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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 151)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Oxford Open Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Climate Change and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nīvār     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.956
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 43  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1861-9533 - ISSN (Online) 0256-1530
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Erratum to: Observational Study of Surface Wind along a Sloping Surface
           over Mountainous Terrain during Winter

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      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • An Extreme Drought over South China in 2020/21 Concurrent with an
           Unprecedented Warm Northwest Pacific and La Niña

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      Abstract: Abstract An extreme drought appeared in South China from October 2020 to March 2021. During that time, sea surface temperatures exhibited an unprecedented warm center over the northwest Pacific (NWP) and a cold center over the tropical eastern Pacific (La Niña). This study demonstrates the combined effects of an exceptionally warm NWP and a moderate La Niña are closely linked to the anomalous drought in South China. The sea surface temperature anomaly in these two regions induced a steeper horizontal geopotential height gradient over South China. As a result, anomalous northeasterly winds prevailed over South China, altering water vapor transport and moisture convergence. A simplified atmospheric general circulation model also verifies the influence of the NWP warm anomaly on South China precipitation. This study points out that the sea surface temperature variation in the NWP was important to the occurrence of extreme drought in South China from October 2020 to March 2021.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Importance of Air-Sea Coupling in Simulating Tropical Cyclone Intensity at
           Landfall

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      Abstract: Abstract An atmosphere-only model system for making seasonal prediction and projecting future intensities of landfalling tropical cyclones (TCs) along the South China coast is upgraded by including ocean and wave models. A total of 642 TCs have been re-simulated using the new system to produce a climatology of TC intensity in the South China Sea. Detailed comparisons of the simulations from the atmosphere-only and the fully coupled systems reveal that the inclusion of the additional ocean and wave models enable differential sea surface temperature responses to various TC characteristics such as translational speed and size. In particular, interaction with the ocean does not necessarily imply a weakening of the TC, with the coastal bathymetry possibly playing a role in causing a near-shore intensification of the TC. These results suggest that to simulate the evolution of TC structure more accurately, it is essential to use an air-sea coupled model instead of an atmosphere-only model.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Transport Patterns and Potential Sources of Atmospheric Pollution during
           the XXIV Olympic Winter Games Period

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      Abstract: Abstract The attainment of suitable ambient air quality standards is a matter of great concern for successfully hosting the XXIV Olympic Winter Games (OWG). Transport patterns and potential sources of pollutants in Zhangjiakou (ZJK) were investigated using pollutant monitoring datasets and a dispersion model. The PM2.5 concentration during February in ZJK has increased slightly (28%) from 2018 to 2021, mostly owing to the shift of main potential source regions of west-central Inner Mongolia and Mongolian areas (2015–18) to the North China Plain and northern Shanxi Province (NCPS) after 2018. Using CO as an indicator, the relative contributions of the different regions to the receptor site (ZJK) were evaluated based on the source-receptor-relationship method (SRR) and an emission inventory. We found that the relative contribution of pollutants from NCPS increased from 33% to 68% during 2019–21. Central Inner Mongolia (CIM) also has an important impact on ZJK under unfavorable weather conditions. This study demonstrated that the effect of pollution control measures in the NCPS and CIM should be strengthened to ensure that the air quality meets the standard during the XXIV OWG.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Causes and Predictability of the 2021 Spring Southwestern China Severe
           Drought

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      Abstract: Abstract In the spring of 2021, southwestern China (SWC) experienced extreme drought, accompanied by the highest seasonal-mean temperature record since 1961. This drought event occurred in the decaying phase of a La Niña event with negative geopotential height anomalies over the Philippine Sea, which is distinct from the historical perspective. Historically, spring drought over SWC is often linked to El Niño and strong western North Pacific subtropical high. Here, we show that the extreme drought in the spring of 2021 may be mainly driven by the atmospheric internal variability and amplified by the warming trend. Specifically, the evaporation increase due to the high temperature accounts for about 30% of drought severity, with the contributions of its linear trend portion being nearly 20% and the interannual variability portion being about 10%. Since the sea surface temperature forcing from the tropical central and eastern Pacific played a minor role in the occurrence of drought, it is a challenge for a climate model to capture the 2021 SWC drought beyond one-month lead times.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Distinguishing the Regional Atmospheric Controls on Precipitation Isotopic
           Variability in the Central-Southeast Portion of Brazil

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      Abstract: Abstract Precipitation isotope ratios (O and H) record the history of water phase transitions and fractionation processes during moisture transport and rainfall formation. Here, we evaluated the isotopic composition of precipitation over the central-southeastern region of Brazil at different timescales. Monthly isotopic compositions were associated with classical effects (rainfall amount, seasonality, and continentality), demonstrating the importance of vapor recirculation processes and different regional atmospheric systems (South American Convergence Zone-SACZ and Cold Fronts-CF). While moisture recycling and regional atmospheric processes may also be observed on a daily timescale, classical effects such as the amount effect were not strongly correlated (δ18O-precipitation rate r ≼ −0.37). Daily variability revealed specific climatic features, such as δ18O depleted values (∼6‰ to −8‰) during the wet season were associated with strong convective activity and large moisture availability. Daily isotopic analysis revealed the role of different moisture sources and transport effects. Isotope ratios combined with d-excess explain how atmospheric recirculation processes interact with convective activity during rainfall formation processes. Our findings provide a new understanding of rainfall sampling timescales and highlight the importance of water isotopes to decipher key hydrometeorological processes in a complex spatial and temporal context in central-southeastern Brazil.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Meshless Surface Wind Speed Field Reconstruction Based on Machine Learning

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      Abstract: Abstract We propose a novel machine learning approach to reconstruct meshless surface wind speed fields, i.e., to reconstruct the surface wind speed at any location, based on meteorological background fields and geographical information. The random forest method is selected to develop the machine learning data reconstruction model (MLDRM-RF) for wind speeds over Beijing from 2015–19. We use temporal, geospatial attribute and meteorological background field features as inputs. The wind speed field can be reconstructed at any station in the region not used in the training process to cross-validate model performance. The evaluation considers the spatial distribution of and seasonal variations in the root mean squared error (RMSE) of the reconstructed wind speed field across Beijing. The average RMSE is 1.09 m s−1, considerably smaller than the result (1.29 m s−1) obtained with inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation. Finally, we extract the important feature permutations by the method of mean decrease in impurity (MDI) and discuss the reasonableness of the model prediction results. MLDRM-RF is a reasonable approach with excellent potential for the improved reconstruction of historical surface wind speed fields with arbitrary grid resolutions. Such a model is needed in many wind applications, such as wind energy and aviation safety assessments.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • How Well Do CMIP6 and CMIP5 Models Simulate the Climatological Seasonal
           Variations in Ocean Salinity'

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper includes a comprehensive assessment of 40 models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) and 33 models from the CMIP phase 6 (CMIP6) to determine the climatological and seasonal variation of ocean salinity from the surface to 2000 m. The general pattern of the ocean salinity climatology can be simulated by both the CMIP5 and CMIP6 models from the surface to 2000-m depth. However, this study shows an increased fresh bias in the surface and subsurface salinity in the CMIP6 multimodel mean, with a global average of −0.44 g kg−1 for the sea surface salinity (SSS) and −0.26 g kg−1 for the 0–1000-m averaged salinity (S1000) compared with the CMIP5 multimodel mean (−0.25 g kg−1 for the SSS and −0.07 g kg−1 for the S1000). In terms of the seasonal variation, both CMIP6 and CMIP5 models show positive (negative) anomalies in the first (second) half of the year in the global average SSS and S1000. The model-simulated variation in SSS is consistent with the observations, but not for S1000, suggesting a substantial uncertainty in simulating and understanding the seasonal variation in subsurface salinity. The CMIP5 and CMIP6 models overestimate the magnitude of the seasonal variation of the SSS in the tropics in the region 20°S–20°N but underestimate the magnitude of the seasonal change in S1000 in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. These assessments show new features of the model errors in simulating ocean salinity and support further studies of the global hydrological cycle.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • The Impact of the Numbers of Monitoring Stations on the National and
           Regional Air Quality Assessment in China During 2013–18

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      Abstract: Abstract China national air quality monitoring network has become the core data source for air quality assessment and management in China. However, during network construction, the significant change in numbers of monitoring sites with time is easily ignored, which brings uncertainty to air quality assessments. This study aims to analyze the impact of change in numbers of stations on national and regional air quality assessments in China during 2013–18. The results indicate that the change in numbers of stations has different impacts on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone concentration assessments. The increasing number of sites makes the estimated national and regional PM2.5 concentration slightly lower by 0.6–2.2 µg m−3 and 1.4–6.0 µg m−3 respectively from 2013 to 2018. The main reason is that over time, the monitoring network expands from the urban centers to the suburban areas with low population densities and pollutant emissions. For ozone, the increasing number of stations affects the long-term trends of the estimated concentration, especially the national trends, which changed from a slight upward trend to a downward trend in 2014–15. Besides, the impact of the increasing number of sites on ozone assessment exhibits a seasonal difference at the 0.05 significance level in that the added sites make the estimated concentration higher in winter and lower in summer. These results suggest that the change in numbers of monitoring sites is an important uncertainty factor in national and regional air quality assessments, that needs to be considered in long-term concentration assessment, trend analysis, and trend driving force analysis.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Observational Subseasonal Variability of the PM2.5 Concentration in the
           Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area during the January 2021 Sudden Stratospheric
           Warming

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      Abstract: Abstract It is still not well understood if subseasonal variability of the local PM2.5 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region is affected by the stratospheric state. Using PM2.5 observations and the ERA5 reanalysis, the evolution of the air quality in BTH during the January 2021 sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) is explored. The subseasonal variability of the PM2.5 concentration after the SSW onset is evidently enhanced. Stratospheric circumpolar easterly anomalies lasted for 53 days during the January–February 2021 SSW with two evident stratospheric pulses arriving at the ground. During the tropospheric wave weakening period and the intermittent period of dormant stratospheric pulses, the East Asian winter monsoon weakened, anomalous temperature inversion developed in the lower troposphere, anomalous surface southerlies prevailed, atmospheric moisture increased, and the boundary layer top height lowered, all of which favor the accumulation of pollutant particulates, leading to two periods of pollution processes in the BTH region. In the phase of strengthened East Asian winter monsoon around the very beginning of the SSW and another two periods when stratospheric pulses had reached the near surface, opposite-signed circulation patterns and meteorological conditions were observed, which helped to dilute and diffuse air pollutants in the BTH region. As a result, the air quality was excellent during the two periods when the stratospheric pulse had reached the near surface. The increased subseasonal variation of the regional pollutant particulates after the SSW onset highlights the important role of the stratosphere in the regional environment and provides implications for the environmental prediction.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • An Unprecedented Record Low Antarctic Sea-ice Extent during Austral Summer
           2022

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      Abstract: Abstract Seasonal minimum Antarctic sea ice extent (SIE) in 2022 hit a new record low since recordkeeping began in 1978 of 1.9 million km2 on 25 February, 0.17 million km2 lower than the previous record low set in 2017. Significant negative anomalies in the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas, the Weddell Sea, and the western Indian Ocean sector led to the new record minimum. The sea ice budget analysis presented here shows that thermodynamic processes dominate sea ice loss in summer through enhanced poleward heat transport and albedo-temperature feedback. In spring, both dynamic and thermodynamic processes contribute to negative sea ice anomalies. Specifically, dynamic ice loss dominates in the Amundsen Sea as evidenced by sea ice thickness (SIT) change, while positive surface heat fluxes contribute most to sea ice melt in the Weddell Sea.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • High-resolution Projection Dataset of Agroclimatic Indicators over Central
           Asia

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      Abstract: Abstract To understand the potential impacts of projected climate change on the vulnerable agriculture in Central Asia (CA), six agroclimatic indicators are calculated based on the 9-km-resolution dynamical downscaled results of three different global climate models from Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), and their changes in the near-term future (2031–50) are assessed relative to the reference period (1986–2005). The quantile mapping (QM) method is applied to correct the model data before calculating the indicators. Results show the QM method largely reduces the biases in all the indicators. Growing season length (GSL, day), summer days (SU, day), warm spell duration index (WSDI, day), and tropical nights (TR, day) are projected to significantly increase over CA, and frost days (FD, day) are projected to decrease. However, changes in biologically effective degree days (BEDD, °C) are spatially heterogeneous. The high-resolution projection dataset of agroclimatic indicators over CA can serve as a scientific basis for assessing the future risks to local agriculture from climate change and will be beneficial in planning adaption and mitigation actions for food security in this region.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • 2021: A Year of Unprecedented Climate Extremes in Eastern Asia, North
           America, and Europe

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      Abstract: Abstract The year 2021 was recorded as the 6th warmest since 1880. In addition to large-scale warming, 2021 will be remembered for its unprecedented climate extremes. Here, a review of selected high-impact climate extremes in 2021, with a focus on China, along with an extension to extreme events in North America and Europe is presented. Nine extreme events that occurred in 2021 in China are highlighted, including a rapid transition from cold to warm extremes and sandstorms in spring, consecutive drought in South China and severe thunderstorms in eastern China in the first half of the year, extremely heavy rainfall over Henan Province and Hubei Province during summer, as well as heatwaves, persistent heavy rainfall, and a cold surge during fall. Potential links of extremes in China to four global-scale climate extremes and the underlying physical mechanisms are discussed here, providing insights to understand climate extremes from a global perspective. This serves as a reference for climate event attribution, process understanding, and high-resolution modeling of extreme events.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • The Super-large Ensemble Experiments of CAS FGOALS-g3

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      Abstract: Abstract A super-large ensemble simulation dataset with 110 members has been produced by the fully coupled model FGOALS-g3 developed by researchers at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This is the first dataset of large ensemble simulations with a climate system model developed by a Chinese modeling center. The simulation has the largest realizations up to now worldwide in terms of single-model initial-condition large ensembles. Each member includes a historical experiment (1850–2014) and an experiment (2015–99) under the very high greenhouse gas emissions Shared Socioeconomic Pathway scenario (SSP5-8.5). The dataset includes monthly and daily temperature, precipitation, and other variables, requiring storage of 275 TB. Additionally, the surface air temperature (SAT) and land precipitation simulated by the FGOALS-g3 super-large ensemble have been validated and projected. The ensemble can capture the response of SAT and land precipitation to external forcings well, and the internal variabilities can be quantified. The availability of more than 100 realizations will help researchers to study rare events and improve the understanding of the impact of internal variability on forced climate changes.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • How Frequently Will the Persistent Heavy Rainfall over the Middle and
           

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      Abstract: Abstract The middle and lower Yangtze River basin (MLYRB) suffered persistent heavy rainfall in summer 2020, with nearly continuous rainfall for about six consecutive weeks. How the likelihood of persistent heavy rainfall resembling that which occurred over the MLYRB in summer 2020 (hereafter 2020PHR-like event) would change under global warming is investigated. An index that reflects maximum accumulated precipitation during a consecutive five-week period in summer (Rx35day) is introduced. This accumulated precipitation index in summer 2020 is 60% stronger than the climatology, and a statistical analysis further shows that the 2020 event is a 1-in-70-year event. The model projection results derived from the 50-member ensemble of CanESM2 and the multimodel ensemble (MME) of the CMIP5 and CMIP6 models show that the occurrence probability of the 2020PHR-like event will dramatically increase under global warming. Based on the Kolmogorov—Smirnoff test, one-third of the CMIP5 and CMIP6 models that have reasonable performance in reproducing the 2020PHR-like event in their historical simulations are selected for the future projection study. The CMIP5 and CMIP6 MME results show that the occurrence probability of the 2020PHR-like event under the present-day climate will be double under lower-emission scenarios (CMIP5 RCP4.5, CMIP6 SSP1-2.6, and SSP2-4.5) and 3–5 times greater under higher-emission scenarios (3.0 times for CMIP5 RCP8.5, 2.9 times for CMIP6 SSP3-7.0, and 4.8 times for CMIP6 SSP5-8.5). The inter-model spread of the probability change is small, lending confidence to the projection results. The results provide a scientific reference for mitigation of and adaptation to future climate change.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Decomposition of Fast and Slow Cloud Responses to Quadrupled CO2 Forcing
           in BCC-AGCM2.0 over East Asia

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, the decomposed fast and slow responses of clouds to an abruptly quadrupled CO2 concentration (approximately 1139 ppmv) in East Asia (EA) are obtained quantitatively by using a general circulation model, BCC–AGCM2.0. Our results show that in the total response, the total cloud cover (TCC), low cloud cover (LCC), and high cloud cover (HCC) all increased north of 40°N and decreased south of 40°N except in the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The mean changes of the TCC, LCC, and HCC in EA were −0.74%, 0.38%, and −0.38% in the total response, respectively; 1.05%, −0.03%, and 1.63% in the fast response, respectively; and −1.79%, 0.41%, and −2.01% in the slow response, respectively. By comparison, we found that changes in cloud cover were dominated by the slow response in most areas in EA due to the changes in atmospheric temperature, circulation, and water vapor supply together. Overall, the changes in the cloud forcing over EA related to the fast and slow responses were opposite to each other, and the final cloud forcing was dominated by the slow response. The mean net cloud forcing (NCF) in the total response over EA was −1.80 W m−2, indicating a cooling effect which partially offset the warming effect caused by the quadrupled CO2. The total responses of NCF in the TP, south China (SC), and northeast China (NE) were −6.74 W m−2, 6.11 W m−2, and −7.49 W m−2, respectively. Thus, the local effects of offsetting or amplifying warming were particularly obvious.
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
       
  • Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interactions in a Closed-cell and
           Non-homogenous MBL Stratocumulus Cloud

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      Abstract: Abstract A closed-cell marine stratocumulus case during the Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in the Eastern North Atlantic (ACE-ENA) aircraft field campaign is selected to examine the heterogeneities of cloud and drizzle microphysical properties and the aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. The spatial and vertical variabilities of cloud and drizzle microphysics are found in two different sets of flight legs: Leg-1 and Leg-2, which are parallel and perpendicular to the cloud propagation, respectively. The cloud along Leg-2 was close to adiabatic, where cloud-droplet effective radius and liquid water content linearly increase from cloud base to cloud top with less drizzle. The cloud along Leg-1 was sub-adiabatic with lower cloud-droplet number concentration and larger cloud-droplet effective, but higher drizzle droplet number concentration, larger drizzle droplet median diameter and drizzle liquid water content. The heavier drizzle frequency and intensity on Leg-1 were enhanced by the collision-coalescence processes within cloud due to strong turbulence. The sub-cloud precipitation rate on Leg-1 was significantly higher than that along Leg-2. As a result, the sub-cloud accumulation mode aerosols and CCN on Leg-1 were depleted, but the coarse model aerosols increased. This further leads to a counter-intuitive phenomenon that the CCN is less than cloud-droplet number concentration for Leg-1. The average CCN loss rates are −3.89 cm−3 h−1 and −0.77 cm−3 h−1 on Leg-1 and Leg-2, respectively. The cloud and drizzle heterogeneities inside the same stratocumulus can significantly alter the sub-cloud aerosols and CCN budget. Hence it should be treated with caution in the aircraft assessment of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions.
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
       
  • Compensating Errors in Cloud Radiative and Physical Properties over the
           Southern Ocean in the CMIP6 Climate Models

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      Abstract: Abstract The Southern Ocean is covered by a large amount of clouds with high cloud albedo. However, as reported by previous climate model intercomparison projects, underestimated cloudiness and overestimated absorption of solar radiation (ASR) over the Southern Ocean lead to substantial biases in climate sensitivity. The present study revisits this long-standing issue and explores the uncertainty sources in the latest CMIP6 models. We employ 10-year satellite observations to evaluate cloud radiative effect (CRE) and cloud physical properties in five CMIP6 models that provide comprehensive output of cloud, radiation, and aerosol. The simulated longwave, shortwave, and net CRE at the top of atmosphere in CMIP6 are comparable with the CERES satellite observations. Total cloud fraction (CF) is also reasonably simulated in CMIP6, but the comparison of liquid cloud fraction (LCF) reveals marked biases in spatial pattern and seasonal variations. The discrepancies between the CMIP6 models and the MODIS satellite observations become even larger in other cloud macro- and micro-physical properties, including liquid water path (LWP), cloud optical depth (COD), and cloud effective radius, as well as aerosol optical depth (AOD). However, the large underestimation of both LWP and cloud effective radius (regional means ∼20% and 11%, respectively) results in relatively smaller bias in COD, and the impacts of the biases in COD and LCF also cancel out with each other, leaving CRE and ASR reasonably predicted in CMIP6. An error estimation framework is employed, and the different signs of the sensitivity errors and biases from CF and LWP corroborate the notions that there are compensating errors in the modeled shortwave CRE. Further correlation analyses of the geospatial patterns reveal that CF is the most relevant factor in determining CRE in observations, while the modeled CRE is too sensitive to LWP and COD. The relationships between cloud effective radius, LWP, and COD are also analyzed to explore the possible uncertainty sources in different models. Our study calls for more rigorous calibration of detailed cloud physical properties for future climate model development and climate projection.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
       
  • Evaluation of a Regional Ensemble Data Assimilation System for Typhoon
           Prediction

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      Abstract: Abstract An ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) combined with the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is cycled and evaluated for western North Pacific (WNP) typhoons of year 2016. Conventional in situ data, radiance observations, and tropical cyclone (TC) minimum sea level pressure (SLP) are assimilated every 6 h using an 80-member ensemble. For all TC categories, the 6-h ensemble priors from the WRF/EnKF system have an appropriate amount of variance for TC tracks but have insufficient variance for TC intensity. The 6-h ensemble priors from the WRF/EnKF system tend to overestimate the intensity for weak storms but underestimate the intensity for strong storms. The 5-d deterministic forecasts launched from the ensemble mean analyses of WRF/EnKF are compared to the NCEP and ECMWF operational control forecasts. Results show that the WRF/EnKF forecasts generally have larger track errors than the NCEP and ECMWF forecasts for all TC categories because the regional simulation cannot represent the large-scale environment better than the global simulation. The WRF/EnKF forecasts produce smaller intensity errors and biases than the NCEP and ECMWF forecasts for typhoons, but the opposite is true for tropical storms and severe tropical storms. The 5-d ensemble forecasts from the WRF/EnKF system for seven typhoon cases show appropriate variance for TC track and intensity with short forecast lead times but have insufficient spread with long forecast lead times. The WRF/EnKF system provides better ensemble forecasts and higher predictability for TC intensity than the NCEP and ECMWF ensemble forecasts.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
       
  • Earth Summit Mission 2022: Scientific Expedition and Research on Mt.
           Qomolangma Helps Reveal the Synergy between Westerly Winds and Monsoon and
           the Resulting Climatic and Environmental Effects

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      Abstract: Abstract “Earth summit mission 2022” is one of the landmark scientific research activities of the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research (STEP). This scientific expedition firstly used advanced technology and methods to detect vertical meteorological elements and produce forecasts for mountain climbing. The “Earth summit mission 2022” Qomolangma scientific expedition exceeded an altitude of over 8000 meters for the first time and carried out a comprehensive scientific investigation mission on the summit of Mt. Qomolangma. Among the participants, the westerly-monsoon synergy and influence team stationed in the Mt. Qomolangma region had two tasks: 1) detecting the vertical structure of the atmosphere for parameters such as wind, temperature, humidity, and pressure with advanced instruments for high-altitude detection at the Mt. Qomolangma base camp; and 2) observing extreme weather processes to ensure that members of the mountaineering team could successfully reach the top. Through this scientific expedition, a better understanding of the vertical structure and weather characteristics of the complex area of Mt. Qomolangma is gained.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
       
 
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