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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 113 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access  
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Developments in Atmospheric Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access  
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 144)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Nīvār     Open Access  
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access  
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal  
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access  
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weather     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access  
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Advances in Atmospheric Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.956
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 45  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1861-9533 - ISSN (Online) 0256-1530
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2658 journals]
  • Robust Solution for Boundary Layer Height Detections with Coherent Doppler
           Wind Lidar

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      Abstract: Although coherent Doppler wind lidar (CDWL) is promising in detecting boundary layer height (BLH), differences between BLH results are observed when different CDWL measurements are used as tracers. Here, a robust solution for BLH detections with CDWL is proposed and demonstrated: mixed layer height (MLH) is retrieved best from turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate (TKEDR), while stable boundary layer height (SBLH) and residual layer height (RLH) can be retrieved from carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR). To study the cause of the BLH differences, an intercomparison experiment is designed with two identical CDWLs, where only one is equipped with a stability control subsystem. During the experiment, it is found that the CNR could be distorted by instrument instability because the coupling efficiency from free-space to the polarization-maintaining fiber of the telescope is sensitive to the surrounding environment. In the ML, a bias up to 2.13 km of the MLH from CNR is found, which is caused by the CNR deviation. In contrast, the MLH from TKEDR is robust as long as the accuracy of wind is guaranteed. In the SBL (RL), the CNR is found capable to retrieve SBLH and RLH simultaneously and robustly. This solution is tested during an observation period over one month. Statistical analysis shows that the root-mean-square errors (RMSE) in the MLH, SBLH, and RLH are 0.28 km, 0.23 km, and 0.24 km, respectively.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-021-1068-0
       
  • Optimal Gridding Process for GMI Brightness Temperature Using the
           Backus-Gilbert Method

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      Abstract: Satellite microwave instruments have different field of views (FOVs) in different channels. A direct average technique (“direct method”) is frequently used to generate gridded datasets in the earth science community. A large FOV will measure radiance from outside the area of a designated grid cell. Thus, the direct method will lead to errors in a measurement over a grid cell because some pixels covering areas outside of the cell are involved in the averaging process. The Backus-Gilbert method (BG method) is proposed and demonstrated to minimize those uncertainties. Three sampling resolutions (6.5 km × 6.0 km, 11.5 km × 6.0 km, 13.0 km × 6.0 km) are analyzed based on the scanning characteristics of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI) 18.9-GHz channel. Brightness temperatures (TBs) at 0.5 km × 0.5 km resolution over eastern China are used to obtain synthetic 18.9-GHz TBs at the three sampling resolutions. The direct and BG methods are both applied to create a 25 km × 25 km gridded dataset and their related uncertainties are analyzed. Results indicate the error variances with the direct method are 3.00, 3.68 and 4.99 K2 at the three sampling resolutions, respectively. By contrast, the BG method leads to a much smaller error variance than the direct method, especially over areas with a large TB gradient. Two GMI orbital measurements are applied to verify the BG method for gridding process is reliable. The BG method could be utilized for general purpose of creating a gridded dataset.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-021-0358-x
       
  • Decadal Change in the Influence of the Western North Pacific Subtropical
           High on Summer Rainfall over the Yangtze River Basin in the Late 1970s

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      Abstract: It is well known that on the interannual timescale, the westward extension of the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) results in enhanced rainfall over the Yangtze River basin (YRB) in summer, and vice versa. This study identifies that this correspondence experiences a decadal change in the late 1970s. That is, the WNPSH significantly affects YRB precipitation (YRBP) after the late 1970s (P2) but not before the late 1970s (P1). It is found that enhanced interannual variability of the WNPSH favors its effect on YRB rainfall in P2. On the other hand, after removing the strong WNPSH cases in P2 and making the WNPSH variability equivalent to that in P1, the WNPSH can still significantly affect YRB rainfall, suggesting that the WNPSH variability is not the only factor that affects the WNPSH–YRBP relationship. Further results indicate that the change in basic state of thermal conditions in the tropical WNP provides a favorable background for the enhanced WNPSH–YRBP relationship. In P2, the lower-tropospheric atmosphere in the tropical WNP gets warmer and wetter, and thus the meridional gradient of climatological equivalent potential temperature over the YRB is enhanced. As a result, the WNPSH-related circulation anomalies can more effectively induce YRB rainfall anomalies through affecting the meridional gradient of equivalent potential temperature over the YRB.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-021-1051-9
       
  • An Observational Study on the Local Climate Effect of the Shangyi Wind
           Farm in Hebei Province

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      Abstract: Zhangjiakou is an important wind power base in Hebei Province, China. The impact of its wind farms on the local climate is controversial. Based on long-term meteorological data from 1981 to 2018, we investigated the effects of the Shangyi Wind Farm (SWF) in Zhangjiakou on air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, and precipitation using the anomaly or ratio method between the impacted weather station and the non-impacted background weather station. The influence of the SWF on land surface temperature (LST) and evapotranspiration (ET) using MODIS satellite data from 2003 to 2018 was also explored. The results showed that the SWF had an atmospheric warming effect at night especially in summer and autumn (up to 0.95°C). The daytime air temperature changes were marginal, and their signs were varying depending on the season. The annual mean wind speed decreased by 6%, mainly noted in spring and winter (up to 14%). The precipitation and relative humidity were not affected by the SWF. There was no increase in LST in the SWF perhaps due to the increased vegetation coverage unrelated to the wind farms, which canceled out the wind farm-induced land surface warming and also resulted in an increase in ET. The results showed that the impact of wind farms on the local climate was significant, while their impact on the regional climate was slight.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-021-0290-0
       
  • A Case Study on MJO Energy Transport Path in a Local Multi-scale
           Interaction Framework

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      Abstract: A new local kinetic energy (KE) budget for the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is constructed in a multi-scale framework. This energy budget framework allows us to analyze the local energy conversion processes of the MJO with the high-frequency disturbances and the low-frequency background state. The KE budget analysis is applied to a pronounced MJO event during the DYNAMO field campaign to investigate the KE transport path of the MJO. The work done by the pressure gradient force and the conversion of available potential energy at the MJO scale are the two dominant processes that affect the MJO KE tendency. The MJO winds transport MJO KE into the MJO convection region in the lower troposphere while it is transported away from the MJO convection region in the upper troposphere. The energy cascade process is relatively weak, but the interaction between high-frequency disturbances and the MJO plays an important role in maintaining the high-frequency disturbances within the MJO convection. The MJO KE mainly converts to interaction KE between MJO and high-frequency disturbances over the area where the MJO zonal wind is strong. This interaction KE over the MJO convection region is enhanced through its flux convergence and further transport KE to the high-frequency disturbances. This process is conducive to maintaining the MJO convection. This study highlights the importance of KE interaction between the MJO and the high-frequency disturbances in maintaining the MJO convection.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-021-1098-7
       
  • Implications from Subseasonal Prediction Skills of the Prolonged Heavy
           Snow Event over Southern China in Early 2008

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      Abstract: An exceptionally prolonged heavy snow event (PHSE) occurred in southern China from 10 January to 3 February 2008, which caused considerable economic losses and many casualties. To what extent any dynamical model can predict such an extreme event is crucial for disaster prevention and mitigation. Here, we found the three S2S models (ECMWF, CMA1.0 and CMA2.0) can predict the distribution and intensity of precipitation and surface air temperature (SAT) associated with the PHSE at 10-day lead and 10-15-day lead, respectively. The success is attributed to the models’ capability in forecasting the evolution of two important low-frequency systems in the tropics and mid-latitudes [the persistent Siberian High and the suppressed phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)], especially in the ECMWF model. However, beyond the 15-day lead, the three models show almost no skill in forecasting this PHSE. The bias in capturing the two critical circulation systems is responsible for the low skill in forecasting the 2008 PHSE beyond the 15-day lead. On one hand, the models cannot reproduce the persistence of the Siberian High, which results in the underestimation of negative SAT anomalies over southern China. On the other hand, the models cannot accurately capture the suppressed convection of the MJO, leading to weak anomalous southerly and moisture transport, and therefore the underestimation of precipitation over southern China. The Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) analyses between the critical circulation systems and SAT/precipitation over southern China shows a robust historical relation, indicating the fidelity of the predictability sources for both regular events and extreme events (e.g., the 2008 PHSE).
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-021-0402-x
       
  • Homogenization of the Daily Land Surface Temperature over the Mainland of
           China from 1960 through 2017

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      Abstract: Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the most important factors in the land-atmosphere interaction process. Raw measured LSTs may contain biases due to instrument replacement, changes in recording procedures, and other non-climatic factors. This study attempts to reduce the above biases in raw daily measurements and achieves a homogenized daily LST dataset over China using 2360 stations from 1960 through 2017. The high-quality land surface air temperature (LSAT) dataset is used to correct the LST warming biases especially evident during cold months in regions north of 40°N due to the replacement of observation instruments around 2004. Subsequently, the Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenization (MASH) method is adopted to detect and then adjust the daily observed LST records. In total, 3.68 × 103 effective breakpoints in 1.65 × 106 monthly records (about 20%) are detected. A large number of these effective breakpoints are located over large parts of the Sichuan Basin and southern China. After the MASH procedure, LSTs at more than 80% of the breakpoints are adjusted within +/− 0.5°C, and of the remaining breakpoints, only 10% are adjusted over 1.5°C. Compared to the raw LST dataset over the whole domain, the homogenization significantly reduces the mean LST magnitude and its interannual variability as well as its linear trend at most stations. Finally, we perform preliminary analysis upon the homogenized LST and find that the annual mean LST averaged across China shows a significant warming trend [0.22°C (10 yr)−1]. The homogenized LST dataset can be further adapted for a variety of applications (e.g., model evaluation and extreme event characterization).
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-021-1038-6
       
  • Lessons Learned from the Tragedy during the 100 km Ultramarathon Race in
           Baiyin, Gansu Province on 22 May 2021

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      Abstract: Twenty-one runners died of hypothermia during the 100 km Ultramarathon Mountain race in Baiyin, Gansu Province on 22 May 2021. The hypothermia was caused by a combination of low temperatures, precipitation, and high winds associated with a typical large-scale cold front passing by the race site that morning. Based on historical hourly records of 13 meteorological surface stations over the past six years, temperature (3.0°C) and apparent temperature (−5.1°C) at 1200 LST as well as gust wind speed (11.2 m s−1) at 1100 LST on the day of the tragedy were found to be within the top or bottom 5th percentile for the month of May. The precipitation was only moderate at this time, but when temperature lower than 3.0°C, gust wind speed greater than 11.2 m s−1, and precipitation greater than 0.1 mm for any adjacent three hours were combined together, 1200 LST 22 May fell within the top 0.1% of cases. The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting model produced reasonably good forecasts of the low temperature and high wind one day and seven days before the event, respectfully. Based on this study, lessons that can be learned from this tragedy are summarized from an academic perspective: Hazard and impact forecasts of high-impact weather events should be developed to increase the value of weather forecasts. Probability forecasts should be issued by government weather agencies and communicated well to the public. And more importantly, knowledge of how to evaluate the impact of weather should be delivered to the public in the future. We would like to extend our deepest condolences to the families and loved ones of the people who lost their lives in this tragedy, including 21 runners and one officer. May our efforts honor those who lost their lives by highlighting the value of weather forecasting and calling for greater action in the future.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-021-1246-0
       
  • Evaluation of Surface Relative Humidity in China from the CRA-40 and
           Current Reanalyses

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      Abstract: Recently, the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) released a new Global Atmospheric Reanalysis (CRA-40) dataset for the period 1979–2018. In this study, surface relative humidity (RH) from CRA-40 and other current reanalyses (e.g., CFSR, ERA5, ERA-Interim, JRA-55, and MERRA-2) is comprehensively evaluated against homogenized observations over China. The results suggest that most reanalyses overestimate the observations by 15%–30% (absolute difference) over the Tibetan Plateau but underestimate the observations by 5%–10% over most of northern China. The CRA-40 performs relatively well in describing the long-term change and variance seen in the observed surface RH over China. Most of the reanalyses reproduce the observed surface RH climatology and interannual variations well, while few reanalyses can capture the observed long-term RH trends over China. Among these reanalyses, the CFSR does poorly in describing the interannual changes in the observed RH, especially in Southwest China. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis also suggests that the CRA-40 performs better than other reanalyses to capture the first two leading EOF modes revealed by the observations. The results of this study are expected to improve understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the current reanalysis products and thus facilitate their application.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-021-0333-6
       
  • Effect of the Vertical Diffusion of Moisture in the Planetary Boundary
           Layer on an Idealized Tropical Cyclone

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      Abstract: Previous numerical studies have focused on the combined effect of momentum and scalar eddy diffusivity on the intensity and structure of tropical cyclones. The separate impact of eddy diffusivity estimated by planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization on the tropical cyclones has not yet been systematically examined. We have examined the impacts of eddy diffusion of moisture on idealized tropical cyclones using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting model with the Yonsei University PBL scheme. Our results show nonlinear effects of moisture eddy diffusivity on the simulation of idealized tropical cyclones. Increasing the eddy diffusion of moisture increases the moisture content of the PBL, with three different effects on tropical cyclones: (1) an decrease in the depth of the PBL; (2) an increase in convection in the inner rain band and eyewall; and (3) drying of the lowest region of the PBL and then increasing the surface latent heat flux. These three processes have different effects on the intensity and structure of the tropical cyclone through various physical mechanisms. The increased surface latent heat flux is mainly responsible for the decrease in pressure. Results show that moisture eddy diffusivity has clear effects on the pressure in tropical cyclones, but contributes little to the intensity of wind. This largely influences the wind-pressure relationship, which is crucial in tropical cyclones simulation. These results improve our understanding of moisture eddy diffusivity in the PBL and its influence on tropical cyclones, and provides guidance for interpreting the variation of moisture in the PBL for tropical cyclone simulations.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-021-1016-z
       
  • Impacts of Irrigation and Vegetation Growth on Summer Rainfall in the
           Taklimakan Desert

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      Abstract: In recent decades, a greening tendency due to increased vegetation has been noted around the Taklimakan Desert (TD), but the impact of such a change on the local hydrological cycle remains uncertain. Here, we investigate the response of the local hydrological cycle and atmospheric circulation to a green TD in summer using a pair of global climate model (Community Earth System Model version 1.2.1) simulations. With enough irrigation to support vegetation growth in the TD, the modeling suggests first, that significant increases in local precipitation are attributed to enhanced local recycling of water, and second, that there is a corresponding decrease of local surface temperatures. On the other hand, irrigation and vegetation growth in this low-lying desert have negligible impacts on the large-scale circulation and thus the moisture convergence for enhanced precipitation. It is also found that the green TD can only be sustained by a large amount of irrigation water supply since only about one-third of the deployed water can be “recycled” locally. Considering this, devising a way to encapsulate the irrigated water within the desert to ensure more efficient water recycling is key for maintaining a sustainable, greening TD.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-021-1042-x
       
  • PV Perspective of Impacts on Downstream Extreme Rainfall Event of a
           Tibetan Plateau Vortex Collaborating with a Southwest China Vortex

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      Abstract: An extreme rainfall event occurred over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze Basin (MLY) during the end of June 2016, which was attributable to a Tibetan Plateau (TP) Vortex (TPV) in conjunction with a Southwest China Vortex (SWCV). The physical mechanism for this event was investigated from Potential Vorticity (PV) and omega perspectives based on MERRA-2 reanalysis data. The cyclogenesis of the TPV over the northwestern TP along with the lower-tropospheric SWCV was found to involve a midtropospheric large-scale flow reconfiguration across western and eastern China with the formation of a high-amplitude Rossby wave. Subsequently, the eastward-moving TPV coalesced vertically with the SWCV over the eastern Sichuan Basin due to the positive vertical gradient of the TPV-related PV advection, leading the lower-tropospheric jet associated with moisture transport to intensify greatly and converge over the downstream MLY. The merged TPV−SWCV specially facilitated the upper-tropospheric isentropic-gliding ascending motion over the MLY. With the TPV-embedded mid-tropospheric trough migrating continuously eastward, the almost stagnant SWCV was re-separated from the overlying TPV, forming a more eastward-tilted high-PV configuration to trigger stronger ascending motion including isentropic-gliding, isentropic-displacement, and diabatic heating-related ascending components over the MLY. This led to more intense rainfall. Quantitative PV diagnoses demonstrate that both the coalescence and subsequent re-separation processes of the TPV with the SWCV were largely dominated by horizontal PV advection and PV generation due to vertically nonuniform diabatic heating, as well as the feedback of condensation latent heating on the isentropic-displacement vertical velocity.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-021-1027-9
       
  • Understanding Interannual Variations of the Local Rainy Season over the
           Southwest Indian Ocean

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      Abstract: Located at the southern boundary of the tropical rainfall belt within the South Africa monsoon regime, Rodrigues Island, ∼2500 km east of East Africa, is ideally located to investigate climatic changes over the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO). In this study, we investigate the climatic controls of its modern interannual rainfall variability in terms of teleconnection and local effects. We find that increased rainfall over the SWIO tends to occur in association with anomalously warm (cold) SSTs over the equatorial central Pacific (Maritime Continent), resembling the central Pacific El Niño, closely linked with the Victoria mode in the North Pacific. Our analyses show that the low-level convergence induced by warm SST over the equatorial central Pacific leads to anomalous low-level divergence over the Maritime Continent and convergence over a large area surrounding the Rodrigues Island, which leads to increased rainfall over the SWIO during the rainy season. Meanwhile, the excited Rossby wave along the tropical Indian Ocean transports more water vapor from the tropical convergence zone into the SWIO via intensified northwest wind. Furthermore, positive feedback induced by the Rossby wave response to the increased rainfall in the region contributes to the large interannual variations over the SWIO.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-021-1065-3
       
  • Moisture Origins and Transport Processes for the 2020 Yangtze River Valley
           Record-Breaking Mei-yu Rainfall

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      Abstract: The summer of 2020 recorded a record-breaking flood due to excessive mei-yu rain falling over the Yangtze River Valley (YRV). Using the Lagrangian model FLEXPART, this paper investigates moisture sources and transport processes behind this extreme event. Based on climate data from 1979 to 2019, the air-particle (an infinitesimally small air parcel) trajectories reaching the YRV show sectors that correspond to five main moisture sources: the Indian monsoon region (IND, 27.5% of the total rainfall), the local evaporation (27.4%), the Western Pacific Ocean (WPO, 21.3%), the Eurasian continent (8.5%) and Northeast Asia (4.4%). In the 2020 mei-yu season, moisture from all source regions was above normal except that from Northeast Asia. A record-breaking moisture source from the IND and WPO dominated this extreme mei-yu flood in 2020, which was 1.5 and 1.6 times greater than the climate mean, respectively. This study reveals a significant relationship between the moisture source with three moisture transport processes, i.e., trajectory density, moisture content, and moisture uptake of air-particles. A broad anomalous anticyclonic circulation over the Indo-Northwestern Pacific (Indo-NWP) provides a favorable environment to enhance the moisture transport from the IND and WPO into the YRV. In the 2020 mei-yu season, a record-breaking Indo-NWP anomalous anticyclonic circulation contributed to a higher trajectory density as well as higher moisture content and moisture uptake of air-particles from the IND and WPO regions. This collectively resulted in unprecedented moisture transport from source origins, thus contributing to the mei-yu flood over the YRV in 2020.
      PubDate: 2021-10-12
       
  • The Extraordinary Rainfall over the Eastern Periphery of the Tibetan
           Plateau in August 2020

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      Abstract: A large amount of accumulated precipitation was recorded over the Eastern Periphery of the Tibetan Plateau (EPTP) in August 2020. Using hourly rain gauge records and the ERA5 reanalysis dataset, we analyzed the unique characteristics of rainfall in August and the accompanying circulation conditions and conducted a comparison with previous data. This record-breaking amount of accumulated rainfall was centered on the northern slope of the EPTP. This location was in contrast with the historical records of the concentration of rainfall over the middle and southern slopes. The hourly rainfall in August 2020 was both more frequent and more intense than the climatological mean rainfall. An amplification effect of the topography was observed, with the precipitation over the EPTP showing a more significant change with terrain height in August 2020. A circulation analysis showed that cold (warm) anomalies existed over the north (south) of approximately 35°N compared with those in the years when the southern EPTP received more rain. The western Pacific subtropical high was more intense and extended to the west, and the low-level cold air from the north was more active. The enhanced low-level southerly winds on the periphery of the subtropical high injected warm, moist air further north than the climatological mean. These winds became easterly near the northern EPTP and were forced to ascend by the steep terrain.
      PubDate: 2021-10-12
       
  • A Comparison of Two Bulk Microphysics Parameterizations for the Study of
           Aerosol Impacts on an Idealized Supercell

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      Abstract: Idealized supercell storms are simulated with two aerosol-aware bulk microphysics schemes (BMSs), the Thompson and the Chen-Liu-Reisner (CLR), using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. The objective of this study is to investigate the parameterizations of aerosol effects on cloud and precipitation characteristics and assess the necessity of introducing aerosols into a weather prediction model at fine grid resolution. The results show that aerosols play a decisive role in the composition of clouds in terms of the mixing ratios and number concentrations of liquid and ice hydrometeors in an intense supercell storm. The storm consists of a large amount of cloud water and snow in the polluted environment, but a large amount of rainwater and graupel instead in the clean environment. The total precipitation and rain intensity are suppressed in the CLR scheme more than in the Thompson scheme in the first three hours of storm simulations. The critical processes explaining the differences are the auto-conversion rate in the warm-rain process at the beginning of storm intensification and the low-level cooling induced by large ice hydrometeors. The cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation and auto-conversion processes of the two schemes exhibit considerable differences, indicating the inherent uncertainty of the parameterized aerosol effects among different BMSs. Beyond the aerosol effects, the fall speed characteristics of graupel in the two schemes play an important role in the storm dynamics and precipitation via low-level cooling. The rapid intensification of storms simulated with the Thompson scheme is attributed to the production of hail-like graupel.
      PubDate: 2021-10-09
       
  • Atmospheric Rivers and Mei-yu Rainfall in China: A Case Study of Summer
           2020

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      Abstract: Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are long, narrow, and transient filaments of strong horizontal water vapor transport that can lead to extreme precipitation. To investigate the relationship between ARs and mei-yu rainfall in China, the mei-yu season of 2020 in the Yangtze-Huaihe River basin is taken as an example. An adjusted AR-detection algorithm is applied on integrated water vapor transport (IVT) of the ERA5 reanalysis. The JRA-55 reanalysis and the data from Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) are also utilized to study the impacts of ARs on mei-yu rainfall in 2020. The results reveal that ARs in East Asia have an average length of 5400 km, a width of 600 km, a length/width ratio of 9.3, and a northeastward orientation of 30°. ARs are modulated by the western North Pacific subtropical high. The IVT core is located at the south side of low pressure systems, moving eastward with a speed of 10° d−1. For the cross sections of ARs in the Yangtze-Huaihe River basin, 75% of the total flux is concentrated below 4 km with low-level jets near AR cores. Moreover, ARs occur mainly in the mei-yu period with a frequency of 20%–60%. The intensity of AR-related precipitation is 6–12 times that of AR-unrelated precipitation, and AR-related precipitation contributes about 50%–80% to total mei-yu precipitation. As shown in this case study of summer 2020, ARs are an essential part of the mei-yu system and have great impacts on mei-yu rainfall. Thus, ARs should receive more attention in research and weather forecast practices.
      PubDate: 2021-10-02
       
  • An Objective Identification Method for Wintertime Cold Fronts in Eurasia

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      Abstract: The present study identifies wintertime cold fronts in Eurasia from gridded datasets using a new objective two-step identification scheme. The simple and classic conception of a front is adopted, where a cold front is identified as the warm boundary of the frontal zone with a suitable horizontal temperature gradient and cold advection. We combine the traditional thermal front parameter with temperature advection to first identify the cold frontal zone, and then its eastern and southern boundaries are objectively plotted as a cold front in Eurasia. By comparing different cold front identification methods, the results from this two-step cold front identification method and subjective analysis are more consistent, and the positions of the cold front identified with our method are more reasonable. This objective technique is also applied to a nationwide cold wave event over China. Results show that the horizontal extent and movement of the cold front are in good agreement with the related circulation and the associated cold weather. The proposed method and results in this study may shed light on the rapid identification of cold fronts in operational weather analysis and facilitate further research on the long-term activity characteristics of continental cold fronts.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-021-0315-8
       
  • Detecting Regional Deep Ocean Warming below 2000 meter Based on Altimetry,
           GRACE, Argo, and CTD Data

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      Abstract: The deep ocean below 2000 m is a large water body with the sparsest data coverage, challenging the closure of the sea-level budget and the estimation of the Earth’s energy imbalance. Whether the deep ocean below 2000 m is warming globally has been debated in the recent decade. However, as the regional signals are generally larger than the global average, it is intriguing to investigate the regional temperature changes. Here, we adopt an indirect method that combines altimetry, GRACE, and Argo data to examine the global and regional deep ocean temperature changes below 2000 m. The consistency between high-quality conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) data from repeated hydrographic sections and our results confirms the validity of the indirect method. We find that the deep oceans are warming in the Middle East Indian Ocean, the subtropical North and Southwest Pacific, and the Northeast Atlantic, but cooling in the Northwest Atlantic and Southern oceans from 2005 to 2015.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-021-1049-3
       
  • The Simulation of Five Tropical Cyclones by Sample Optimization of
           Ensemble Forecasting Based on the Observed Track and Intensity

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      Abstract: The quality of ensemble forecasting is seriously affected by sample quality. In this study, the distributions of ensemble members based on the observed track and intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) were optimized and their influence on the simulation results was analyzed. Simulated and observed tracks and intensities of TCs were compared and these two indicators were combined and weighted to score the sample. Samples with higher scores were retained and samples with lower scores were eliminated to improve the overall quality of the ensemble forecast. For each sample, the track score and intensity score were added as the final score of the sample with weight proportions of 10 to 0, 9 to 1, 8 to 2, 7 to 3, 6 to 4, 5 to 5. These were named as “tr”, “91”, “82”, “73”, “64”, and “55”, respectively. The WRF model was used to simulate five tropical cyclones in the northwestern Pacific to test the ability of this scheme to improve the forecast track and intensity of these cyclones. The results show that the sample optimization effectively reduced the track and intensity error, “55” usually had better performance on the short-term intensity prediction, and “tr” had better performance in short-term track prediction. From the overall performance of the track and intensity simulation, “91” was the best and most stable among all sample optimization schemes. These results may provide some guidance for optimizing operational ensemble forecasting of TCs.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00376-021-0353-2
       
 
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