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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Climate Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Journal of Climate Change and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 147)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Nīvār     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Weather     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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Advances in Atmospheric Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.956
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 45  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1861-9533 - ISSN (Online) 0256-1530
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • The IAMAS-CNC Early Career Scientists Nobel Prize Online Interpretation
           Workshop

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Distinct Evolution of the SST Anomalies in the Far Eastern Pacific between
           the 1997/98 and 2015/16 Extreme El Niños

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      Abstract: Abstract The 2015/16 El Niño displayed a distinct feature in the SST anomalies over the far eastern Pacific (FEP) compared to the 1997/98 extreme case. In contrast to the strong warm SST anomalies in the FEP in the 1997/98 event, the FEP warm SST anomalies in the 2015/16 El Niño were modest and accompanied by strong southeasterly wind anomalies in the southeastern Pacific. Exploring possible underlying causes of this distinct difference in the FEP may improve understanding of the diversity of extreme El Niños. Here, we employ observational analyses and numerical model experiments to tackle this issue. Mixed-layer heat budget analysis suggests that compared to the 1997/98 event, the modest FEP SST warming in the 2015/16 event was closely related to strong vertical upwelling, strong westward current, and enhanced surface evaporation, which were caused by the strong southeasterly wind anomalies in the southeastern Pacific. The strong southeasterly wind anomalies were initially triggered by the combined effects of warm SST anomalies in the equatorial central and eastern Pacific (CEP) and cold SST anomalies in the southeastern subtropical Pacific in the antecedent winter, and then sustained by the warm SST anomalies over the northeastern subtropical Pacific and CEP. In contrast, southeasterly wind anomalies in the 1997/98 El Niño were partly restrained by strong anomalously negative sea level pressure and northwesterlies in the northeast flank of the related anomalous cyclone in the subtropical South Pacific. In addition, the strong southeasterly wind and modest SST anomalies in the 2015/16 El Niño may also have been partly related to decadal climate variability.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Contrasts between the Interannual Variations of Extreme Rainfall over
           Western and Eastern Sichuan in Mid-summer

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      Abstract: Abstract Rainfall amount in mid-summer (July and August) is much greater over eastern than western Sichuan, which are characterized by basin and plateau, respectively. It is shown that the interannual variations of extreme rainfall over these two regions are roughly independent, and they correspond to distinct anomalies of both large-scale circulation and sea surface temperature (SST). The enhanced extreme rainfall over western Sichuan is associated with a southward shift of the Asian westerly jet, while the enhanced extreme rainfall over eastern Sichuan is associated with an anticyclonic anomaly in the upper troposphere over China. At low levels, on the other hand, the enhanced extreme rainfall over western Sichuan is related to two components of wind anomalies, namely southwesterly over southwestern Sichuan and northeasterly over northeastern Sichuan, which favor more rainfall under the effects of the topography. Relatively speaking, the enhanced extreme rainfall over eastern Sichuan corresponds to the low-level southerly anomalies to the east of Sichuan, which curve into northeasterly anomalies over the basin when they encounter the mountains to the north of the basin. Therefore, it can be concluded that the topography in and around Sichuan plays a crucial role in inducing extreme rainfall both over western and eastern Sichuan. Finally, the enhanced extreme rainfall in western and eastern Sichuan is related to warmer SSTs in the Maritime Continent and cooler SSTs in the equatorial central Pacific, respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Evaluation of Arctic Sea Ice Drift and its Relationship with Near-surface
           Wind and Ocean Current in Nine CMIP6 Models from China

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      Abstract: Abstract The simulated Arctic sea ice drift and its relationship with the near-surface wind and surface ocean current during 1979–2014 in nine models from China that participated in the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) are examined by comparison with observational and reanalysis datasets. Most of the models reasonably represent the Beaufort Gyre (BG) and Transpolar Drift Stream (TDS) in the spatial patterns of their long-term mean sea ice drift, while the detailed location, extent, and strength of the BG and TDS vary among the models. About two-thirds of the models agree with the observation/reanalysis in the sense that the sea ice drift pattern is consistent with the near-surface wind pattern. About the same proportion of models shows that the sea ice drift pattern is consistent with the surface ocean current pattern. In the observation/reanalysis, however, the sea ice drift pattern does not match well with the surface ocean current pattern. All nine models missed the observational widespread sea ice drift speed acceleration across the Arctic. For the Arctic basin-wide spatial average, five of the nine models overestimate the Arctic long-term (1979–2014) mean sea ice drift speed in all months. Only FGOALS-g3 captures a significant sea ice drift speed increase from 1979 to 2014 both in spring and autumn. The increases are weaker than those in the observation. This evaluation helps assess the performance of the Arctic sea ice drift simulations in these CMIP6 models from China.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Strengthened Regulation of the Onset of the South China Sea Summer Monsoon
           by the Northwest Indian Ocean Warming in the Past Decade

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      Abstract: Abstract Traditionally, a delayed (early) onset of the South China Sea summer monsoon (SCSSM) has been observed to follow a warm (cold) El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event in winter, supporting high seasonal predictability of SCSSM onset. However, the empirical seasonal forecasting skill of the SCSSM onset, solely based on ENSO, has deteriorated since 2010. Meanwhile, unexpected delayed onsets of the SCSSM have also occurred in the past decade. We attribute these changes to the Northwest Indian Ocean (NWIO) warming of the sea surface. The NWIO warming has teleconnections related to (1) suppressing the seasonal convection over the South China Sea, which weakens the impacts of ENSO on SCSSM onset and delays the start of SCSSM, and (2) favoring more high-frequency, propagating moist convective activities, which enhances the uncertainty of the seasonal prediction of SCSSM onset date. Our results yield insight into the predictability of the SCSSM onset under the context of uneven ocean warming operating within the larger-scale background state of global climate change.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Quantifying the Spatial Characteristics of the Moisture Transport
           Affecting Precipitation Seasonality and Recycling Variability in Central
           Asia

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      Abstract: Abstract Moisture contribution and transport pathways for Central Asia (CA) are quantitatively examined using the Lagrangian water cycle model based on reanalysis and observational data to explain the precipitation seasonality and the moisture transport variation during 1979–2015. Westerly-related (northwesterly and westerly) transport explains 42% of CA precipitation and dominates in southwest CA, where precipitation is greatest in the cold season. Southeast CA, including part of Northwest China, experiences its maximum precipitation in the warm season and is solely dominated by southerly transport, which explains about 48% of CA precipitation. The remaining 10% of CA precipitation is explained by northerly transport, which steadily impacts north CA and causes a maximum in precipitation in the warm season. Most CA areas are exposed to seasonally varying moisture transport, except for southeast and north CA, which are impacted by southerly and northerly transport year-round. In general, the midlatitude westerlies-driven transport and the Indian monsoon-driven southerly-related transport explain most of the spatial differences in precipitation seasonality over CA. Moreover, the contribution ratio of local evaporation in CA to precipitation exhibits significant interdecadal variability and a meridionally oriented tripole of moisture transport anomalies. Since the early 2000s, CA has experienced a decade of anomalously low local moisture contribution, which seems jointly determined by the weakened moisture contribution from midlatitudes (the Atlantic, Europe, and CA itself) and the enhanced contribution from high latitudes (West Siberia and the Arctic) and tropical areas (South Asia and the Indian Ocean).
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Urbanization Impact on Regional Climate and Extreme Weather: Current
           Understanding, Uncertainties, and Future Research Directions

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      Abstract: Abstract Urban environments lie at the confluence of social, cultural, and economic activities and have unique biophysical characteristics due to continued infrastructure development that generally replaces natural landscapes with built-up structures. The vast majority of studies on urban perturbation of local weather and climate have been centered on the urban heat island (UHI) effect, referring to the higher temperature in cities compared to their natural surroundings. Besides the UHI effect and heat waves, urbanization also impacts atmospheric moisture, wind, boundary layer structure, cloud formation, dispersion of air pollutants, precipitation, and storms. In this review article, we first introduce the datasets and methods used in studying urban areas and their impacts through both observation and modeling and then summarize the scientific insights on the impact of urbanization on various aspects of regional climate and extreme weather based on more than 500 studies. We also highlight the major research gaps and challenges in our understanding of the impacts of urbanization and provide our perspective and recommendations for future research priorities and directions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Comparison of PM2.5 and CO2 Concentrations in Large Cities of China during
           the COVID-19 Lockdown

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      Abstract: Abstract Estimating the impacts on PM2.5 pollution and CO2 emissions by human activities in different urban regions is important for developing efficient policies. In early 2020, China implemented a lockdown policy to contain the spread of COVID-19, resulting in a significant reduction of human activities. This event presents a convenient opportunity to study the impact of human activities in the transportation and industrial sectors on air pollution. Here, we investigate the variations in air quality attributed to the COVID-19 lockdown policy in the megacities of China by combining in-situ environmental and meteorological datasets, the Suomi-NPP/VIIRS and the CO2 emissions from the Carbon Monitor project. Our study shows that PM2.5 concentrations in the spring of 2020 decreased by 41.87% in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and 43.30% in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), respectively, owing to the significant shutdown of traffic and manufacturing industries. However, PM2.5 concentrations in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region only decreased by 2.01% because the energy and steel industries were not fully paused. In addition, unfavorable weather conditions contributed to further increases in the PM2.5 concentration. Furthermore, CO2 concentrations were not significantly affected in China during the short-term emission reduction, despite a 19.52% reduction in CO2 emissions compared to the same period in 2019. Our results suggest that concerted efforts from different emission sectors and effective long-term emission reduction strategies are necessary to control air pollution and CO2 emissions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Structure and Evolution of Decadal Spiciness Variability in the North
           Pacific during 2004–20, Revealed from Argo Observations

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      Abstract: Abstract Ocean spiciness is referred to as density-compensated temperature and salinity variations with warm (cool) and salty (fresh) waters having high (low) spiciness, respectively. The structure and evolution of density-compensated (warm/salty or cool/fresh) spiciness anomalies are investigated in the North Pacific thermocline using Argo observations during the period 2004–20. Two well-organized decadal spiciness events are identified through isopycnal surface analyses. One warm/salty spiciness anomaly of about 0.15°C and 0.05 g kg−1 temperature and salinity perturbations on the 25 kg m−3 isopycnal surface appeared in the eastern subtropical North Pacific at (18°–30°N, 120°–150°W) in 2007, which then migrated southwestward along the mean circulation and arrived in the western tropics at (∼15°N, 145°E–175°W) in 2012–13, with the reduced salinity perturbation of about 0.043 g kg−1. Another cool/fresh spiciness anomaly of about −0.2°C and −0.07 g kg−1 temperature and salinity perturbations originated from the eastern subtropics at (120°–150°W, ∼30°N) in 2014 and followed a similar advective pathway during the period from 2014–15 to 2019–20. The subduction pathway can be adequately determined by the mean Montgomery stream function on the isopycnal surface; the propagation direction and speed are in good agreement with the expectation for the role played by advection due to the mean geostrophic current. Moreover, the subducted decadal spiciness anomalies can have negative feedback on sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the western tropical Pacific through the diapycnal processes. The identifications of these density-compensated spiciness anomalies and their propagation pathways provide a clear illustration of the oceanic extratropics-tropics interactions in the North Pacific Ocean.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Analysis of the Winter Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Activity and Its Synoptic
           Background in China during 2010–20

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      Abstract: Abstract Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data and the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset are analyzed to gain insight into the spatiotemporal distribution and synoptic background of winter-season CG flashes between December 2010 and February 2020 in China. We identify three Winter Lightning Frequent Areas (WLAs): the southwest side of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (WLA1), the east side of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (WLA2), and the Poyang Lake Plain (WLA3). The CG lightning flashes most frequently occur at local midnight and have a monthly peak in February. The CG lightning in WLA1 is mostly generated in non-frontal weather; however, the lightning in WLA2 and WLA3 mostly occurs in frontal systems. The frontal circulation situation is divided into four typical types: transversal trough after high pressure, low vortex, confrontational convergence, and asymptotic convergence. In all typical weather patterns, the lightning occurs downstream of a 500 hPa trough and is accompanied by a southwesterly low-level jet. The convective parameters of winter thunderstorms differ greatly from those of summer thunderstorms. The maximum convective available potential energy (MCAPE) and K-index (KI) are more useful metrics than convective available potential energy (CAPE) and Showalter index (SI) during winter. This study further deepens the understanding of the distribution characteristics of winter CG lightning in China, which motivates further research to improve the ability of winter thunderstorm prediction.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Variations in Amplitudes and Wave Energy along the Energy Dispersion Paths
           for Rossby Waves in the Quasigeostrophic Barotropic Model

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      Abstract: Abstract Variations in wave energy and amplitude for Rossby waves are investigated by solving the wave energy equation for the quasigeostrophic barotropic potential vorticity model. The results suggest that compared with rays in the nondivergent barotropic model, rays in the divergent model can have enhanced meridional and zonal propagation, accompanied by a more dramatic variability in both wave energy and amplitude, which is caused by introducing the divergence effect of the free surface in the quasigeostrophic model. For rays propagating in a region enclosed by a turning latitude and a critical latitude, the wave energy approaches the maximum value inside the region, while the amplitude approaches the maximum at the turning latitude. Waves can develop when both the wave energy and amplitude increase. For rays propagating in a region enclosed by two turning latitudes, the wave energy approaches the minimum value at one turning latitude and the maximum value at the other latitude, while the total wavenumber approaches the maximum value inside the region. The resulting amplitude increases if the total wavenumber decreases or the wave energy increases more significantly and decreases if the total wavenumber increases or the wave energy decreases more significantly. The matched roles of the energy from the basic flow and the divergence of the group velocity contribute to the slightly oscillating wave energy, which causes a slightly oscillating amplitude as well as the slightly oscillating total wavenumber.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • A Hybrid Neural Network Model for ENSO Prediction in Combination with
           Principal Oscillation Pattern Analyses

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      Abstract: Abstract El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) can be currently predicted reasonably well six months and longer, but large biases and uncertainties remain in its real-time prediction. Various approaches have been taken to improve understanding of ENSO processes, and different models for ENSO predictions have been developed, including linear statistical models based on principal oscillation pattern (POP) analyses, convolutional neural networks (CNNs), and so on. Here, we develop a novel hybrid model, named as POP-Net, by combining the POP analysis procedure with CNN-long short-term memory (LSTM) algorithm to predict the Niño-3.4 sea surface temperature (SST) index. ENSO predictions are compared with each other from the corresponding three models: POP model, CNN-LSTM model, and POP-Net, respectively. The POP-based pre-processing acts to enhance ENSO-related signals of interest while filtering unrelated noise. Consequently, an improved prediction is achieved in the POP-Net relative to others. The POP-Net shows a high-correlation skill for 17-month lead time prediction (correlation coefficients exceeding 0.5) during the 1994–2020 validation period. The POP-Net also alleviates the spring predictability barrier (SPB). It is concluded that value-added artificial neural networks for improved ENSO predictions are possible by including the process-oriented analyses to enhance signal representations.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Reexamination of the Relationship between Tropical Cyclone Size and
           Intensity over the Western North Pacific

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      Abstract: Abstract This study reexamines the correlation between the size and intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) over the western North Pacific from the perspective of individual TCs, rather than the previous large-sample framework mixing up all TC records. Statistics show that the positive size-intensity correlation based on individual TCs is relatively high. However, this correlation is obscured by mixing large samples. The weakened correlation based on all TC records is primarily due to the diversity in the size change relative to the same intensity change among TCs, which can be quantitatively measured by the linear regression coefficient (RC) of size against intensity. To further explore the factors that cause the variability in RCs that weakens the size-intensity correlation when considering all TC records, the TCs from 2001 to 2020 are classified into two groups according to their RC magnitudes, within which the high-RC TCs have a larger size expansion than the low-RC TCs given the same intensity change. Two key mechanisms responsible for the RC differences are proposed. First, the high-RC TCs are generally located at higher latitudes than the low-RC TCs, resulting in higher planetary vorticity and thus higher planetary angular momentum import at low levels. Second, the high-RC TCs are susceptible to stronger environmental vertical wind shear, leading to more prolific outer convection than the low-RC TCs. The positive feedback between outer diabatic heating and boundary layer inflow favors the inward import of absolute angular momentum in the outer region, thereby contributing to a larger size expansion in the high-RC TCs.
      PubDate: 2022-05-28
       
  • Spatiotemporal Variations of Microwave Land Surface Emissivity (MLSE) over
           China Derived from Four-Year Recalibrated Fengyun 3B MWRI Data

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      Abstract: Abstract Microwave Land Surface Emissivity (MLSE) over China under both clear and cloudy sky conditions was retrieved using measurements of recalibrated microwave brightness temperatures (Tbs) from Fengyun-3B Microwave Radiation Imager (FY-3B MWRI), combined with cloud properties derived from Himawari-8 Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) observations. The contributions from cloud particles and atmospheric gases to the upwelling Tbs at the top of atmosphere were calculated and removed in radiative transfer. The MLSEs at horizontal polarizations at 10.65, 18.7, and 36.5 GHz during 7 July 2015 to 30 June 2019 over China showed high values in the southeast vegetated area and low values in the northwest barren, or sparsely vegetated, area. The maximum values were found in the belt area of the Qinling-Taihang Mountains and the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which is highly consistent with MLSEs derived from AMSR-E. It demonstrates that the measurements of FY-3B MWRI Tbs, including its calibration and validation, are reliable, and the retrieval algorithm developed in this study works well. Seasonal variations of MLSE in China are mainly driven by the combined effects of vegetation, rainfall, and snow cover. In tropical and southern forest regions, the seasonal variation of MLSE is small due to the enhancement from vegetation and the suppression from rainfall. In the boreal area, snow causes a significant decrease of MLSE at 36.5 GHz in winter. Meanwhile, the MLSE at lower frequencies experiences less suppression. In the desert region in Xinjiang, increases of MLSEs at all frequencies are observed with increasing snow cover.
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
       
  • High-resolution Projection Dataset of Agroclimatic Indicators over Central
           Asia

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      Abstract: Abstract To understand the potential impacts of projected climate change on the vulnerable agriculture in Central Asia (CA), six agroclimatic indicators are calculated based on the 9-km-resolution dynamical downscaled results of three different global climate models from Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), and their changes in the near-term future (2031–50) are assessed relative to the reference period (1986–2005). The quantile mapping (QM) method is applied to correct the model data before calculating the indicators. Results show the QM method largely reduces the biases in all the indicators. Growing season length (GSL, day), summer days (SU, day), warm spell duration index (WSDI, day), and tropical nights (TR, day) are projected to significantly increase over CA, and frost days (FD, day) are projected to decrease. However, changes in biologically effective degree days (BEDD, °C) are spatially heterogeneous. The high-resolution projection dataset of agroclimatic indicators over CA can serve as a scientific basis for assessing the future risks to local agriculture from climate change and will be beneficial in planning adaption and mitigation actions for food security in this region.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
       
  • Observational Subseasonal Variability of the PM2.5 Concentration in the
           Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area during the January 2021 Sudden Stratospheric
           Warming

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      Abstract: Abstract It is still not well understood if subseasonal variability of the local PM2.5 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region is affected by the stratospheric state. Using PM2.5 observations and the ERA5 reanalysis, the evolution of the air quality in BTH during the January 2021 sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) is explored. The subseasonal variability of the PM2.5 concentration after the SSW onset is evidently enhanced. Stratospheric circumpolar easterly anomalies lasted for 53 days during the January–February 2021 SSW with two evident stratospheric pulses arriving at the ground. During the tropospheric wave weakening period and the intermittent period of dormant stratospheric pulses, the East Asian winter monsoon weakened, anomalous temperature inversion developed in the lower troposphere, anomalous surface southerlies prevailed, atmospheric moisture increased, and the boundary layer top height lowered, all of which favor the accumulation of pollutant particulates, leading to two periods of pollution processes in the BTH region. In the phase of strengthened East Asian winter monsoon around the very beginning of the SSW and another two periods when stratospheric pulses had reached the near surface, opposite-signed circulation patterns and meteorological conditions were observed, which helped to dilute and diffuse air pollutants in the BTH region. As a result, the air quality was excellent during the two periods when the stratospheric pulse had reached the near surface. The increased subseasonal variation of the regional pollutant particulates after the SSW onset highlights the important role of the stratosphere in the regional environment and provides implications for the environmental prediction.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
       
  • Sub-seasonal Prediction of the South China Sea Summer Monsoon Onset in the
           NCEP Climate Forecast System Version 2

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      Abstract: Abstract This study depicts the sub-seasonal prediction of the South China Sea summer monsoon onset (SCSSMO) and investigates the associated oceanic and atmospheric processes, utilizing the hindcasts of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2). Typically, the SCSSMO is accompanied by an eastward retreat of the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH), development of the cross-equatorial flow, and an increase in the east-west sea surface temperature (SST) gradient. These features are favorable for the onset of westerlies and strengthening of convection and precipitation over the South China Sea (SCS). A more vigorous SCSSMO process shows a higher predictability, and vice versa. The NCEP CFSv2 can successfully predict the onset date and evolution of the monsoon about 4 pentads (20 days) in advance (within 1–2 pentads) for more forceful (less vigorous) SCSSMO processes. On the other hand, the climatological SCSSMO that occurs around the 27th pentad can be accurately predicted in one pentad, and the predicted SCSSMO occurs 1–2 pentads earlier than the observed with a weaker intensity at longer leadtimes. Warm SST biases appear over the western equatorial Pacific preceding the SCSSMO. These biases induce a weaker-than-observed WNPSH as a Gill-type response, leading to weakened low-level easterlies over the SCS and hence an earlier and less vigorous SCSSMO. In addition, after the SCSSMO, remarkable warm biases over the eastern Indian Ocean and the SCS and cold biases over the WNP induce weaker-than-observed westerlies over the SCS, thus also contributing to the less vigorous SCSSMO.
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
       
  • Observed Frequent Occurrences of Marine Heatwaves in Most Ocean Regions
           during the Last Two Decades

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      Abstract: Abstract Marine heatwaves (MHWs) are prolonged high-temperature extreme events in the ocean that can be devastating to marine life and seriously impact climate systems and economies. This paper describes the accessibility, content, characteristics, and potential applications of an MHW dataset to facilitate its use in scientific research. Daily intensities of global MHWs from 1982 to 2020 were analyzed using gridded SST data sourced from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Optimum Interpolation (OI) SST V2 high-resolution (0.25°) dataset. The analysis shows a linear increase in the frequency of MHWs in most ocean regions of the world as well as significant interdecadal changes. This data product can be used as a basic dataset to study the seasonal to decadal changes in extreme ocean events and explore the effects of global warming on the surface layers of oceans during the last 40 years.
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
       
  • A Causality-guided Statistical Approach for Modeling Extreme Mei-yu
           Rainfall Based on Known Large-scale Modes—A Pilot Study

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      Abstract: Abstract Extreme Mei-yu rainfall (MYR) can cause catastrophic impacts to the economic development and societal welfare in China. While significant improvements have been made in climate models, they often struggle to simulate local-to-regional extreme rainfall (e.g., MYR). Yet, large-scale climate modes (LSCMs) are relatively well represented in climate models. Since there exists a close relationship between MYR and various LSCMs, it might be possible to develop causality-guided statistical models for MYR prediction based on LSCMs. These statistical models could then be applied to climate model simulations to improve the representation of MYR in climate models. In this pilot study, it is demonstrated that skillful causality-guided statistical models for MYR can be constructed based on known LSCMs. The relevancy of the selected predictors for statistical models are found to be consistent with the literature. The importance of temporal resolution in constructing statistical models for MYR is also shown and is in good agreement with the literature. The results demonstrate the reliability of the causality-guided approach in studying complex circulation systems such as the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). Some limitations and possible improvements of the current approach are discussed. The application of the causality-guided approach opens up a new possibility to uncover the complex interactions in the EASM in future studies.
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
       
  • Influence of South Asian Biomass Burning on Ozone and Aerosol
           Concentrations Over the Tibetan Plateau

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      Abstract: Abstract In this work, the influence of South Asian biomass burning emissions on O3 and PM2.5 concentrations over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is investigated by using the regional climate chemistry transport model WRF-Chem. The simulation is validated by comparing meteorological fields and pollutant concentrations against in situ observations and gridded datasets, providing a clear perspective on the spatiotemporal variations of O3 and PM2.5 concentrations across the Indian subcontinent, including the Tibetan Plateau. Further sensitivity simulations and analyses show that emissions from South Asian biomass burning mainly affect local O3 concentrations. For example, contribution ratios were up to 20% in the Indo-Gangetic Plain during the pre-monsoon season but below 1% over the TP throughout the year 2016. In contrast, South Asian biomass burning emissions contributed more than 60% of PM2.5 concentration over the TP during the pre-monsoon season via significant contribution of primary PM2.5 components (black carbon and organic carbon) in western India that were lofted to the TP by westerly winds. Therefore, it is suggested that cutting emissions from South Asian biomass burning is necessary to alleviate aerosol pollution over the TP, especially during the pre-monsoon season.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
       
 
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