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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 112 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 133)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Developments in Atmospheric Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Weather     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Climate law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Mathematics of Climate and Weather Forecasting     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Cryosphere Discussions (TCD)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Climate Summary of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Nīvār     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access  
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access  
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia     Open Access  
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal  

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Climate
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2225-1154
Published by MDPI Homepage  [233 journals]
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 39: The Stationary Concentrated Vortex Model

    • Authors: Oleg Onishchenko, Viktor Fedun, Wendell Horton, Oleg Pokhotelov, Natalia Astafieva, Samuel J. Skirvin, Gary Verth
      First page: 39
      Abstract: A new model of an axially-symmetric stationary concentrated vortex for an inviscid incompressible flow is presented as an exact solution of the Euler equations. In this new model, the vortex is exponentially localised, not only in the radial direction, but also in height. This new model of stationary concentrated vortex arises when the radial flow, which concentrates vorticity in a narrow column around the axis of symmetry, is balanced by vortex advection along the symmetry axis. Unlike previous models, vortex velocity, vorticity and pressure are characterised not only by a characteristic vortex radius, but also by a characteristic vortex height. The vortex structure in the radial direction has two distinct regions defined by the internal and external parts: in the inner part the vortex flow is directed upward, and in the outer part it is downward. The vortex structure in the vertical direction can be divided into the bottom and top regions. At the bottom of the vortex the flow is centripetal and at the top it is centrifugal. Furthermore, at the top of the vortex the previously ascending fluid starts to descend. It is shown that this new model of a vortex is in good agreement with the results of field observations of dust vortices in the Earth’s atmosphere.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9030039
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 40: Observed and Projected Changes in Temperature
           and Precipitation in the Core Crop Region of the Humid Pampa, Argentina

    • Authors: Gabriela V. Müller, Miguel A. Lovino, Leandro C. Sgroi
      First page: 40
      Abstract: The core crop region of the Humid Pampa is one of the most productive agricultural lands around the world and depends highly on climate conditions. This study assesses climate variability, climate extremes, and observed and projected climate changes there, using 1911–2019 observations and CMIP5 model simulations. Since 1970, the annual mean temperature has risen by 1 °C and the mean annual minimum and maximum temperatures by 2 and 0.5 °C, respectively. The frequency of warm days and nights increased, and cold days and nights decreased. Heatwaves became longer and more intense, and cold waves decreased with less frost events. Annual precipitation increased by 10% from 1911, mainly in summer, and years with excess precipitation outnumbered those with a deficit. Both intense precipitation events and consecutive dry days grew, suggesting more annual precipitation falling on fewer days. Projections show a warming of 1 ºC by 2035, regardless of the scenario. From then on until 2100, mean temperature will increase by 2 and 3–3.5 °C in the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively. Annual precipitation will grow 8 and 16% from current values by 2100 in the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively. No major precipitation changes are projected in the RCP2.6 scenario.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9030040
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 41: Who Is Responsible for Embodied CO2'

    • Authors: Hans Sanderson
      First page: 41
      Abstract: With the Paris Agreement, countries are obliged to report greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, which will ensure that the global temperature increase is maintained well below 2 °C. The parties will report their nationally determined contributions (NDCs) in terms of plans and progress towards these targets during the postponed COP26 (Conference of the Parties under the UNFCCC) in Glasgow in November 2021. These commitments, however, do not take significant portions of the consumption-related emissions related to countries imports into account. Similarly, the majority of companies that report their emissions to CDP (Formerly Carbon Disclosure Project) also do not account for their embodied value-chain-related emissions. Municipalities, on the path towards carbon neutrality in accordance with the methods outlined by C40, also do not include imported and embodied CO2 in their total emission tallies. So, who is responsible for these emissions—the producer or the consumer' How can we ensure that the NDCs, municipalities’ and companies’ reduction targets share the responsibility of the emissions in the value chain, thus ensuring that targets and plans become sustainable, climate fair, and just in global value chains' Today the responsibility lays with the producer, which is not sustainable. We have the outline for the tools needed to quantify and transparently share the responsibility between producers and consumers at corporate, municipal and national levels based on an improved understanding of the attendant sources, causes, flows and risks of GHG emissions globally. Hybrid life cycle analysis/environmentally extended input–output (LCA/EEIO) models can for example be further developed. This will, in the end, enable everyday consumption to support a more sustainable, green and low carbon transition of our economy.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9030041
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 42: Ecoenergetic Comparison of HVAC Systems in Data
           Centers

    • Authors: Alexandre F. Santos, Pedro D. Gaspar, Heraldo J. L. de Souza
      First page: 42
      Abstract: The topic of sustainability is of high importance today. Global efforts such as the Montreal Protocol (1987) and the Kigali Amendment (2016) are examples of joint work by countries to reduce environmental impacts and improve the level of the ozone layer, the choice of refrigerants and air conditioning systems, which is essential for this purpose. But what indicators are to be used to measure something so necessary' In this article, the types of air conditioning and GWP (Global Warming Potential) levels of equipment in the project phase were discussed, the issue of TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) that measures the direct and indirect environmental impacts of refrigeration equipment and air conditioning and a new methodology for the indicator was developed, the TEWI DC (DC is the direct application for Data Center), and using the formulas of this new adapted indicator it was demonstrated that the TEWI DC for Chicago (USA) was 2,784,102,640 kg CO2/10 years and Curitiba (Brazil) is 1,252,409,640 kg CO2/10 years. This difference in value corresponds to 222.30% higher annual emissions in Chicago than in Curitiba, showing that it is much more advantageous to install a Data Center in Curitiba than in Chicago in terms of environmental impact. The TEWI indicator provides a more holistic view, helping to combine energy and emissions into the same indicator.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9030042
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 43: Synoptic Climatology of Lake-Effect Snow Events
           off the Western Great Lakes

    • Authors: Jake Wiley, Andrew Mercer
      First page: 43
      Abstract: As the mesoscale dynamics of lake-effect snow (LES) are becoming better understood, recent and ongoing research is beginning to focus on the large-scale environments conducive to LES. Synoptic-scale composites are constructed for Lake Michigan and Lake Superior LES events by employing an LES case repository for these regions within the U.S. North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data for each LES event were used to construct synoptic maps of dominant LES patterns for each lake. These maps were formulated using a previously implemented composite technique that blends principal component analysis with a k-means cluster analysis. A sample case from each resulting cluster was also selected and simulated using the Advanced Weather Research and Forecast model to obtain an example mesoscale depiction of the LES environment. The study revealed four synoptic setups for Lake Michigan and three for Lake Superior whose primary differences were discrepancies in a surface pressure dipole structure previously linked with Great Lakes LES. These subtle synoptic-scale differences suggested that while overall LES impacts were driven more by the mesoscale conditions for these lakes, synoptic-scale conditions still provided important insight into the character of LES forcing mechanisms, primarily the steering flow and air–lake thermodynamics.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9030043
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 44: Changes in Frequency and Location of East Coast
           Low Pressure Systems Affecting Southeast Australia

    • Authors: Milton Speer, Lance Leslie, Joshua Hartigan, Shev MacNamara
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Low pressure systems off the southeast coast of Australia can generate intense rainfall and associated flooding, destructive winds, and coastal erosion, particularly during the cool season (April–September). Impacts depend on coastal proximity, strength and latitude. Therefore, it is important to investigate changes in frequency, duration, location, and intensity of these systems. First, an existing observation-based database of these low pressure systems, for 1970–2006, is extended to 2019, focusing on April–September and using archived Australian Bureau of Meteorology MSLP charts. Second, data consistency between 1970 and 2006 and 2007 and 2019 is confirmed. Third, permutation testing is performed on differences in means and variances between the two 25-year intervals 1970–1994 and 1995–2019. Additionally, trends in positions, durations and central pressures of the systems are investigated. p-values from permutation tests reveal statistically significant increases in mean low pressure system frequencies. Specifically, a greater frequency of both total days and initial development days only, occurred in the latter period. Statistically significant lower variance for both latitude and longitude in systems that developed in both subtropical easterly and mid-latitude westerly wind regimes indicate a shift south and east in the latter period. Furthermore, statistically significant differences in variance of development location of explosive low pressure systems that develop in a low level easterly wind regime indicate a shift further south and east. These changes are consistent with fewer systems projected to impact the east coast. Finally, important changes are suggested in the large scale atmospheric dynamics of the eastern Australian/Tasman Sea region.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9030044
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 45: Cooling Energy Use Reduction in Residential
           Buildings in Egypt Accounting for Global Warming Effects

    • Authors: Mohammad Abdollah Fadel Abdollah, Rossano Scoccia, Giulia Filippini, Mario Motta
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Residential and commercial buildings are responsible for almost 50% of the total electricity consumption in Egypt. This percentage is expected to increase due to the global warming effect. This work deals with the cooling energy use reduction strategies for residential buildings compatible with the Egyptian market accounting for the global warming effects. A study in the Egyptian market was done to explore the best available technologies in the Egyptian market. A series of dynamic simulations were executed in each city to optimize the building envelope using the best available technologies to reduce the cooling needs. Financial, energetic and environmental factors were taken into consideration, and comparative analysis was done to assess the best alternatives. The double wall with air gap and insulation on the outside was found to be the best alternative in all the cities. Moreover, simple measures to further reduce the cooling energy need were explored, such as the usage of more efficient lighting and night ventilation. This work led to an average reduction of 40% in the cooling energy needs and CO2 emissions across the three cities, with a maximum discounted payback period down to 6.3 years. Future weather files adapted to climate change were generated, and the selected passive strategies were tested to assess the validity of such strategies in the future. The cooling energy needs are expected to increase by 39%, while the peak cooling loads are also expected to increase by 23% by 2080, rendering the current installed HVAC systems undersized.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9030045
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 46: Climate Services for Renewable Energy in the
           Nordic Electricity Market

    • Authors: Kirsten Halsnæs, Lisa Bay, Per Skougaard Kaspersen, Martin Drews, Morten Andreas Dahl Larsen
      First page: 46
      Abstract: To limit global warming to less than 2 °C requires a low-carbon transition with very large shares of renewables. Options such as wind, solar and hydro are influenced by both short and longer-term weather and climate variability. While still subject to natural and anthropogenic climate forcing and fluctuating energy prices, water reservoirs can dually operate as storage and production facilities and serve to balance the more volatile production capacity from solar and wind. This paper assesses the dynamics and demands of the hydro-dominated Nordic electricity system and market and identifies untapped potential for climate services based on a combination of literature-based research, documented stakeholder needs and data sources on historical and future conditions. A critical need for both improving the appropriateness and reliability of existing climate services and for developing new tailored solutions for a broader group of stakeholders from the renewable energy sector in the Nordics is observed. The quantification of uncertainties related to short-term weather forecasts and longer-term climate predictions is also found to be important for minimizing the financial risk in relation to systems management and to overall investments in renewable energy.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9030046
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 18: A Survey Instrument to Measure Skeptics’
           (Dis)Trust in Climate Science

    • Authors: Dilshani Sarathchandra, Kristin Haltinner
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Existing survey instruments of trust in science and scientists that focus on the general public are potentially insufficient to assess climate skeptics’ perspectives towards climate science. They may miss important aspects of climate science about which skeptics raise concerns, and may not accurately measure climate skeptics’ distrust in climatology. We introduce a new survey instrument developed using data gathered from interviewing 33 self-identified climate change skeptics in Idaho. The survey items capture skeptics’ beliefs regarding climate scientists’ trustworthiness and credibility, their deference to scientific authority, and their perceptions of alienation from the climate science community. We validate our survey instrument using data from an online survey administered to 1000 residents in the U.S. Pacific Northwest who are skeptical of climate change. By employing standard survey design principles, we demonstrate how our new (dis)trust in climate science instrument performs in tandem with well-known predictors of science attitudes and pro-environmentalism.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020018
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 19: Intervention of Climate-Smart Practices in
           Wheat under Rice-Wheat Cropping System in Nepal

    • Authors: Janma Jaya Gairhe, Mandeep Adhikari, Deepak Ghimire, Arun Khatri-Chhetri, Dinesh Panday
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Besides a proper agronomic management followed by Nepalese farmers, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production has been severely affected by changing climate. There are many interventions, including climate-smart practices, to cope with this situation and possibly enhance crop and soil productivity. Field experiments were set up in a randomized complete block design with six treatments (TRT) with four replications in three locations (LOC) during wheat-growing seasons in Nepal from 2014 to 2016. Treatments included (i) Controlled Practice (CP), (ii) Improved Low (IL), (iii) Improved High (IH), (iv) Climate Smart Agriculture Low (CSAL), (v) Climate Smart Agriculture Medium (CSAM), and (vi) Climate Smart Agriculture High (CSAH), whereas those LOC were Banke, Rupandehi and Morang districts. There was a significant main effect of TRT and LOC on grain yield and a significant interactionn effect of TRT × LOC on biomass yield in 2014–2015. About 55.5% additional grain yield was produced from CSAM treatment compared to CP in 2014–2015. Among locations, grain yield was the highest in Banke (3772.35 kg ha−1) followed by Rupandehi (2504.47 kg ha−1) and Morang districts (2504.47 kg ha−1). In 2015–2016, there was a significant interaction effect of TRT × LOC on grain and biomass yields. The highest grain yield was produced from CSAH treatment in Banke district in 2015–2016. Overall, grain yield and other parameters showed a better response with either of the climate-smart interventions (mostly CSAH or CSAM) despite variability in geography, climate, and other environmental factors indicating the potential of climate-smart practices to improve wheat production in southern plains of Nepal.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020019
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 20: Assessing Annual Actual Evapotranspiration
           based on Climate, Topography and Soil in Natural and Agricultural
           Ecosystems

    • Authors: Kleoniki Demertzi, Vassilios Pisinaras, Emanuel Lekakis, Evangelos Tziritis, Konstantinos Babakos, Vassilis Aschonitis
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Simple formulas for estimating annual actual evapotranspiration (AET) based on annual climate data are widely used in large scale applications. Such formulas do not have distinct compartments related to topography, soil and irrigation, and for this reason may be limited in basins with high slopes, where runoff is the dominant water balance component, and in basins where irrigated agriculture is dominant. Thus, a simplistic method for assessing AET in both natural ecosystems and agricultural systems considering the aforementioned elements is proposed in this study. The method solves AET through water balance based on a set of formulas that estimate runoff and percolation. These formulas are calibrated by the results of the deterministic hydrological model GLEAMS (Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems) for a reference surface. The proposed methodology is applied to the country of Greece and compared with the widely used climate-based methods of Oldekop, Coutagne and Turk. The results show that the proposed methodology agrees very well with the method of Turk for the lowland regions but presents significant differences in places where runoff is expected to be very high (sloppy areas and areas of high rainfall, especially during December–February), suggesting that the proposed method performs better due to its runoff compartment. The method can also be applied in a single application considering irrigation only for the irrigated lands to more accurately estimate AET in basins with a high percentage of irrigated agriculture.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020020
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 21: Uncovering Engagement Networks for Adaptation
           in Three Regional Communities: Empirical Examples from New South Wales,
           Australia

    • Authors: Rebecca Cunningham, Brent Jacobs, Thomas G. Measham
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Climate change is a significant challenge for policy makers, planners and communities. While adaptation responses are generally recognised to be place-based, policy processes on adaptation often reside with central (state or national) governments that may be remote from regional communities. In this paper, we contribute to the literature regarding how diverse regional communities engage with planning and policy for climate adaptation, which is important for successful implementation. We adopt a social network analysis (SNA) approach that enables an exploration of the interaction of community networks with policy information. There are limited empirical studies of information sharing about climate adaptation policy through community knowledge networks. One previous study, located in coastal New South Wales, Australia, mapped the community’s knowledge acquisition and diffusion to reveal the underlying network structures that influenced policy engagement pathways. However, further studies are needed to determine how the features of community networks may change with local context (e.g., coastal versus inland). This paper extends previous studies to compare and contrast adaptation knowledge networks in three NSW communities: Shoalhaven (the original coastal study site), Bega (coastal) and Orange (inland). Findings suggest that the presence of a natural resource-dependent industry, local geographies and boundary spanners acting as network knowledge brokers are factors influencing community knowledge flows. The work further demonstrates the utility of SNA to measure knowledge networks that can inform government engagement and communication with communities on climate adaptation policy.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020021
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 22: A Model to Assess Eastern Cottonwood Water Flow
           Using Adjusted Vapor Pressure Deficit Associated with a Climate Change
           Impact Application

    • Authors: Ying Ouyang, Theodor D. Leininger, Heidi Renninger, Emile S. Gardiner, Lisa Samuelson
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Short-rotation woody crops have maintained global prominence as biomass feedstocks for bioenergy, in part due to their fast growth and coppicing ability. However, the water usage efficiency of some woody biomass crops suggests potential adverse hydrological impacts. Monitoring tree water use in large-scale plantations would be very time-consuming and cost-prohibitive because it would typically require the installation and maintenance of sap flux sensors and dataloggers or other instruments. We developed a model to estimate the sap flux of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides. Bartr. ex Marsh.)) grown in bioenergy plantations. This model is based on adjusted vapor pressure deficit (VPD) using Structural Thinking and Experiential Learning Laboratory with Animation (STELLA) software (Architect Version 1.8.2), and is validated using the sap flux data collected from a 4-year-old eastern cottonwood biomass production plantation. With R2 values greater than 0.79 and Nash Sutcliffe coefficients greater than 0.69 and p values < 0.001, a strong agreement was obtained between measured and predicted diurnal sap flux patterns and annual sap flux cycles. We further validated the model using eastern cottonwood sap flux data from Aiken, South Carolina, USA with a good agreement between method predictions and field measurements. The model was able to predict a typical diurnal pattern, with sap flux density increasing during the day and decreasing at night for a 5-year-old cottonwood plantation. We found that a 10% increase in VPD due to climate change increased the sap flux of eastern cottonwood by about 5%. Our model also forecasted annual sap flux characteristics of measured cycles that increased in the spring, reached a maximum in the summer, and decreased in the fall. The model developed here can be adapted to estimate sap flux of other trees species in a time- and cost-effective manner.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020022
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 23: Assessment of Climate-Driven Flood Risk and
           Adaptation Supporting the Conservation Management Plan of a Heritage Site.
           The National Art Schools of Cuba

    • Authors: Stucchi, Bignami, Bocchiola, Del Curto, Garzulino, Rosso
      First page: 23
      Abstract: This work illustrates the contribution of flood risk assessment and adaptation to set up a conservation management plan for a masterpiece of 20th-century architecture. Case study is the iconic complex, internationally known as the National Art Schools of Cuba. It consists of five buildings built in the early 1960s within a park of Habana next to the Caribbean Sea. The path of the river (Rio Quibù) crossing the estate was modified to fit the landscape design. The complex has then been exposed to the risk of flooding. The School of Ballet, located in a narrow meander of the river, slightly upstream of a bridge and partially obstructing the flow, is particularly subject to frequent flash floods from the Rio Quibù, and it needs urgent restoration. Keeping ISA Modern is a project aimed at preserving the Schools complex. Based upon in situ surveys on the Rio Quibù and local area measurements during 2019, numerical modelling, and previous work by the Cuban National Institute of Hydraulic Resources, we pursued a flood risk analysis for the area, and a preliminary analysis of available risk reduction strategies. Using HEC-RAS 2D software for hydraulic modelling, we evaluated the flooded area and the hydraulic conditions (flow depth, velocity) for floods with given return periods. Our results show that SB is a building most subject to flooding, with high levels of risk. Defense strategies as designed by Cuban authorities may include a (new) wall around the School of Ballet and widening of the river channel, with high impact and cost, although not definitive. Temporary, light, permanent, and low cost/impact flood proofing structures may be used with similar effectiveness. We demonstrate that relatively little expensive hydraulic investigation may aid flood modelling and risk assessment in support of conservation projects for historically valuable sites. This may support brainstorming and the selection of (low to high cost) adaptation and risk reduction measures in the coastal areas of Cuba in response to ever increasing extreme storms and sea level rise controlling flood dynamics under transient climate change.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020023
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 24: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Climate in 2020

    • Authors: Climate Editorial Office Climate Editorial Office
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Climate maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...]
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020024
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 25: Climate Vulnerability and Adaptation Challenges
           in Szekszárd Wine Region, Hungary

    • Authors: Buzási
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Wine producers face several challenges regarding climate change, which will affect this industry both in the present and the future. Vulnerability assessments are at the forefront of current climate research, therefore, the present paper has two main aims. First, to assess two components of climate vulnerability regarding the Szekszárd wine region, Hungary; second, to collect and analyze adaptation farming techniques in terms of environmental sustainability aspects. Exposure analyses revealed that the study area will face several challenges regarding intensive drought periods in the future. Sensitivity indicators show the climate-related characteristics of the most popular grapevines and their relatively high level of susceptibility regarding changing climatic patterns. Since both external and intrinsic factors of vulnerability show deteriorating trends, the development of adaptation actions is needed. Adaptation interventions often provide unsustainable solutions or entail maladaptation issues, therefore, an environmental-focused sustainability assessment of collected interventions was performed to avoid long-term negative path dependencies. The applied evaluation methodology pointed out that nature-based adaptation actions are preferred in comparison to using additional machines or resource-intensive solutions. This study can fill the scientific gap by analyzing this wine region for the first time, via performing an ex-ante lock-in analysis of available and widely used adaptation interventions in the viticulture sector.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020025
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 26: Projected Changes in Water Year Types and
           

    • Authors: Minxue He, Jamie Anderson, Elissa Lynn, Wyatt Arnold
      First page: 26
      Abstract: The study explores the potential changes in water year types and hydrological droughts as well as runoff, based on which the former two metrics are calculated in the Central Valley of California, United States, in the 21st century. The latest operative projections from four representative climate models under two greenhouse-gas emission scenarios are employed for this purpose. The study shows that the temporal distribution of annual runoff is expected to change in terms of shifting more volume to the wet season (October–March) from the snowmelt season (April–July). Increases in wet season runoff volume are more noticeable under the higher (versus lower) emission scenario, while decreases in snowmelt season runoff are generally more significant under the lower (versus higher) emission scenario. In comparison, changes in the water year types are more influenced by climate models rather than emission scenarios. When comparing two regions in the Central Valley, the rain-dominated Sacramento River region is projected to experience more wet years and less critical years than the snow-dominated San Joaquin River region due to their hydroclimatic and geographic differences. Hydrological droughts in the snowmelt season and wet season mostly exhibit upward and downward trends, respectively. However, the uncertainty in the direction of the trend on annual and multi-year scales tends to be climate-model dependent. Overall, this study highlights non-stationarity and long-term uncertainty in these study metrics. They need to be considered when developing adaptive water resources management strategies, some of which are discussed in the study.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020026
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 27: Different Countries, Common Support for Climate
           Change Mitigation: The Case of Germany and Poland

    • Authors: Zbigniew Bohdanowicz
      First page: 27
      Abstract: There are numerous studies assessing the influence of individual sociological, political, and demographic factors on attitudes towards climate change. However, there is still a need for a deeper understanding of the reasons behind these attitudes and for research based on results from more than one country. This study empirically examines a range of psychosocial and demographic determinants of support for climate policy (renewable energy, energy efficiency and carbon tax) in Germany and Poland (n = 1969). The results show that the societies of both countries, despite significant differences in income, culture and political stance on climate change, similarly support implementation of climate policies. For both countries valid predictors of support are: awareness, emotional response to climate crisis, sense of control, and belief in effectiveness of solutions; the study also shows predictors relevant in only one country. Factor analysis identified similar dimensions of attitudes toward climate change in both countries. The main findings show that support for climate policy is high in both countries and that the public is ready to accept more ambitious climate goals. Despite the differences between the countries, a coherent climate policy seems justified. The study also shows differences between the countries and provides recommendations for policymakers.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020027
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 28: Prediction of Multi-Scalar Standardized
           Precipitation Index by Using Artificial Intelligence and Regression Models
           

    • Authors: Anurag Malik, Anil Kumar, Priya Rai, Alban Kuriqi
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Accurate monitoring and forecasting of drought are crucial. They play a vital role in the optimal functioning of irrigation systems, risk management, drought readiness, and alleviation. In this work, Artificial Intelligence (AI) models, comprising Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN) and Co-Active Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (CANFIS), and regression, model including Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), were investigated for multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) prediction in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand State, India. The SPI was computed on six different scales, i.e., 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, and 24-month, by deploying monthly rainfall information of available years. The significant lags as inputs for the MLPNN, CANFIS, and MLR models were obtained by utilizing Partial Autocorrelation Function (PACF) with a significant level equal to 5% for SPI-1, SPI-3, SPI-6, SPI-9, SPI-12, and SPI-24. The predicted multi-scalar SPI values utilizing the MLPNN, CANFIS, and MLR models were compared with calculated SPI of multi-time scales through different performance evaluation indicators and visual interpretation. The appraisals of results indicated that CANFIS performance was more reliable for drought prediction at Dehradun (3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month scales), Chamoli and Tehri Garhwal (1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month scales), Haridwar and Pauri Garhwal (1-, 3-, 6-, and 9-month scales), Rudraprayag (1-, 3-, and 6-month scales), and Uttarkashi (3-month scale) stations. The MLPNN model was best at Dehradun (1- and 24- month scales), Tehri Garhwal and Chamoli (24-month scale), Haridwar (12- and 24-month scales), Pauri Garhwal (12-month scale), Rudraprayag (9-, 12-, and 24-month), and Uttarkashi (1- and 6-month scales) stations, while the MLR model was found to be optimal at Pauri Garhwal (24-month scale) and Uttarkashi (9-, 12-, and 24-month scales) stations. Furthermore, the modeling approach can foster a straightforward and trustworthy expert intelligent mechanism for projecting multi-scalar SPI and decision making for remedial arrangements to tackle meteorological drought at the stations under study.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020028
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 29: Impact of the Strong Downwelling (Upwelling) on
           Small Pelagic Fish Production during the 2016 (2019) Negative (Positive)
           Indian Ocean Dipole Events in the Eastern Indian Ocean off Java

    • Authors: Jonson Lumban-Gaol, Eko Siswanto, Kedarnath Mahapatra, Nyoman Metta Nyanakumara Natih, I Wayan Nurjaya, Mochamad Tri Hartanto, Erwin Maulana, Luky Adrianto, Herlambang Aulia Rachman, Takahiro Osawa, Berri Miraz Kholipah Rahman, Arik Permana
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Although researchers have investigated the impact of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) phases on human lives, only a few have examined such impacts on fisheries. In this study, we analyzed the influence of negative (positive) IOD phases on chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentrations as an indicator of phytoplankton biomass and small pelagic fish production in the eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) off Java. We also conducted field surveys in the EIO off Palabuhanratu Bay at the peak (October) and the end (December) of the 2019 positive IOD phase. Our findings show that the Chl-a concentration had a strong and robust association with the 2016 (2019) negative (positive) IOD phases. The negative (positive) anomalous Chl-a concentration in the EIO off Java associated with the negative (positive) IOD phase induced strong downwelling (upwelling), leading to the preponderant decrease (increase) in small pelagic fish production in the EIO off Java.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020029
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 30: Flood Impacts on Dairy Farms in the Bay of
           Plenty Region, New Zealand

    • Authors: Ryan Paulik, Kate Crowley, Nicholas A. Cradock-Henry, Thomas M. Wilson, Ame McSporran
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Flood damage assessments provide critical information for flood hazard mitigation under changing climate conditions. Recent efforts to improve and systemise damage assessments have focused primarily on urban environments with few examples for primary industries such as dairy. This paper explores the adverse consequences of flooding on dairy farms in the Bay of Plenty region, New Zealand. Ex-tropical Cyclone Debbie in April 2017 caused prolonged riverine and surface water flooding on over 3500 hectares of dairy farmland. The event provided an opportunity to develop and apply a participatory approach for collecting information about on-farm flood damage, and both response and recovery actions implemented by dairy farmers. Semi-structured interviews and transect walks with farmers revealed a range of direct and indirect damages to production and capital assets, influenced by duration of inundation, silt deposition and seasonality. Results highlight the need to identify on-farm and off-farm asset interdependencies of dairy farm systems to estimate long-term socio-economic consequences at farm-level. Enhancing dairy farm flood resilience in a changing climate will rely on farm-level response and recovery plans, proactively supported by emergency management agencies, farm service suppliers and support agencies.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020030
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 31: Long-Term Changes of Aquatic Invasive Plants
           and Implications for Future Distribution: A Case Study Using a Tank
           Cascade System in Sri Lanka

    • Authors: Champika S. Kariyawasam, Lalit Kumar, Benjamin Kipkemboi Kogo, Sujith S. Ratnayake
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Climate variability can influence the dynamics of aquatic invasive alien plants (AIAPs) that exert tremendous pressure on aquatic systems, leading to loss of biodiversity, agricultural wealth, and ecosystem services. However, the magnitude of these impacts remains poorly known. The current study aims to analyse the long-term changes in the spatio-temporal distribution of AIAPs under the influence of climate variability in a heavily infested tank cascade system (TCS) in Sri Lanka. The changes in coverage of various features in the TCS were analysed using the supervised maximum likelihood classification of ten Landsat images over a 27-year period, from 1992 to 2019 using ENVI remote sensing software. The non-parametric Mann–Kendall trend test and Sen’s slope estimate were used to analyse the trend of annual rainfall and temperature. We observed a positive trend of temperature that was statistically significant (p value < 0.05) and a positive trend of rainfall that was not statistically significant (p values > 0.05) over the time period. Our results showed fluctuations in the distribution of AIAPs in the short term; however, the coverage of AIAPs showed an increasing trend in the study area over the longer term. Thus, this study suggests that the AIAPs are likely to increase under climate variability in the study area.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020031
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 32: Improving the Indoor Air Quality of Residential
           Buildings During Bushfire Smoke Events

    • Authors: Priyadarsini Rajagopalan, Nigel Goodman
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Exposure to bushfire smoke is associated with acute and chronic health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Residential buildings are important places of refuge from bushfire smoke, however the air quality within these locations can become heavily polluted by smoke infiltration. Consequently, some residential buildings may offer limited protection from exposure to poor air quality, especially during extended smoke events. This paper evaluates the impact of bushfire smoke on indoor air quality within residential buildings and proposes strategies and guidance to reduce indoor levels of particulates and other pollutants. The paper explores the different monitoring techniques used to measure air pollutant and assesses the influence of the building envelope, filtration technologies, and portable air cleaners used to improve indoor air quality. The evaluation found that bushfire smoke can substantially increase the levels of pollutants within residential buildings. Notably, some studies reported indoor levels of PM2.5 of approximately 500µg/m3 during bushfire smoke events. Many Australian homes are very leaky (i.e., >15 ACH) compared to those in countries such as the USA. Strategies such as improving the building envelope will help reduce smoke infiltration, however even in airtight homes pollutant levels will eventually increase over time. Therefore, the appropriate design, selection, and operation of household ventilation systems that include particle filtration will be critical to reduce indoor exposures during prolonged smoke events. Future studies of bushfire smoke intrusion in residences could also focus on filtration technologies that can remove gaseous pollutants.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020032
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 33: The Significance of Scope 3 GHG Emissions in
           Construction Projects in Korea: Using EIA and LCA

    • Authors: Kyeong-tae Kim, Ik Kim
      First page: 33
      Abstract: In Korea, a greenhouse gas (GHG) environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been conducting since 2012, which sets the evaluation procedures and methods for GHG items during the EIA. However, the current EIA on GHG emissions can support wrong decision-making because the evaluation does not consider Scope 3 GHG emissions. Accordingly, this study proposed the life cycle EIA (LCEIA) method to identify changes in GHG emissions that need to be managed by considering Scope 3 GHG emissions in construction projects. The LCEIA method incorporates life cycle CO2 (LCCO2) including Scope 1, Scope, and Scope 3 GHG emissions using the concept of life cycle assessment (LCA) into the scoping step of the EIA process. The case study was conducted using existing EIA on GHG emission and LCEIA methodology for a development project in Gwangyang City. Scenario 1 is defined as an approach that calculates GHG emissions using the existing EIA method, and scenario 2 is also defined as a process using the LCEIA method. Results reveal that Scenario 2, including Scope 3 GHG emissions, had 46.4−51.2% more GHG emissions than Scenario 1. Sensitivity analysis for electricity and liquefied natural gas (LNG) density was also performed. Although the change in the carbon emission factor of electricity had a slightly sensitive effect on the research results, the LNG density was found to be less sensitive. This study believes the importance of switching to an EIA reflecting life cycle carbon dioxide (LCCO2) to calculate the exact amount of GHG emissions for construction work.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020033
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 34: Sharing Lisboa: A Digital Social Market to
           Promote Sustainable and Energy Efficient Behaviours

    • Authors: Catarina C. Rolim, Patrícia Baptista
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Several solutions and city planning policies have emerged to promote climate change and sustainable cities. The Sharing Cities program has the ambition of contributing to climate change mitigation by improving urban mobility, energy efficiency in buildings and reducing carbon emissions by successfully engaging citizens and fostering local-level innovation. A Digital Social Market (DSM), named Sharing Lisboa, was developed in Lisbon, Portugal, supported by an application (APP), enabling the exchange of goods and services bringing citizens together to support a common cause: three schools competing during one academic year (2018/2019) to win a final prize with the engagement of school community and surrounding community. Sharing Lisboa aimed to promote behaviour change and the adoption of energy-saving behaviours such as cycling and walking with the support of local businesses. Participants earned points that reverted to the cause (school) they supported. A total of 1260 users was registered in the APP, collecting more than 850,000 points through approximately 17,000 transactions. This paper explores how the DSM has the potential to become a new city service promoting its sustainable development. Furthermore, it is crucial for this concept to reach economic viability through a business model that is both profitable and useful for the city, businesses and citizens, since investment will be required for infrastructure and management of such a market.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020034
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 35: Interannual Variability of Air Temperature over
           Myanmar: The Influence of ENSO and IOD

    • Authors: Zin Mie Mie Sein, Irfan Ullah, Sidra Syed, Xiefei Zhi, Kamran Azam, Ghulam Rasool
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Myanmar is located in a tropical region where temperature rises very fast and hence is highly vulnerable to climate change. The high variability of the air temperature poses potential risks to the local community. Thus, the current study uses 42 synoptic meteorological stations to assess the spatiotemporal changes in air temperature over Myanmar during 1971–2013. The nonparametric sequential Mann-Kendall (SqMK), linear regression, empirical orthogonal function (EOF), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and composite analysis were used to assess the long-term trends in maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperature series and their possible mechanism over the study region. The results indicate that the trend of Tmax has significantly increased at the rates of 90% in summer season, while the Tmin revealed a substantial positive trend in winter season time series with the magnitude of 30%, respectively. Moreover, during a rapid change of climate (1995‒2013) we observed an air temperature increase of 0.7 °C. The spatial distributions of EOF revealed relatively warmer temperatures over the whole region except the south in the summer; however, a similar pattern can be seen for the rainy season and winter, implying warming in the central part and cooling in the northern and southern parts. Furthermore, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) influence on air temperature over Myanmar is more prevalent than that of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The result implies that the positive phase of the IOD and negative phase of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI; El Niño) events led to the higher temperature, resulting in intense climatic extremes (i.e., droughts and heatwaves) over the target region. Therefore, this study’s findings can help policymakers and decision-makers improve economic growth, agricultural production, ecology, water resource management, and preserving the natural habitat in the target region.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020035
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 36: Does Local Adaptation Impact on the
           Distribution of Competing Aedes Disease Vectors'

    • Authors: Kelly L. Bennett, William Owen McMillan, Jose R. Loaiza
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Ae. (Stegomyia) aegypti L. and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus Skuse mosquitoes are major arboviral disease vectors in human populations. Interspecific competition between these species shapes their distribution and hence the incidence of disease. While Ae. albopictus is considered a superior competitor for ecological resources and displaces its contender Ae. aegypti from most environments, the latter is able to persist with Ae. albopictus under particular environmental conditions, suggesting species occurrence cannot be explained by resource competition alone. The environment is an important determinant of species displacement or coexistence, although the factors underpinning its role remain little understood. In addition, it has been found that Ae. aegypti can be adapted to the environment across a local scale. Based on data from the Neotropical country of Panama, we present the hypothesis that local adaptation to the environment is critical in determining the persistence of Ae. aegypti in the face of its direct competitor Ae. albopictus. We show that although Ae. albopictus has displaced Ae. aegypti in some areas of Panama, both species coexist across many areas, including regions where Ae. aegypti appear to be locally adapted to dry climate conditions and less vegetated environments. Based on these findings, we describe a reciprocal transplant experiment to test our hypothesis, with findings expected to provide fundamental insights into the role of environmental variation in shaping the landscape of emerging arboviral disease.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020036
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 37: A Comparative Analysis of Different Future
           Weather Data for Building Energy Performance Simulation

    • Authors: Mamak P.Tootkaboni, Ilaria Ballarini, Michele Zinzi, Vincenzo Corrado
      First page: 37
      Abstract: The building energy performance pattern is predicted to be shifted in the future due to climate change. To analyze this phenomenon, there is an urgent need for reliable and robust future weather datasets. Several ways for estimating future climate projection and creating weather files exist. This paper attempts to comparatively analyze three tools for generating future weather datasets based on statistical downscaling (WeatherShift, Meteonorm, and CCWorldWeatherGen) with one based on dynamical downscaling (a future-typical meteorological year, created using a high-quality reginal climate model). Four weather datasets for the city of Rome are generated and applied to the energy simulation of a mono family house and an apartment block as representative building types of Italian residential building stock. The results show that morphed weather files have a relatively similar operation in predicting the future comfort and energy performance of the buildings. In addition, discrepancy between them and the dynamical downscaled weather file is revealed. The analysis shows that this comes not only from using different approaches for creating future weather datasets but also by the building type. Therefore, for finding climate resilient solutions for buildings, care should be taken in using different methods for developing future weather datasets, and regional and localized analysis becomes vital.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020037
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 38: Sensitivity of Simulations of Zambian Heavy
           Rainfall Events to the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Schemes

    • Authors: Mary-Jane M. Bopape, David Waitolo, Robert S. Plant, Elelwani Phaduli, Edson Nkonde, Henry Simfukwe, Stein Mkandawire, Edward Rakate, Robert Maisha
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Weather forecasting relies on the use of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, whose resolution is informed by the available computational resources. The models resolve large scale processes, while subgrid processes are parametrized. One of the processes that is parametrized is turbulence which is represented in planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes. In this study, we evaluate the sensitivity of heavy rainfall events over Zambia to four different PBL schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model using a parent domain with a 9 km grid length and a 3 km grid spacing child domain. The four PBL schemes are the Yonsei University (YSU), nonlocal first-order medium-range forecasting (MRF), University of Washington (UW) and Mellor–Yamada–Nakanishi–Niino (MYNN) schemes. Simulations were done for three case studies of extreme rainfall on 17 December 2016, 21 January 2017 and 17 April 2019. The use of YSU produced the highest rainfall peaks across all three cases; however, it produced performance statistics similar to UW that are higher than those of the two other schemes. These statistics are not maintained when adjusted for random hits, indicating that the extra events are mainly random rather than being skillfully placed. UW simulated the lowest PBL height, while MRF produced the highest PBL height, but this was not matched by the temperature simulation. The YSU and MYNN PBL heights were intermediate at the time of the peak; however, MYNN is associated with a slower decay and higher PBL heights at night. WRF underestimated the maximum temperature during all cases and for all PBL schemes, with a larger bias in the MYNN scheme. We support further use of the YSU scheme, which is the scheme selected for the tropical suite in WRF. The different simulations were in some respects more similar to one another than to the available observations. Satellite rainfall estimates and the ERA5 reanalysis showed different rainfall distributions, which indicates a need for more ground observations to assist with studies like this one.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020038
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 7: Sociological Perspectives on Climate Change and
           Society: A Review

    • Authors: Md Saidul Islam, Edson Kieu
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Society is at an important intersection in dealing with the challenges of climate change, and this paper is presented at a critical juncture in light of growing recognition that the natural sciences are insufficient to deal with these challenges. Critical aspects of sociological perspectives related to climate change research are brought together in this review in the hope of fostering greater interdisciplinary collaboration between the natural and social sciences. We fervently argue for the need to inculcate interdisciplinary approaches that can provide innovative perspectives and solutions to the challenges we face from the impacts of climate change. As such, some critical sociological perspectives are addressed, with two objectives: (a) to provide a foundational opening for readers seeking an introductory perspective and potential core contributions of sociological insights on climate change; and (b) to explore opportunities and obstacles that may occur with increased interdisciplinary cooperation and collaboration. We lay out fundamental ideas by assembling a loosely connected body of sociological research, hoping to develop and advance the collaborative research agenda between sociology and other disciplines for the near future.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010007
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 8: Future Hydrology of the Cryospheric Driven Lake
           Como Catchment in Italy under Climate Change Scenarios

    • Authors: Flavia Fuso, Francesca Casale, Federico Giudici, Daniele Bocchiola
      First page: 8
      Abstract: We present an assessment of climate change impact on the hydrology of the Lago di Como lake catchment of Italy. On one side, the lake provides water for irrigation of the Po valley during summer, and on the other side its regulation is crucial to prevent flood risk, especially in fall and winter. The dynamics of lake Como are linked to the complex cryospheric hydrology of its Alpine contributing catchment, which is in turn expected to change radically under prospective global warming. The Poli-Hydro model is used here to simulate the cryospheric processes affecting the hydrology of this high-altitude catchment. We demonstrated the model’s accuracy against historical hydrological observations, available during 2002–2018. We then used four Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios, provided by three Global Circulation Models under the AR6 of IPCC, to project potential climate change until 2100. We thereby derived daily series of rainfall and temperature, to be used as inputs for hydrological simulations. The climate projections here highlight a substantial increase in temperature at the end of the century, between +0.61° and +5.96°, which would lead to a decrease in the total ice volume in the catchment, by −50% to −77%. Moreover, there would be a decrease in the contribution of snow melt to the annual lake inflow, and an increase in ice melt under the worst-case scenarios. Overall, the annual Lake inflows would increase during autumn and winter and would decrease in summer. Our study may provide a tool to help policy makers to henceforth evaluate adaptation strategies in the area.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010008
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 9: Impacts of Global Warming of 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0
           °C on Hydrologic Regimes in the Northeastern U.S.

    • Authors: Ridwan Siddique, Alfonso Mejia, Naoki Mizukami, Richard N. Palmer
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Regional climate change impacts show a wide range of variations under different levels of global warming. Watersheds in the northeastern region of the United States (NEUS) are projected to undergo the most severe impacts from climate change in the forms of extreme precipitation events, floods and drought, sea level rise, etc. As such, there is high possibility that hydrologic regimes in the NEUS may be altered in the future, which can be absolutely devastating for managing water resources and ecological balance across different watersheds. In this study, we present a comprehensive impact analysis using different hydrologic indicators across selected watersheds in the NEUS under different thresholds of global temperature increases (1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 °C). Precipitation and temperature projections from fourteen downscaled Global Circulation Models (GCMs) under the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5 greenhouse gas concentration pathway are used as inputs into a distributed hydrological model to obtain future streamflow conditions. Overall, the results indicate that the majority of the selected watersheds will enter a wetter regime, particularly during the months of winter, while flow conditions during late summer and fall indicate a dry future under all three thresholds of temperature increase. The estimation of time of emergence of new hydrological regimes show large uncertainties under 1.5 and 2.0 °C global temperature increases; however, most of the GCM projections show a strong consensus that new hydrological regimes may appear in the NEUS watersheds under 3.0 °C temperature increase.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010009
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 10: Climate Change and Thermal Comfort in Greece

    • Authors: Harry D. Kambezidis
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Global warming is an environmental issue keeping all nations alert. Under this consideration, the present work investigates the future thermal sensation of the Greek population. Three periods are selected (2021–2050, 2046–2075, 2071–2100) and two Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. Use of Thom’s discomfort index (TDI) is made, which is calculated from air temperature and relative humidity included in typical meteorological years (TMYs) derived for 1985–2014 and future periods (both IPCC scenarios) for 33 locations in Greece. TDI is discriminated into 6 classes. The analysis shows that there is no significant shift from past to future annual mean TDIs in terms of its classification. The same is found for the summer TDI values. Nevertheless, a distribution of the various TDI classes is provided within the TMYs. Maps of annual TDI values are prepared for Greece by using the kriging method; higher values are found in the southern part of Greece and lower values in the northern. Best-fit regression equations derived show the intra-annual TDI variation in all periods. Also, scatter plots of annual TDIs in the future epochs in comparison with the historical period show a linear relationship.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010010
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 11: Increasing Trend on Storm Wave Intensity in the
           Western Mediterranean

    • Authors: Khalid Amarouche, Adem Akpınar
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Annual trends in storm wave intensity over the past 41 years were evaluated during the present study. Storm wave intensity is evaluated in terms of total storm wave energy (TSWE) and storm power index (SPI) of Dolan and Davis (1992). Using an accurate long-term wave hindcast developed using a calibrated SWAN model, all storm wave events occurring over the past 41 years were characterized in terms of significant wave height (Hs) and total storm duration. Thus, both SPI and TSWE was computed for each storm wave event. The Theil–Sen slope estimator was used to estimate the annual slopes of the SPI and TSWE and the Mann–Kendall test was used to test the trend significance with different confidence levels. The present study is spatially performed for the western Mediterranean Sea basin considering 2308 grid points in a regular grid of 0.198° resolution in both directions. Results allow as to define five hotspots covering a large area, experienced a significant increasing slope in both SPI and TSWE (annual maxima and average). The confidence level in this area exceed 95%, with a steep slope between 100 kWh·m−1·year−1 and 240 kWh·m−1·year−1 for annual max TSWE and between 28 m²·h·year−1 and 49 m²·h·year−1 for annual max SPI. Consideration of the present findings is strongly recommended for risk assessment and for sustainable development in coastal and offshore area and to identify areas sensitive to global climate change in the western Mediterranean Sea.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010011
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 12: Flood Vulnerability Analysis in Urban Context:
           A Socioeconomic Sub-Indicators Overview

    • Authors: Velia Bigi, Elena Comino, Magda Fontana, Alessandro Pezzoli, Maurizio Rosso
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Despite indicators-based assessment models for flood vulnerability being a well-established methodology, a specific set of indicators that are universally or widely accepted has not been recognized yet. This work aims to review previous studies in the field of vulnerability analysis in order to overcome this knowledge gap identifying the most accepted sub-indicators of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Moreover, this review aims to clarify the use of the terms of vulnerability and risk in vulnerability assessment. Throughout a three-phase process, a matrix containing all the sub-indicators encountered during the review process was constructed. Then, based on an adaptation of the Pareto diagram, a set of the most relevant sub-indicators was identified. According to the citation count of each sub-indicator, indeed, 33 sub-indicators were chosen to represent the most universally or widely accepted sub-indicators.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010012
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 13: The Influence of Socioeconomic Factors on
           Households’ Vulnerability to Climate Change in Semiarid Towns of Mopani,
           South Africa

    • Authors: Musa Yusuf Jimoh, Peter Bikam, Hector Chikoore
      First page: 13
      Abstract: The changing climate and its current rate, frequency, as well as its life-threatening impacts are undoubtedly abnormal and globally worrisome. Its effects are expected to be severely different across segments of the society. It is disposed to leaving no facet of human endeavor immune, particularly in vulnerable cities of developing countries where there is dearth of empirical studies. For the context-specific nature of climate change impacts and place-based character of vulnerability, this study explores the influence of socioeconomic attributes on household vulnerability in Mopani District northeast of South Africa to provide basis for targeting, formulating, evaluating, and monitoring adaptation policies, programs, and projects. The study adopted a multistage random sampling to draw 500 households from six towns in Mopani District, Limpopo Province. Mixed methods approach was used for data collection, while Household Vulnerability Index (HVI) was estimated using principal component analysis and regressed with socioeconomic attributes. The study reveals that climate is changing with high HVI across selected towns. It further depicted that age and marital status have positive and significant relationships with HVI, while gender and educational levels have inverse and significant relationship with HVI in some towns. The study recommends the need for municipalities to partner with private sector to empower household and mainstream micro level coping strategies in urban planning across the district.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010013
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 14: Excess Mortality in England during the 2019
           Summer Heatwaves

    • Authors: Natasha Rustemeyer, Mark Howells
      First page: 14
      Abstract: There is increasing evidence that rising temperatures and heatwaves in the United Kingdom are associated with an increase in heat-related mortality. However, the Public Health England (PHE) Heatwave mortality monitoring reports, which use provisional death registrations to estimate heat-related mortality in England during heatwaves, have not yet been evaluated. This study aims to retrospectively quantify the impact of heatwaves on mortality during the 2019 summer period using daily death occurrences. Second, using the same method, it quantifies the heat-related mortality for the 2018 and 2017 heatwave periods. Last, it compares the results to the estimated excess deaths for the same period in the PHE Heatwave mortality monitoring reports. The number of cumulative excess deaths during the summer 2019 heatwaves were minimal (161) and were substantially lower than during the summer 2018 heatwaves (1700 deaths) and summer 2017 heatwaves (1489 deaths). All findings were at variance with the PHE Heatwave mortality monitoring reports which estimated cumulative excess deaths to be 892, 863 and 778 during the heatwave periods of 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Issues are identified in the use of provisional death registrations for mortality monitoring and the reduced reliability of the Office for National Statistics (ONS) daily death occurrences database before 2019. These findings may identify more reliable ways to monitor heat mortality during heatwaves in the future.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010014
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 15: Promoting Low-Carbon Tourism through Adaptive
           Regional Certification

    • Authors: Alex Baumber, John Merson, Chris Lockhart Smith
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Climate change is a key issue in sustainable tourism, both in terms of the greenhouse gas emissions generated by the tourism sector and the potential impacts of climate change on tourism-dependent regions. Low-carbon tourism is an emerging paradigm based around emissions reduction by tourism businesses, as well as broader values of adaptation, transition and behavioral change. This article presents the results of a low-carbon tourism case study in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia, where the Low-Carbon Living Program has successfully designed and implemented a low-carbon rating and certification scheme. This scheme covers emissions related to energy, waste and water and is based on regionally-specific data. The program has also succeeded in its aim of using the tourism industry as a catalyst for broader community action, having been expanded to schools and retailers in the case study region. A transferable regional model has been developed that is being adapted for use in new regions under a modular and decentralised program structure. However, questions remain around the impact of the program on participants’ carbon footprints and customer levels over time, as well as the suitability of a common scorecard system to diverse participant types.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010015
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 16: Predicted Future Benefits for an Endemic Rodent
           in the Irano-Turanian Region

    • Authors: Suzanna Meeussen, Anouschka Hof
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Climate change is expected to have an impact on the geographical distribution ranges of species. Endemic species and those with a restricted geographic range may be especially vulnerable. The Persian jird (Meriones persicus) is an endemic rodent inhabiting the mountainous areas of the Irano-Turanian region, where future desertification may form a threat to the species. In this study, the species distribution modelling algorithm MaxEnt was used to assess the impact of future climate change on the geographic distribution range of the Persian jird. Predictions were made under two Representative Concentration Pathways and five different climate models for the years 2050 and 2070. It was found that both bioclimatic variables and land use variables were important in determining potential suitability of the region for the species to occur. In most cases, the future predictions showed an expansion of the geographic range of the Persian jird which indicates that the species is not under immediate threat. There are however uncertainties with regards to its current range. Predictions may therefore be an over or underestimation of the total suitable area. Further research is thus needed to confirm the current geographic range of the Persian jird to be able to improve assessments of the impact of future climate change.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010016
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 17: Impact on Renewable Design Requirements of
           Net-Zero Carbon Buildings under Potential Future Climate Scenarios

    • Authors: Dongsu Kim, Heejin Cho, Pedro J. Mago, Jongho Yoon, Hyomun Lee
      First page: 17
      Abstract: This paper presents an analysis to foresee renewable design requirement changes of net- zero carbon buildings (NZCBs) under different scenarios of potential future climate scenarios in the U.S. Northeast and Midwest regions. A climate change model is developed in this study using the Gaussian random distribution method with monthly temperature changes over the whole Northeast and Midwest regions, which are predicted based on a high greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenario (i.e., the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 8.5). To reflect the adoption of NZCBs potential in future, this study also considers two representative future climate scenarios in the 2050s and 2080s of climate change years in the U.S. Northeast and Midwest regions. An office prototype building model integrates with an on-site photovoltaics (PV) power generation system to evaluate NZCB performance under the climate change scenarios with an assumption of a net-metering electricity purchase agreement. Appropriate capacities of the on-site PV system needed to reach NZCB balances are determined based on the building energy consumption impacted by the simulated climate scenarios. Results from this study demonstrated the emission by electricity consumption increases as moving toward the future scenarios of up to about 25 tons of CO2-eq (i.e., about 14% of the total CO2-eq produced by the electricity energy source) and the PV installation capacity to offset the emission account for the electricity consumption increases significantly up to about 40 kWp (i.e., up to more than 10% of total PV installation capacities) as the different climate scenarios are applied. It is concluded that the cooling energy consumption of office building models would significantly impact GHG emission as future climate scenarios are considered. Consequently, designers of NZCBs should consider high performance cooling energy systems in their designs to reduce the renewable energy generation system capacity to achieve net-zero carbon emission goals.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010017
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 1: Long-Term Changes and Variability of
           Ecologically-Based Climate Indices along an Altitudinal Gradient on the
           Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    • Authors: Tong Guo
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Extreme climate events are typically defined based on the statistical distributions of climatic variables; their ecological significance is often ignored. In this study, precipitation and temperature data from 78 weather stations spanning from 1960 to 2015 on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were examined. Specifically, long-term and altitudinal variability in ecologically relevant climate indices and their seasonal differences was assessed. The results show that indices of daily temperatures greater than 10 °C and 25 °C show positive annual change trends during the growing season (May to September). Indices of daily rainfall greater than 2 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm positively alternate with years both in and around the growing season (May–September, April and October). In contrast, the index of daily snowfall greater than 2 mm shows opposite annual variability. Additionally, a higher altitude significantly leads to fewer days with temperature deviations above 20 °C, except for in October. The three abovementioned rainfall indices present significantly positive variability with increasing altitude during the growing season. In contrast, the snow index shows similar altitudinal changes in the months surrounding the growing season. This study allows us to better cope with the threats of climate change to vulnerable ecosystems.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010001
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 2: Kelvin/Rossby Wave Partition of Madden-Julian
           Oscillation Circulations

    • Authors: Patrick Haertel
      First page: 2
      Abstract: The Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a large-scale convective and circulation system that propagates slowly eastward over the equatorial Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Multiple, conflicting theories describe its growth and propagation, most involving equatorial Kelvin and/or Rossby waves. This study partitions MJO circulations into Kelvin and Rossby wave components for three sets of data: (1) a modeled linear response to an MJO-like heating; (2) a composite MJO based on atmospheric sounding data; and (3) a composite MJO based on data from a Lagrangian atmospheric model. The first dataset has a simple dynamical interpretation, the second provides a realistic view of MJO circulations, and the third occurs in a laboratory supporting controlled experiments. In all three of the datasets, the propagation of Kelvin waves is similar, suggesting that the dynamics of Kelvin wave circulations in the MJO can be captured by a system of equations linearized about a basic state of rest. In contrast, the Rossby wave component of the observed MJO’s circulation differs substantially from that in our linear model, with Rossby gyres moving eastward along with the heating and migrating poleward relative to their linear counterparts. These results support the use of a system of equations linearized about a basic state of rest for the Kelvin wave component of MJO circulation, but they question its use for the Rossby wave component.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010002
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 3: Forest Resource Management and Its
           Climate-Change Mitigation Policies in Taiwan

    • Authors: Wen-Tien Tsai
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Based on high carbon emissions in recent years (i.e., about 11 metric tons in 2018) per capita in terms of carbon dioxide equivalents, Taiwan has actively development greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction action plans. One of the action plans has been to promote afforestation and reforestation in non-forested lands for carbon sequestration. Thus, this paper aims to address the forest resources in Taiwan by using the latest national survey, reporting on an interactive analysis of forest carbon sequestration, GHG emissions, and climate-change mitigation policies. In this regard, the methodology is based on the official websites of forest resources, GHG emissions, and carbon sequestration from the yearbooks, national statistics, and regulations relevant to the mitigation policies in the forestry sector. It is found that Taiwan’s forest area is estimated to be 2.197 million hectares, which corresponds to a total forest stock volume of about 502.0 million cubic meters. During the period of 1990–2018, the change in total carbon sequestration did not vary much (with the exception of 2009), decreasing from 23.4 million metric tons in 1990 to 21.4 million metric tons in 2018. Compared to the total carbon dioxide emissions (i.e., 102.4 million metric tons in 1990 and 282.8 million metric tons in 2018), the contribution to GHG mitigation in the forestry sector shows a declining trend. However, biomass (i.e., wood) carbon sequestration indicates a slight increase from 20.4 million metric tons in 2010 to 20.7 million metric tons in 2018 due to the afforestation policy. Obviously, regulatory policies, based on the Forestry Act and the Greenhouse Gas Reduction & Management Act in 2015, play a vital role in mitigating GHG emissions in Taiwan. The discussion on the regulations is further addressed to highlight climate-change mitigation policies in Taiwan’s forestry sector.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010003
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 4: Determinants of Household-Level Coping
           Strategies and Recoveries from Riverine Flood Disasters: Empirical
           Evidence from the Right Bank of Teesta River, Bangladesh

    • Authors: Md. Sanaul Haque Mondal, Takehiko Murayama, Shigeo Nishikizawa
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Although recurrent floods cause detrimental impact for the people living in riverine floodplains, households are taking up various risks management strategies to deal with them. This paper examined household’s post-disaster coping strategies to respond and recover from riverine floods in 2017. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey from 377 households from the right bank of Teesta River in Bangladesh. Households employed different coping strategies including borrowing money, assets disposal, consumption reduction, temporary migration, and grants from external sources, to cope with flood. Results from logistic regression models suggested that increasing severity of flood reduced households’ consumption. Exposed households were more likely to borrow money. Consumption reduction and temporary migration were mostly adopted by agricultural landless households. Income from nonfarm sources was found to be an important factor influencing household’s decisions on coping. Furthermore, households that recovered from the last flood disaster seek insurance through their own savings and available physical assets, highlighting the role of disaster preparedness in resilient recovery. This study calls for the policy intervention at the household-level to enhance the adaptive capacity of riverine households so that people at risk can cope better and recover from flood disaster using their resources.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010004
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 5: The Agro-Meteorological Caused Famines as an
           Evolutionary Factor in the Formation of Civilisation and History:
           Representative Cases in Europe

    • Authors: Ioannis Charalampopoulos, Fotoula Droulia
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Throughout history, food adequacy has been one of the most critical parameters for the survival of human societies. The prevailing atmospheric conditions have always been recognised as the primary and most uncontrolled factors that determine crop production, both quantitatively and qualitatively. However, this is only a part of the effects chain. In order to assess the magnitude of the potential cultural impacts of weather changes in a region, it is crucial to comprehend the underlying mechanism of successive consequences that relate the proximate causes, which in our case are the adverse Agro-Meteorological Conditions (AMC), to their effects on society. The present study focuses on the analysis of the impacts’ mechanism on human societies. Moreover, several characteristic agro-meteorological events that have led to significant changes in European civilisation are presented as case studies. The results highlight the linkage between weather and its impact on history evolution based on Agro-Meteorological Famine (AMF). The proposed concept and its analysis by the schematic presentation are in corroboration with the documented historical events of European history. Moreover, the presented connections between weather, agricultural production, and society revealed the significant contribution of the short-term adverse weather conditions on the mechanism of the human civilisation evolution.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010005
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 6: Impact of Climate Change on Crop Production and
           Potential Adaptive Measures in the Olifants Catchment, South Africa

    • Authors: Mary Funke Olabanji, Thando Ndarana, Nerhene Davis
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Climate change is expected to substantially reduce future crop yields in South Africa, thus affecting food security and livelihood. Adaptation strategies need to be implemented to mitigate the effect of climate change-induced yield losses. In this paper, we used the WEAP-MABIA model, driven by six CORDEX climate change data for representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5, to quantify the effect of climate change on several key crops, namely maize, soya beans, dry beans, and sunflower, in the Olifants catchment. The study further investigated climate change adaptation such as the effects of changing planting dates with the application of full irrigation, rainwater harvesting, deficit irrigation method, and the application of efficient irrigation devices on reducing the impact of climate change on crop production. The results show that average monthly temperature is expected to increase by 1 °C to 5 °C while a reduction in precipitation ranging between 2.5% to 58.7% is projected for both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 relative to the baseline climate for 1976–2005, respectively. The results also reveal that increased temperature and decreased precipitation during planting seasons are expected to increase crop water requirements. A steady decline in crop yield ranging between 19–65%, 11–38%, 16–42%, and 5–30% for maize, soya beans, dry beans, and sunflower, respectively, is also projected under both RCPs climate change scenarios. The study concludes that adaptation measures such as the integration of changing planting dates with full irrigation application and the use of rainwater harvest will help improve current and future crop production under the impact of climate change.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010006
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 97: Impact of Climate Change on Land Suitability
           for the Optimization of the Irrigation System in the Anger River Basin,
           Ethiopia

    • Authors: Meseret Dawit, Megarsa Olumana Dinka, Olkeba Tolessa Leta, Fiseha Behulu Muluneh
      First page: 97
      Abstract: Evaluating climate change impacts and the suitability of potential land resources is crucial for sustainable irrigated agricultural systems. This study applied a multi-criteria analysis supported by the Geographic Information System (GIS) application to produce irrigation suitability maps for the Anger River basin’s (Ethiopia) irrigation command area to optimize its irrigation system. Six irrigation suitability factors, such as distance to water sources (rivers), slope, land use/land cover, soil texture, drainage, and depth, including climate change impacts, were used. These factors were spatially analyzed using a comparison matrix and overlying the factors with 30 m resolutions to estimate the potential irrigable area. About 40% of the study area was classified as moderately to highly suitable for surface water irrigation systems. Moreover, we found that a large proportion of the study area is suitable for surface irrigation system, suggesting the relevance of implementing an enhanced irrigation system for improving the surface irrigation water productivity of the basin. However, future climate change is predicted to negatively affect the irrigation suitable area due to water scarcity. Therefore, this study provides useful information on the irrigation suitability and potential of the study area that could be used to facilitate the water resource development and food security plans.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-08-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8090097
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 98: Building Coastal Agricultural Resilience in
           Bangladesh: A Systematic Review of Progress, Gaps and Implications

    • Authors: Shilpi Kundu, Mohammad Ehsanul Kabir, Edward A. Morgan, Peter Davey, Moazzem Hossain
      First page: 98
      Abstract: This paper presents the results of a systematic literature review of climate change adaptation and resilience in coastal agriculture in Bangladesh. It explores the existing adaptation measures against climatic stresses. It investigates the extent of resilience-building by the use of these adaptation measures and identifies major challenges that hinder the adaptation process within the country. The review was conducted by following the systematic methods of the protocol of Preferred Items for Systematic Review Recommendations (PRISMA) to comprehensively synthesize, evaluate and track scientific literature on climate-resilient agriculture in coastal Bangladesh. It considered peer-reviewed English language articles from the databases Scopus, Web of Science and Science Direct between the years 2000 and 2018. A total of 54 articles were selected following the four major steps of a systematic review, i.e., identification, screening, eligibility and inclusion. Adaptation measures identified in the review were grouped into different themes: Agricultural adaptation, alternative livelihoods, infrastructure development, technological advancement, ecosystem management and policy development. The review revealed that within the adaptation and resilience literature for coastal Bangladesh, maladaptation, gender imbalance and the notable absence of studies of island communities were gaps that require future research.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-08-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8090098
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 99: Projected Impacts of Climate Change on the
           Protected Areas of Myanmar

    • Authors: Thazin Nwe, Robert J. Zomer, Richard T. Corlett
      First page: 99
      Abstract: Protected areas are the backbone of biodiversity conservation but are fixed in space and vulnerable to anthropogenic climate change. Myanmar is exceptionally rich in biodiversity but has a small protected area system. This study aimed to assess the potential vulnerability of this system to climate change. In the absence of good biodiversity data, we used a spatial modeling approach based on a statistically derived bioclimatic stratification (the Global Environmental Stratification, GEnS) to understand the spatial implications of projected climate change for Myanmar’s protected area system by 2050 and 2070. Nine bioclimatic zones and 41 strata were recognized in Myanmar, but their representation in the protected area system varied greatly, with the driest zones especially underrepresented. Under climate change, most zones will shift upslope, with some protected areas projected to change entirely to a new bioclimate. Potential impacts on biodiversity include mountaintop extinctions of species endemic to isolated peaks, loss of climate specialists from small protected areas and those with little elevational range, and woody encroachment into savannas and open forests as a result of both climate change and rising atmospheric CO2. Myanmar needs larger, better connected, and more representative protected areas, but political, social, and economic problems make this difficult.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-08-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8090099
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 100: Influence of Climate Conditions on the
           Temporal Development of Wheat Yields in a Long-Term Experiment in an Area
           with Pleistocene Loess

    • Authors: Kurt Heil, Anna Lehner, Urs Schmidhalter
      First page: 100
      Abstract: Field experiments were conducted to test different agronomic practices, such as soil cultivation, fertilization, and pest and weed management, in highly controlled plot cultivation. The inter-annual yields and the interpretation of such experiments is highly affected by the variability of climatic conditions and fertilization level. We examined the effect of different climate indices, such as winterkill, late spring frost, early autumn frost, different drought parameters, precipitation-free periods, and heat-related stress, on winter wheat yield. This experiment was conducted in an agricultural area with highly fertile conditions, characterized by a high available water capacity and considerable C and N contents in lower soil depths. Residuals were calculated from long-term yield trends with a validated method (time series autoregressive integrated moving average ARIMA) and these served as base values for the detection of climate-induced, short-term, and inter-annual variations. In a subsequent step, the real yield values were used for their derivations from climate factors. Residuals and real yields were correlated with climate variables in multiple regression of quantitative analyses of the yield sensitivity. The inter-annual variation of yields varied considerably within the observation period. However, the variation was less an effect of the climatic conditions during the main growing time periods, being more of an effect of the prevailing climate conditions in the winter period as well as of the transition periods from winter to the warmer season and vice versa. The high storage capacity of plant available water exerted a remarkable dampening effect on drought-induced effects during the main vegetation periods. Increasing fertilization led to increased susceptibility to drought stress. The results indicate a changed picture of the yield development in these fertile locations.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-08-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8090100
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 101: Analysis of Temperature Change in Uzbekistan
           and the Regional Atmospheric Circulation of Middle Asia During 1961–2016
           

    • Authors: Bakhtiyar M. Kholmatjanov, Yuriy V. Petrov, Temur Khujanazarov, Nigora N. Sulaymonova, Farrukh I. Abdikulov, Kenji Tanaka
      First page: 101
      Abstract: Climate change and shrinking of the Aral Sea have significantly affected the region's temperature variations. Observed interannual changes in Uzbekistan's air temperature compared to the duration of synoptic weather types (SWT) in Middle Asia were analyzed. Nonparametric Mann–Kendall statistical test and climate trends coefficients were used to identify trend characteristics of observed temperature from 1961–2016 to the baseline period of 1961–1990. The results showed increasing temperature trends average to 1 °C in warm and cold half years over Uzbekistan. The 1991–2016 decadal temperature trend ranged from 0.25 °C/decade in the northwest to 0.52 °C/decade in the center, especially pronounced in the oasis and Aral Sea zones. There were also significant changes in the structure of regional SWT. The main difference in the structure of SWT in Middle Asia relative to the baseline period was expressed in a decrease of cold mass invasion duration from 113.4 to 76.1 days and an increase in low-gradient baric field duration from 65.8 to 134.6 days. The process of anthropogenic warming, which began in Uzbekistan in the 1960s of the twentieth century, has accelerated from the mid-1970s with a higher mean annual air temperature than the baseline period's climate normals (1961–1990) and is associated with changes in the regional SWT over Middle Asia.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-09-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8090101
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 9 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 138: The Effect of Statistical Downscaling on the
           Weighting of Multi-Model Ensembles of Precipitation

    • Authors: Adrienne M. Wootten, Elias C. Massoud, Agniv Sengupta, Duane E. Waliser, Huikyo Lee
      First page: 138
      Abstract: Recently, assessments of global climate model (GCM) ensembles have transitioned from using unweighted means to weighted means designed to account for skill and interdependence among models. Although ensemble-weighting schemes are typically derived using a GCM ensemble, statistically downscaled projections are used in climate change assessments. This study applies four ensemble-weighting schemes for model averaging to precipitation projections in the south-central United States. The weighting schemes are applied to (1) a 26-member GCM ensemble and (2) those 26 members downscaled using Localized Canonical Analogs (LOCA). This study is distinct from prior research because it compares the interactions of ensemble-weighting schemes with GCMs and statistical downscaling to produce summarized climate projection products. The analysis indicates that statistical downscaling improves the ensemble accuracy (LOCA average root mean square error is 100 mm less than the CMIP5 average root mean square error) and reduces the uncertainty of the projected ensemble-mean change. Furthermore, averaging the LOCA ensemble using Bayesian Model Averaging reduces the uncertainty beyond any other combination of weighting schemes and ensemble (standard deviation of the mean projected change in the domain is reduced by 40–50 mm). The results also indicate that it is inappropriate to assume that a weighting scheme derived from a GCM ensemble matches the same weights derived using a downscaled ensemble.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120138
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 139: Modeling the Impacts of Climate Change on Crop
           Yield and Irrigation in the Monocacy River Watershed, USA

    • Authors: Manashi Paul, Sijal Dangol, Vitaly Kholodovsky, Amy R. Sapkota, Masoud Negahban-Azar, Stephanie Lansing
      First page: 139
      Abstract: Crop yield depends on multiple factors, including climate conditions, soil characteristics, and available water. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of projected temperature and precipitation changes on crop yields in the Monocacy River Watershed in the Mid-Atlantic United States based on climate change scenarios. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to simulate watershed hydrology and crop yield. To evaluate the effect of future climate projections, four global climate models (GCMs) and three representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5, 6, and 8.5) were used in the SWAT model. According to all GCMs and RCPs, a warmer climate with a wetter Autumn and Spring and a drier late Summer season is anticipated by mid and late century in this region. To evaluate future management strategies, water budget and crop yields were assessed for two scenarios: current rainfed and adaptive irrigated conditions. Irrigation would improve corn yields during mid-century across all scenarios. However, prolonged irrigation would have a negative impact due to nutrients runoff on both corn and soybean yields compared to rainfed condition. Decision tree analysis indicated that corn and soybean yields are most influenced by soil moisture, temperature, and precipitation as well as the water management practice used (i.e., rainfed or irrigated). The computed values from the SWAT modeling can be used as guidelines for water resource managers in this watershed to plan for projected water shortages and manage crop yields based on projected climate change conditions.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120139
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 140: Climate Change Risk Assessment for Kurunegala,
           Sri Lanka: Water and Heat Waves

    • Authors: Hanna Cho
      First page: 140
      Abstract: Sri Lanka is experiencing various social and environmental challenges, including drought, storms, floods, and landslides, due to climate change. One of Sri Lanka’s biggest cities, Kurunegala, is a densely populated city that is gradually turning into an economic revitalization area. This fast-growing city needs to establish an integrated urban plan that takes into account the risks of climate change. Thus, a climate change risk assessment was conducted for both the water and heat wave risks via discussions with key stakeholders. The risk assessment was conducted as a survey based on expert assessment of local conditions, with awareness surveys taken by residents, especially women. The assessment determined that the lack of drinking water was the biggest issue, a problem that has become more serious due to recent droughts caused by climate change and insufficient water management. In addition, the outbreak of diseases caused by heat waves was identified as a serious concern. Risk assessment is integral to developing an action plan for minimizing the damage from climate change. It is necessary to support education and awareness in developing countries so that they can perform risk assessment well and develop both problem-solving and policy-making abilities to adapt to a changing climate.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120140
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 141: Gains or Losses in Forest Productivity under
           Climate Change' The Uncertainty of CO2 Fertilization and Climate
           Effects

    • Authors: Dominik Sperlich, Daniel Nadal-Sala, Carlos Gracia, Jürgen Kreuzwieser, Marc Hanewinkel, Rasoul Yousefpour
      First page: 141
      Abstract: Global warming poses great challenges for forest managers regarding adaptation strategies and species choices. More frequent drought events and heat spells are expected to reduce growth and increase mortality. Extended growing seasons, warming and elevated CO2 (eCO2) can also positively affect forest productivity. We studied the growth, productivity and mortality of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and fir (Abies alba Mill.) in the Black Forest (Germany) under three climate change scenarios (representative concentration pathways (RCP): RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP8.5) using the detailed biogeochemical forest growth model GOTILWA+. Averaged over the entire simulation period, both species showed productivity losses in RCP2.6 (16–20%) and in RCP4.5 (6%), but productivity gains in RCP8.5 (11–17%). However, all three scenarios had a tipping point (between 2035–2060) when initial gains in net primary productivity (NPP) (6–29%) eventually turned into losses (1–26%). With eCO2 switched off, the losses in NPP were 26–51% in RCP2.6, 36–45% in RCP4.5 and 33–71% in RCP8.5. Improved water-use efficiency dampened drought effects on NPP between 4 and 5%. Tree mortality increased, but without notably affecting forest productivity. Concluding, cultivation of beech and fir may still be possible in the study region, although severe productivity losses can be expected in the coming decades, which will strongly depend on the dampening CO2 fertilization effect.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120141
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 142: Long-Term Trend Analysis in Annual and
           Seasonal Precipitation, Maximum and Minimum Temperatures in the Southwest
           United States

    • Authors: Koffi Djaman, Komlan Koudahe, Ansoumana Bodian, Lamine Diop, Papa Malick Ndiaye
      First page: 142
      Abstract: The objective of this study is to perform trend analysis in the historic data sets of annual and crop season [May–September] precipitation and daily maximum and minimum temperatures across the southwest United States. Eighteen ground-based weather stations were considered across the southwest United States for a total period from 1902 to 2017. The non-parametric Mann–Kendall test method was used for the significance of the trend analysis and the Sen’s slope estimator was used to derive the long-term average rates of change in the parameters. The results showed a decreasing trend in annual precipitation at 44.4% of the stations with the Sen’s slopes varying from −1.35 to −0.02 mm/year while the other stations showed an increasing trend. Crop season total precipitation showed non-significant variation at most of the stations except two stations in Arizona. Seventy-five percent of the stations showed increasing trend in annual maximum temperature at the rates that varied from 0.6 to 3.1 °C per century. Air cooling varied from 0.2 to 1.0 °C per century with dominant warming phenomenon at the regional scale of the southwest United States. Average annual minimum temperature had increased at 69% of the stations at the rates that varied from 0.1 to 8 °C over the last century, while the annual temperature amplitude showed a decreasing trend at 63% of stations. Crop season maximum temperature had significant increasing trend at 68.8% of the stations at the rates varying from 0.7 to 3.5 °C per century, while the season minimum temperature had increased at 75% of the stations.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120142
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 143: Intraseasonal Precipitation Variability over
           West Africa under 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C Global Warming Scenarios: Results
           from CORDEX RCMs

    • Authors: Obed M. Ogega, Benjamin A. Gyampoh, Malcolm N. Mistry
      First page: 143
      Abstract: This study assessed the performance of 24 simulations, from five regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX), in representing spatiotemporal characteristics of precipitation over West Africa, compared to observations. The top five performing RCM simulations were used to assess future precipitation changes over West Africa, under 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C global warming levels (GWLs), following the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5. The performance evaluation and future change assessment were done using a set of seven ‘descriptors’ of West African precipitation namely the simple precipitation intensity index (SDII), the consecutive wet days (CWD), the number of wet days index (R1MM), the number of wet days with moderate and heavy intensity precipitation (R10MM and R30MM, respectively), and annual and June to September daily mean precipitation (ANN and JJAS, respectively). The performance assessment and future change outlook were done for the CORDEX–Africa subdomains of north West Africa (WA-N), south West Africa (WA-S), and a combination of the two subdomains. While the performance of RCM runs was descriptor- and subregion- specific, five model runs emerged as top performers in representing precipitation characteristics over both WA-N and WA-S. The five model runs are CCLM4 forced by ICHEC-EC-EARTH (r12i1p1), RCA4 forced by CCCma-CanESM2 (r1i1p1), RACMO22T forced by MOHC-HadGEM2-ES (r1i1p1), and the ensemble means of simulations made by CCLM4 and RACMO22T. All precipitation descriptors recorded a reduction under the two warming levels, except the SDII which recorded an increase. Unlike the WA-N that showed less frequency and more intense precipitation, the WA-S showed increased frequency and intensity. Given the potential impact that these projected changes may have on West Africa’s socioeconomic activities, adjustments in investment may be required to take advantage of (and enhance system resilience against damage that may result from) the potential changes in precipitation.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120143
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 144: Vulnerability and Risk Factors due to Tropical
           Cyclones in Coastal Cities of Baja California Sur, Mexico

    • Authors: Elvia Aida Marín-Monroy, Víctor Hernández-Trejo, Eleonora Romero-Vadillo, Antonina Ivanova-Boncheva
      First page: 144
      Abstract: Coastal cities have seen an unprecedented growth with regional settlements due to development activities; that is why measures are needed to mitigate risk of adverse events such as tropical cyclones. Baja California Sur, a state known as a relevant ecological and tourist region, includes destinations such as Cabo San Lucas and La Paz, impacted yearly by tropical cyclones, so it is important to design contingency plans and provide available information to the residents. Los Cabos municipality has the highest population growth rate and its inhabitants are more susceptible to adverse events; despite this, there were no indicators of social and ecological vulnerability to risk effects of tropical cyclones. The objective of this research is to calculate the socio-environmental vulnerability of households through an index to identify risk factors. We have obtained a classification according to levels of vulnerability, and the results have shown that 74% of the households are high on the vulnerability scale, 21% of households are moderately vulnerable and only the remaining 5% of households are less vulnerable. In conclusion, the devastating effects of hydrometeorological events were mainly due to a lack of knowledge regarding such events among inhabitants.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120144
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 145: The Spatiotemporal Patterns of Climate
           Asymmetric Warming and Vegetation Activities in an Arid and Semiarid
           Region

    • Authors: Tong Heng, Gary Feng, Ouyang Ying, Xinlin He
      First page: 145
      Abstract: Asymmetric warming was bound to have a major impact on terrestrial ecosystems in arid regions during global warming. Further study was necessary to reveal the spatiotemporal patterns of asymmetric warming in Xinjiang; this study analyzed the climate and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data (2000–2020). The change trends of the day and nighttime warming (DNW), seasonal warming, and the diurnal temperature range in northern Xinjiang (S1) and southern Xinjiang (S2) were determined. The findings indicated that the DNW rate showed a significant (p < 0.05) upward trend, especially in winter. The nighttime warming rate (0.65 °C (decade)−1) was faster than the daytime warming rate (0.4 °C (decade)−1), and the diurnal temperature range between daytime and nighttime exhibited a decreasing trend. The diurnal temperature range was the highest in spring and the lowest in winter. Extreme values of the diurnal temperature range appeared in autumn (48.6 °C) and winter (12.3 °C) and both in S1. The Tmin in S1 had an abruption trend in 2006–2017, the Tmax in S2 had an abruption trend in 2005–2011, and the probability of spatial abruption in S1 was higher than that in S2. The partial correlation between the NDVI and Tmin was significantly higher than that between the NDVI and Tmax in the area where the significance test passed; therefore, asymmetric nighttime warming had a greater impact on the NDVI than the asymmetric daytime warming.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120145
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 146: Long-Term Rainfall Trends and Their
           Variability in Mainland Portugal in the Last 106 Years

    • Authors: Maria Manuela Portela, Luis Angel Espinosa, Martina Zelenakova
      First page: 146
      Abstract: This study addresses the long-term rainfall trends, their temporal variability and uncertainty over mainland Portugal, a small country on the most western European coast. The study was based on monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall series spanning for a period of 106 years, between October 1913 and September 2019 (herein after referred to as global period), at 532 rain gauges evenly distributed over the country (c.a. 6 rain gauges per 1000 km2). To understand the rainfall behavior over time, an initial sub-period with 55 years and a final sub-period with 51 years were also analyzed along with the global period. The trends identification and the assessment of their magnitude were derived using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall (MK) test coupled with the Sen’s slope estimator method. The results showed that after the initial sub-period with prevailing increasing rainfall, the trends were almost exclusively decreasing. They were also so pronounced that they counterbalanced the initial rainfall increase and resulted in equally decreasing trends for the global period. The study also shows that approximately from the late 1960s on, the rainy season pattern has changed, with the last months prior to the dry season showing a sustained decrease of their relative contributions to the annual rainfalls. Overall, the results support the hypothesis of less uncertainty on the pronounced decrease of rainfall over mainland Portugal in recent years, which is expected to continue. They also show that the asymmetry between a less wet North, yet still wet, and an arid South is becoming much more marked.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120146
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 147: Impacts of Agroclimatic Variability on Maize
           Production in the Setsoto municipality in the Free State Province, South
           Africa

    • Authors: Abubakar Hadisu Bello, Mary Scholes, Solomon W. Newete
      First page: 147
      Abstract: The majority of people in South Africa eat maize, which is grown as a rain-fed crop in the summer rainfall areas of the country, as their staple food. The country is usually food secure except in drought years, which are expected to increase in severity and frequency. This study investigated the impacts of rainfall and minimum and maximum temperatures on maize yield in the Setsoto municipality of the Free State province of South Africa from 1985 to 2016. The variation of the agroclimatic variables, including the Palmer stress diversity index (PSDI), was investigated over the growing period (Oct–Apr) which varied across the four target stations (Clocolan, Senekal, Marquard and Ficksburg). The highest coefficients of variance (CV) recorded for the minimum and maximum temperatures and rainfall were 16.2%, 6.2% and 29% during the growing period. Non-parametric Mann Kendal and Sen’s slope estimator were used for the trend analysis. The result showed significant positive trends in minimum temperature across the stations except for Clocolan where a negative trend of 0.2 to 0.12 °C year−1 was observed. The maximum temperature increased significantly across all the stations by 0.04–0.05 °C year−1 during the growing period. The temperature effects were most noticeable in the months of November and February when leaf initiation and kernel filling occur, respectively. The changes in rainfall were significant only in Ficksburg in the month of January with a value of 2.34 mm year−1. Nevertheless, the rainfall showed a strong positive correlation with yield (r 0.46, p = < 0.05). The overall variation in maize production is explained by the contribution of the agroclimatic parameters; the minimum temperature (R2 0.13–0.152), maximum temperature (R2 0.214–0.432) and rainfall (R2 0.17–0.473) for the growing period across the stations during the study period. The PSDI showed dry years and wet years but with most of the years recording close to normal rainfall. An increase in both the minimum and maximum temperatures over time will have a negative impact on crop yield.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120147
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 148: Evaluation of Daily Precipitation from the
           ERA5 Global Reanalysis against GHCN Observations in the Northeastern
           United States

    • Authors: Caitlin C. Crossett, Alan K. Betts, Lesley-Ann L. Dupigny-Giroux, Arne Bomblies
      First page: 148
      Abstract: Precipitation is a primary input for hydrologic, agricultural, and engineering models, so making accurate estimates of it across the landscape is critically important. While the distribution of in-situ measurements of precipitation can lead to challenges in spatial interpolation, gridded precipitation information is designed to produce a full coverage product. In this study, we compare daily precipitation accumulations from the ERA5 Global Reanalysis (hereafter ERA5) and the US Global Historical Climate Network (hereafter GHCN) across the northeastern United States. We find that both the distance from the Atlantic Coast and elevation difference between ERA5 estimates and GHCN observations affect precipitation relationships between the two datasets. ERA5 has less precipitation along the coast than GHCN observations but more precipitation inland. Elevation differences between ERA5 and GHCN observations are positively correlated with precipitation differences. Isolated GHCN stations on mountain peaks, with elevations well above the ERA5 model grid elevation, have much higher precipitation. Summer months (June, July, and August) have slightly less precipitation in ERA5 than GHCN observations, perhaps due to the ERA5 convective parameterization scheme. The heavy precipitation accumulation above the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentile thresholds are very similar for ERA5 and the GHCN. We find that daily precipitation in the ERA5 dataset is comparable to GHCN observations in the northeastern United States and its gridded spatial continuity has advantages over in-situ point precipitation measurements for regional modeling applications.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120148
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 149: Local Institutions and Climate Change
           Adaptation: Appraising Dysfunctional and Functional Roles of Local
           Institutions from the Bilate Basin Agropastoral Livelihood Zone of Sidama,
           Southern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Firew Bekele, Degefa Tolossa, Teshale Woldeamanuel
      First page: 149
      Abstract: This study aimed to appraise the role of local institutions in adaptation to changing climate at the local level in the Bilate Basin Agropastoral Livelihood Zone of Ethiopia. Thirty-one years of climate data were analyzed by employing the Mann–Kendall trend and Sen’s slope test techniques. The survey was conducted on 400 households that were systematically randomized from 7066 households, while community-level data were collected through the participatory rural appraisal (PRA) technique. The entire analysis was framed by a tetragonal model. The results of the analysis indicated that temperature exhibited a significantly increasing trend, while rainfall, which is statistically related to temperature, showed a decreasing trend, resulting in lingering droughts and human and animal diseases. Major livestock declined by 69%. As a response, while Sidama indigenous institutions were well-functioning and nurtured through local knowledge, and the governmental and civic ones were entrenched with various limitations. Contextual fitness and compatibility, interplay, inclusiveness, and sustainability of their operations in temporal and spatial scales were some of their limitations. Therefore, federal and local governments should focus on monitoring, evaluating, and learning aspects of their grand strategies, review general education, farmers’ credit, and civic institutions’ governance policies and strengthen the synergy of civic, government, and indigenous institutions.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120149
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 150: Modeling the Soil Response to Rainstorms after
           Wildfire and Prescribed Fire in Mediterranean Forests

    • Authors: Manuel Esteban Lucas-Borja, Giuseppe Bombino, Bruno Gianmarco Carrà, Daniela D’Agostino, Pietro Denisi, Antonino Labate, Pedro Antonio Plaza-Alvarez, Demetrio Antonio Zema
      First page: 150
      Abstract: The use of the Soil Conservation Service-curve number (SCS-CN) model for runoff predictions after rainstorms in fire-affected forests in the Mediterranean climate is quite scarce and limited to the watershed scale. To validate the applicability of this model in this environment, this study has evaluated the runoff prediction capacity of the SCS-CN model after storms at the plot scale in two pine forests of Central-Eastern Spain, affected by wildfire (with or without straw mulching) or prescribed fire and in unburned soils. The model performance has been compared to the predictions of linear regression equations between rainfall depth and runoff volume. The runoff volume was simulated with reliability by the linear regression only for the unburned soil (coefficient of Nash and Sutcliffe E = 0.73–0.89). Conversely, the SCS-CN model was more accurate for burned soils (E = 0.81–0.97), also when mulching was applied (E = 0.96). The performance of this model was very satisfactory in predicting the maximum runoff. Very low values of CNs and initial abstraction were required to predict the particular hydrology of the experimental areas. Moreover, the post-fire hydrological “window-of-disturbance” could be reproduced only by increasing the CN for the storms immediately after the wildfire. This study indicates that, in Mediterranean forests subject to the fire risk, the simple linear equations are feasible to predict runoff after low-intensity storms, while the SCS-CN model is advisable when runoff predictions are needed to control the flooding risk.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120150
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 121: Trends of Climate Change and Variability in
           Three Agro-Ecological Settings in Central Ethiopia: Contrasts of
           Meteorological Data and Farmers’ Perceptions

    • Authors: Dula Etana, Denyse J. R. M. Snelder, Cornelia F. A. van Wesenbeeck, Tjard de Cock Buning
      First page: 121
      Abstract: Using gridded daily temperature and rainfall data covering 30 years (1988–2017), this study investigates trends in rainfall, temperature, and extreme events in three agro-ecological settings in central Ethiopia. The Mann Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimator were used to examine the trends and slope of changes in climate indices. The profile of farmers whose perception converges with or diverges from meteorological data was characterized using polling. The average annual temperature has increased by 0.4 and 0.3 °C per decade in the lowland and midland areas, respectively. Average annual rainfall has increased only in the midland areas by 178 mm per decade. Farmers’ perception of increasing temperature fairly aligns with meteorological data. However, there is a noticeable difference between farmers’ perception of rainfall and meteorological data. The perception of farmers with poor economic status, access to media, and higher social capital aligns with measured trends. Conversely, the perception of economically better-off and uneducated farmers diverges from meteorological data. Accurate perception is constrained by the failure of the traditional forecast methods to describe complex weather variabilities and lack of access to down-scaled weather information. The findings highlight the importance of availing specific and agro-ecologically relevant weather forecasts to overcome perceptual problems and to support effective adaptation.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110121
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 122: SI: Survivability under Overheating: The
           Impact of Regional and Global Climate Change on the Vulnerable and
           Low-Income Population

    • Authors: Synnefa, Haddad, Rajagopalan, Santamouris
      First page: 122
      Abstract: The present special issue discusses three significant challenges of the built environment, namely regional and global climate change, vulnerability, and survivability under the changing climate. Synergies between local climate change, energy consumption of buildings and energy poverty, and health risks highlight the necessity to develop mitigation strategies to counterbalance overheating impacts. The studies presented here assess the underlying issues related to urban overheating. Further, the impacts of temperature extremes on the low-income population and increased morbidity and mortality have been discussed. The increasing intensity, duration, and frequency of heatwaves due to human-caused climate change is shown to affect underserved populations. Thus, housing policies on resident exposure to intra-urban heat have been assessed. Finally, opportunities to mitigate urban overheating have been proposed and discussed.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110122
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 123: How Do Floods and Drought Impact Economic
           Growth and Human Development at the Sub-National Level in India'

    • Authors: Upali Amarasinghe, Giriraj Amarnath, Niranga Alahacoon, Surajit Ghosh
      First page: 123
      Abstract: This paper tries to shift the focus of research on the impact of natural disasters on economic growth from global and national levels to sub-national levels. Inadequate sub-national level information is a significant lacuna for planning spatially targeted climate change adaptation investments. A fixed-effect panel regression analyses of 19 states from 2001 to 2015 assess the impacts of exposure to floods and droughts on the growth of gross state domestic product (GSDP) and human development index (HDI) in India. The flood and drought exposure are estimated using satellite data. The 19 states comprise 95% of the population and contribute 93% to the national GDP. The results show that floods indeed expose a large area, but droughts have the most significant impacts at the sub-national level. The most affected GSDPs are in the non-agriculture sectors, positively by the floods and negatively by droughts. No significant influence on human development may be due to substantial investment on mitigation of flood and drought impacts and their influence on better income, health, and education conditions. Because some Indian states still have a large geographical area, profiling disasters impacts at even smaller sub-national units such as districts can lead to effective targeted mitigation and adaptation activities, reduce shocks, and accelerate income growth and human development.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-10-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110123
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 124: Soil Carbon Sequestration Potential of
           Climate-Smart Villages in East African Countries

    • Authors: Gebermedihin Ambaw, John W. Recha, Abebe Nigussie, Dawit Solomon, Maren Radeny
      First page: 124
      Abstract: Climate-Smart Villages (CSVs) were established by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) in the East African countries of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda to test and promote a portfolio of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) practices that have climate change mitigation potential. This study evaluated the soil carbon sequestration potential of these CSVs compared to the control land use that did not have CSA practices. At the one-meter depth, soil carbon stocks increased by 20–70%, 70–86%, and 51–110% in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda CSVs, respectively, compared to control. Consequently, CSVs contributed to the reduction of emissions by 87–420 Mg CO2 eq ha−1. In the topsoil (0–15 cm), CSVs sequestered almost twice more soil carbon than the control and subsequently emissions were reduced by 42–158 Mg CO2 eq ha−1 under CSVs. The annual increase in carbon sequestration under CSVs ranged between 1.6 and 6.2 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 and substantially varied between the CSA land use types. The forests sequestered the highest soil carbon (5–6 Mg C ha−1 yr−1), followed by grasslands and croplands. The forest topsoil also had lower bulk density compared to the control. The findings suggest that CSA practices implemented through the CSVs approach contribute to climate change mitigation through soil carbon sequestration.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-10-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110124
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 125: Impact of Climate Change on the Energy and
           Comfort Performance of nZEB: A Case Study in Italy

    • Authors: Serena Summa, Luca Tarabelli, Giulia Ulpiani, Costanzo Di Perna
      First page: 125
      Abstract: Climate change is posing a variety of challenges in the built realm. Among them is the change in future energy consumption and the potential decay of current energy efficient paradigms. Indeed, today’s near-zero Energy buildings (nZEBs) may lose their virtuosity in the near future. The objective of this study is to propose a methodology to evaluate the change in yearly performance between the present situation and future scenarios. Hourly dynamic simulations are performed on a residential nZEB located in Rome, built in compliance with the Italian legislation. We compare the current energy consumption with that expected in 2050, according to the two future projections described in the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Implications for thermal comfort are further investigated by assuming no heating and cooling system, and by tracking the free-floating operative temperature. Compared to the current weather conditions, the results reveal an average temperature increase of 3.4 °C and 3.9 °C under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, estimated through ERA-Interim/UrbClim. This comes at the expense of a 47.8% and 50.3% increase in terms of cooling energy needs, and a 129.5% and 185.8% decrease in terms of heating needs. The annual power consumption experiences an 18% increase under both scenarios due to (i) protracted activation of the air conditioning system and (ii) enhanced peak power requirements. A 6.2% and 5.1% decrease in the hours of adaptive comfort is determined under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5′s 2050 scenarios out of the concerted action of temperature and solar gains. The results for a newly proposed combined index for long-term comfort assessments reveal a milder future penalty, owing to less pronounced excursions and milder daily temperature swings.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110125
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 126: Urban Overheating and Cooling Potential in
           Australia: An Evidence-Based Review

    • Authors: Komali Yenneti, Lan Ding, Deo Prasad, Giulia Ulpiani, Riccardo Paolini, Shamila Haddad, Mattheos Santamouris
      First page: 126
      Abstract: Cities in Australia are experiencing unprecedented levels of urban overheating, which has caused a significant impact on the country’s socioeconomic environment. This article provides a comprehensive review on urban overheating, its impact on health, energy, economy, and the heat mitigation potential of a series of strategies in Australia. Existing studies show that the average urban heat island (UHI) intensity ranges from 1.0 °C to 13.0 °C. The magnitude of urban overheating phenomenon in Australia is determined by a combination of UHI effects and dualistic atmospheric circulation systems (cool sea breeze and hot desert winds). The strong relation between multiple characteristics contribute to dramatic fluctuations and high spatiotemporal variabilities in urban overheating. In addition, urban overheating contributes to serious impacts on human health, energy costs, thermal comfort, labour productivity, and social behaviour. Evidence suggest that cool materials, green roofs, vertical gardens, urban greenery, and water-based technologies can significantly alleviate the UHI effect, cool the ambient air, and create thermally balanced cities. Urban greenery, especially trees, has a high potential for mitigation. Trees and hedges can reduce the average maximum UHI by 1.0 °C. The average maximum mitigation performance values of green roofs and green walls are 0.2 °C and 0.1 °C, respectively. Reflective roofs and pavements can reduce the average maximum UHI by 0.3 °C. In dry areas, water has a high cooling potential. The average maximum cooling potential using only one technology is 0.4 °C. When two or more technologies are used at the same time, the average maximum UHI drop is 1.5 °C. The mitigation strategies identified in this article can help the governments and other stakeholders manage urban heating in the natural and built environment, and save health, energy, and economic costs.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110126
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 127: Modelling Maize Yield and Water Requirements
           under Different Climate Change Scenarios

    • Authors: Oludare Sunday Durodola, Khaldoon A. Mourad
      First page: 127
      Abstract: African countries such as Nigeria are anticipated to be more susceptible to the impacts of climate change due to large dependence on rainfed agriculture and to several uncertainties in the responses of crop production to climate change. The impacts of climate change on crop water requirements (CWR), irrigation water requirements (IWR), yields and crop water productivity (CWP) of rainfed maize in Ogun-Osun River Basin, Nigeria were evaluated for a baseline period (1986–2015) and future projection period (2021–2099) under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. For the baseline period, there is no significant trend within the variables studied. However, IWR is projected to increase significantly by up to 140% in the future period, while yield might likely decline under both scenarios up to −12%. This study shows that in the future periods, supplemental irrigation has little impact in improving yields, but an increase in soil fertility can improve yields and CWP by up to 80% in 2099. This paper offers useful information on suitable adaptation measures which could be implemented by stakeholders and policymakers to counterbalance the effects of climate change on crop production.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110127
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 128: Global-Scale Synchronization in the
           Meteorological Data: A Vectorial Analysis That Includes Higher-Order
           Differences

    • Authors: Hayata
      First page: 128
      Abstract: To examine the evidence of global warming, in recent years, there has been a growing interest in the statistical analysis of time-dependent meteorological data. In this paper, for 116 observational stations in the world, sequential variations of the monthly distributions of meteorological data are analyzed vectorially. For specific monthly data, temperatures and precipitations are chosen, both of which are averaged over three decades. Climate change can be revealed through the intersecting angle between two 33-dimensional vectors being composed with monthly mean values. Subsequently, the angle data for the entire stations are analyzed statistically and compared between the former (1931–1980) and the latter (1951–2010) periods. Irrespective of the period and the hemisphere, the variation of the angles is found to show the exponential growth as a function of their latitudes. Furthermore, consistent with other studies, this trend is shown to become stronger in the latter period, indicating that the so-called snow/ice-albedo feedback occurs. In contrast to the temperatures, for the precipitations, no significant correlation is found between the angle and the latitude. To examine the albedo effect in more detail, a regional analysis for 75 stations in Japan is carried out as well. Numerical results show that the effect is significant even for the relatively narrow latitudinal range (19%) of the hemisphere. Finally, a synchronization of the monthly patterns of temperatures is given between the northern district of Japan and both North America and Eastern Europe.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110128
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 129: Forecasting Intense Cut-Off Lows in South
           Africa Using the 4.4 km Unified Model

    • Authors: Tshimbiluni Percy Muofhe, Hector Chikoore, Mary-Jane Morongwa Bopape, Nthaduleni Samuel Nethengwe, Thando Ndarana, Gift Tshifhiwa Rambuwani
      First page: 129
      Abstract: Mid-tropospheric cut-off low (COL) pressure systems are linked to severe weather, heavy rainfall and extreme cold conditions over South Africa. They occur during all the above and often result in floods and snowfalls during the winter months, disrupting economic activities and causing extensive damage to infrastructure. This paper examines the evolution and circulation patterns associated with cases of severe COLs over South Africa. We evaluate the performance of the 4.4 km Unified Model (UM) which is currently used operationally by the South African Weather Service (SAWS) to simulate daily rainfall. Circulation variables and precipitation simulated by the UM were compared against European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast’s (ECMWF’s) ERA Interim re-analyses and GPM precipitation at 24-hour timesteps. We present five recent severe COLs, which occurred between 2016 and 2019, that had high impact and found a higher model skill when simulating heavy precipitation during the initial stages than the dissipating stages of the systems. A key finding was that the UM simulated the precipitation differently during the different stages of development and location of the systems. This is mainly due to inaccurate placing of COL centers. Understanding the performance and limitations of the UM model in simulating COL characteristics can benefit severe weather forecasting and contribute to disaster risk reduction in South Africa.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110129
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 130: Antarctic Winds: Pacemaker of Global Warming,
           Global Cooling, and the Collapse of Civilizations

    • Authors: W. Jackson Davis, W. Barton Davis
      First page: 130
      Abstract: We report a natural wind cycle, the Antarctic Centennial Wind Oscillation (ACWO), whose properties explain milestones of climate and human civilization, including contemporary global warming. We explored the wind/temperature relationship in Antarctica over the past 226 millennia using dust flux in ice cores from the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) Dome C (EDC) drill site as a wind proxy and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in ice cores from EDC and ten additional Antarctic drill sites as temperature proxies. The ACWO wind cycle is coupled 1:1 with the temperature cycle of the Antarctic Centennial Oscillation (ACO), the paleoclimate precursor of the contemporary Antarctic Oscillation (AAO), at all eleven drill sites over all time periods evaluated. Such tight coupling suggests that ACWO wind cycles force ACO/AAO temperature cycles. The ACWO is modulated in phase with the millennial-scale Antarctic Isotope Maximum (AIM) temperature cycle. Each AIM cycle encompasses several ACWOs that increase in frequency and amplitude to a Wind Terminus, the last and largest ACWO of every AIM cycle. This historic wind pattern, and the heat and gas exchange it forces with the Southern Ocean (SO), explains climate milestones including the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age. Contemporary global warming is explained by venting of heat and carbon dioxide from the SO forced by the maximal winds of the current positive phase of the ACO/AAO cycle. The largest 20 human civilizations of the past four millennia collapsed during or near the Little Ice Age or its earlier recurrent homologs. The Eddy Cycle of sunspot activity oscillates in phase with the AIM temperature cycle and therefore may force the internal climate cycles documented here. Climate forecasts based on the historic ACWO wind pattern project imminent global cooling and in ~4 centuries a recurrent homolog of the Little Ice Age. Our study provides a theoretically-unified explanation of contemporary global warming and other climate milestones based on natural climate cycles driven by the Sun, confirms a dominant role for climate in shaping human history, invites reconsideration of climate policy, and offers a method to project future climate.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110130
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 131: Urban Morphological Controls on Surface
           Thermal Dynamics: A Comparative Assessment of Major European Cities with a
           Focus on Athens, Greece

    • Authors: Ilias Agathangelidis, Constantinos Cartalis, Mat Santamouris
      First page: 131
      Abstract: Variations in urban form lead to the development of distinctive intra-urban surface thermal patterns. Previous assessment of the relation between urban structure and satellite-based Land Surface Temperature (LST) has generally been limited to single-city cases. Here, examining 25 European cities (June–August 2017), we estimated the statistical association between surface parameters—the impervious fraction (λimp), the building fraction (λb), and the building height (H)—and the neighborhood scale (1000 × 1000 m) LST variations, as captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Correlation analysis, multiple linear regression, and spatial regression were used. As expected, λimp had a consistent positive influence on LSTs. In contrast, the relation of LST with λb and H was generally weaker or negative in the daytime, whereas at night it shifted to a robust positive effect. In particular, daytime LSTs of densely built, high-rise European districts tended to have lower values. This was especially the case for the city of Athens, Greece, where a more focused analysis was conducted, using further surface parameters and the Local Climate Zone (LCZ) scheme. For the urban core of the city, the canyon aspect ratio H/W had a statistically significant (p <0.01) negative relationship with LST by day (Spearman’s rho = −0.68) and positive during nighttime (rho = 0.45). The prevailing intra-urban surface thermal variability in Athens was well reproduced by a 5-day numerical experiment using the meteorological Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) model and a modified urban parameterization scheme. Although the simulation resulted in some systematic errors, the overall accuracy of the model was adequate, regarding the surface temperature (RMSE = 2.4 K) and the near-surface air temperature (RMSE = 1.7 K) estimations.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110131
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 132: The Role of Mitigation Options for Achieving a
           Low-Carbon Economy in the Netherlands in 2050 Using a System Dynamics
           Modelling Approach

    • Authors: Linderhof, Dekkers, Polman
      First page: 132
      Abstract: To reach a low-carbon economy in the Netherlands, the level of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions has to be reduced by 80–95% CO2 emissions compared to 1990 (223.1 MtCO2-equivalents). This study aims to address how investment subsidies combined with carbon levies could be deployed to support technological mitigation options to achieve a low-carbon economy in the Netherlands in 2050. A system dynamic model has been built including demographic-economic, energy and environmental sub-systems of the Netherlands. The model has been validated with earlier projections of the EU for the energy and climate policy in 2050. Next to the business-as-usual scenario, there are four policy scenarios simulated from 2010 to 2050. In all policy scenarios a carbon levy was imposed on non-renewable energy to finance subsidies on mitigation options. Results show that imposing subsidies on the mitigation option renewable energy is most effective in combination with the carbon levy.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110132
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 133: Using AnnAGNPS to Simulate Runoff, Nutrient,
           and Sediment Loads in an Agricultural Catchment with an On-Farm Water
           Storage System

    • Authors: Juan D. Pérez-Gutiérrez, Joel O. Paz, Mary Love M. Tagert, Lindsey M. W. Yasarer, Ronald L. Bingner
      First page: 133
      Abstract: On-farm water storage (OFWS) systems are best management practices that consist of a tailwater recovery (TWR) ditch used with a storage pond to provide irrigation water and improve downstream water quality. These systems have been increasingly implemented in the southeastern US, but the individual and cumulative effects of these systems on a watershed scale are unknown. In this study, the runoff, nutrient, and sediment loads entering a TWR ditch in an agricultural catchment were quantified, and contributing sources were identified using the annualized agricultural non-point source (AnnAGNPS) model. Fields with larger areas and soils with a high runoff potential produced more runoff. The volume of runoff exceeded the TWR ditch storage volume approximately 110 times, mostly during the winter and spring seasons. During years when corn and winter wheat were planted, NO3–N loads increased because these crops need nitrogen fertilization to grow. Planting winter wheat in priority subwatersheds reduced the total phosphorous (TP) and sediment loads by about 19% and 13%, respectively, at the TWR ditch inlet. Planting winter wheat can reduce runoff, TP, and sediment loads but also result in higher NO3–N loads. AnnAGNPS simulations quantified the benefits of an OFWS system to advance the understanding of their impact on water availability and quality at a watershed scale.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110133
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 134: Adaptation to Climate Change Effects on Water
           Resources: Understanding Institutional Barriers in Nigeria

    • Authors: Ojo Sola, Henry Mensah, Eike Albrecht, Bachar Ibrahim
      First page: 134
      Abstract: Climate Change (CC) and variability are global issues that the world has been facing for a long time. Given the recent catastrophic events, such as flooding, erosion, and drought in Nigeria, many have questioned institutions’ capacity in managing CC impacts in Nigeria. This study explores emerging institutional barriers of adaptation to CC effects on water resources in Nigeria. The study data were obtained from in-depth interviews with institutional heads from water resources management and emergency management and a review of secondary literature from databases such as Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science. The results show that inadequate hydrological data management, low awareness on how to adapt among the public and decision-makers, financial constraints, no political will to pass important bills into law, and inadequate institutional and legal framework are the main institutional barriers of adaptation to climate change in Nigeria. The study concludes that it is essential to strengthen the institutional and legal system, information management mechanism, public awareness, and participatory water resources management. The implications for further research are presented in the study.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110134
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 135: Exploring Associations between Attitudes
           Towards Climate Change and Motivational Human Values

    • Authors: Narcisa Maria Oliveira Carvalho Dias, Diogo Guedes Vidal, Hélder Fernando Pedrosa e Sousa, Maria Alzira Pimenta Dinis, Ângela Leite
      First page: 135
      Abstract: Climate change (CC) represents a global challenge for humanity. It is known that the impacts of anthropogenic actions are an unequivocal contribution to environmental issues aggravation. Human values are recognized as psychological constructs that guide people in their attitudes and actions in different areas of life, and the promotion of pro-environmental behaviors in the context of CC must be considered a priority. The present work aimed to understand the contribution of attitudes towards CC and selected sociodemographic variables to explain Schwartz’s motivational human values. The sample consists of 1270 Portuguese answering the European social survey (ESS) Round 8. Benevolence and self-transcendence are the most prevalent human values among respondents. The majority believe in CC and less than half in its entirely anthropogenic nature. It was found that the concern with CC and education contributes to explain 11.8% of the conservation variance; gender and concern about CC explain 10.1% of the variance of self-transcendence; and age, gender and concern about CC contribute to explain 13% of the variance of openness to change. This study underlines the main human values’ drivers of attitudes towards CC, central components in designing an effective societal response to CC impacts, which must be oriented towards what matters to individuals and communities, at the risk of being ineffective.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110135
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 136: Climatic Trends in Different Bioclimatic Zones
           in the Chitwan Annapurna Landscape, Nepal

    • Authors: Dol Raj Luitel, Pramod K. Jha, Mohan Siwakoti, Madan Lall Shrestha, Rangaswamy Munniappan
      First page: 136
      Abstract: The Chitwan Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) is the central part of the Himalayas and covers all bioclimatic zones with major endemism of flora, unique agro-biodiversity, environmental, cultural and socio-economic importance. Not much is known about temperature and precipitation trends along the different bioclimatic zones nor how changes in these parameters might impact the whole natural process, including biodiversity and ecosystems, in the CHAL. Analysis of daily temperature and precipitation time series data (1970–2019) was carried out in seven bioclimatic zones extending from lowland Terai to the higher Himalayas. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was applied to determine the trends, which were quantified by Sen’s slope. Annual and decade interval average temperature, precipitation trends, and lapse rate were analyzed in each bioclimatic zone. In the seven bioclimatic zones, precipitation showed a mixed pattern of decreasing and increasing trends (four bioclimatic zones showed a decreasing and three bioclimatic zones an increasing trend). Precipitation did not show any particular trend at decade intervals but the pattern of rainfall decreases after 2000AD. The average annual temperature at different bioclimatic zones clearly indicates that temperature at higher elevations is increasing significantly more than at lower elevations. In lower tropical bioclimatic zone (LTBZ), upper tropical bioclimatic zone (UTBZ), lower subtropical bioclimatic zone (LSBZ), upper subtropical bioclimatic zone (USBZ), and temperate bioclimatic zone (TBZ), the average temperature increased by 0.022, 0.030, 0.036, 0.042 and 0.051 °C/year, respectively. The decade level temperature scenario revealed that the hottest decade was from 1999–2009 and average decade level increases of temperature at different bioclimatic zones ranges from 0.2 to 0.27 °C /decade. The average temperature and precipitation was found clearly different from one bioclimatic zone to other. This is the first time that bioclimatic zone level precipitation and temperature trends have been analyzed for the CHAL. The rate of additional temperature rise at higher altitudes compared to lower elevations meets the requirements to mitigate climate change in different bioclimatic zones in a different ways. This information would be fundamental to safeguarding vulnerable communities, ecosystem and relevant climate-sensitive sectors from the impact of climate change through formulation of sector-wise climate change adaptation strategies and improving the livelihood of rural communities.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110136
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 137: Climate Change and Its Possible Impact in
           Groundwater Resource of the Kankai River Basin, East Nepal Himalaya

    • Authors: Champak Babu Silwal, Dinesh Pathak, Drona Adhikari, Tirtha Raj Adhikari
      First page: 137
      Abstract: Increasing evidence of changing climate patterns is being observed, and the impact of this change on groundwater has a direct impact on the livelihood and economy of the region. The research focuses on the impacts of global temperature increase and changing precipitation on the groundwater resources of part of the Himalayan river system. The spatial and temporal variations of the hydro-meteorological data of the Kankai River Basin in East Nepal were analyzed using non-parametric Mann–Kendall tests and Sen’s Slope methods, whereas CanESM2 was used to predict the future precipitation scenarios, and an attempt has been made to evaluate the possible impacts on groundwater systems in the region. The temperature shows a significant warming trend (0.14–0.64 °C/decade); however, the precipitation trends suggest remarkable variation mostly at higher elevation. The average annual precipitation suggests a decrease of 1.82 mm/year and a similar decrement has been projected for the future. The groundwater in the region has been influenced by the changing climate and the condition may further be exaggerated by reduced recharge and increased evapotranspiration. This understanding of the impacts and climate scenarios will help the planners with better adaptation strategies, plans, and programs for a better society.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110137
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 102: Impacts of Climate Change on the Water
           Resources of the Kunduz River Basin, Afghanistan

    • Authors: Noor Ahmad Akhundzadah, Salim Soltani, Valentin Aich
      First page: 102
      Abstract: The Kunduz River is one of the main tributaries of the Amu Darya Basin in North Afghanistan. Many communities live in the Kunduz River Basin (KRB), and its water resources have been the basis of their livelihoods for many generations. This study investigates climate change impacts on the KRB catchment. Rare station data are, for the first time, used to analyze systematic trends in temperature, precipitation, and river discharge over the past few decades, while using Mann–Kendall and Theil–Sen trend statistics. The trends show that the hydrology of the basin changed significantly over the last decades. A comparison of landcover data of the river basin from 1992 and 2019 shows significant changes that have additional impact on the basin hydrology, which are used to interpret the trend analysis. There is considerable uncertainty due to the data scarcity and gaps in the data, but all results indicate a strong tendency towards drier conditions. An extreme warming trend, partly above 2 °C since the 1960s in combination with a dramatic precipitation decrease by more than −30% lead to a strong decrease in river discharge. The increasing glacier melt compensates the decreases and leads to an increase in runoff only in the highland parts of the upper catchment. The reduction of water availability and the additional stress on the land leads to a strong increase of barren land and a reduction of vegetation cover. The detected trends and changes in the basin hydrology demand an active management of the already scarce water resources in order to sustain water supply for agriculture and ecosystems in the KRB.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8100102
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 103: Performance Evaluation of Satellite-Based
           Rainfall Products over Nigeria

    • Authors: Kingsley N. Ogbu, Nina R. Hounguè, Imoleayo E. Gbode, Bernhard Tischbein
      First page: 103
      Abstract: Understanding the variability of rainfall is important for sustaining rain-dependent agriculture and driving the local economy of Nigeria. Paucity and inadequate rain gauge network across Nigeria has made satellite-based rainfall products (SRPs), which offer a complete spatial and consistent temporal coverage, a better alternative. However, the accuracy of these products must be ascertained before use in water resource developments and planning. In this study, the performances of Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS), Precipitation estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks–Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR), and Tropical Applications of Meteorology using SATellite data and ground-based observations (TAMSAT), were evaluated to investigate their ability to reproduce long term (1983–2013) observed rainfall characteristics derived from twenty-four (24) gauges in Nigeria. Results show that all products performed well in terms of capturing the observed annual cycle and spatial trends in all selected stations. Statistical evaluation of the SRPs performance show that CHIRPS agree more with observations in all climatic zones by reproducing the local rainfall characteristics. The performance of PERSIANN and TAMSAT, however, varies with season and across the climatic zones. Findings from this study highlight the benefits of using SRPs to augment or fill gaps in the distribution of local rainfall data, which is critical for water resources planning, agricultural development, and policy making.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-09-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8100103
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 104: Modeling and Analysis of Barriers to Climate
           Change Adaptation in Tehran

    • Authors: Behnam Ghasemzadeh, Ayyoob Sharifi
      First page: 104
      Abstract: Since the impacts of climate change will last for many years, adaptation to this phenomenon should be prioritized in urban management plans. Although Tehran, the capital of Iran, has been subject to a variety of climate change impacts in recent years, appropriate adaptation measures to address them are yet to be taken. This study primarily aims to categorize the barriers to climate change adaptation in Tehran and analyze the way they interact with each other. The study was done in three steps: first, the focus group discussion (FGD) method was used to identify the barriers; next, the survey and the structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to validate the barriers, identify their importance, and examine their possible inter-relationships; and finally, the interpretive structural modeling (ISM) was applied to categorize and visualize the relationships between the barriers. Results show that barriers related to the ‘structure and culture of research’, ‘laws and regulations’, and ‘planning’ belong to the cluster of independent barriers and are of greater significance. The ‘social’ barrier and barriers related to ‘resources and resource management’ are identified as dependent barriers and are of lesser importance. Barriers related to ‘governance’, ‘awareness’, ‘education and knowledge’, ‘communication and interaction’, and ‘economy’ are identified at the intermediate cluster. The findings of this study can provide planners and decision makers with invaluable insights as to how to develop strategies for climate change adaptation in Tehran. Despite the scope of the study being confined to Tehran, its implications go far beyond this metropolis.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-09-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8100104
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 105: Expected Impacts of Mixing European Beech with
           Silver Fir on Regional Air Quality and Radiation Balance

    • Authors: Boris Bonn, Jürgen Kreuzwieser, Ruth-Kristina Magh, Heinz Rennenberg, Dirk Schindler, Dominik Sperlich, Raphael Trautmann, Rasoul Yousefpour, Rüdiger Grote
      First page: 105
      Abstract: The anticipated climate change during the next decades is posing crucial challenges to ecosystems. In order to decrease the vulnerability of forests, introducing tree species’ mixtures are a viable strategy, with deep-rooting native Silver fir (Abies alba) being a primary candidate for admixture into current pure stands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) especially in mountainous areas. Such a change in forest structure also has effects on the regional scale, which, however, have been seldomly quantified. Therefore, we measured and modeled radiative balance and air chemistry impacts of admixing Silver fir to European beech stands, including changes in biogenic volatile organic compound emissions. An increased fraction of Silver fir caused a smaller albedo and a (simulated) larger evapotranspiration, leading to a dryer and warmer forest. While isoprene emission was negligible for both species, sesquiterpene and monoterpene emissions were larger for fir than for beech. From these differences, we derived that ozone concentration as well as secondary organic aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei would increase regionally. Overall, we demonstrated that even a relatively mild scenario of tree species change will alter the energy balance and air quality in a way that could potentially influence the climate on a landscape scale.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8100105
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 106: Assessing the Adaptive Capacity of Households
           to Climate Change in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    • Authors: Demamu Mesfin, Belay Simane, Abrham Belay, John W. Recha, Ute Schmiedel
      First page: 106
      Abstract: This paper explores the different components of the adaptive capacity of households in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia and quantifies their relative contributions. The data were derived from a survey of 413 households randomly selected from four Kebeles (the smallest government administrative units) in the CRV. The adaptive capacity of the households was assessed using the Local Adaptive Capacity (LAC) framework and measured in terms of both aggregate and composite indices, with sixty indicators distributed across five major components and subcomponents. The index score for major components shows that intangible variables such as institutions and entitlements, knowledge and information, and innovation contributed to adaptive capacity better than decision–making and governance and asset–base. The composite indices for sub–components showed that the contribution of woodlands to adaptive capacity was positive and superior to other natural assets. Grazing land was the next best contributor, while farmland and water resources made a much lower contribution. The findings of this study are useful to better understand the nature of adaptive capacity and its components at the household level. This study suggests the need for an integrated assessment and enhancement of adaptive capacity with all its components rather than focusing only on asset possession as an indicator of adaptive capacity.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8100106
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 107: Frequency Associations between East Asian Jet
           Streams and the Temperature over the Barents–Kara Sea Region/Arctic
           Oscillation in Winter

    • Authors: Yuefeng Li, Yuxiang Zhu, Wei Song
      First page: 107
      Abstract: The frequency associations between jet streams over East Asia and the Arctic key temperature at 2 m (AKT2m) in the Barents–Kara Sea region (40°–75° E, 66°–82° N) and the Arctic Oscillation in winter are investigated using continuous wavelet transform, cross-wavelet transform, and wavelet coherence. The cross-wavelet transforms between the AKT2m/Arctic Oscillation and the East Asian polar front jet stream (EAPJ) suggest that the EAPJ is closely related to the AKT2m and Arctic Oscillation on an interannual (3–5-year band) timescale, but the variation in the phase angle denotes a complex frequency connection between the EAPJ and Arctic Oscillation. The squared wavelet coherence suggests that weakening of the EAPJ is associated with the rise in AKT2m during the period of abrupt climate change in East Asia. The EAPJ contains more forced components from the Arctic than the East Asian subtropical jet stream. By comparison, the relationship between AKT2m and the EAPJ is closer than that between the Arctic Oscillation and EAPJ, especially during the period of abrupt climate change in East Asia. This suggests that the EAPJ serves as a bridge for Arctic warming to affect the weather and climate over East Asia in winter. By contrast, the Arctic Oscillation does not play an important part, although it also contains information about the Arctic.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8100107
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 108: Selection of Effective GCM Bias Correction
           Methods and Evaluation of Hydrological Response under Future Climate
           Scenarios

    • Authors: Yaogeng Tan, Sandra M. Guzman, Zengchuan Dong, Liang Tan
      First page: 108
      Abstract: Global climate change is presenting a variety of challenges to hydrology and water resources because it strongly affects the hydrologic cycle, runoff, and water supply and demand. In this study, we assessed the effects of climate change scenarios on hydrological variables (i.e., evapotranspiration and runoff) by linking the outputs from the global climate model (GCM) with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for a case study in the Lijiang River Basin, China. We selected a variety of bias correction methods and their combinations to correct the lower resolution GCM outputs of both precipitation and temperature. Then, the SWAT model was calibrated and validated using the observed flow data and corrected historical GCM with the optimal correction method selected. Hydrological variables were simulated using the SWAT model under emission scenarios RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5. The results demonstrated that correcting methods have a positive effect on both daily precipitation and temperature, and a hybrid method of bias correction contributes to increased performance in most cases and scenarios. Based on the bias corrected scenarios, precipitation annual average, temperature, and evapotranspiration will increase. In the case of precipitation and runoff, projection scenarios show an increase compared with the historical trends, and the monthly distribution of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and runoff shows an uneven distribution compared with baseline. This study provides an insight on how to choose a proper GCM and bias correction method and a helpful guide for local water resources management.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8100108
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 109: Potential Effects of Climate and Human
           Influence Changes on Range and Diversity of Nine Fabaceae Species and
           Implications for Nature’s Contribution to People in Kenya

    • Authors: Nyairo, Machimura
      First page: 109
      Abstract: Climate and land-use changes are the main drivers of species distribution. On the basis of current and future climate and socioeconomic scenarios, species range projections were made for nine species in the Fabaceae family. Modeled species have instrumental and relational values termed as nature’s contribution to people (NCP). For each species, five scenarios were analyzed resulting in 45 species range maps. Representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and three shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs 1, 2, and 3) were used in the analysis. Species ranges under these scenarios were modeled using MaxEnt; a niche modeling software that relates species occurrence with environmental variables. Results were used to compute species richness and evenness based on Shannon’s diversity Index. Results revealed a mix of range expansion and contraction for the modeled species. The findings highlighted which species may remain competitive in an urbanized future and which ones are detrimentally affected by climate. Parts of the country where species abundances are likely to change due to climate and socioeconomic changes were identified. Management of species will be required in people-dominated landscapes to maintain interactions between nature and society, while avoiding natural resource degradation and loss of NCP.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-10-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8100109
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 110: New Data Center Performance Index: Perfect
           Design Data Center—PDD

    • Authors: Alexandre F. Santos, Pedro D. Gaspar, Heraldo J. L. de Souza
      First page: 110
      Abstract: Data Centers (DC) are specific buildings that require large infrastructures to store all the information needed by companies. All data transmitted over the network is stored on CDs. By the end of 2020, Data Centers will grow 53% worldwide. There are methodologies that measure the efficiency of energy consumption. The most used metric is the Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) index, but it does not fully reflect efficiency. Three DC’s located at the cities of Curitiba, Londrina and Iguaçu Falls (Brazil) with close PUE values, are evaluated in this article using the Energy Usage Effectiveness Design (EUED) index as an alternative to the current method. EUED uses energy as a comparative element in the design phase. Infrastructure consumption is the sum of energy with Heating, Ventilating and Air conditioning (HVAC) equipment, equipment, lighting and others. The EUED values obtained were 1.245 (kWh/yr)/(kWh/yr), 1.313 (kWh/yr)/(kWh/yr) and 1.316 (kWh/yr)/(kWh/yr) to Curitiba, Londrina and Iguaçu Falls, respectively. The difference between the EUED and the PUE Constant External Air Temperature (COA) is 16.87% for Curitiba, 13.33% for Londrina and 13.30% for Iguaçu Falls. The new Perfect Design Data center (PDD) index prioritizes efficiency in increasing order is an easy index to interpret. It is a redefinition of EUED, given by a linear equation, which provides an approximate result and uses a classification table. It is a decision support index for the location of a Data Center in the project phase.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-10-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8100110
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 111: West African Summer Monsoon Precipitation
           Variability as Represented by Reanalysis Datasets

    • Authors: Kwesi Akumenyi Quagraine, Francis Nkrumah, Cornelia Klein, Nana Ama Browne Klutse, Kwesi Twentwewa Quagraine
      First page: 111
      Abstract: Focusing on West Africa, a region riddled with in situ data scarcity, we evaluate the summer monsoon monthly rainfall characteristics of five global reanalysis datasets: ERA5, ERA-Interim, JRA-55, MERRA2, and NCEP-R2. Their performance in reproducing the West African monsoon (WAM) climatology, interannual variability, and long-term trends for the main monsoon months are compared to gauge-only and satellite products. We further examine their ability to reproduce teleconnections between sea surface temperatures and monsoon rainfall. All reanalyses are able to represent the average rainfall patterns and seasonal cycle; however, regional biases can be marked. ERA5, ERA-Interim, and NCEP-R2 underestimate rainfall over areas of peak rainfall, with ERA5 showing the strongest underestimation, particularly over the Guinea Highlands. The meridional northward extent of the monsoon rainband is well captured by JRA-55 and MERRA2 but is too narrow in ERA-Interim, for which rainfall stays close to the Guinea Coast. Differences in rainband displacement become particularly evident when comparing strong El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) years, where all reanalyses except ERA-Interim reproduce wetter Sahelian conditions for La Niña, while overestimating dry conditions at the coast except for NCEP-R2. Precipitation trends are not coherent across reanalyses and magnitudes are generally overestimated compared to observations, with only JRA-55 and NCEP-R2 displaying the expected positive trend in the Sahel. ERA5 generally outperforms ERA-Interim, highlighting clear improvements over its predecessor. Ultimately, we find the strengths of reanalyses to strongly vary across the region.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-10-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8100111
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 112: Convection Parametrization and Multi-Nesting
           Dependence of a Heavy Rainfall Event over Namibia with Weather Research
           and Forecasting (WRF) Model

    • Authors: Sieglinde Somses, Mary-Jane M. Bopape, Thando Ndarana, Ann Fridlind, Toshihisa Matsui, Elelwani Phaduli, Anton Limbo, Shaka Maikhudumu, Robert Maisha, Edward Rakate
      First page: 112
      Abstract: Namibia is considered to be one of the countries that are most vulnerable to climate change due to its generally dry climate and the percentage of its population that rely on subsistence agriculture for their livelihoods. Early-warning systems are an important aspect of adapting to climate change. Weather forecasting relies on the use of numerical weather prediction models and these need to be configured properly. In this study, we investigate the effects of using multi-nests and a convection scheme on the simulation of a heavy rainfall event over the north-western region of Kunene, Namibia. The event, which was associated with a cut-off low system, was short-lived and resulted in over 45 mm of rainfall in one hour. For the multi-nest, a 9 km grid-length parent domain is nested within the Global Forecast System (GFS) simulations, which in turn forces a 3 km grid spacing child domain. A different set of simulations are produced using a single nest of 3 km grid spacing, nested directly inside the GFS data. The simulations are produced with the convection scheme switched on and off. The impact of a single versus multi-nest is found to be small in general, with slight differences in the location of high rainfall intensity. Switching off the convection schemes results in high rainfall intensity and increased detail in the simulations, including when a grid spacing of 9 km is used. Using a grid spacing of 3 km with the convection scheme on, results in a loss of detail in the simulations as well as lower rainfall amounts. The study shows a need for different configurations to be tested before an optimum configuration can be selected for operational forecasting. We recommend further tests with different synoptic forcing and convection schemes to be conducted to identify a suitable configuration for Namibia.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8100112
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 113: Correction: Vo, T.B.T., et al. Methane
           Emission Factors from Vietnamese Rice Production: Pooling Data of 36 Field
           Sites for Meta-analysis. Climate 2020, 8, 74

    • Authors: Thi Bach Thuong Vo, Reiner Wassmann, Van Trinh Mai, Duong Quynh Vu, Thi Phuong Loan Bui, Thi Hang Vu, Quang Hieu Dinh, Bui Tan Yen, Folkard Asch, Bjoern Ole Sander
      First page: 113
      Abstract: The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...]
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8100113
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 114: Impact of Climate Change on Vegetation Cover
           at South Port Sudan Area

    • Authors: Pei Sun Loh, Hussien Ibrahim Mohammed Alnoor, Shuangyan He
      First page: 114
      Abstract: Arid regions worldwide, for example, Sudan, are affected by climate change and susceptible to environmental deterioration. In this study, temperature and rainfall data from 1985 to 2015 obtained from the Sudan Meteorological Authority were compared with satellite images of vegetation coverage in southern Port Sudan. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of climate change on the vegetation cover in this area. Results showed significant increases in the annual maximum, minimum and average temperatures with time, and precipitation showed a slight but not significant decrease from 1985 to 2015. The rates of increase for the annual maximum, minimum and average temperatures were 0.08 °C/year, 0.03 °C/year and 0.06 °C/year, respectively, and precipitation decreased at a rate of 0.12 mm/year. Higher shrub abundance and greater water area in 2013, 1995 and 1990 were probably due to high rainfall in the years preceding these years. Decreased shrub abundance in the year 2000 could be due to the significantly higher temperatures after 1998. There was no decreasing trend in shrub coverage from 1985 to 2015, but the overall increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation from 1985 to 2015 indicate a potential threat to vegetation in this area in the future.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8100114
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 115: Characteristics of Climate Change in the
           Lancang-Mekong Sub-Region

    • Authors: Han Li, Wei Song
      First page: 115
      Abstract: The Lancang-Mekong River is an important international river in Southeastern Asia. In recent years, due to climate change, natural disasters, such as drought and flooding, have frequently occurred in the region, which has a negative effect on the sustainable development of the social economy. Due to the lack of meteorological monitoring data in the six countries across the region, the study of the characteristics of climate change in this area is still scarce. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of climate change in the Lancang-Mekong sub-region (LMSR) during 2020–2100 based on the climatic data of CMIP5, using the linear trend rate method, cumulative anomaly method, the Mann–Kendall test, and Morlet wavelet analysis. The results showed that the annual mean temperature and annual precipitation in the LMSR increased significantly. The annual average temperature in this area increased at a rate of 0.219 °C/10a (p < 0.05) and 0.578 °C/10a (p < 0.05) in the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively; the annual precipitation in the area was 29.474 mm/10a (p < 0.05) and 50.733 mm/10a (p < 0.05), respectively. The annual average temperature in the region changed abruptly from low to high temperatures in 2059 for the RCP4.5 scenario and 2063 for RCP8.5. The annual precipitation in the area changed from less to more in 2051 for the RCP4.5 scenario and 2057 for RCP8.5. The results of wavelet analysis showed that the annual mean temperature in the LMSR had no significant change period at the 95% confidence level under the scenario of RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Under the scenario of RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, the annual precipitation had a significant 3.5-year and 2.5-year periodicity, respectively. Extreme climate events tended to increase against the background of global warming, especially in high emission scenarios.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8100115
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 116: Assessing Property Level Economic Impacts of
           Climate in the US, New Insights and Evidence from a Comprehensive Flood
           Risk Assessment Tool

    • Authors: Saman Armal, Jeremy R. Porter, Brett Lingle, Ziyan Chu, Michael L. Marston, Oliver E. J. Wing
      First page: 116
      Abstract: Hurricanes and flood-related events cause more direct economic damage than any other type of natural disaster. In the United States, that damage totals more than USD 1 trillion in damages since 1980. On average, direct flood losses have risen from USD 4 billion annually in the 1980s to roughly USD 17 billion annually from 2010 to 2018. Despite flooding’s tremendous economic impact on US properties and communities, current estimates of expected damages are lacking due to the fact that flood risk in many parts of the US is unidentified, underestimated, or available models associated with high quality assessment tools are proprietary. This study introduces an economic-focused Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) approach that builds upon an our existing understanding of prior assessment methods by taking advantage of a newly available, climate adjusted, parcel-level flood risk assessment model (First Street Foundation, 2020a and 2020b) in order to quantify property level economic impacts today, and into the climate adjusted future, using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and NASA’s Global Climate Model ensemble (CMIP5). This approach represents a first of its kind—a publicly available high precision flood risk assessment tool at the property level developed completely with open data sources and open methods. The economic impact assessment presented here has been carried out using residential buildings in New Jersey as a testbed; however, the environmental assessment tool on which it is based is a national scale property level flood assessment model at a 3m resolution. As evidence of the reliability of the EIA tool, the 2020 estimated economic impact (USD 5481 annual expectation) was compared to actual average per claim-year NFIP payouts from flooding and found an average of USD 5540 over the life of the program (difference of less than USD 100). Additionally, the tool finds a 41.4% increase in average economic flood damage through the year 2050 when environmental change is included in the model.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8100116
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 117: Climate Drivers and Sources of Sediment and
           Organic Matter Fluxes in Intermittent Rivers and Ephemeral Streams (IRES)
           of a Subtropical Watershed, USA

    • Authors: Janet Dewey, Jeff Hatten, Byoungkoo Choi, Clay Mangum, Ying Ouyang
      First page: 117
      Abstract: Climate-driven hydrological models rarely incorporate intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) due to monitoring difficulties and their perceived minor effect on river networks. Worldwide, IRES represent approximately 50% of river networks and up to 60% of annual flow and are recognized as conduits and processors of organic matter (OM). Climate induced changes in precipitation and discharge (Q) may impact OM fluxes from IRES. We assessed storm-driven source and flux of total suspended solids (TSS) and OM from small IRES in Mississippi, USA. We used linear Pearson correlations to evaluate relationships between water and storm characteristics (e.g., discharge). Stepwise regression was used to predict change in flux. Dissolved OM was derived from saturated flow through soil whereas particulate OM was derived from channel extension during storms. A power log relationship between Q and materials flux indicated that Q was the driver for flux. A 5% increase in Q within IRES may result in flux increase of 2% TSS and 1.7–2.8% OM. Climate change projections of increased storm intensity over a shorter water year will increase channel extension and soil water transfer resulting in higher material flux to downstream reaches. Climate-driven hydrological models of OM flux should incorporate IRES.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8100117
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 118: Implications of Development Cooperation and
           State Bureaucracy on Climate Change Adaptation Policy in Bangladesh

    • Authors: Md Saifur Rahman, Pradip Kumar Sarker, Ryokichi Hirono, Lukas Giessen
      First page: 118
      Abstract: Policy action is visible in national and international climate governance. However, policy-making and its implementation often fail to generate the desired outcomes that aim to adapt to the adverse impact of climate change in a developing nation, such as Bangladesh—a country highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change. Against this backdrop, the study aims to analyze the implication of development cooperation and bureaucratic politics on the policy-making and implementation of climate change adaptation policy in Bangladesh. In doing so, the research uses national and international climate adaptation funds and the existing state administrative framework of the climate adaptation regime. Methodologically, it follows a mixed qualitative–quantitative research approach. The study discusses the following key findings: (1) the general cross-sectoral nature and thrusts of domestic and external climate adaptation funding; (2) how Bangladesh technical departments, such as that for water management, have reacted successfully to ensure the utilization of the funds is for implementing adaptation policy; (3) simultaneously, how Bangladesh bureaucracy, made of the elite, together with politics, have maintained their traditional values, practices, and structures in responding to the administrative requirements of climate adaptation funders, especially bilateral and multilateral development agencies, and (4) what changes should be brought to the bureaucratic cadre and added to the administrative setup in Bangladesh to provide a better overall impact of the adaptation policy and funding.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8100118
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 119: Climate-Friendly Ethics Prescribed by Top
           World Airlines: Empirical Evidence

    • Authors: Dmitry A. Ruban, Natalia N. Yashalova
      First page: 119
      Abstract: The aviation industry contributes substantially to the global climate change, and, thus, airline companies need development of climate-friendly ethics. The content of the codes of conduct of 16 airline companies boasting either the greatest number of daily departures or the largest air fleet (or both) are analyzed. It is established that 25% of these companies prescribe climate-friendly behavior often focusing on emissions. Moreover, many other companies prescribe pro-environmental behavior. The situation seems to be promising, although improvements of the existing corporate ethical prescriptions are necessary. Despite its tentative character and certain limitations, this study permits putting the climate-friendly ethics of airlines on the international agenda. Practically, it is important to add climate-related notions to those codes of conduct where these do not exist and to use successful examples as ethical templates for the entire aviation industry.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8100119
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 120: Attribution and Prediction of Precipitation
           

    • Authors: Joshua Hartigan, Shev MacNamara, Lance M. Leslie, Milton Speer
      First page: 120
      Abstract: Droughts in southeastern Australia can profoundly affect the water supply to Sydney, Australia’s largest city. Increasing population, a warming climate, land surface changes and expanded agricultural use increase water demand and reduce catchment runoff. Studying Sydney’s water supply is necessary to manage water resources and lower the risk of severe water shortages. This study aims at understanding Sydney’s water supply by analysing precipitation and temperature trends across the catchment. A decreasing trend in annual precipitation was found across the Sydney catchment area. Annual precipitation also is significantly less variable, due to fewer years above the 80th percentile. These trends result from significant reductions in precipitation during spring and autumn, especially over the last 20 years. Wavelet analysis was applied to assess how the influence of climate drivers has changed over time. Attribute selection was carried out using linear regression and machine learning techniques, including random forests and support vector regression. Drivers of annual precipitation included Niño3.4, Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and DMI, and measures of global warming such as the Tasman Sea sea surface temperature anomalies. The support vector regression model with a polynomial kernel achieved correlations of 0.921 and a skill score compared to climatology of 0.721. The linear regression model also performed well with a correlation of 0.815 and skill score of 0.567, highlighting the importance of considering both linear and non-linear methods when developing statistical models. Models were also developed on autumn and winter precipitation but performed worse than annual precipitation on prediction. For example, the best performing model on autumn precipitation, which accounts for approximately one quarter of annual precipitation, achieved an RMSE of 418.036 mm2 on the testing data, while annual precipitation achieved an RMSE of 613.704 mm2. However, the seasonal models provided valuable insights into whether the season would be wet or dry compared to the climatology.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-10-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8100120
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 10 (2020)
       
 
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