly weakens the storm track activity over the central North Pacific south of 30°N. The northward shift of the KE front significantly strengthens the storm track activity over the western and central North Pacific south of 40°N, resulting in a southward shift of the NPST. In contrast, the NPST response to KE mesoscale eddy activity is not so significant and relatively shallow, which only shows some significant positive signals near the dateline in the lower and middle troposphere. Furthermore, it is found that baroclinicity and baroclinic energy conversion play an important role in the formation of the NPST response to the KE multi-scale oceanic variations.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • On the Influences of Urbanization on the Extreme Rainfall over Zhengzhou
           on 20 July 2021: A Convection-Permitting Ensemble Modeling Study

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      Abstract: Abstract This study investigates the influences of urban land cover on the extreme rainfall event over the Zhengzhou city in central China on 20 July 2021 using the Weather Research and Forecasting model at a convection-permitting scale [1-km resolution in the innermost domain (d3)]. Two ensembles of simulation (CTRL, NURB), each consisting of 11 members with a multi-layer urban canopy model and various combinations of physics schemes, were conducted using different land cover scenarios: (i) the real urban land cover, (ii) all cities in d3 being replaced with natural land cover. The results suggest that CTRL reasonably reproduces the spatiotemporal evolution of rainstorms and the 24-h rainfall accumulation over the key region, although the maximum hourly rainfall is underestimated and displaced to the west or southwest by most members. The ensemble mean 24-h rainfall accumulation over the key region of heavy rainfall is reduced by 13%, and the maximum hourly rainfall simulated by each member is reduced by 15–70 mm in CTRL relative to NURB. The reduction in the simulated rainfall by urbanization is closely associated with numerous cities/towns to the south, southeast, and east of Zhengzhou. Their heating effects jointly lead to formation of anomalous upward motions in and above the planetary boundary layer (PBL), which exaggerates the PBL drying effect due to reduced evapotranspiration and also enhances the wind stilling effect due to increased surface friction in urban areas. As a result, the lateral inflows of moisture and high-θe (equivalent potential temperature) air from south and east to Zhengzhou are reduced.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • The Roles of Low-level Jets in “21·7” Henan Extremely Persistent
           Heavy Rainfall Event

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      Abstract: Abstract An extremely heavy rainfall event lasting from 17 to 22 July 2021 occurred in Henan Province of China, with accumulated precipitation of more than 1000 mm over a 6-day period that exceeded its mean annual precipitation. The present study examines the roles of persistent low-level jets (LLJs) in maintaining the precipitation using surface station observations and reanalysis datasets. The LLJs triggered strong ascending motions and carried moisture mainly from the outflow of Typhoon In-fa (2021). The varying directions of the LLJs well corresponded to the meridional shifts of the rainfall. The precipitation rate reached a maximum during 20–21 July as the LLJs strengthened and expanded vertically into double LLJs, including synoptic-weather-system-related LLJs (SLLJs) at 850–700 hPa and boundary-layer jets (BLJs) at ∼950 hPa. The coupling of the SLLJ and BLJ provided strong mid- and low-level convergence on 20 July, whereas the SLLJ produced mid-level divergence at its entrance that coupled with low-level convergence at the terminus of the BLJ on 21 July. The formation mechanisms of the two types of LLJs are further examined. The SLLJs and the low-pressure vortex (or inverted trough) varied synchronously as a whole and were affected by the southwestward movement of the WPSH in the rainiest period. The persistent large total pressure gradient force at low levels also maintained the strength of low-level geostrophic winds, thus sustaining the BLJs on the synoptic scale. The results based on a Du-Rotunno 1D model show that the Blackadar and Holton mechanisms jointly governed the BLJ dynamics on the diurnal scale.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Impact of Perturbation Schemes on the Ensemble Prediction in a Coupled
           Lorenz Model

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      Abstract: Abstract Based on a simple coupled Lorenz model, we investigate how to assess a suitable initial perturbation scheme for ensemble forecasting in a multiscale system involving slow dynamics and fast dynamics. Four initial perturbation approaches are used in the ensemble forecasting experiments: the random perturbation (RP), the bred vector (BV), the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF), and the nonlinear local Lyapunov vector (NLLV) methods. Results show that, regardless of the method used, the ensemble averages behave indistinguishably from the control forecasts during the first few time steps. Due to different error growth in different time-scale systems, the ensemble averages perform better than the control forecast after very short lead times in a fast subsystem but after a relatively long period of time in a slow subsystem. Due to the coupled dynamic processes, the addition of perturbations to fast variables or to slow variables can contribute to an improvement in the forecasting skill for fast variables and slow variables. Regarding the initial perturbation approaches, the NLLVs show higher forecasting skill than the BVs or RPs overall. The NLLVs and ETKFs had nearly equivalent prediction skill, but NLLVs performed best by a narrow margin. In particular, when adding perturbations to slow variables, the independent perturbations (NLLVs and ETKFs) perform much better in ensemble prediction. These results are simply implied in a real coupled air-sea model. For the prediction of oceanic variables, using independent perturbations (NLLVs) and adding perturbations to oceanic variables are expected to result in better performance in the ensemble prediction.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Analysis on Precipitation Efficiency of the “21.7” Henan
           Extremely Heavy Rainfall Event

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      Abstract: Abstract A record-breaking heavy rainfall event that occurred in Zhengzhou, Henan province during 19–21 July 2021 is simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, and the large-scale precipitation efficiency (LSPE) and cloud-microphysical precipitation efficiency (CMPE) of the rainfall are analyzed based on the model results. Then, the key physical factors that influenced LSPE and CMPE, and the possible mechanisms for the extreme rainfall over Zhengzhou are explored. Results show that water vapor flux convergence was the key factor that influenced LSPE. Water vapor was transported by the southeasterly winds between Typhoon In-Fa (2021) and the subtropical high, and the southerly flow of Typhoon Cempaka (2021), and converged in Zhengzhou due to the blocking by the Taihang and Funiu Mountains in western Henan province. Strong moisture convergence centers were formed on the windward slope of the mountains, which led to high LSPE in Zhengzhou. From the perspective of CMPE, the net consumption of water vapor by microphysical processes was the key factor that influenced CMPE. Quantitative budget analysis suggests that water vapor was mainly converted to cloud water and ice-phase particles and then transformed to raindrops through melting of graupel and accretion of cloud water by rainwater during the heavy precipitation stage. The dry intrusion in the middle and upper levels over Zhengzhou made the high potential vorticity descend from the upper troposphere and enhanced the convective instability. Moreover, the intrusion of cold and dry air resulted in the supersaturation and condensation of water vapor, which contributed to the heavy rainfall in Zhengzhou.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • On the Key Dynamical Processes Supporting the 21.7 Zhengzhou
           Record-breaking Hourly Rainfall in China

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      Abstract: Abstract An extremely heavy rainfall event occurred in Zhengzhou, China, on 20 July 2021 and produced an hourly rainfall rate of 201.9 mm, which broke the station record for mainland China. Based on radar observations and a convection-permitting simulation using the WRF-ARW model, this paper investigates the multiscale processes, especially those at the mesoscale, that support the extreme observed hourly rainfall. Results show that the extreme rainfall occurred in an environment characteristic of warm-sector heavy rainfall, with abundant warm moist air transported from the ocean by an abnormally northward-displaced western Pacific subtropical high and Typhoon In-Fa (2021). However, rather than through back building and echo training of convective cells often found in warm-sector heavy rainfall events, this extreme hourly rainfall event was caused by a single, quasi-stationary storm in Zhengzhou. Scale separation analysis reveals that the extreme-rain-producing storm was supported and maintained by the dynamic lifting of low-level converging flows from the north, south, and east of the storm. The low-level northerly flow originated from a mesoscale barrier jet on the eastern slope of the Taihang Mountain due to terrain blocking of large-scale easterly flows, which reached an overall balance with the southerly winds in association with a low-level meso-β-scale vortex located to the west of Zhengzhou. The large-scale easterly inflows that fed the deep convection via transport of thermodynamically unstable air into the storm prevented the eastward propagation of the weak, shallow cold pool. As a result, the convective storm was nearly stationary over Zhengzhou, resulting in record-breaking hourly precipitation.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • The Regularized WSM6 Microphysical Scheme and Its Validation in WRF 4D-Var

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      Abstract: Abstract A cold cloud assimilation scheme was developed that fully considers the water substances, i.e., water vapor, cloud water, rain, ice, snow, and graupel, based on the single-moment WSM6 microphysical scheme and four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation in the Weather Research and Forecasting data assimilation (WRFDA) system. The verification of the regularized WSM6 and its tangent linearity model (TLM) and adjoint mode model (ADM) was proven successful. Two groups of single observation and real sounding data assimilation experiments were set up to further verify the correctness of the assimilation scheme. The results showed that the consideration of ice, snow, and graupel in the assimilation system of the 4D-Var, as opposed to their omission in the warm rain Kessler scheme, allowed the water substances to be reasonably updated, further improving the forecast. Before it can be further applied in the assimilation of observational data, radar reflectivities, and satellite radiances, the cold cloud assimilation scheme needs additional verification, including using conventional ground and sounding observations in the 4D-Var assimilation system.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Extended Impact of Cold Air Invasions in East Asia in Response to a Warm
           South China Sea and Philippine Sea

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      Abstract: Abstract During boreal winter, the invasion of cold air can lead to remarkable temperature drops in East Asia which can result in serious socioeconomic impacts. Here, we find that the intensity of strong synoptic cold days in the East China Sea and Indochina Peninsula are increasing. The enhanced synoptic cold days in these two regions are attributed to surface warming over the South China Sea and Philippine Sea (SCSPS). The oceanic forcing of the SCSPS on the synoptic cold days in the two regions is verified by numerical simulation. The warming of the SCSPS enhances the baroclinicity, which intensifies meridional wind and cold advection on synoptic timescales. This leads to a more extended region that is subject to the influence of cold invasion.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Synergistic Effect of the Planetary-scale Disturbance, Typhoon and
           Meso-β-scale Convective Vortex on the Extremely Intense Rainstorm on 20
           July 2021 in Zhengzhou

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      Abstract: Abstract On 20 July 2021, northern Henan Province in China experienced catastrophic flooding as a result of an extremely intense rainstorm, with a record-breaking hourly rainfall of 201.9 mm during 0800–0900 UTC and daily accumulated rainfall in Zhengzhou City exceeding 600 mm (“Zhengzhou 7.20 rainstorm” for short). The multi-scale dynamical and thermodynamical mechanisms for this rainstorm are investigated based on station-observed and ERA-5 reanalysis datasets. The backward trajectory tracking shows that the warm, moist air from the northwestern Pacific was mainly transported toward Henan Province by confluent southeasterlies on the northern side of a strong typhoon In-Fa (2021), with the convergent southerlies associated with a weaker typhoon Cempaka (2021) concurrently transporting moisture northward from South China Sea, supporting the rainstorm. In the upper troposphere, two equatorward-intruding potential vorticity (PV) streamers within the planetary-scale wave train were located over northern Henan Province, forming significant divergent flow aloft to induce stronger ascending motion locally. Moreover, the converged moist air was also blocked by the mountains in western Henan Province and forced to rise so that a deep meso-β-scale convective vortex (MβCV) was induced over the west of Zhengzhou City. The PV budget analyses demonstrate that the MβCV development was attributed to the positive feedback between the rainfall-related diabatic heating and high-PV under the strong upward PV advection during the Zhengzhou 7.20 rainstorm. Importantly, the MβCV was forced by upper-level larger-scale westerlies becoming eastward-sloping, which allowed the mixtures of abundant raindrops and hydrometeors to ascend slantwise and accumulate just over Zhengzhou City, resulting in the record-breaking hourly rainfall locally.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Seasonal Prediction of the Record-Breaking Northward Shift of the Western
           Pacific Subtropical High in July 2021

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      Abstract: Abstract The unprecedented Zhengzhou heavy rainfall in July 2021 occurred under the background of a northward shift of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH). Although the occurrence of this extreme event could not be captured by seasonal predictions, a skillful prediction of the WPSH variation might have warned us of the increased probability of extreme weather events in Central and Northern China. However, the mechanism for the WPSH variation in July 2021 and its seasonal predictability are still unknown. Here, the observed northward shift of the WPSH in July 2021 is shown to correspond to a meridional dipole pattern of the 850-hPa geopotential height to the east of China, the amplitude of which became the strongest since 1979. The meridional dipole pattern is two nodes of the Pacific—Japan pattern. To investigate the predictability of the WPSH variation, a 21-member ensemble of seasonal predictions initiated from the end of June 2021 was conducted. The predictable and unpredictable components of the meridional dipole pattern were identified from the ensemble simulations. Its predictable component is driven by positive precipitation anomalies over the tropical western Pacific. The positive precipitation anomalies are caused by positive horizonal advection of the mean moist enthalpy by southwesterly anomalies to the northwestern flank of anticyclonic anomalies excited by the existing La Niña, which is skillfully predicted by the model. The leading mode of the unpredictable component is associated with the atmospheric internal intraseasonal oscillations, which are not initialized in the simulations. The relative contributions of the predictable and unpredictable components to the observed northward shift of the WPSH at 850 hPa are 28.0% and 72.0%, respectively.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Historic and Future Perspectives of Storm and Cyclone

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      Abstract: Abstract In weather sciences, the two specific terms “storm” and “cyclone” frequently appear in literature and usually refer to the violent nature of a number of weather systems characterized by central low pressure, strong winds, large precipitation amounts in the form of rain, freezing rain, or snow, as well as thunder and lightning. But what is the connection between these two specific terms' In this paper, the historic evolutions of the terms “storm” and “cyclone” are reviewed from the perspective of weather science. The earliest recorded storms in world history are also briefly introduced. Then, the origin of the term “meteorological bomb”, which is the nickname of the “explosive cyclone” is introduced. Later, the various definitions of explosive cyclones given by several researchers are discussed. Also, the climatological features of explosive cyclones, as well as the future trends of explosive cyclones under global climate change, are discussed.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Effects of a Dry-Mass Conserving Dynamical Core on the Simulation of
           Tropical Cyclones

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      Abstract: Abstract The accurate forecasting of tropical cyclones (TCs) is a challenging task. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a dry-mass conserving (DMC) hydrostatic global spectral dynamical core on TC simulation. Experiments were conducted with DMC and total (moist) mass conserving (TMC) dynamical cores. The TC forecast performance was first evaluated considering 20 TCs in the West Pacific region observed during the 2020 typhoon season. The impacts of the DMC dynamical core on forecasts of individual TCs were then estimated. The DMC dynamical core improved both the track and intensity forecasts, and the TC intensity forecast improvement was much greater than the TC track forecast improvement. Sensitivity simulations indicated that the DMC dynamical core-simulated TC intensity was stronger regardless of the forecast lead time. In the DMC dynamical core experiments, three-dimensional winds and warm and moist cores were consistently enhanced with the TC intensity. Drier air in the boundary inflow layer was found in the DMC dynamical core experiments at the early simulation times. Water vapor mixing ratio budget analysis indicated that this mainly depended on the simulated vertical velocity. Higher updraft above the boundary layer yielded a drier boundary layer, resulting in surface latent heat flux (SLHF) enhancement, the major energy source of TC intensification. The higher DMC dynamical core-simulated updraft in the inner core caused a higher net surface rain rate, producing higher net internal atmospheric diabatic heating and increasing the TC intensity. These results indicate that the stronger DMC dynamical core-simulated TCs are mainly related to the higher DMC vertical velocity.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Correction to: Urbanization Impact on Regional Climate and Extreme
           Weather: Current Understanding, Uncertainties, and Future Research
           Directions

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      Abstract: The article “Urbanization Impact on Regional Climate and Extreme Weather: Current Understanding, Uncertainties, and Future Research Directions”, written by Yun QIAN, TC CHAKRABORTY, Jianfeng LI, Dan LI, Cenlin HE, Chandan SARANGI, Fei CHEN, Xuchao YANG, and L. Ruby LEUNG was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal on 25 of January 2022 with open access. With the author(s)’ decision, the copyright of the article changed from © The Author(s) 2022 to © Battelle Memorial Institute [2022]. The original article has been corrected.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • Objective Identification and Climatic Characteristics of
           Heavy-Precipitation Northeastern China Cold Vortexes

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      Abstract: Abstract The northeastern China cold vortex (NCCV) plays an important role in regional rainstorms over East Asia. Using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Final reanalysis dataset and the Global Precipitation Measurement product, an objective algorithm for identifying heavy-precipitation NCCV (HPCV) events was designed, and the climatological features of 164 HPCV events from 2001 to 2019 were investigated. The number of HPCV events showed an upward linear trend, with the highest frequency of occurrence in summer. The most active region of HPCV samples was the Northeast China Plain between 40°–55°N. Most HPCV events lasted 3–5 days and had radii ranging from 250 to 1000 km. The duration of HPCV events with larger sizes was longer. About half of the HPCV events moved into (moved out of) the definition region (35°–60°N, 115°–145°E), and half initiated (dissipated) within the region. The initial position was close to the western boundary of the definition region, and the final position was mainly near the eastern boundary. The locations associated with the precipitation were mostly concentrated within 2000 km southeast of the HPCV systems, and they were farther from the center in the cold season than in the warm season.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • A Time Neighborhood Method for the Verification of Landfalling Typhoon
           Track Forecast

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      Abstract: Abstract Landfalling typhoons can cause disasters over large regions. The government and emergency responders need to take measures to mitigate disasters according to the forecast of landfall position, while slight timing error can be ignored. The reliability of operational model forecasts of typhoon landfall position needs to be evaluated beforehand, according to the forecasts and observation of historical cases. In the evaluation of landfalling typhoon track, the traditional method based on point-to-point matching methods could be influenced by the predicted typhoon translation speed. Consequently, the traditional track evaluation method may result in a large track error even if the predicted landfall position is close to observation. The purpose of this paper is to address the above issue using a simple evaluation method of landfalling typhoon track forecast based on the time neighborhood approach. In this new method, the timing error was lessened to highlight the importance of the position error during the landfall of typhoon. The properties of the time neighborhood method are compared with the traditional method based on numerical forecast results of 12 landfalling typhoon cases. Results demonstrated that the new method is not sensitive to the sampling frequency, and that the difference between the time neighborhood and traditional method will be more obvious when the moving speed of typhoon is moderate (between 15–30 km h−1). The time neighborhood concept can be easily extended to a broader context when one attempts to examine the position error more than the timing error.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • Influences of MJO-induced Tropical Cyclones on the Circulation-Convection
           Inconsistency for the 2021 South China Sea Summer Monsoon Onset

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      Abstract: Abstract The South China Sea Summer Monsoon (SCSSM) onset is characterized by an apparent seasonal conversion of circulation and convection. Accordingly, various indices have been introduced to identify the SCSSM onset date. However, the onset dates as determined by various indices can be very inconsistent. It not only limits the determination of onset dates but also misleads the assessment of prediction skills. In 2021, the onset time as identified by the circulation criteria was 20 May, which is 12 days earlier than that deduced by also considering the convection criteria. The present study mainly ascribes such circulation-convection inconsistency to the activities of tropical cyclones (TCs) modulated by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). The convection of TC “Yaas” (2021) acted as an upper-level diabatic heat source to the north of the SCS, facilitating the circulation transition. Afterward, TC “Cho-wan” (2021) over the western Pacific aided the westerlies to persist at lower levels while simultaneously suppressing moist convection over the SCS. Accurate predictions using the ECMWF S2S forecast system were obtained only after the MJO formation. The skillful prediction of the MJO during late spring may provide an opportunity to accurately predict the establishment of the SCSSM several weeks in advance.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • Ground-Space-Sky Observing System Experiment during Tropical Cyclone Mulan
           in August 2022

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      Abstract: Abstract Forecasting tropical cyclone track and intensity is a great challenge for the meteorological community, and safeguarding the life and property of people living near the coast is an important issue. One major reason for challenging forecasts is the lack of observations over the vast oceans. During tropical cyclone Mulan between 8 and 10 August 2022 over the northern part of the South China Sea, the meteorological authority and research institutes of Chinese mainland collaborated with the meteorological service in Hong Kong on conducting the first-ever ground-space-sky observing system experiment on tropical cyclone Mulan. The enhanced targeted observations collected during the experiment include Geostationary Interferometric Infrared Sounder, round-trip radiosondes, and aircraft-launched dropsondes. This paper describes the campaign, technical details of the meteorological models used, and impact of the additional targeted observation data on the tropical cyclone forecast. Ideally, similar enhanced observation campaigns could be conducted in the future, not only in the northern part of the South China Sea, but also in other ocean basins.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • Earth Summit Mission 2022: Scientific Expedition and Research on Mt.
           Qomolangma Helps Reveal the Synergy between Westerly Winds and Monsoon and
           the Resulting Climatic and Environmental Effects

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      Abstract: Abstract “Earth summit mission 2022” is one of the landmark scientific research activities of the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research (STEP). This scientific expedition firstly used advanced technology and methods to detect vertical meteorological elements and produce forecasts for mountain climbing. The “Earth summit mission 2022” Qomolangma scientific expedition exceeded an altitude of over 8000 meters for the first time and carried out a comprehensive scientific investigation mission on the summit of Mt. Qomolangma. Among the participants, the westerly-monsoon synergy and influence team stationed in the Mt. Qomolangma region had two tasks: 1) detecting the vertical structure of the atmosphere for parameters such as wind, temperature, humidity, and pressure with advanced instruments for high-altitude detection at the Mt. Qomolangma base camp; and 2) observing extreme weather processes to ensure that members of the mountaineering team could successfully reach the top. Through this scientific expedition, a better understanding of the vertical structure and weather characteristics of the complex area of Mt. Qomolangma is gained.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • Ground-Based Atmospheric CO2, CH4, and CO Column Measurements at Golmud in
           the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Comparisons with TROPOMI/S5P Satellite
           Observations

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      Abstract: Abstract Measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and carbon monoxide (CO) are of great importance in the Qinghai-Tibetan region, as it is the highest and largest plateau in the world affecting global weather and climate systems. In this study, for the first time, we present CO2, CH4, and CO column measurements carried out by a Bruker EM27/SUN Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) at Golmud (36.42°E, 94.91°N, 2808 m) in August 2021. The mean and standard deviation of the column-average dry-air mixing ratio of CO2, CH4, and CO (XCO2, XCH4, and XCO) are 409.3 ± 0.4 ppm, 1905.5 ± 19.4 ppb, and 103.1 ± 7.7 ppb, respectively. The differences between the FTIR co-located TROPOMI/S5P satellite measurements at Golmud are 0.68 ± 0.64% (13.1 ± 12.2 ppb) for XCH4 and 9.81 ± 3.48% (−10.7 ± 3.8 ppb) for XCO, which are within their retrieval uncertainties. High correlations for both XCH4 and XCO are observed between the FTIR and S5P satellite measurements. Using the FLEXPART model and satellite measurements, we find that enhanced CH4 and CO columns in Golmud are affected by anthropogenic emissions transported from North India. This study provides an insight into the variations of the CO2, CH4, and CO columns in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
 
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