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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 151)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Oxford Open Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Climate Change and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nīvār     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  

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Number of Followers: 6  

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ISSN (Print) 2225-1154
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 124: Implications of Regional Droughts and
           Transboundary Drought Risks on Drought Monitoring and Early Warning: A

    • Authors: Sivapuram Venkata Rama Krishna Prabhakar
      First page: 124
      Abstract: Regional droughts are increasing in frequency and climate change projections indicate an exacerbation in the occurrence of regional droughts in the future. Droughts are complex hydrometeorological events, and the complexity of cause-and-effect relationships across administrative and political borders can make drought management a challenge. While countries are largely focused on assessing drought impacts within their borders, thereby providing focused information for the relevant administration, the impact on communities, industries, and countries that are distantly connected with the affected location must also be taken into consideration. If not considered, drought impacts can be underestimated, and adaptation actions undertaken may not completely address the drought risks. Understanding transboundary drought risks is an important and integral part of drought risk reduction and it will grow in importance as the world experiences more integration at regional and global levels on multiple fronts. To address drought risks comprehensively, the new paradigm demands that the impacts of regional droughts are fully understood, that this understanding is incorporated into drought monitoring and early warning systems, and that drought early warning information is provided to all stakeholders, including those beyond the boundaries of the affected region, thereby eliciting appropriate action.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-08-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10090124
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 125: Effectiveness of Drought Indices in the
           Assessment of Different Types of Droughts, Managing and Mitigating Their

    • Authors: Jean Marie Ndayiragije, Fan Li
      First page: 125
      Abstract: Droughts are the most destructive catastrophes in the world. The persistence of drought is considered to cause many challenges for both humans and animals and ruins the ecosystem. These challenges have encouraged scientists to search for innovative methods and models that are effective for assessing and predicting drought events. The use of drought indices has been extensively employed in many regions across the globe and their effectiveness demonstrated. This review illustrates the effectiveness of drought indices in the assessment of droughts, with a focus on drought management and mitigation measures. Additionally, several ways of managing drought risk and proactive strategies that need to be implemented to mitigate droughts have been illustrated. In conclusion, this article suggests that drought mitigation should be done more naturally, in ways that strongly protect the environment rather than involve engineering projects which might cause the degradation of rivers and land, and damage the ecosystem.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-08-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10090125
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 126: Periods and Amplitudes of Southern Pine
           Beetle Infestations under Climate Change

    • Authors: Hyunjin An, Jianbang Gan
      First page: 126
      Abstract: The southern pine beetle (SPB), Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, is one of the most destructive insects to pine forests in North and Central America. Historical SPB infestations have shown strong cyclical patterns and are attributed to an array of abiotic and biotic factors with climatic conditions being the dominant. Climate change has been projected to increase SPB infestations; however, its impacts on the cyclical patterns of SPB infestations remain unknown. Here, we estimated the statistical relationship between SPB infestations and climatic and other factors using generalized linear regression modeling and historical data, analyzed the cyclical patterns of SPB infestations via periodogram analysis and explored how these patterns would evolve with the projected future climate change in 11 states of the Southern United States. We found that SPB infestations intensified with increases in seasonal average temperatures and minimum winter temperatures and decreases in spring and winter precipitations. Compared to the historical SPB infestation patterns, climate change was estimated to nearly double SPB infestation frequencies although with smaller amplitudes in the region. Our findings advance the understanding of cyclical patterns of SPB infestations, especially climate change impacts on such patterns, aiding in developing and deploying future SPB management practices and strategies.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10090126
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 127: Upscaling Gross Primary Production from Leaf
           to Canopy for Potato Crop (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    • Authors: Fabio Ernesto Martínez-Maldonado, Angela María Castaño-Marín, Gerardo Antonio Góez-Vinasco, Fabio Ricardo Marin
      First page: 127
      Abstract: Estimating gross primary production (GPP) is important to understand the land–atmosphere CO2 exchange for major agroecosystems. Eddy covariance (EC) measurements provide accurate and reliable information about GPP, but flux measurements are often not available. Upscaling strategies gain importance as an alternative to the limitations of the use of the EC. Although the potato provides an important agroecosystem for worldwide carbon balance, there are currently no studies on potato GPP upscaling processes. This study reports two GPP scaling-up approaches from the detailed leaf-level characterization of gas exchange of potatoes. Multilayer and big leaf approaches were applied for extrapolating chamber and biometric measurements from leaf to canopy. Measurements of leaf area index and photosynthesis were performed from planting to the end of the canopy life cycle using an LP-80 ceptometer and an IRGA Li-Cor 6800, respectively. The results were compared to concurrent measurements of surface–atmosphere GPP from the EC measurements. Big-leaf models were able to simulate the general trend of GPP during the growth cycle, but they overestimated the GPP during the maximum LAI phase. Multilayer models correctly reproduced the behavior of potato GPP and closely predicted both: the daily magnitude and half-hourly variation in GPP when compared to EC measurements. Upscaling is a reliable alternative, but a good treatment of LAI and the photosynthetic light-response curves are decisive factors to achieve better GPP estimates. The results improved the knowledge of the biophysical control in the carbon fluxes of the potato crop.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10090127
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 128: Evaluation of ECMWF-SEAS5 Seasonal
           Temperature and Precipitation Predictions over South America

    • Authors: Glauber W. S. Ferreira, Michelle S. Reboita, Anita Drumond
      First page: 128
      Abstract: Nowadays, a challenge in Climate Science is the seasonal forecast and knowledge of the model’s performance in different regions. The challenge in South America reflects its huge territory; some models present a good performance, and others do not. Nevertheless, reliable seasonal climate forecasts can benefit numerous decision-making processes related to agriculture, energy generation, and extreme events mitigation. Thus, given the few works assessing the ECMWF-SEAS5 performance in South America, this study investigated the quality of its seasonal temperature and precipitation predictions over the continent. For this purpose, predictions from all members of the hindcasts (1993–2016) and forecasts (2017–2021) ensemble were used, considering the four yearly seasons. The analyses included seasonal mean fields, bias correction, anomaly correlations, statistical indicators, and seasonality index. The best system’s performance occurred in regions strongly influenced by teleconnection effects, such as northern South America and northeastern Brazil, in which ECMWF-SEAS5 even reproduced the extreme precipitation anomalies that happened in recent decades. Moreover, the system indicated a moderate capability of seasonal predictions in medium and low predictability regions. In summary, the results show that ECMWF-SEAS5 climate forecasts are potentially helpful and should be considered to plan various strategic activities better.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10090128
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 129: Public Perceptions on Human Health Risks of
           Climate Change in Cyprus: 2018 and 2021 Survey Results

    • Authors: Corina Konstantinou, Christina Xeni, Eva M. van Bergen Henegouw, Nita Chaudhuri, Carijn Beumer, Konstantinos C. Makris
      First page: 129
      Abstract: Understanding public perceptions on the health impacts of climate change will help to better address planetary health challenges. This study aimed to assess differences in perceptions in the Cypriot population regarding climate-related health risks, information sources used, and self-assessed health status over a three-year period, along with the relationship between sociodemographics and perceptions on climate-related health risks. Two cross-sectional surveys on environmental health risks and climate change, information sources, and self-assessed health were conducted in July–December 2018 (n = 185) and August–September 2021 (n = 202) among adults living in Cyprus. A descriptive analysis of the survey responses was conducted. Between-survey and within-survey associations were examined among environmental and health risk perceptions and stratified by sociodemographics (age, sex, educational level) using chi-square tests. The perceived views on most questions about environmental health risks and climate change were not different between the two surveys (p > 0.05). With environmental factors in mind, such as climate change, pollution, and toxic waste, most respondents (>72%) considered that health issues such as asthma, cancer, obesity, type II diabetes, and high blood pressure would occur much more often or somewhat more often in the next 10 years. In both surveys, the most popular sources of information about environmental health risks were social media/the internet, followed by TV news and TV films and documentaries. Notable differences in several perceptions on climate-related health risks were observed between females and males, while age and educational level did not influence most perceptions. Women were more likely than men to report that environmental factors such as temperature rise, extreme weather events, and air pollution will be extremely influenced by climate change (p < 0.05). The study survey populations recognized the important linkages between climate change and human health, including their drivers. Sex was an important factor for differentiated perceptions on environmental health risks and climate change. Such survey results on perceptions about climate change and their impact on population health can be used to inform public awareness and risk communication campaigns.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10090129
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 130: Evaluating the Influence of CAM5 Aerosol
           Configuration on Simulated Tropical Cyclones in the North Atlantic

    • Authors: J. Jacob A. Huff, Kevin A. Reed, Julio T. Bacmeister, Michael F. Wehner
      First page: 130
      Abstract: This study examines the influence of prescribed and prognostic aerosol model configurations on the formation of tropical cyclones (TCs) in the North Atlantic Ocean in Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). The impact of aerosol parameterization is examined by investigating storm track density, genesis density, potential intensity, and genesis potential index. This work shows that both CAM5 configurations simulate reduced storm frequency when compared to observations and that differences in TC climatology between the model configurations can be explained by differences in the large-scale environment. The analysis shows that simulation with the prognostic aerosol parameterization scheme reasonably captures the observed interannual variability in tropical cyclones and aerosols (i.e., dust) in the North Atlantic, while simulation with the prescribed configuration (climatology) is less favorable. The correlation between dust and TCs in observations (i.e., reanalysis and satellite datasets) is shown to be negative, and this relationship was also found for the prognostic aerosol configuration despite an overall decrease in the frequency of TCs. This indicates that, to accurately replicate certain aspects of TC interannual variability, the aerosol configuration within CAM5 needs to account for the appropriate dust variability.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10090130
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 131: New Air Temperature- and Wind Speed-Based
           Clothing Thermal Resistance Scheme—Estimations for the Carpathian

    • Authors: Ferenc Ács, Erzsébet Kristóf, Amanda Imola Szabó, Hajnalka Breuer, Zsófia Szalkai, Annamária Zsákai
      First page: 131
      Abstract: A new clothing thermal resistance scheme is presented and verified for the Carpathian region and for the time period 1971–2000. The scheme is as simple as possible by connecting operative temperature to air temperature, which allows for it to only use air temperature and wind speed data as meteorological inputs. Another strength of the scheme is that a walking person’s metabolic heat flux density is also simply simulated without having to regard any thermoregulation processes. Human thermal load in the above region is characterised by a representative adult Hungarian male and female with a body mass index of 23–27 kgm−2. Our most important findings are as follows: (1) human thermal load in the Carpathian region is relief dependent; (2) the scheme cannot be applied in the lowland areas of the region in the month of July since the energy balance is not met; (3) in the same areas but during the course of the year, clothing thermal resistance values are between 0.4 and 1 clo; (4) clothing thermal resistance can reach 1–1.2 clo in the mountains in the month of July, but during the course of the year this value is 1.8 clo; and (5) the highest clothing thermal resistance values can be found in January reaching about 2.5 clo. The scheme may be easily applied to any another region by determining new, region-specific, operative temperature–air temperature relationships.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10090131
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 132: Coastal Flood Risks and the Business
           Community: Stakeholders’ Perception in Malta

    • Authors: Daniel Spiteri, Ritienne Gauci
      First page: 132
      Abstract: Resilience of coastal communities is increasingly required to adjust to the effects of cli- mate change and its coast-related threats. Climate change is a major global threat to the environment, economy, and health of urban coastal lowlands. Flooding risks from both rising sea levels and increases in the frequency and severity of storm surges are considered to be amongst the most threatening consequences associated with climate change. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of socio-economic preparedness of low-lying urbanized towns in Malta for the impacts of coastal flooding through the triangulation of stakeholders’ participation from three sectors: the business community, local councils, and specialized experts from the governmental and private sectors. The study also included field collection of elevation data for each locality to capture the businesses’ distribution in relation to their height above sea level along the urban waterfront. One-way analysis of variance and NVivo were used to test and compare the business owners’ responses and the experts’ feedback, respectively. The main findings from the business community suggest that there are no long-term contingency plans or strategies in place to address potential flooding impacts from rising sea levels and storm surges, and that the risks of driving owners out of business is high. From the feedback received by the local councils, it was observed that all of them significantly lack the physical and financial resources to effectively manage long-term coastal flooding within their locality, forcing them to completely rely on central government for any future needs caused by the impact of coastal flooding. From a central government perspective, it seems that all interviewed experts operate within a fragmented governance model, and mainly adhere to the set of responsibilities aligned with their respective roles within such a governance model. This evidence of governance disconnect requires more horizontal and vertical integration of cross-sectoral strategies to address coastal flooding, within the broader framework of integrated coastal zone management as established by the Mediterranean ICZM protocol.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10090132
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 133: Compound Extremes of Air Temperature and
           Precipitation in Eastern Europe

    • Authors: Elena Vyshkvarkova, Olga Sukhonos
      First page: 133
      Abstract: The spatial distribution of compound extremes of air temperature and precipitation was studied over the territory of Eastern Europe for the period 1950–2018. Using daily data on air temperature and precipitation, we calculated the frequency and trends of the four indices—cold/dry (CD), cold/wet (CW), warm/dry (WD) and warm/wet (WW). The connection between these indices and large-scale patterns in the ocean–atmosphere system, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic (EA) and Scandinavia (SCAND) patterns, was also studied. The positive and statistically significant trends in the region were observed for the warm extremes (especially the WW index) in all seasons, with maximum values in the winter season, while negative trends were obtained for the cold extremes. The NAO index has a strong positive and statistically significant correlation with the warm compound indices (WD and WW) in the northern part of Eastern Europe in winter like the EA pattern, but with smaller values. The spatial distribution of the correlation coefficients between compound extremes and the SCAND index in the winter season is opposite to the correlation coefficients with the NAO index.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10090133
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 134: Spatio-Temporal Assessment of Satellite
           Estimates and Gauge-Based Rainfall Products in Northern Part of Egypt

    • Authors: Mahmoud Roushdi
      First page: 134
      Abstract: Egypt’s climate is generally dry all over the country except for the Northern Mediterranean Coast. The Egyptian Meteorological Authority (EMA) uses few meteorological stations to monitor weather events in the entire country within the area of one million square kilometers, which makes it scarce with respect to spatial distribution. The EMA data are relatively expensive to obtain. Open access rainfall products (RP) are commonly used to monitor rainfall as good alternatives, especially for data-scarce countries such as Egypt. This paper aims to evaluate the performance of 12 open access rainfall products for 8 locations in the northern part of Egypt, in order to map the rainfall spatial distribution over the northern part of Egypt based on the best RP. The evaluation process is conducted for the period 2000–2018 for seven locations (Marsa-Matrouh, Abu-Qeir, Rasheed, Port-Said, Tanta, Mansoura, and Cairo-Airport), while it is conducted for the period 1996–2008 for the Damanhour location. The selected open access rainfall products are compared with the ground stations data using annual and monthly timescales. The point-to-pixel approach is applied using four statistical indices (Pearson correlation coefficient (r), Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), root mean square error (RMSE) and bias ratio (Pbias)). Overall, the results indicate that both the African Rainfall Estimation Algorithm (RFE) product and the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) product could be the best rainfall data sources for the Marsa-Matrouh location, with relatively higher r (0.99–0.93 for RFE and 0.99–0.89 for CPC) and NSE (0.98–0.79 for RFE and 0.98–0.75 for CPC), in addition to lower RMSE (0.94–7.78 for RFE and 0.92–12.01 for CPC) and Pbias (0.01–11.95% for RFE and −2.22–−12.15% for CPC) for annual and monthly timescales. In addition, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) and CPC give the best rainfall products for the Abu-Qier and Port-Said locations. GPCC is more suitable for the Rasheed location. The most appropriate rainfall product for the Tanta location is CHIRPS. The current research confirms the benefits of using rainfall products after conducting the recommended performance assessment for each location.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10090134
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 9 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 112: Diagnosis of the Extreme Climate Events of

    • Authors: Lucy Giráldez, Yamina Silva, José L. Flores-Rojas, Grace Trasmonte
      First page: 112
      Abstract: The most extreme precipitation event in Metropolitan Lima (ML) occurred on 15 January 1970 (16 mm), this event caused serious damage, and the real vulnerability of this city was evidenced; the population is still not prepared to resist events of this nature. This research describes the local climate variability and extreme climate indices of temperature and precipitation. In addition, the most extreme precipitation event in ML is analyzed. Extreme climate indices were identified based on the methodology proposed by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). Some extreme temperature indices highlight an initial trend toward warm conditions (1965–1998); this trend has changed towards cold conditions since 1999, consistent with the thermal cooling during the last two decades in ML (−0.5 °C/decade) and other coastal areas of Peru. The variations of extreme temperature indices are mainly modulated by sea-surface temperature (SST) alterations in the Niño 1 + 2 region (moderate to strong correlations were found). Extreme precipitation indices show trends toward wet conditions after the 1980s, the influence of the Pacific Ocean SST on the extreme precipitation indices in ML is weak and variable in sign. The most extreme precipitation event in ML is associated with a convergence process between moisture fluxes from the east (Amazon region) at high and mid levels and moisture fluxes from the west (Pacific Ocean) at low levels, and near the surface.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10080112
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 113: Heat Vulnerability Index Mapping: A Case
           Study of a Medium-Sized City (Amiens)

    • Authors: Aiman Mazhar Qureshi, Ahmed Rachid
      First page: 113
      Abstract: Urbanization, anthropogenic activities, and social determinants such as poverty and literacy rate greatly contribute to heat-related mortalities. The 2003 strong heat wave (Lucifer) in France resulted in catastrophic health consequences in the region that may be attributed to urbanization and other anthropogenic activities. Amiens is a medium-sized French city, where the average temperature has increased since the year 2000. In this study, we evaluated the Heat Vulnerability Index (HVI) in Amiens for extreme heat days recorded during three years (2018–2020). We used the principal component analysis (PCA) technique for fine-scale vulnerability mapping. The main types of considered data included (a) socioeconomic and demographic data, (b) air pollution, (c) land use and cover, (d) elderly heat illness, (e) social vulnerability, and (f) remote sensing data (land surface temperature (LST), mean elevation, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and normalized difference water index (NDWI)). The output maps identified the hot zones through comprehensive GIS analysis. The resultant maps showed that high HVI exists in three typical areas: (1) areas with dense population and low vegetation, (2) areas with artificial surfaces (built-up areas), and (3) industrial zones. Low-HVI areas are in natural landscapes such as rivers and grasslands. Our analysis can be implemented in other cities to highlight areas at high risk of extreme heat and air pollution.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-07-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10080113
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 114: Identifying Western North American Tree
           Populations Vulnerable to Drought under Observed and Projected Climate

    • Authors: Kathryn Levesque, Andreas Hamann
      First page: 114
      Abstract: Global climate change has affected forest health and productivity. A highly visible, direct climate impact is dieback caused by drought periods in moisture-limited forest ecosystems. Here, we have used a climate moisture index (CMI), which has been developed in order to map forest–grassland transitions, to investigate the shifts of the zero-CMI isopleths, in order to infer drought vulnerabilities. Our main objective was to identify populations of the 24 most common western North American forest tree species that are most exposed to drought conditions by using a western North American forest inventory database with 55,700 plot locations. We have found that climate change projections primarily increase the water deficits for tree populations that are already in vulnerable positions. In order to test the realism of this vulnerability assessment, we have compared the observed population dieback with changes in index values between the 1961–1990 reference period and a recent 1991–2020 average. The drought impacts that were predicted by negative CMI values largely conformed to the observed dieback in Pinus edulis, Populus tremuloides, and Pinus ponderosa. However, there was one notable counter-example. The observed dieback in the Canadian populations of Populus tremuloides were not associated with directional trends in the drought index values but were instead caused by a rare extreme drought event that was not apparently linked to directional climate change. Nevertheless, a macro-climatic drought index approach appeared to be generally suitable to identify and forecast the drought threats to the tree populations.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10080114
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 115: Climate Risk Mitigation and Adaptation
           Concerns in Urban Areas: A Systematic Review of the Impact of IPCC
           Assessment Reports

    • Authors: Ana Monteiro, Johnson Ankrah, Helena Madureira, Maria Oliveira Pacheco
      First page: 115
      Abstract: Urban areas continue to be the center of action for many countries due to their contribution to economic development. Many urban areas, through the urbanization process, have become vulnerable to climate risk, thereby making risk mitigation and adaptation essential components in urban planning. The study assessed the impacts of IPCC Assessment Reports (ARs) on academic research on risk mitigation and adaptation concerns in urban areas. The study systematically reviewed literature through searches of the Web of Science and Scopus databases; 852 papers were retrieved and 370 were deemed eligible. The results showed that the East Asia and Pacific, and Europe and Central Asia regions were most interested in IPCC ARs, while Sub-Saharan Africa showed little interest. Several urban concerns, including socio-economic, air quality, extreme temperature, sea level rise/flooding, health, and water supply/drought, were identified. Additionally, studies on negative health outcomes due to extreme temperatures and air pollution did not appear in the first four IPCC ARs. However, significant studies appeared after the launch of the AR5. Here, we must state that climate-related problems of urbanization were known and discussed in scientific papers well before the formation of the IPCC. For instance, the works of Clarke on urban structure and heat mortality and Oke on climatic impacts of urbanization. Though the IPCC ARs show impact, their emphasis on combined mitigation and adaptation policies is limited. This study advocates more combined risk mitigation and adaptation policies in urban areas for increased resilience to climate risk.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10080115
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 116: Correction: Kumari et al. A Long-Term
           Spatiotemporal Analysis of Vegetation Greenness over the Himalayan Region
           Using Google Earth Engine. Climate 2021, 9, 109

    • Authors: Nikul Kumari, Ankur Srivastava, Umesh Chandra Dumka
      First page: 116
      Abstract: There was an error in the original publication [...]
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10080116
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 117: Exploring ENSO-Induced Anomalies over North
           America in Historical and Future Climate Simulations That Use HadGEM2-ESM
           Output to Drive WRF

    • Authors: Tristan Shepherd, Jacob J. Coburn, Rebecca J. Barthelmie, Sara C. Pryor
      First page: 117
      Abstract: Projected changes to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate mode have been explored using global Earth system models (ESMs). Regional expressions of such changes have yet to be fully advanced and may require the use of regional downscaling. Here, we employ regional climate modeling (RCM) using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at convection-permitting resolution and nested in output from the HadGEM2 ESM. We quantify ENSO teleconnections to temperature and precipitation anomalies in historical and future climate scenarios over eastern North America. Two paired simulations are run, a strong El Niño (positive ENSO phase) and a weak La Niña (negative ENSO phase), for the historical and future years. The HadGEM2 direct output and HadGEM2-WRF simulation output are compared to the anomalies derived from the NOAA ENSO Climate Normals dataset. The near-surface temperature and precipitation differences by ENSO phase, as represented by the HadGEM2-WRF historical simulations, show a poor degree of association with the NOAA ENSO Climate Normals, in part because of the large biases in the HadGEM2 model. Downscaling with the WRF model does improve the agreement with the observations, and large discrepancies remain. The model chain HadGEM2-WRF reverses the sign of the ENSO phase response over eastern North America under simulations of the future climate with high greenhouse gas forcing, but due to the poor agreement with the NOAA ENSO Climate Normals it is difficult to assign confidence to this prediction.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10080117
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 118: An Analysis of the Differences in
           Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Review of Rural and Urban Areas in
           South Africa

    • Authors: Leocadia Zhou, Dumisani Shoko Kori, Melusi Sibanda, Kenneth Nhundu
      First page: 118
      Abstract: Evidence is unequivocal that rural and urban areas in South Africa are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change; however, impacts are felt disproportionately. This difference in vulnerability between rural and urban areas is presently unclear to guide context-based climate policies and frameworks to enhance adaptation processes. A clear understanding of the differences in vulnerability to climate change between rural and urban areas is pertinent. This systematic review aimed to explore how vulnerability to climate change varies between rural and urban areas and what explains these variations. The approach was guided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change vulnerability framework incorporating exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity dimensions integrated into the Sustainable Livelihood Framework. The review used 30 articles based on the search criteria developed. The findings show differences in vulnerability to climate change between rural and urban areas owing to several factors that distinguish rural from urban areas, such as differences in climate change drivers, infrastructure orientation, typical livelihood, and income-generating activities. We conclude that vulnerability varies with location and requires place-based analyses. Instead of blanket policy recommendations, localized interventions that enhance adaptation in specific rural and urban areas should be promoted.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10080118
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 119: Influence of Climate on Conflicts and
           Migrations in Southern Africa in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries

    • Authors: Mphethe I. Tongwane, Teke S. Ramotubei, Mokhele E. Moeletsi
      First page: 119
      Abstract: Climate and other environmental factors continue to play important contributions on the livelihoods of communities all over the world. Their influence during historical periods and the roles they played remain under-reported. The main objective of this review is to investigate the climatological conditions during the time of the invasion of early European settlers in Southern Africa in the 19th and early 20th centuries. It establishes the possible relationships between climate variability and historical conflicts and wars, famines, disease pandemics, and the migration of African people to towns in search of sustainable and predictable livelihoods away from unreliable agriculture. A qualitative analysis of published peer reviewed literature in the form of reports, papers, and books was used in this review. At least 60 literature items were reviewed in this paper. There is a relationship between climate variability and the historical events of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Tribal conflicts and most of the wars between the settlers and the African people for land coincided with periods of droughts. Drought were key causes of famines, instabilities, and land degradation in the region. This study highlights the influence of environmental conditions on socio-economic conditions as the world enters an era of climate change and urbanization in developing countries, particularly in Africa. It shows that the hardships caused by environmental conditions have the potential to destabilize societies.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-08-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10080119
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 120: Rainy Day Prediction Model with Climate

    • Authors: Matteo Gentilucci, Gilberto Pambianchi
      First page: 120
      Abstract: The reconstruction of daily precipitation data is a much-debated topic of great practical use, especially when weather stations have missing data. Missing data are particularly numerous if rain gauges are poorly maintained by their owner institutions and if they are located in inaccessible areas.In this context, an attempt was made to assess the possibility of reconstructing daily rainfall data from other climatic variables other than the rainfall itself, namely atmospheric pressure, relative humidity and prevailing wind direction.The pilot area for the study was identified in Central Italy, especially on the Adriatic side, and 119 weather stations were considered.The parameters of atmospheric pressure, humidity and prevailing wind direction were reconstructed at all weather stations on a daily basis by means of various models, in order to obtain almost continuous values rain gauge by rain gauge. The results obtained using neural networks to reconstruct daily precipitation revealed a lack of correlation for the prevailing wind direction, while correlation is significant for humidity and atmospheric pressure, although they explain only 10–20% of the total precipitation variance. At the same time, it was verified by binary logistic regression that it is certainly easier to understand when it will or will not rain without determining the amount. In this case, in fact, the model achieves an accuracy of about 80 percent in identifying rainy and non-rainy days from the aforementioned climatic parameters. In addition, the modelling was also verified on all rain gauges at the same time and this showed reliability comparable to an arithmetic average of the individual models, thus showing that the neural network model fails to prepare a model that performs better from learning even in the case of many thousands of data (over 400,000). This shows that the relationships between precipitation, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure are predominantly local in nature without being able to give rise to broader generalisations.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10080120
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 121: An Urban Governance Framework for Including
           Environmental Migrants in Sustainable Cities

    • Authors: Ilan Kelman, Aaron Clark-Ginsberg
      First page: 121
      Abstract: This article proposes an urban governance framework for including environmental migrants in sustainable cities. It outlines the links among environmental migration, vulnerability, and sustainability, showing how vulnerability and sustainability are not about the environment or the human condition as snapshots in space and time, but rather are long-term, multi-scalar, ever-evolving processes. This theoretical baseline is followed by a description of some practical approaches already applied for including environmental migrants in sustainable cities. The wide variety and lack of cohesion justifies the need for a framework, leading to three principal characteristics of a governance framework suitable for addressing vulnerability and environmental migration for urban sustainability: horizontally and vertically networked, inclusive, and evidence-based. As the framework’s three dimensions represent principles or overarching structural solutions rather than presenting operational guidance, the concluding discussion covers the framework’s limitations and a research agenda.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10080121
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 122: Evaluation of the CMIP6 Performance in
           Simulating Precipitation in the Amazon River Basin

    • Authors: Corrie Monteverde, Fernando De Sales, Charles Jones
      First page: 122
      Abstract: The Brazilian Amazon provides important hydrological cycle functions, including precipitation regimes that bring water to the people and environment and are critical to moisture recycling and transport, and represents an important variable for climate models to simulate accurately. This paper evaluates the performance of 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) models. This is done by discussing results from spatial pattern mapping, Taylor diagram analysis and Taylor skill score, annual climatology comparison, cumulative distribution analysis, and empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. Precipitation analysis shows: (1) This region displays higher rainfall in the north-northwest and drier conditions in the south. Models tend to underestimate northern values or overestimate the central to northwest averages. (2) The southern Amazon has a more defined dry season (June, July, and August) and wet season (December, January, and February) and models simulate this well. The northern Amazon dry season tends to occur in August, September, and October and the wet season occurs in March, April, and May, and models are not able to capture the climatology as well. Models tend to produce too much rainfall at the start of the wet season and tend to either over- or under-estimate the dry season, although ensemble means typically display the overall pattern more precisely. (3) Models struggle to capture extreme values of precipitation except when precipitation values are close to 0. (4) EOF analysis shows that models capture the dominant mode of variability, which was the annual cycle or South American Monsoon System. (5) When all evaluation metrics are considered, the models that perform best are CESM2, MIROC6, MRIESM20, SAM0UNICON, and the ensemble mean. This paper supports research in determining the most up-to-date CMIP6 model performance of precipitation regime for 1981–2014 for the Brazilian Amazon. Results will aid in understanding future projections of precipitation for the selected subset of global climate models and allow scientists to construct reliable model ensembles, as precipitation plays a role in many sectors of the economy, including the ecosystem, agriculture, energy, and water security.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-08-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10080122
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 123: Improving Future Estimation of
           Cheliff-Mactaa-Tafna Streamflow via an Ensemble of Bias Correction

    • Authors: Mohammed Renima, Ayoub Zeroual, Yasmine Hamitouche, Ali Assani, Sara Zeroual, Ahmed Amin Soltani, Cedrick Mulowayi Mubulayi, Sabrina Taibi, Senna Bouabdelli, Sara Kabli, Allal Ghammit, Idris Bara, Abdennour Kastali, Ramdane Alkama
      First page: 123
      Abstract: The role of climate change in future streamflow is still very uncertain, especially over semi-arid regions. However, part of this uncertainty can be offset by correcting systematic climate models’ bias. This paper tries to assess how the choice of a bias correction method may impact future streamflow of the Cheliff-Mactaa-Tafna (CMT) rivers. First, three correction methods (quantile mapping (QM), quantile delta mapping (QDM), and scaled distribution mapping (SDM)) were applied to an ensemble of future precipitation and temperature coming from CORDEX-Africa, which uses two Representative Concentration Pathways: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Then, the Zygos model was used to convert the corrected time series into streamflow. Interestingly, the findings showed an agreement between the three methods that revealed a decline in future streamflow up to [−42 to −62%] in autumn, [+31% to −11%] in winter, [−23% to −39%] in spring, and [−23% to −41%] in summer. The rate of decrease was largest when using QM-corrected model outputs, followed by the raw model, the SDM-corrected model, and finally, the QDM-corrected model outputs. As expected, the RCP presents the largest decline especially by the end of the 21st Century.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-08-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10080123
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 8 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 90: Making Climate Risks Governable in Swedish
           Municipalities: Crisis Preparedness, Technical Measures, and Public

    • Authors: Rolf Lidskog, Linn Rabe
      First page: 90
      Abstract: Creating preparedness for climate change has become an increasingly important task for society. In Sweden, the responsibility for crisis preparedness rests to a large extent on the municipalities. Through an interview study of municipal officials, this paper examines municipalities’ crisis preparedness for climate change and the role they assign to citizens. The theoretical approach is that of risk governance, which adopts an inclusive approach to risk management, and that of risk sociology, which states that how a problem is defined determines how it should be handled and by whom. The empirical results show that the municipal officials mainly discuss technically defined risks, such as certain kinds of climate-related extreme events, the handling of which does not require any substantial involvement of citizens. Citizens’ responsibility is only to be individually prepared, and thereby they do not require municipal resources to protect their own properties in the case of an extreme event. The municipalities, however, feel that their citizens have not developed this individual preparedness and therefore they try to better inform them. This analysis finds five different views of citizens, all with their own problems, and to which the municipalities respond with different communicative measures. By way of conclusion, three crucial aspects are raised regarding the task of making societies better prepared for climate change.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070090
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 91: Improving Early Warning of Drought in

    • Authors: Lellyett, Truelove, Huda
      First page: 91
      Abstract: This invited review outlines a selection of recent technical and communication advances, in certain areas of climate and weather science that could improve the capability and utility of drought early warning systems in Australia. First, a selection of current operational outputs and their significance for drought early warning is reviewed, then a selection of advancements in the Research and Development (R&D) pipeline are considered, which have potential to help enable better decision-making by stakeholders subject to drought risk. The next generation of drought early warning systems should have a focus on index- and impact-based prediction models that go beyond basic weather and climate parameters, at seasonal through to multi-year timescales. Convergence and integration of emerging research, science and technology is called for across the fields of climate, agronomy, environment, economics and social science, to improve early warning information. The enablement of more predictively based drought policy, should facilitate more proactive responses by stakeholders throughout the agricultural value chain, and should make stakeholders more drought resilient.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070091
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 92: Correction: Kim et al. Assessing Role of
           Drought Indices in Anticipating Pine Decline in the Sierra Nevada, CA.
           Climate 2022, 10, 72

    • Authors: Yoonji Kim, Nancy E. Grulke, Andrew G. Merschel, Kellie A. Uyeda
      First page: 92
      Abstract: Author “David A [...]
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070092
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 93: Stalagmite-Inferred Climate in the Western
           Mediterranean during the Roman Warm Period

    • Authors: Hsun-Ming Hu, Véronique Michel, Patricia Valensi, Horng-Sheng Mii, Elisabetta Starnini, Marta Zunino, Chuan-Chou Shen
      First page: 93
      Abstract: The circum-Mediterranean region is the cradle of ancient civilizations that had their roots in the Holocene. Climate change has been considered a key element that contributed to their rise or fall. The Roman Warm Period (RWP), 200 B.C. to 400 A.D., was the warmest period in Europe during the last two thousand years. Hydroclimatic change at the end of the RWP has been suggested as a possible influence on the stability of the Roman political regime and the eventual collapse of the Roman Empire in 476 A.D. A lack of precise proxy records hampers our understanding of hydroclimatic variability over the RWP. Here we present a stalagmite-based climate record from 550 ± 10 B.C. to 950 ± 7 A.D. (2σ) from northern Italy, which reveals a climatic trend of warming and increased humidity throughout the RWP. By comparison with other proxy records in Europe and the circum-Mediterranean region, we argue that the warm, humid climate in southern Europe could be linked to the multi-centennial warming of the Mediterranean Sea. Our record further suggests a century-long rapid drying trend from the early-4th to early-5th century, followed by a 100-year-long drought event, which could have influenced the fall of the Roman Empire.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070093
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 94: The Imprint of Recent Meteorological Events on
           Boulder Deposits along the Mediterranean Rocky Coasts

    • Authors: Marco Delle Delle Rose, Paolo Martano
      First page: 94
      Abstract: In this review, the potential of an emerging field of interdisciplinary climate research, Coastal Boulder Deposits (CBDs) as natural archives for intense storms, is explored with particular reference to the Mediterranean region. First, the identification of the pertinent scientific articles was performed by the using Web of Science (WoS) engine. Thus, the selected studies have been analysed to feature CBDs produced and/or activated during the last half-century. Then, the meteorological events responsible for the literature-reported cases were analysed in some detail using the web archives of the Globo-Bolam-Moloch model cascade. The study of synoptical and local characteristics of the storms involved in the documented cases of boulder production/activation proved useful for assessing the suitability of selected sites as geomorphological storm proxies. It is argued that a close and fruitful collaboration involving several scientific disciplines is required to develop this climate research field.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070094
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 95: Assessment of Climate Models Performance and
           Associated Uncertainties in Rainfall Projection from CORDEX over the
           Eastern Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Sadame M. Yimer, Abderrazak Bouanani, Navneet Kumar, Bernhard Tischbein, Christian Borgemeister
      First page: 95
      Abstract: The adverse impact of climate change on different regionally important sectors such as agriculture and hydropower is a serious concern and is currently at the epicentre of global interest. Despite the extensive efforts to project the future climate and assess its potential impact, it is surrounded by uncertainties. This study aimed to assess climate models’ performance and associated uncertainties in rainfall projection over the eastern Nile basin, Ethiopia. Seventeen climate models from Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) and their four ensemble models were evaluated in terms of their historical prediction performance (1986–2005) and future simulation skill (2006–2016) at rainfall station (point location), grid-scale (0.44° × 0.44°) and basin scale. Station-based and spatially interpolated observed rainfall data were used as a reference during climate model performance evaluation. In addition, CRU data was used as an alternative reference data to check the effect of the reference data source on the climate models evaluation process. As the results showed, climate models have a large discrepancy in their projected rainfall and hence prior evaluation of their performance is necessary. For instance, the bias in historical mean annual rainfall averaged over the basin ranges from +760 mm (wet bias) to −582 mm (dry bias). The spatial pattern correlation (r) of climate models output and observed rainfall ranges from −0.1 to 0.7. The ensemble formed with selected (performance-based) member models outperforms the widely used multi-model ensemble in most of the evaluation metrics. This showed the need for reconsidering the widely used multi-model approach in most climate model-based studies. The use of CRU data as a reference resulted in a change in the magnitude of climate model bias. To conclude, each climate model has a certain degree of uncertainty in the rainfall projection, which potentially affects the studies on climate change and its impact (e.g., on water resources). Therefore, climate-related studies have to consider uncertainties in climate projections, which will help end-users (decision-makers) at least to be aware of the potential range of deviation in the future projected outcomes of interest.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070095
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 96: Linking Climate-Change Impacts on Hydrological
           Processes and Water Quality to Local Watersheds

    • Authors: Ying Ouyang, Sudhanshu Sekhar Panda, Gary Feng
      First page: 96
      Abstract: Estimation of hydrological processes and water quality is central to water resource management, clean water supply, environmental protection, and ecological services [...]
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070096
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 97: Applying Machine Learning for Threshold
           Selection in Drought Early Warning System

    • Authors: Hui Luo, Jessica Bhardwaj, Suelynn Choy, Yuriy Kuleshov
      First page: 97
      Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and meteorological drought category to identify NDVI thresholds that correspond to varying drought categories. The gridded evaluation was performed across a 34-year period from 1982 to 2016 on a monthly time scale for Grassland and Temperate regions in Australia. To label the drought category for each grid inside the climate zone, we use the Australian Gridded Climate Dataset (AGCD) across a 120-year period from 1900 to 2020 on a monthly scale and calculate percentiles corresponding to drought categories. The drought category classification model takes NDVI data as the input and outputs of drought categories. Then, we propose a threshold selection algorithm to distinguish the NDVI threshold to indicate the boundary between two adjacent drought categories. The performance of the drought category classification model is evaluated using the accuracy metric, and visual interpretation is performed using the heat map. The drought classification model provides a concept to evaluate drought severity, as well as the relationship between NDVI data and drought severity. The results of this study demonstrate the potential application of this concept toward early drought warning systems.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070097
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 98: Evaluation of Satellite-Based Air Temperature
           Estimates at Eight Diverse Sites in Africa

    • Authors: Danny Parsons, David Stern, Denis Ndanguza, Mouhamadou Bamba Sylla
      First page: 98
      Abstract: High resolution satellite and reanalysis-based air temperature estimates have huge potential to complement the sparse networks of air temperature measurements from ground stations in Africa. The recently released Climate Hazards Center Infrared Temperature with Stations (CHIRTS-daily) dataset provides daily minimum and maximum air temperature estimates on a near-global scale from 1983 to 2016. This study assesses the performance of CHIRTS-daily in comparison with measurements from eight ground stations in diverse locations across Africa from 1983 to 2016, benchmarked against the ERA5 and ERA5-Land reanalysis to understand its potential to provide localized temperature information. Compared to ERA5 and ERA5-Land, CHIRTS-daily maximum temperature has higher correlation and lower bias of daily, annual mean maximum and annual extreme maximum temperature. It also exhibits significant trends in annual mean maximum temperature, comparable to those from the station data. CHIRTS-daily minimum temperatures generally have higher correlation, but larger bias than ERA5 and ERA5-Land. However, the results indicate that CHIRTS-daily minimum temperature biases may be largely systematic and could potentially be corrected for. Overall, CHIRTS-daily is highly promising as it outperforms ERA5 and ERA5-Land in many areas, and exhibits good results across a small, but diverse set of sites in Africa. Further studies in specific geographic areas could help support these findings.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070098
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 99: Studies of the Effect of Seasonal Cycle on the
           Equatorial Quasi-Biennial Oscillation with a Chemistry-Climate Model

    • Authors: Kiyotaka Shibata
      First page: 99
      Abstract: The effect of the seasonal cycle on the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the equatorial stratosphere was investigated using a chemistry-climate model (CCM) by fixing the seasonal cycle in CCM simulations. The CCM realistically reproduced the QBO in wind and ozone fields of a 30-month period in a climatological simulation (control run) under annually repeating sea surface temperature (SST) with a seasonal cycle. For the control run, four experimental simulations (perpetual runs) were made by fixing solar declination and SST on the 15th of January, April, July, and October, respectively, for about 20 years. In the three perpetual runs of January, July, and October, the QBO was maintained and persisted throughout the 20-year integration in spite of some small differences in period and amplitude among the three runs. On the other hand, the QBO in the perpetual April run began to weaken after about 15 years and the downward propagation of westerly wind stopped at about 20 hPa, resulting in the QBO’s ceasing. The cause of this QBO disappearance is related to the evolution of the background mean flow in the lower stratosphere, which filtered out the parameterized gravity waves propagating upwards farther.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070099
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 100: Estimation of Air Emissions Externalities Due
           to Shipping: Analytical Methodological Framework

    • Authors: Emmanouil Doundoulakis, Spiros Papaefthimiou
      First page: 100
      Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to present an analytical methodological framework for the estimation of the external costs of air emissions from passenger ships. We used as a case study the two main ports of Crete (Souda and Heraklion) and studied all passenger ferries and cruise vessels that visited these ports in the last 5 years (2017–2021). A detailed inventory was created containing all technical details for 10 passenger ferries (owned by three different shipping companies) operating every day, following various itineraries all year around, and 88 different cruise vessels (which approached both ports mainly during the summer period). The estimated external costs due to air emissions cover health effects, materials and building damages, biodiversity and crop losses. Two levels of calculations for the total external costs per pollutant were implemented. At the first level, a bottom-up approach was applied to accurately calculate the total annual air emissions (CO2, SOX, NOX, PM2.5, PM10), while for the second level, the cost factors per pollutant were used as input values to estimate the annual total external costs. One of the most important findings is that externalities comprise a significant amount of shipping companies’ revenues (about 25–35%), thus, implying a substantial revenue loss in the case that they would be asked to bear these costs. Assuming that ship owners will pass these costs on to ticket fares, an attempt is made to allocate the “externalities surcharge” (i.e., the burden of external costs) to ticket fares per transportation category.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070100
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 101: Climate Change Related Catastrophic Rainfall
           Events and Non-Communicable Respiratory Disease: A Systematic Review of
           the Literature

    • Authors: Alexandra M. Peirce, Leon M. Espira, Peter S. Larson
      First page: 101
      Abstract: Climate change is increasing the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events, the impacts of which disproportionately impact urban populations. Pluvial flooding and flooding related sewer backups are thought to result in an increase in potentially hazardous human-pathogen encounters. However, the extent and nature of associations between flooding events and non-communicable respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are not well understood. This research seeks to characterize the state of research on flooding and NCRDs through a systematic review of the scientific literature. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus for published scholarly research papers using the terms flooding, monsoon, and tropical storm with terms for common NCRDs such as asthma, COPD, and chronic bronchitis. Papers were included if they covered research studies on individuals with defined outcomes of flooding events. We excluded review papers, case studies, and opinion pieces. We retrieved 200 articles from PubMed, 268 from Web of Science and 203 from Scopus which comprised 345 unique papers. An initial review of abstracts yielded 38 candidate papers. A full text review of each left 16 papers which were included for the review. All papers except for one found a significant association between a severe weather event and increased risk for at least one of the NCRDs included in this research. Our findings further suggest that extreme weather events may worsen pre-existing respiratory conditions and increase the risk of development of asthma. Future work should focus on more precisely defining measure of health outcomes using validated tools to describe asthma and COPD exacerbations. Research efforts should also work to collect granular data on patients’ health status and family history and assess possible confounding and mediating factors such as neighborhood water mitigation infrastructure, housing conditions, pollen counts, and other environmental variables.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070101
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 102: Upscaling Local Adaptive Heritage Practices
           to Internationally Designated Heritage Sites

    • Authors: Sarah Kerr, Felix Riede
      First page: 102
      Abstract: World Heritage Sites can face an onslaught of risks from high tourist numbers, climate changes, the impacts of conflict and war, and static management practices. These sites have been ascribed a value that is considered both outstanding and universal (OUV) and as such they are placed at a higher prioritisation than all other heritage sites. The aim of this listing is to ensure their protection for future generations. Yet, the management practices enacted under this preservation mandate can be reactive rather than proactive and reflective, overly concerned with maintaining the status quo, and restricted by a complexity of national and international regulations and stakeholders. We here introduce a local-scale, community-driven heritage project, called CHICC, that offers, we argue, a useful insight into management practices that may be upscaled to internationally designated sites. Although this is not a blueprint to fit all heritage needs, some of the fundamental intentions embedded within CHICC can and perhaps should be adopted in the approaches to internationally designated site management. These include inclusivity with the local community as a priority stakeholder, a deeper understanding of the site including its future risks, consideration of the wider heritage landscape, and greater incorporation of heritage dynamism. Through analysing and evaluating the case study project, this conceptual chapter argues that adaptive heritage practices are underway in some local-scale contexts, and this can be a useful template for advancing the management of World Heritage Sites.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070102
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 103: Climate Change and Its Effects on Indoor
           Pests (Insect and Fungi) in Museums

    • Authors: Pascal Querner, Katja Sterflinger, Katharina Derksen, Johanna Leissner, Bill Landsberger, Astrid Hammer, Peter Brimblecombe
      First page: 103
      Abstract: Climate change not only affects the biodiversity of natural habitats, but also the flora and fauna within cities. An increase in average temperature and changing precipitation, but additionally extreme weather events with heat waves and flooding, are forecast. The climate in our cities and, thus, also inside buildings is influenced by the changing outdoor climate and urban heat islands. A further challenge to ecosystems is the introduction of new species (neobiota). If these species are pests, they can cause damage to stored products and materials. Much cultural heritage is within buildings, so changes in the indoor climate also affect pests (insect and fungi) within the museums, storage depositories, libraries, and historic properties. This paper reviews the literature and presents an overview of these complex interactions between the outdoor climate, indoor climate, and pests in museums. Recent studies have examined the direct impact of climate on buildings and collections. The warming of indoor climates and an increased frequency or intensity of extreme weather events are two important drivers affecting indoor pests such as insects and fungi, which can severely damage collections. Increases in activity and new species are found, e.g., the tropical grey silverfish Ctenolepisma longicaudatum has been present in many museums in recent years benefitting from increased indoor temperatures.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070103
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 104: Climate Security and Its Implications for
           East Asia

    • Authors: Takashi Sekiyama
      First page: 104
      Abstract: This study investigated the scientific progress of climate security studies through a literature review and discussed its risks in East Asia. Climate security refers to the protection of countries and societies from conflicts and riots caused by climate change. As climate change becomes more apparent, climate security has been vigorously debated in the international community. Climate security risks in East Asia, however, are not yet widely discussed. This literature review identified that climate change increases the risk of conflict not only through direct threats to people and societies from extreme weather events and natural disasters, but also indirectly through various pathways, such as shortages of water and other resources, outbreaks of climate migration, disruptions in food production, economic and social disturbances, and geopolitical changes. Considering the climate-conflict pathways identified by the literature review, East Asia may face (1) tensions caused by climate emigrants, (2) conflicts over loss of territories and fishery areas, (3) conflicts caused by water shortage, (4) instability caused by heavy rain and floods, and (5) geopolitical risks of rare earth sourcing, green industrial policies, and the Arctic. East Asian countries need to lower climate security risks in the region through cooperative international measures such as climate change mitigation, vulnerability reduction, and policy dialogue.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070104
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 105: Local Officials’ Perceptions of Climate
           Victim Management Challenges on Bangladesh’s Southeast Coast

    • Authors: Kisinger Chakma, Kenichi Matsui
      First page: 105
      Abstract: In Bangladesh, extreme weather events displace about one million people each year. The national government resettles these climate victims by allocating houses in so-called cluster villages. This paper examines how local disaster management officials manage the resettlement of climate victims in Bangladesh’s coastal areas. For this paper, we conducted a preliminary field work, questionnaire survey, and informal phone interviews. The questionnaire survey was conducted from March to July 2020 among 70 central government civil servants who worked as disaster management officials and played a pivotal role in local decision making for climate victim resettlement. This paper first examines how national disaster response policies were implemented in local areas before, during, and after disasters. Our questionnaire survey results show five management challenges local officials faced in managing displaced people: (1) local officials’ limited onsite experience, (2) varied impacts of natural disasters on islands and the mainland, (3) arbitrary engagement in disaster response actions, (4) lack of evacuation drills, and (5) weak coordination skills among relevant stakeholders. In particular, these challenges were acute among island officials. Our multiple regression analyses show that the respondents’ age and onsite work experience (p < 0.05) significantly affected their perceptions. Overall, these findings suggest a need to drastically improve local disaster governance capacity. This study offers insights into how countries with similar challenges may respond to climate-induced displacement in the future.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070105
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 106: A Methodology for Bridging the Gap between
           Regional- and City-Scale Climate Simulations for the Urban Thermal

    • Authors: Konstantina Koutroumanou-Kontosi, Constantinos Cartalis, Kostas Philippopoulos, Ilias Agathangelidis, Anastasios Polydoros
      First page: 106
      Abstract: The main objective of this study is to bridge the gap between regional- and city-scale climate simulations, with the focus given to the thermal environment. A dynamic-statistical downscaling methodology for defining daily maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures is developed based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) and multiple linear regression models (MLRs). The approach involves the use of simulations from two EURO-CORDEX regional climate models (RCMs) (at approximately 12 km × 12 km) that are further downscaled to a finer resolution (1 km × 1 km). A feature selection methodology is applied to select the optimum subset of parameters for training the machine learning models. The downscaling methodology is initially applied to two RCMs, driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis (2008–2011) and high-resolution urban climate model simulations (UrbClims). The performance of the relationships is validated and found to successfully simulate the spatiotemporal distribution of Tmax and Tmin over Athens. Finally, the relationships that were extracted by the models are further used to quantify changes for Tmax and Tmin in high resolution, between the historical period (1971–2000) and mid-century (2041–2071) climate projections for two different representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Based on the results, both mean Tmax and Tmin are estimated to increase by 1.7 °C and 1.5 °C for RCP4.5 and 2.3 °C and 2.1 °C for RCP8.5, respectively, with distinct spatiotemporal patterns over the study area.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070106
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 107: Hydrological and Meteorological Variability
           in the Volga River Basin under Global Warming by 1.5 and 2 Degrees

    • Authors: Andrey Kalugin
      First page: 107
      Abstract: The idea of the research to assess the impact of 1.5 °C and 2 °C global warming in the 21st century on the runoff formation in the Volga basin corresponds to the Paris agreement on climate change 2016 with the main goal to keep the global air temperature rise to below 2 °C relative to the pre-industrial level and to take measures to limit warming to 1.5 °C by the end of the 21st century. The purpose of this study was to obtain physically based results of changes in the water regime of the Volga basin rivers under global warming by 1.5 °C and 2 °C relative to pre-industrial values. The physical and mathematical model of runoff generation ECOMAG (ECOlogical Model for Applied Geophysics) was applied in calculations using data from global climate models (GCMs). The estimation of flow anomalies of the Volga River and its major tributaries showed a decrease in annual runoff by 10–11% relative to the period from 1970 to 1999. The largest relative decrease in runoff by 17–20% was noted for the Oka and Upper Volga rivers, while the Kama River had only a 1–5% decrease. The Volga winter runoff increased by 17% and 28% under global warming by 1.5 °C and 2 °C, respectively, and negative runoff anomalies during the spring flood and the summer–autumn period turned out to be in the range of 21 to 23%. Despite the increase in precipitation, the role of evaporation in the water balance of the Volga basin will only increase.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070107
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 108: Regional Responses of the Northern Hemisphere
           Subtropical Jet Stream to Reduced Arctic Sea Ice Extent

    • Authors: José Luis Rodriguez Solis, Cuauhtémoc Turrent, Markus Gross
      First page: 108
      Abstract: The effect of Arctic sea ice loss on the boreal winter regional trends of wind speed and latitudinal position of the Northern Hemisphere subtropical jet stream (STJ) in 1980–2012 is investigated. Two sets of global simulations with reduced Arctic sea ice extent are analyzed: simulations that, south of 70 N, use a climatological annual cycle of the sea surface temperature (SST) and a second set that uses full SST variability. Results with the climatological SST have a significant but weak response of the STJ wind speed and latitudinal position to the warmer Arctic: the wind speed generally decreases and the jet core is displaced equatorward. However, in the realistic SST simulations, the effect of Arctic warming is only slightly evident in a small equatorward shift of the jet over the Atlantic basin. Over the Pacific basin the STJ is mostly driven by tropical and mid-latitude SST variability, with little influence from the Arctic region. A weakening and poleward shift of the STJ that is observed in the realistic SST simulations over the Pacific basin is attributed to negative SST trends in the tropical Pacific and the consequent weakening of the mid-latitude meridional gradient of geopotential height in the upper troposphere.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070108
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 109: Exploring Methods for Developing Local
           Climate Zones to Support Climate Research

    • Authors: Laurence Sigler, Joan Gilabert, Gara Villalba
      First page: 109
      Abstract: Meteorological and climate prediction models at the urban scale increasingly require more accurate and high-resolution data. The Local Climate Zone (LCZ) system is an initiative to standardize a classification scheme of the urban landscape, based mainly on the properties of surface structure (e.g., building, tree height, density) and surface cover (pervious vs. impervious). This approach is especially useful for studying the influence of urban morphology and fabric on the surface urban heat island (SUHI) effect and to evaluate how changes in land use and structures affect thermal regulation in the city. This article will demonstrate three different methodologies of creating LCZs: first, the World Urban Database and Access Portal Tools (WUDAPT); second, using Copernicus Urban Atlas (UA) data via a geographic information system (GIS) client directly; and third via Google Earth Engine (GEE) using Oslo, Norway as the case study. The WUDAPT and GEE methods incorporate a machine learning (random forest) procedure using Landsat 8 imagery, and offer the most precision while requiring the most time and familiarity with GIS usage and satellite imagery processing. The WUDAPT method is performed principally using multiple GIS clients and image processing tools. The GEE method is somewhat quicker to perform, with work performed entirely on Google’s sites. The UA or GIS method is performed solely via a GIS client and is a conversion of pre-existing vector data to LCZ classes via scripting. This is the quickest method of the three; however, the reclassification of the vector data determines the accuracy of the LCZs produced. Finally, as an illustration of a practical use of LCZs and to further compare the results of the three methods, we map the distribution of the temperature according to the LCZs of each method, correlating to the land surface temperature (LST) from a Landsat 8 image pertaining to a heat wave episode that occurred in Oslo in 2018. These results show, in addition to a clear LCZ-LST correspondence, that the three methods produce accurate and similar results and are all viable options.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070109
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 110: Climate-Induced Fire Hazard in Forests in the
           Volga Federal District of European Russia during 1992–2020

    • Authors: Yuri Perevedentsev, Boris Sherstyukov, Artyom Gusarov, Timur Aukhadeev, Nadezhda Mirsaeva
      First page: 110
      Abstract: This paper shows the relevance of the problem of fire hazard in the forests of the Volga Federal District (VFD) of European Russia. The Nesterov index and the Selyaninov hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) are considered as indicators of fire hazard. The changes in climatic conditions in the VFD during 1955–2018 are shown; a trend towards warming and an increase in aridity in the study region were revealed. The repeatability of various fire hazard classes from May to September was calculated using the Nesterov method. It is shown that in July, the most dangerous situation was in the south of the VFD, where the repeatability of class IV fire hazard reached 27%. Using the HTC index, the degree of aridity of the district in the summer period was estimated. The frequency of the most arid conditions (HTC < 0.5) increases from the north to the south of the district, from 6% (Kirov Region) to 47% (Orenburg Region). Using the TT index, the potential thunderstorm danger in the VFD was assessed. With the help of the constructed maps, the hotspots of the most probable occurrence of thunderstorms were detected. The use of Rosstat data on the number of forest fires from 1992 to 2020 made it possible to consider the spatiotemporal distribution of forest fires in 14 administrative regions of the VFD. The distribution of the number of fires by the regions is shown depending on their forest cover and season. The peak of the number of fires was revealed in 2010, when the entire territory of the study region was covered by a severe drought, as a result of which the area of forests covered by fire increased many times over. In recent years (since 2017), there has been an increase in the area of burned forest due to the active phase of climate warming.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070110
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 111: Spatial and Temporal Assessment of Remotely
           Sensed Land Surface Temperature Variability in Afghanistan during

    • Authors: Ahmad Farid Nabizada, Iman Rousta, Marjan Dalvi, Haraldur Olafsson, Anna Siedliska, Piotr Baranowski, Jaromir Krzyszczak
      First page: 111
      Abstract: The dynamics of land surface temperature (LST) in Afghanistan in the period 2000–2021 were investigated, and the impact of the factors such as soil moisture, precipitation, and vegetation coverage on LST was assessed. The remotely sensed soil moisture data from Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), precipitation data from Climate Hazards Group Infra-Red Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS), and NDVI and LST from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were used. The correlations between these data were analyzed using the regression method. The result shows that the LST in Afghanistan has a slightly decreasing but insignificant trend during the study period (R = 0.2, p-value = 0.25), while vegetation coverage, precipitation, and soil moisture had an increasing trend. It was revealed that soil moisture has the highest impact on LST (R = −0.71, p-value = 0.0007), and the soil moisture, precipitation, and vegetation coverage explain almost 80% of spring (R2 = 0.73) and summer (R2 = 0.76) LST variability in Afghanistan. The LST variability analysis performed separately for Afghanistan’s river subbasins shows that the LST of the Amu Darya subbasin had an upward trend in the study period, while for the Kabul subbasin, the trend was downward.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10070111
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 78: Evaluation of Machine-Learning Models for
           Predicting Aeolian Dust: A Case Study over the Southwestern USA

    • Authors: Yog Aryal
      First page: 78
      Abstract: Aeolian dust has widespread consequences on health, the environment, and the hydrology over a region. This study investigated the performance of various machine-learning (ML) models including Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), Support Vector Machines (SVM), Random Forests (RF), Bayesian Regularized Neural Networks (BRNN), and Cubist (Cu) in predicting dust emissions over the Southwestern United States (US). Six meteorological and climatic variables (precipitation, air temperature, wind speed, ENSO, PDO, and NAO) were used to predict dust emissions. The correlation (r) and root mean square error (RMSE) for fine dust vary from 0.67 to 0.80, and 0.40 to 0.52 µg/m3, respectively. For coarse dust, the r and RMSE vary from 0.69 to 0.73, and 2.01 to 2.34 µg/m3, respectively. The non-linear ML models outperformed linear regression for both fine and coarse dust. ML models underestimated high concentrations of dust. Machine-learning models better predict fine dust than coarse dust over the Southwestern USA. Air temperature was found to be the most important predictor, followed by precipitation, for both fine- and coarse- dust-prediction over the region. These results improve our understanding of the predictability of Southwestern US dust.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10060078
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 79: Challenges of Managing Maritime Cultural
           Heritage in Asia in the Face of Climate Change

    • Authors: Patrick Daly, R. Michael Feener, Noboru Ishikawa, Ibrahim Mujah, Maida Irawani, Alexandru Hegyi, Krisztina Baranyai, Jedrzej Majewski, Benjamin Horton
      First page: 79
      Abstract: Changing weather patterns, increasing frequency and intensity of natural hazards, and rising sea levels associated with global climate change have the potential to threaten cultural heritage sites worldwide. This is especially the case for maritime heritage sites located in the low-lying coastal and delta regions of Asia. Maritime heritage can reflect both highly localized cultural products based on the coupling of people and maritime environments and the historic footprints of complex maritime networks that connect people, ideas, and material over vast distances, creating unique cultural spheres. Furthermore, maritime heritage sites potentially serve as or contain records of how past societies have been impacted by and adapted to past environmental stress. Therefore, their degradation threatens local/regional/global cultural patrimony as well as evidence of human resilience and fragility in the face of environmental change. This makes a strong case for urgent preservation. However, the possible damage caused by climate change and the scale of vulnerable maritime heritage pose seemingly insurmountable challenges. In this paper, we present the ways in which maritime heritage sites across Asia are vulnerable to environmental stresses, such as changing sea levels, coastal erosion, flooding, and storm surges. Our objective is to draw upon our experience documenting endangered cultural heritage across South and Southeast Asia to illustrate that there are unique conceptual and practical characteristics of maritime heritage that complicate effective management and conservation efforts on the scale required to prevent massive loss by climate change. We conclude by stressing the need to reconceptualize debates about the custody and stewardship of maritime heritage and the urgency of employing a wide range of innovative preservation solutions to ensure maritime patrimony is not lost to the rising tides.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10060079
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 80: Wave Climate along Calabrian Coasts

    • Authors: Giandomenico Foti, Giuseppe Barbaro, Giovanni Besio, Giuseppina Chiara Barillà, Pierluigi Mancuso, Pierfabrizio Puntorieri
      First page: 80
      Abstract: The wave climate is highly variable temporally and spatially, depending mainly on the atmospheric conditions and on fetch extensions. Wave climate is one of the main causes of coastal erosion processes, together with anthropogenic pressure and with coastal and river sedimentary balance. Therefore, a detailed spatial and temporal knowledge of wave climate is very important in managing coastal areas and in planning coastal defense works. This paper describes an analysis of the wave climate carried out along the Calabrian coasts in over 50 areas, each of them covering an average of 15 km of coastline. For each area, over 40 years of wave data were analyzed to calculate over 20 parameters, representative of annual and seasonal average and maximum wave conditions. The large number of areas is related to the geomorphological and climatic complexity of Calabria. This analysis mainly highlighted that the two Ionian and Tyrrhenian coasts are very different from the wave climate point of view. Indeed, the Ionian coast is heavier in ordinary wave conditions, while the Tyrrhenian coast is heavier in extreme wave conditions.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10060080
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 81: Changes in Selected Low-Flow Characteristics
           in the 2001–2015 Period Compared to the 1961–2000 Reference
           Period in Slovakia

    • Authors: Lotta Blaškovičová, Katarína Jeneiová, Katarína Melová, Jana Poórová, Soňa Liová, Katarína Slivková, Beáta Síčová
      First page: 81
      Abstract: This research is focused on the assessment of drought on surface watercourses in Slovakia. Low-flow characteristics and their changes in the 2001–2015 period in comparison with the 1961–2000 reference period were evaluated at selected representative water-gauging stations. Two different methods were used to calculate the flow duration curves (FDCs): the standard method, based on mean daily discharge data series for the whole evaluated period in descending order, and the alternative method, based on first calculating the values of FDCs for each year of the assessed period and then averaging the corresponding percentile values. The changes were evaluated for selected percentiles of the FDCs (330-, 355-, and 364-day discharge). The number of days with the mean daily flow below the set limits and the seasonality of their occurrence were assessed. The results show significant changes in cases of both methods in the compared time periods, while differences in individual regions of Slovakia were also found. The weakness of the standard method is in allowing the values of the smallest quantiles to be influenced by a small number of long-lasting drought episodes. The alternative method eliminates the aforementioned shortcoming and could be used to determine the ecological flows in Slovakia.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10060081
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 82: The Application of Geographical Information
           Systems and the Analytic Hierarchy Process in Selecting Sustainable Areas
           for Urban Green Spaces: A Case Study in Hue City, Vietnam

    • Authors: Nguyen Hoang Khanh Linh, Pham Gia Tung, Huynh Van Chuong, Nguyen Bich Ngoc, Tran Thi Phuong
      First page: 82
      Abstract: In recent years, there has been growing awareness about the roles and benefits of urban green spaces (UGSs), particularly in the context of mitigating the negative effects of climate change, which have become increasingly serious. In Vietnam, the government has allocated considerable resources to the development of UGSs in many cities. However, regarding implementation, UGS development in Vietnam faces many challenges; many cities find it difficult to meet the set criterion regarding the number of green spaces per capita. This research was conducted in Hue City, which is known as one of the greenest cities in Vietnam. The results show that there are twenty-one UGSs in Hue City (with a total area of 88.67 ha). These are located primarily along the Huong River and around the Hue Imperial Citadel. However, under government stipulations, the current number of UGSs is not considered sufficient in proportion to the local population, and will not accommodate the future growth of the population. We applied the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) along with the participation of local residents, using six criteria to map potential areas for future UGS planning. In this, the distance from existing residential areas to potential UGS locations is the most important criterion. The suitability map identified 684 hectares of Hue City as highly suitable for UGSs. This research also proposes a scenario for UGS planning in Hue based on retaining the existing green spaces combined with creating another 35 green spaces, comprising a total area of 167 hectares. This is to meet the needs of local residents by 2030.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10060082
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 83: Common Issues in Verification of Climate
           Forecasts and Projections

    • Authors: James S. Risbey, Dougal T. Squire, Marina Baldissera Pacchetti, Amanda S. Black, Christopher C. Chapman, Suraje Dessai, Damien B. Irving, Richard J. Matear, Didier P. Monselesan, Thomas S. Moore, Doug Richardson, Bernadette M. Sloyan, Carly R. Tozer
      First page: 83
      Abstract: With increased interest in climate forecasts and projections, it is important to understand more about their sources and levels of skill. A starting point here is to describe the nature of the skill associated with forecasts and projections. Climate forecasts and projections typically both include time varying forcing of the climate, but only forecasts have initial conditions set close to the observed climate state. Climate forecasts therefore derive skill from both initial conditions and from forcing. The character of the initial condition skill and forcing skill is different. Skill from initial conditions results in a narrowing of expectations relative to a climatological distribution and points toward a more favoured part of the distribution. Forcing skill could result from a shift in the preferred parts of the climatological distribution in response to forcing, or it could result from a shift in the entire distribution, or both. Assessments of forcing skill require time averages of the target variable that are long enough so that the contributions from internal variations are small compared to the forced response. The assessment of skill of climate forecasts and projections is inherently partial because of the small number of repeated trials possible on typical climate time scales but is nonetheless the only direct measure of their performance.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10060083
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 84: Jet Stream Changes over Southeast Australia
           during the Early Cool Season in Response to Accelerated Global Warming

    • Authors: Milton S. Speer, Lance M. Leslie, Joshua Hartigan
      First page: 84
      Abstract: In recent decades, southeast Australia has experienced both extreme drought and record-breaking rainfall, with devastating societal impacts. Variations in the Australian polar-front jet (PFJ) and the subtropical jet (STJ) determine, for example, the location and frequency of the cool season (April–September) weather systems influencing rainfall events and, consequently, water availability for the southern half of Australia. Changes in jet stream wind speeds also are important for aviation fuel and safety requirements. A split jet occurs when the single jet separates into the STJ and PFJ in the early cool season (April–May). This study focusses on split jet characteristics over Australian/New Zealand longitudes in recent decades. During the accelerated global warming from the mid-1990s, higher mean wind speeds were found in the PJF across the Australian region during June–September, compared to the STJ. In contrast, significant wind speed increases occur in the early cool season (April–May) at STJ latitudes, which straddle the East Coast of Australia and the adjacent Tasman Sea. These changes are linked to major changes in the mean atmospheric circulation, and they include relative vorticity and humidity, both being vital for the development of rain-bearing weather systems that affect the region.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10060084
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 85: Skill and Inter-Model Comparison of Regional
           and Global Climate Models in Simulating Wind Speed over South Asian Domain

    • Authors: Naresh K. G. Lakku, Manasa R. Behera
      First page: 85
      Abstract: Global Climate Models (GCMs) and Regional Climate Models (RCMs) have been widely used in understanding the impact of climate change on wind-driven processes without explicit evaluation of their skill. This study is oriented towards assessing the skill of 28 GCMs and 16 RCMs, and more importantly to assess the ability of RCMs relative to parent GCMs in simulating near-surface wind speed (WS) in diverse climate variable scales (daily, monthly, seasonal and annual) over the ocean and land region of the South Asian (SA) domain (11° S–30° N and 26° E–107° E). Our results reveal that the climate models’ competence varies among climate variable scales and regions. However, after rigorous examination of all climate models’ skill, it is recommended to use the mean ensemble of MPI-ESM-MR, CSIRO-Mk3.6.0 and GFDL-ESM2G GCMs for understanding future changes in wave climate, coastal sediment transport and offshore wind energy potential, and REMO2009 RCM driven by MPI-M-MPI-ESM-LR for future onshore wind energy potential assessment and air pollution modelling. All parent GCMs outperform the RCMs (except CCCma-CanESM2(RCA4)) over the ocean. In contrast, most RCMs show significant added value over the land region of the SA domain. Further, it is strongly discouraged to use the RCM WS simulations in modelling wind-driven processes based on their parent GCM’s skill over the ocean.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10060085
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 86: Remarkable Resilience of Forest Structure and
           Biodiversity Following Fire in the Peri-Urban Bushland of Sydney,

    • Authors: Elise Pendall, Alison Hewitt, Matthias M. Boer, Yolima Carrillo, Nancy F. Glenn, Anne Griebel, Jason H. Middleton, Peter J. Mumford, Peter Ridgeway, Paul D. Rymer, Greg L. Steenbeeke
      First page: 86
      Abstract: In rapidly urbanizing areas, natural vegetation becomes fragmented, making conservation planning challenging, particularly as climate change accelerates fire risk. We studied urban forest fragments in two threatened eucalypt-dominated (scribbly gum woodland, SGW, and ironbark forest, IF) communities across ~2000 ha near Sydney, Australia, to evaluate effects of fire frequency (0–4 in last 25 years) and time since fire (0.5 to >25 years) on canopy structure, habitat quality and biodiversity (e.g., species richness). Airborne lidar was used to assess canopy height and density, and ground-based surveys of 148 (400 m2) plots measured leaf area index (LAI), plant species composition and habitat metrics such as litter cover and hollow-bearing trees. LAI, canopy density, litter, and microbiotic soil crust increased with time since fire in both communities, while tree and mistletoe cover increased in IF. Unexpectedly, plant species richness increased with fire frequency, owing to increased shrub richness which offset decreased tree richness in both communities. These findings indicate biodiversity and canopy structure are generally resilient to a range of times since fire and fire frequencies across this study area. Nevertheless, reduced arboreal habitat quality and subtle shifts in community composition of resprouters and obligate seeders signal early concern for a scenario of increasing fire frequency under climate change. Ongoing assessment of fire responses is needed to ensure that biodiversity, canopy structure and ecosystem function are maintained in the remaining fragments of urban forests under future climate change which will likely drive hotter and more frequent fires.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10060086
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 87: Spatiotemporal Analysis of Urban Heat Islands
           in Relation to Urban Development, in the Vicinity of the Atacama Desert

    • Authors: Jorge Espinoza-Molina, Karina Acosta-Caipa, Esther Chambe-Vega, Germán Huayna, Edwin Pino-Vargas, Jorge Abad
      First page: 87
      Abstract: Near the Atacama Desert, Tacna city in Peru is among the largest arid cities with constant urban development, thus understanding of the urban surface thermal pattern is needed. We propose a comprehensive study of the urban heat island phenomenon, with the objective of (1) determining the spatial and temporal variations of the urban heat islands (UHIs), in the period 1985 to 2020; (2) analyzing the relationship between the UHI and influencing factors such as vegetation, urban area, and population, using indices calculated with satellite images. The Google Earth Engine repository was used to evaluate the corrected images from the years 1985 to 2020. The coincidence between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference built-up index (NDBI) was good, negative between NDVI and the land surface temperature (LST), attributable to dense vegetation, and negative and very high (−0.81) between NDBI and NDVI, as massive urbanization leads to the reduction in the vegetal surface. The NDBI has a high impact on the LST; a coefficient of connections is recorded as 0.46. Tacna is a very arid region, and an increase in the time of the LST occurred with the increase in industrialization and urbanization. The land use/cover change (LUCC) evidences change in the climate in the city of Tacna; temperatures of 24.2 °C to 44.2 °C are observed in the built-up areas. In vegetated areas, the temperature remains below 24 °C, which is associated with a high rate of potential evapotranspiration. Thus, this study shows that variations in urban form and growth have produced the development of intraurban surface thermal patterns.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10060087
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 88: Analysis of Ocean Parameters as Sources of
           Coastal Storm Damage: Regional Empirical Thresholds in Northern Spain

    • Authors: Rivas, Garmendia, Rasilla
      First page: 88
      Abstract: This contribution aims to explore the role of oceanographic parameters on the damage caused by storms at the eastern Cantabrian coast (1996–2016). All wave storms affecting the study area were characterized in terms of several oceanographic parameters; among them, damaging storms (responsible for direct and tangible loss) were identified. Cross-referencing both databases makes it possible to find some thresholds that explain storm conditions associated with property damage. Particularly relevant are those responsible for significant and widespread damage: maximum significant offshore wave height >6.5 m, maximum total water level >6 m, SPI >1700 m2h, and a storm duration >48 h. These values are exceptionally high, mostly exceeding the 95th percentile. A comparison has been made with other thresholds described in the literature. The concurrence of high wave height and high tidal level is crucial as the greatest damage is caused by the combination of wave impact and over-wash, so a long duration of the storm is necessary to coincide with high tide. An empirical Intensity-Duration threshold has also been obtained with the following function I = 248.7 D−0.45. Damage can occur with moderate storms, but with severe effects only with exceptional wave and sea-level values, during long-lasting storms.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10060088
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 89: Spatiotemporal Changes in Mean and Extreme
           Climate: Farmers’ Perception and Its Agricultural Implications in
           Awash River Basin, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Addisu Damtew, Ermias Teferi, Victor Ongoma, Richard Mumo, Befikadu Esayas
      First page: 89
      Abstract: The increase in the intensity and frequency of climate extremes threatens socioeconomic development. This study examines variability of mean and extreme climate, farmers’ perception of the changes, and impacts in the Awash River Basin. Daily rainfall and temperature data were used to analyze 23 extreme climate indices. The Mann–Kendall test was used to assess the magnitude and significance of the changes. Results show an increase in minimum (0.019–0.055 °C/year) and maximum temperatures (0.049–0.09 °C/year), while total rainfall is on a downward trend (from −3.84 mm/year to −10.26 mm/year). Warm extreme temperature indicators, including warmest day (TXx), warmest night (TNx), warm day (TX90p), warm night (TN90p), and warm spell duration indicator (WSDI), show a significant increasing trend (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, except the tepid–cool humid agroecology zone, cold extreme temperature indicators in cool days (TN10p), cool nights (TX10p), and cold spell duration (CSDI) are declining. Extreme precipitation indices, including maximum 1-day precipitation amount (RX1day), count of days when precipitation ≥10 mm (R10 mm), maximum 5-day precipitation amount (RX5day), count of days when precipitation ≥20 mm (R20mm), very wet days (R95p), extreme wet days (R99p), and total precipitation (PRCPTOT), show a decreasing trend. The perception of most farmers’ on climate change and climate extremes agreed with climate records. The major impacts perceived and asserted over all agroecologies are food price inflation, crop productivity decline, crop pests and diseases spread, livestock disease increase, and the emergence of pests and weeds. The increasing trend in extreme warm temperatures, decreasing trend in the cold extreme, and declining trend in precipitation indicators affected agricultural productivity and farmers whose livelihood depends on rainfed agriculture. This agroecology-specific study provides critical information to policymakers, decision makers, and farmers about the potential impacts of climate change and extreme events, leading to the development of agroecology-based adaptation measures.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10060089
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 61: Modeling the Contribution of Aerosols to Fog
           Evolution through Their Influence on Solar Radiation

    • Authors: Lea Al Asmar, Luc Musson-Genon, Eric Dupont, Martin Ferrand, Karine Sartelet
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Aerosols and in particular their black carbon (BC) content influence the atmospheric heating rate and fog dissipation. Substantial improvements have been introduced to the solar scheme of the computational fluid dynamic model code_saturne to estimate fluxes and heating rates in the atmosphere. This solar scheme is applied to a well-documented case of a fog that evolves into a low stratus cloud. Different sensitivity tests are conducted. They show that aerosols have a major effect with an overestimation of the direct solar fluxes by 150 W m−2 when aerosols are not considered and a reduction of the heating of the layers. Aerosols lead to an increase of the heating rate by as much as 55% in the solar infrared (SIR) band and 100% in the Ultra-Violet visible (UV-vis) band. Taking into account the fraction of BC in cloud droplets also accentuates the heating in the layers at the top of the fog layer where water liquid content is maximum. When the BC fraction in cloud droplets is equal to 8.6 × 10−6, there is an increase of approximately 7.3 °C/day in the layers. Increasing the BC fraction leads to an increase of this heating in the layer, especially in the UV-vis band.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050061
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 62: Access to Early Warning for Climate
           Change-Related Hazards in Informal Settlements of Accra, Ghana

    • Authors: Ishmael Adams, Sumita Ghosh, Goran Runeson
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Climate change-related hazards will aggravate and impact differently on urban societies. Although early warning systems will be important for reducing the hazard risks in cities, the nature of early warning systems that are available to residents of informal settlements remains less understood. This paper aimed to assess the early warning systems through which informal dwellers reduce their hazard risks in an African city. Using Accra as the case, data were collected from 582 households using a structured questionnaire along with 25 institutional key informant interviews and 14 focus discussions with state and settlement actors in this study. Findings of the paper show that a mix of formal and informal early warning systems are utilized by residents of informal settlements, but the majority of them perceived state disaster management institutions as not performing optimally in their resident settlements. The nature of land ownership in the informal settlements influenced their political exclusion and state institutions’ decisions not to locate weather monitoring equipment in their settlements. Respondents without the security of land tenure perceived state disaster management institutions as not performing optimally, which negatively affects their capacity to respond to climate change-related hazards. The paper thus recommends the incorporation of informal early warning systems into city-wide hazard early warning systems through participatory planning in Accra and similar contexts. Future scholars may extend this discourse by examining the effect of the use of informal early warning systems on the uptake of formal hazard early warning sources in informal settlements.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050062
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 63: The North Atlantic Oscillations:
           Lead–Lag Relations for the NAO, the AMO, and the AMOC. A
           High-Resolution Lead–Lag Analysis

    • Authors: Knut Lehre Seip, Hui Wang
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Several studies examine cycle periods and the interactions between the three major climate modes over the North Atlantic, namely the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO), and the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO). Here, we use a relatively novel high-resolution lead–lag (LL) method to identify short time windows with persistent LL relations in the three series during the period from 1947 to 2020. We find that there are roughly 20-year time windows where LL relations change direction at both interannual, high-frequency and multidecadal, low-frequency timescales. However, with varying LL strength, the AMO leads AMOC for the full period at the interannual timescale. During the period from 1980 to 2000, we had the sequence NAO→AMO→AMOC→NAO at the interannual timescale. For the full period in the decadal time scale, we obtain NAO→AMO→AMOC. The Ekman variability closely follows the NAO variability. Both single time series and the LL relation between pairs of series show pseudo-oscillating patterns with cycle periods of about 20 years. We list possible mechanisms that contribute to the cyclic behavior, but no conclusive evidence has yet been found.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050063
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 64: Homogenization and Trends Analysis of Monthly
           Precipitation Series in the Fez-Meknes Region, Morocco

    • Authors: Ridouane Kessabi, Mohamed Hanchane, Jose A. Guijarro, Nir Y. Krakauer, Rachid Addou, Abderrazzak Sadiki, Mohamed Belmahi
      First page: 64
      Abstract: High quality and long-term precipitation data are required to study the variability and trends of rainfall and the impact of climate change. In developing countries like Morocco, the quality of climate data collected from various weather stations faces numerous obstacles. This paper presents methods for collecting, correcting, reconstructing, and homogenizing precipitation series of Morocco’s Fez-Meknes region from 1961 to 2019. Data collected from national specialized agencies based on 83 rain gauge stations was processed through an algorithm specially designed for the homogenization of climatic data (Climatol). We applied the Mann-Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimator to raw and homogenized data to calculate rainfall trend magnitudes and significance. The homogenization process allows for the detection of a larger number of stations with statistically significant negative trends with 95% and 90% confidence levels, particularly in the mountain ranges, that threatens the main sources of water in the largest watershed in the country. The regionalization of our rain gauge stations is highlighted and compared to previous studies. The monthly and annual means of raw and homogenized data show minor differences over the three main climate zones of the region.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050064
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 65: Climate Change Dynamics and Modeling: Future

    • Authors: Salvatore Magazù, Maria Teresa Caccamo
      First page: 65
      Abstract: This preface to the Special Issue titled “Climate Change Dynamics and Modeling: Future Perspectives” presents eight articles, largely focused on a range of interdisciplinary issues related to climatic changes [...]
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050065
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 66: Climate History of the Principality of
           Transylvania during the Maunder Minimum (MM) Years (1645–1715 CE)
           Reconstructed from German Language Sources

    • Authors: Martin Stangl, Ulrich Foelsche
      First page: 66
      Abstract: This paper deals with the climate in the former Grand Duchy of Transylvania, now one of the three major geographical provinces of Romania, within the so-called Maunder Minimum (MM) (1645–1715), an astrophysically defined part of the Little Ice Age (LIA), which was characterized by reduced solar activity. The historical data from Transylvania are compared with that from Germany, Austria and Switzerland. This comparison for the period 1645–1715 shows good agreement but also reveals geographic characteristics of the region. For the first time, we present here a comparison between the four geographic areas in text and tabular form. Quotes from mostly German-language sources are reproduced in English translation. The results clearly help to identify regional climatic differences during the MM. Furthermore, we examine for a longer period (1500–1950) the extent to which the climate of Transylvania might have been affected by long-term fluctuations in solar activity, as deduced from isotopic reconstructions from ice cores. This way we compared astrophysical conditions with climatological ones in order to see if any probable relations do indeed show up. This comparison suggests a certain solar influence but the agreement is not very pronounced. Future investigation in a pan-European context is needed to reach reliable statements. Some results are unexpected—such as an unusually small number of severe winters during the last decades of the MM, where extreme cold was restricted to a few years, like the extreme winters 1699/1700 and 1708/1709.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050066
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 67: Accessing Insurance Flood Losses Using a
           Catastrophe Model and Climate Change Scenarios

    • Authors: Ladislav Palán, Michal Matyáš, Monika Váľková, Vít Kovačka, Eva Pažourková, Petr Punčochář
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Impact Forecasting has developed a catastrophe flood model for Czechia to estimate insurance losses. The model is built on a dataset of 12,066 years of daily rainfall and temperature data for the European area, representing the current climate (LAERTES-EU). This dataset was used as input to the rainfall–runoff model, resulting in a series of daily river channel discharges. Using analyses of global and regional climate models dealing with the impacts of climate change, this dataset was adjusted for the individual RCP climate scenarios in Europe. The river channel discharges were then re-derived using the already calibrated rainfall–runoff models. Based on the changed discharges, alternative versions of the standard catastrophe flood model for the Czechia were created for the various climate scenarios. In outputs, differences in severity, intensity, and number of events might be observed, as well as the size of storms. The effect on the losses might be investigated by probable maximum losses (PML) curves and average annual loss (AAL) values. For return period 1 in 5 years for the worst-case scenario, the differences can be up to +125 percent increase in insurance losses, while for the return period 1 in 100 years it is a −40 percent decrease. There is no significant effect of adaptation measures for the return period 1 in 100 years, but there is a −20 percent decrease in the return period 1 in 5 years.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050067
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 68: Reconstitution of the Climate in the
           Municipality of Guimarães (Northern Portugal): A Regional Approach
           Based on Historical Information and the Record of Measured Data

    • Authors: Leonel J.R. Nunes
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Climate change is a global phenomenon that has become a focus of concern for society, mainly due to its impacts on daily lives. Despite being a global issue that affects the entire planet, these effects are not felt in the same way in all regions, so the analysis of processes from a regional or local perspective allows a better adaptation of populations to the new reality, as well as being used as a supporting tool for decision making when implementing mitigation measures. For the present analysis, a region in Northern Portugal was chosen, which is in the Mediterranean region, considered one of the hot spots for climate change. In this region of Entre Douro e Minho, more specifically in the municipality of Guimarães, the climate of the last centuries was reconstructed based on documentary information and recent data collected and modeled for the region under study. The results show a successive alternation of hot and dry periods with colder and wetter ones, where climate instability seems to be the dominant trend over the last thousand years. Currently, with the advent of a new period of climatic instability, which, unlike the periods verified previously, now have an anthropic origin, there is a tendency for a new period to occur, in which conditions will tend to be hotter and drier. Knowing this trend in advance allows informed decisions to be made to mitigate some problems that can be associated with these conditions, such as the increase in the risk of wildfires, the proliferation of invasive species, the decrease in agriculture and forests productivity, or even the occurrence of extreme weather events.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050068
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 69: Traditional Water Governance Practices for
           Flood Mitigation in Ancient Sri Lanka

    • Authors: Vindya Hewawasam, Kenichi Matsui
      First page: 69
      Abstract: The tank cascade system, which emerged as early as the fifth century BC in Sri Lanka’s dry zone, has been portrayed as one of the oldest water management practices in the world. However, its important function as flood management has not yet been thoroughly examined. In this paper, we argue that the main principle behind the tank cascade system is not only to recycle and reuse water resources by taking advantage of natural landscapes but also to control floods. This paper examines the evolution of traditional water management and flood mitigation techniques that flourished in pre-colonial Sri Lanka. This historical examination also sheds light on recent policies that exhibited renewed interests in revitalizing some aspects of the tank cascade system in Sri Lanka’s dry zone. This paper shows how ancient Sinhalese engineers and leaders incorporated traditional scientific and engineering knowledge into flood mitigation by engendering a series of innovations for land use planning, embankment designs, and water storage technologies. It also discusses how this system was governed by both kingdoms and local communities. Water management and flood control were among the highest priorities in urban planning and management. The paper thus discusses how, for centuries, local communities successfully sustained the tank cascade system through localized governance, which recent revitalized traditional water management projects often lack.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050069
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 70: Unraveling the Multiple Drivers of
           Greening-Browning and Leaf Area Variability in a Socioeconomically
           Sensitive Drought-Prone Region

    • Authors: K. Bageshree, Abhishek, Tsuyoshi Kinouchi
      First page: 70
      Abstract: The complex attribution of climatic, hydrologic, and anthropogenic drivers to vegetation and agricultural production and their consequential societal impacts are not well understood, especially in socioeconomically sensitive states like Maharashtra, India. Here, we analyzed trends and variability in the MODIS leaf area index (LAI) time series, along with spatiotemporal patterns in precipitation, groundwater storage, agriculture statistics, and irrigation infrastructure, to identify their influences on the vegetation response and discuss their implications for farmers. The state showed greening in all biomes except forests, with a net gain of 17.478 × 103 km2 of leaf area during 2003–2019, where more than 70% of the trend in LAI is represented in croplands. Maximum greening was observed in irrigated croplands, attributable to increased crop productivity, whereas inadequate irrigation facilities with erratic rainfall patterns and droughts were primarily responsible for cropland browning. We discerned the dynamics and variability of vegetation response by incorporating a spectrum of synergistic feedbacks from multiple confounding drivers and found that uneven distribution of water availability across the administrative divisions governed the quantitative distinction in leaf area change. Despite the observed greening trends, the state witnessed a high number of farmer suicides related to droughts and agriculture failures hampering their socioeconomic security; therefore, improved irrigation infrastructure and comprehensive policy interventions are crucial for abatement of farmer distress.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050070
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 71: Climate Variability Shifting Immigrated Rice
           Planthoppers in Taiwan

    • Authors: Shou-Horng Huang, Pau-Yu Lai, Shaw-Yhi Hwang, Krishna Borhara, Wan-Ru Huang, Shih-Yu Wang
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Rice planthoppers are common insect pests in Taiwan, and they have caused significant damage in the past. The majority of rice planthoppers have seen a drastic decline in their population since the mid-2000s, a trend that has anecdotally attributed to widespread and better pest control, as well as improved rice cultivation management. By analyzing 40 years of the airborne net trap data of rice planthoppers collected in Southwest Taiwan, it was found that the pests’ yearly population, computed with a logarithmic transformation, resembles a signature climate pattern in the global oceans with a robust multi-decadal variability. An ocean temperature-based index derived from the patterns of multi-decadal variability shows a marked resemblance with the population change of common rice planthoppers, with overlapping peaks during the 1990–2010 period. The climate dynamics associated with the regional weather pattern in the vicinity of Taiwan are discussed. Phase reversal of this multi-decadal climate variability in the future may produce favorable climatic conditions for the rice planthopper population to increase back to its historical levels.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050071
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 72: Assessing Role of Drought Indices in
           Anticipating Pine Decline in the Sierra Nevada, CA

    • Authors: Yoonji Kim, Nancy E. Grulke, David A. Levin, Andrew G. Merschel, Kellie A. Uyeda
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Tree mortality in Sierra Nevada’s 2012–2015 drought was unexpectedly excessive: ~152 million trees died. The relative performance of five drought indices (DIs: SPEI, AI, PDSI, scPDSI, and PHDI) was evaluated in the complex, upland terrain which supports the forest and supplies 60% of Californian water use. We tested the relative performance of DIs parameterized with on-site and modeled (PRISM) meteorology using streamflow (linear correlation), and modeled forest stand NDVI and tree basal area increment (BAI) with current and lagged year DI. For BAI, additional co-variates that could modify tree response to the environment were included (crown vigor, point-in-time rate of bole growth, and tree to tree competition). On-site and modeled parameterizations of DIs were strongly correlated (0.9), but modeled parameterizations overestimated water availability. Current year DIs were well correlated (0.7–0.9) with streamflow, with physics-based DIs performing better than pedologically-based DIs. DIs were poorly correlated (0.2–0.3) to forest stand NDVI in these variable-density, pine-dominated forests. Current and prior year DIs significantly predicted BAI but accounted for little of the variation in the model. In this ecosystem where trees shift seasonally between near-surface to regolithic water, DIs were poorly suited for anticipating the observed tree decline.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050072
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 73: Tipping Points and Changes in Australian
           Climate and Extremes

    • Authors: Jorgen S. Frederiksen, Stacey L. Osbrough
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Systematic changes, since the beginning of the 20th century, in average and extreme Australian rainfall and temperatures indicate that Southern Australian climate has undergone regime transitions into a drier and warmer state. South-west Western Australia (SWWA) experienced the most dramatic drying trend with average streamflow into Perth dams, in the last decade, just 20% of that before the 1960s and extreme, decile 10, rainfall reduced to near zero. In south-eastern Australia (SEA) systematic decreases in average and extreme cool season rainfall became evident in the late 1990s with a halving of the area experiencing average decile 10 rainfall in the early 21st century compared with that for the 20th century. The shift in annual surface temperatures over SWWA and SEA, and indeed for Australia as a whole, has occurred primarily over the last 20 years with the percentage area experiencing extreme maximum temperatures in decile 10 increasing to an average of more than 45% since the start of the 21st century compared with less than 3% for the 20th century mean. Average maximum temperatures have also increased by circa 1 °C for SWWA and SEA over the last 20 years. The climate changes in rainfall an d temperatures are associated with atmospheric circulation shifts.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050073
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 74: Spatio-Temporal Trends of Precipitation and
           Temperature Extremes across the North-East Region of Côte
           d’Ivoire over the Period 1981–2020

    • Authors: Kouamé Donald Kouman, Amos T. Kabo-bah, Boyossoro Hélène Kouadio, Komlavi Akpoti
      First page: 74
      Abstract: The northeast region of Côte d’Ivoire, where agriculture is the main economic activity, is potentially vulnerable to extreme climatic conditions. This study aims to make a comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis of trends in extreme indices related to precipitation and temperature for the Zanzan region of Côte d’Ivoire over the period of 1981–2020. The statistical significance of the calculated trends was assessed using the non-parametric Mann–Kendall test, while Sen’s slope estimation was used to define the amount of change. For extreme precipitations, the results showed a decreasing trend in annual total precipitations estimated at 112.37 mm and in daily precipitations intensity indices. Furthermore, the consecutive dry days’ index showed an increasing trend estimated at 18.67 days. Unlike the trends in precipitation extremes, which showed statistically non-significant trends, the trends in temperature extremes were mostly significant over the entire study area. The cold spells indices all show decreasing trends, while the warm spells show increasing trends. Drawing inferences from the results, it becomes clear that the study area may be threatened by food insecurity and water scarcity. The results are aimed to support climate adaptation efforts and policy intervention in the region.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050074
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 75: The Climate Change Challenge: A Review of the
           Barriers and Solutions to Deliver a Paris Solution

    • Authors: Filipe Duarte Santos, Paulo Lopes Ferreira, Jiesper Strandsbjerg Tristan Pedersen
      First page: 75
      Abstract: Global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have continued to grow persistently since 1750. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) entered into force in 1994 to stabilize GHG emissions. Since then, the increasingly harmful impacts of global climate change and repeated scientific warnings about future risks have not been enough to change the emissions trend and enforce policy actions. This paper synthesizes the climate change challenges and the insofar insufficient mitigation responses via an integrated literature review. The fossil industry, mainstream economic thinking, national rather than international interests, and political strive for short-term interests present key barriers to climate mitigation. A continuation of such trends is reflected in the Dice model, leading to a 3.5 °C temperature increase by 2100. Despite receiving the Nobel Prize for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis via the Dice model, increases in global mean temperatures overshooting the 1.5 °C to 2 °C Paris targets imply an intensified disruption in the human–climate system. Past and present policy delays and climate disruption pave the way for solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering solutions with largely unknown and potentially dangerous side effects. This paper argues against SRM geoengineering and evaluates critical mitigation solutions leading to a decrease in global temperatures without overshooting the Paris targets. The essential drivers and barriers are discussed through a unified approach to tipping points in the human–climate system. The scientific literature presents many economically and technologically viable solutions and the policy and measures required to implement them. The present paper identifies the main barriers to integrating them in a globally cooperative way, presenting an efficient, long-term, and ethical policy approach to climate change.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050075
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 76: Mini Containers to Improve the Cold Chain
           Energy Efficiency and Carbon Footprint

    • Authors: Mahmmoud Muhammed Syam, Samantha Cabrera-Calderon, Kishorre Annanth Vijayan, Vignesh Balaji, Patrick E. Phelan, Jesus Rene Villalobos
      First page: 76
      Abstract: The cold chain—the system of refrigerated storage and transport that provides fresh produce or other essentials to be maintained at desired temperatures and environmental conditions—is responsible for substantial energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and failures in the cold chain lead to food and energy waste. Here, we introduce the mini container concept as an alternative to conventional reefers, particularly for small growers. Mini containers are relatively small, insulated boxes, with environmental conditions controlled by an electric-powered central driving unit, which can be aggregated as needed and transported by non-refrigerated trucks and trailers. We analyze the energy consumption and GHG emissions for the transport of tomatoes in two cities representing contrasting climates, Phoenix, Arizona, and Chicago, Illinois, for conventional reefers and the proposed mini containers. These two cities provide the opportunity to compare the energy consumption and GHG emissions for the proposed mini containers versus conventional refrigerated transport under extremely different climate conditions. The results show that, as expected in both cases, as the ambient air temperature increases, the energy consumption and GHG emissions also increase. For partial reefer loads less than 72% and 85% for Phoenix and Chicago, respectively, the use of the mini containers reduces energy consumption and GHG emissions because of the reduced volume requiring refrigeration. In general, since the mini containers are fully electrified, their corresponding GHG emissions can be dramatically reduced, and since the fresh produce can be pre-cooled with renewable energy, GHG emissions can even be eliminated.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050076
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 77: Towards a Flood Assessment Product for the
           Humanitarian and Disaster Management Sectors Based on GNSS Bistatic Radar

    • Authors: Nereida Rodriguez-Alvarez, Andrew Kruczkiewicz
      First page: 77
      Abstract: This manuscript focuses on the need for tailoring flood assessment products to decision making within the humanitarian sector. Decision-makers often struggle to extract all of the information contained in scientific products, either because they come from different fields of expertise or because they have different needs that are not captured in the results or the processing of the data. Here we define the key elements of a flood assessment product designed for the humanitarian sector. From a remote sensing perspective, in order to assess flooding, the measurement sampling properties, i.e., spatial resolution and temporal repeat, are key. We have therefore implemented a methodology through the processing and interpretation of the measurements from the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) mission. CYGNSS measurements are usually parametrized in various possible observables. Those observables are then linked to the surface characteristics, such as, in this case, the presence of inundation in the CYGNSS footprint. Our methodology includes the variability of the pixels in landscapes with infrastructure, rivers, agricultural fields, rural areas, and other elements characteristic of the agricultural-urban interface. We provide an original methodology that uses CYGNSS mission bistatic radar measurements and an artificial intelligence classification algorithm based on statistical properties of the land pixels through a k-means clustering strategy to detect and monitor flooding events, as well as to characterize the land surface prior to and post flooding events. The novel methodology to derive a flooding product is then evaluated towards the needs of the humanitarian sector by a cognizant link (a translator) between technologists or scientists and decision-makers. The inclusion of humanitarian needs into product development following the advice of a cognizant link is novel to the applications developed employing GNSS bistatic radar data.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050077
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 48: A High-Resolution Earth Observations and
           Machine Learning-Based Approach to Forecast Waterborne Disease Risk in
           Post-Disaster Settings

    • Authors: Farah Nusrat, Musad Haque, Derek Rollend, Gordon Christie, Ali S. Akanda
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Responding to infrastructural damage in the aftermath of natural disasters at a national, regional, and local level poses a significant challenge. Damage to road networks, clean water supply, and sanitation infrastructures, as well as social amenities like schools and hospitals, exacerbates the circumstances. As safe water sources are destroyed or mixed with contaminated water during a disaster, the risk of a waterborne disease outbreak is elevated in those disaster-affected locations. A country such as Haiti, where a large quantity of the population is deprived of safe water and basic sanitation facilities, would suffer more in post-disaster scenarios. Early warning of waterborne diseases like cholera would be of great help for humanitarian aid, and the management of disease outbreak perspectives. The challenging task in disease forecasting is to identify the suitable variables that would better predict a potential outbreak. In this study, we developed five (5) models including a machine learning approach, to identify and determine the impact of the environmental and social variables that play a significant role in post-disaster cholera outbreaks. We implemented the model setup with cholera outbreak data in Haiti after the landfall of Hurricane Matthew in October 2016. Our results demonstrate that adding high-resolution data in combination with appropriate social and environmental variables is helpful for better cholera forecasting in a post-disaster scenario. In addition, using a machine learning approach in combination with existing statistical or mechanistic models provides important insights into the selection of variables and identification of cholera risk hotspots, which can address the shortcomings of existing approaches.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040048
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 49: Estimating Future Residential Property Risk
           Associated with Wildfires in Louisiana, U.S.A.

    • Authors: Rubayet Bin Mostafiz, Carol J. Friedland, Robert V. Rohli, Nazla Bushra
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Wildfire is an important but understudied natural hazard in some areas. This research examined historical and future wildfire property risk at the census-block level in Louisiana, a U.S.A. state with relatively dense population and substantial vulnerability to loss from wildfire, despite its wet climate. Here wildfire risk is defined as the product of exposure and vulnerability to the hazard, where exposure is a function of the historical and anticipated future wildfire frequency/extent, and vulnerability is a function of population, structure and content property value, damage probability, and percent of properties damaged. The results revealed a historical (1992–2015) average annual statewide property loss due to wildfire of almost USD 5.6 million (in 2010 USD), with the greatest risk in southwestern inland, east-central, extreme northwestern, and coastal southwestern Louisiana. The geographic distribution of wildfire risk by 2050 will remain similar to that today, but the magnitude of losses was projected to increase statewide to over USD 11 million by 2050 (in 2010 USD), an increase of more than 100% over 2010 values. These estimates are conservative, as they did not include crop, forestry, or indirect losses (e.g., cost of evacuation and missed time at work). Overall, results suggested that increased efforts are needed to contain wildfires, to reduce the future risk of this increasing and underestimated hazard.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040049
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 50: Modeling the Impact of Future Climate Change
           Impacts on Rainfed Durum Wheat Production in Algeria

    • Authors: Tassadit Kourat, Dalila Smadhi, Azzeddine Madani
      First page: 50
      Abstract: The predicted climate change threatens food security in the coming years in Algeria. So, this study aims to assess the impact of future climate change on a key crop in Algeria which is rainfed durum wheat. We investigate the impact of climate change on rainfed durum wheat cultivar called Mexicali using AquaCrop crop model and the EURO-CORDEX climate projections downscaled with the ICHEC_KNMI model under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. A delta method was applied to correct the incertitudes present in the raw climate projections of two experimental sites located in Sétif and Bordj Bou Arreridj (BBA)’s Eastern High plains of Algeria (EHPs). AquaCrop was validated with a good precision (RMSE = 0.41 tha−1) to simulate Mexicali cultivar yields. In 2035–2064, it is expected at both sites: an average wheat grain yield enhances of +49% and +105% under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively, compared to the average yield of the baseline period (1981–2010), estimated at 29 qha−1. In both sites, in 2035–2064, under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, the CO2 concentrations elevation has a fertilizing effect on rainfed wheat yield. This effect compensates for the negative impacts induced by the temperatures increase and decline in precipitation and net solar radiation. An increase in wheat water productivity is predicted under both RCPs scenarios. That is due to the water loss drop induced by the shortening of the wheat-growing cycle length by the effect of temperatures increase. In 2035–2064, early sowing in mid-September and October will lead to wheat yields improvement, as it will allow the wheat plant to benefit from the precipitations increase through the fall season. Thus, this early sowing will ensure a well vegetative development and will allow the wheat’s flowering and grain filling before the spring warming period.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040050
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 51: Parameterization-Driven Uncertainties in
           Single-Forcing, Single-Model Wave Climate Projections from a CMIP6-Derived
           Dynamic Ensemble

    • Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Gil Lemos, Alvaro Semedo, Faisal Alsaaq
      First page: 51
      Abstract: This study is focused on the impact of different parameterizations in the state-of-the art wave model WAVEWATCH3 (WW3) in describing the present climate and future wave climate projections. We have used a Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6)-derived single-wind forcing (from EC-EARTH) to produce a dynamic wind-wave climate ensemble for its historic (1995–2014) and future (2081–2100) periods. We discuss the uncertainty due to the wave model (intra-model uncertainty) in simulating the present and future wave climate. The historical wave climate runs were compared against the ERA5 reanalysis and found to be in good agreement for the significant wave height. This gives a good degree of confidence to investigate the intra-model uncertainty in WW3 using the available physics packages such as ST2, ST3, ST4, and ST6. In general, for the historic period, ST3 and ST4 physics packages perform better in the tropics whereas ST6 performs better in the extratropics, based on M-Score performance assessment. The study also reveals that the extratropical South Indian Ocean and tropical eastern South Pacific areas exhibit a larger amount of uncertainty, mainly induced by the ST2 physics package. The results of this study shed new light on the impacts associated with the use of multiple physics parameterizations in wave climate ensembles, an issue that has not received the necessary attention in scientific literature.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040051
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 52: Identifying Forest Degradation and Restoration
           Opportunities in the Lancang-Mekong Region: A Tool to Determine Criteria
           and Indicators

    • Authors: Kalifi Ferretti-Gallon, James Douglas Langston, Guangyu Wang, Kebiao Huang, Chao Long, Hongbo Zhai
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Forest restoration is increasingly becoming a priority at international and national levels. Identifying forest degradation, however, is challenging because its drivers are underlying and site-specific. Existing frameworks and principles for identifying forest degradation are useful at larger scales, however, a framework that includes iterative input from local knowledge-holders would be useful at smaller scales. Here, we present a new mechanism; a framework for developing criteria and indicators that enables an approach for the identification of forest degradation and opportunities for restoration in landscapes that is free from failures that are often inherent to project cycles. The Degradation and Restoration Assessment Mechanism (DReAM) uses an iterative process that is based on local expertise and established regional knowledge to inform what is forest degradation and how to monitor restoration. We tested the mechanism’s utility at several sites in the Lancang-Mekong Region (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam). The application of this mechanism rendered a suite of appropriate criteria and indicators for use in identifying degraded forests which can help inform detailed guidelines to develop rehabilitation approaches. The mechanism is designed to be utilized by any individual or group that is interested in degradation identification and/or rehabilitation assessment.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040052
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 53: Brazil Wave Climate from a High-Resolution
           Wave Hindcast

    • Authors: Camila de Sa Cotrim, Alvaro Semedo, Gil Lemos
      First page: 53
      Abstract: A detailed climatology of ocean wind waves in the South Atlantic Ocean, based on ERA-5 reanalysis and in a higher-resolution wave hindcast (ERA-5H), both developed by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, is presented. The higher resolution of the wave fields in the ERA-5H (22 km) allowed for a better description of the wind sea and swell features compared to previous global and regional studies along the Brazilian coast. Overall, it is shown that swell waves are more prevalent and carry more energy in the offshore area of the study area, while wind sea waves dominate the nearshore regions, especially along the northern coast of Brazil. The influence of different climate indices on the significant wave heights patterns is also presented, with two behavioral groups showing opposite correlations to the North Atlantic Oscillation and Southern Annular Mode than to the Southern Oscillation Index. The analysis of the decadal trends of wind sea and swell heights during the ERA-5H period (1979–2020) shows that the long-term trends of the total significant wave height in the South Atlantic Ocean are mostly due to swell events and the wave propagation effect from Southern Ocean storms.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040053
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 54: Frequency of Winter Coupled North
           Pacific/North America Circulation Regimes

    • Authors: James E. Overland, Muyin Wang
      First page: 54
      Abstract: The jet stream over North America alternates between a more zonal direction and a wavy pattern (a more meridional flow) associated with persistent blocking patterns. To better understand these important patterns, we base our study on the frequency of winter (November–February) events during 1981–2020, based on four circulation regime types: blocking, the Alaskan Ridge, North American Ridge/Pacific Wave-Train; and zonal, the Pacific Trough and the central Pacific High/Arctic Low (Amini and Straus 2019). Increased information on within and between season variability is important, as the impacts of blocking include the California heatwave and mid-continent or east coast cold spells. Rather than extensive pattern duration or significant trends, temporal variability is the major feature. In some years the combination of the Alaskan Ridge and North American Ridge/Pacific Wave-Train patterns represent ~5 major events covering 35 days of the 120-day winter period, with individual events lasting 10 days. Within-season multiple occurrences and short durations dominate the winter meteorology of the continental United States. The characterization of the persistence of these blocking events is relevant for extended range forecasts.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040054
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 55: Climate Change Impact on Energy Poverty and
           Energy Efficiency in the Public Housing Building Stock of Bari, Italy

    • Authors: Giandomenico Vurro, Valentina Santamaria, Carla Chiarantoni, Francesco Fiorito
      First page: 55
      Abstract: The public housing stock across the European Union is generally constituted of old buildings (built prior to 1980) with high energy demand and indoor thermal comfort issues, which could be exacerbated by climate change. The aim of this paper was to quantify the impact of climate change on the energy demand of the public housing building stock. A neighbourhood located in Bari (south Italy) is considered as representative of a common construction typology of late 1970s in Italy. Energy models were created and calibrated with real-time data collected from utilities’ bills. The results showed a medium to strong correlation between age and energy consumption (r = 0.358), but no evident correlation between the number of tenants and energy consumption, although a significantly low energy consumption was found in apartments occupied by more than five tenants. An energy penalty of about 7 kWh/m2 of heating energy consumption for every 10 years of increase in the average age of tenants was calculated. Moreover, the impact of future weather scenarios on energy consumptions was analysed and an average annual energy penalty of 0.3 kWh/m2 was found.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040055
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 56: Multicriteria Spatial Modeling: Methodological
           Contribution to the Analysis of Atmospheric and Surface Heat Islands in
           Presidente Prudente, Brazil

    • Authors: Teixeira, Amorim
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Several studies demonstrate the potential of models for the representation of phenomena such as urban heat islands. This article aimed to analyze atmospheric heat islands (UHIucl) by integrating primary air temperature data with spatial information such as land use and relief from a multicriteria model based on multiple linear regression. Furthermore, we compared the measured and estimated air temperature at 11 p.m. with the surface temperature at 10:51 p.m. (local time). These temperatures were obtained through the thermal band of the Landsat 8 satellite considering extraction points of interest in Presidente Prudente city, Brazil. The multicriteria model showed reliability in UHIucl spatialization, reaching the confidence interval (p-value ≤ 0.05). The model proves that urban surface materials are the main energy sources modulating heat transfer to the atmosphere, while vegetation has a temperature-reducing effect. Precise mappings such as the one proposed here are relevant for the formulation of measures that support decision-making by public authorities. These mappings aim at urban planning that is resilient to the effects of urban climate and can be replicated in other realities.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040056
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 57: Climate Changes in Southeastern Poland and
           Food Security

    • Authors: Barbara Sawicka, Piotr Barbaś, Piotr Pszczółkowski, Dominika Skiba, Farhood Yeganehpoor, Barbara Krochmal-Marczak
      First page: 57
      Abstract: The conducted research is of particular importance for the country’s food security in the context of climate change in Southeastern Poland. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of climate on the variability of the appearance and the rate of spread of potato blights as the main factor limiting the potato yield in the conditions of Central and Eastern Europe. Combined statistical and simulation modeling methods were used. A mixed effect model was used to detect the effects of temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed on potato yield, and partial regression analysis models were used. The natural, agricultural and economic conditions in terms of suitability for potato cultivation were assessed, and factors influencing the fluctuation of the cultivated acreage, yield and harvesting of potatoes were identified. The forecast was based on empirical data from 2000 to 2019. It has been proven that potato cultivation in Southeastern Poland is more vulnerable to climate change than in the rest of the country. The results obtained from analyzing multi-annual results can help policymakers to develop strategies to increase the stability of future potato production and the safety of the crop. This will enable the better use of generated data and methodological approaches to analyze the role of climate, both on a regional and global scale.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040057
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 58: Adaptation Strategies and Approaches for
           Managing Fire in a Changing Climate

    • Authors: Martha Sample, Andrea E. Thode, Courtney Peterson, Michael R. Gallagher, William Flatley, Megan Friggens, Alexander Evans, Rachel Loehman, Shaula Hedwall, Leslie Brandt, Maria Janowiak, Christopher Swanston
      First page: 58
      Abstract: As the effects of climate change accumulate and intensify, resource managers juggle existing goals and new mandates to operationalize adaptation. Fire managers contend with the direct effects of climate change on resources in addition to climate-induced disruptions to fire regimes and subsequent ecosystem effects. In systems stressed by warming and drying, increased fire activity amplifies the pace of change and scale of severe disturbance events, heightening the urgency for management action. Fire managers are asked to integrate information on climate impacts with their professional expertise to determine how to achieve management objectives in a changing climate with altered fire regimes. This is a difficult task, and managers need support as they incorporate climate adaptation into planning and operations. We present a list of adaptation strategies and approaches specific to fire and climate based on co-produced knowledge from a science–management partnership and pilot-tested in a two-day workshop with natural resource managers and regional stakeholders. This “menu” is a flexible and useful tool for fire managers who need to connect the dots between fire ecology, climate science, adaptation intent, and management implementation. It was created and tested as part of an adaptation framework used widely across the United States and should be applicable and useful in many fire-prone forest ecosystems.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040058
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 59: Exploring AMOC Regime Change over the Past
           Four Decades through Ocean Reanalyses

    • Authors: Vincenzo de Toma, Vincenzo Artale, Chunxue Yang
      First page: 59
      Abstract: We examine North Atlantic climate variability using an ensemble of ocean reanalysis datasets to study the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) from 1979 to 2018. The dataset intercomparison shows good agreement for the latest period (1995–2018) for AMOC dynamics, characterized by a weaker overturning circulation after 1995 and a more intense one during 1979–1995, with varying intensity across the various datasets. The correlation between leading empirical orthogonal functions suggests that the AMOC weakening has connections with cooler (warmer) sea surface temperature (SST) and lower (higher) ocean heat content in the subpolar (subtropical) gyre in the North Atlantic. Barotropic stream function and Gulf Stream index reveal a shrinking subpolar gyre and an expanding subtropical gyre during the strong-AMOC period and vice versa, consistently with Labrador Sea deep convection reduction. We also observed an east–west salt redistribution between the two periods. Additional analyses show that the AMOC variability is related to the North Atlantic Oscillation phase change around 1995. One of the datasets included in the comparison shows an overestimation of AMOC variability, notwithstanding the model SST bias reduction via ERA-Interim flux adjustments: further studies with a set of numerical experiments will help explain this behavior.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040059
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 60: Quantifying Interactive Cooling Effects of
           Morphological Parameters and Vegetation-Related Landscape Features during
           an Extreme Heat Event

    • Authors: Ayda Kianmehr, Theodore C. Lim
      First page: 60
      Abstract: In this study, we apply the ENVI-met model to evaluate the effects of combinations of morphological and vegetation-related landscape features on urban temperatures and thermal comfort. We simulated the thermal conditions of 126 scenarios, varying the aspect ratios of street canyons, vegetation cover and density, surface materials, and orientations toward the prevalent winds under an extreme heat situation. Our results show how the effects of physical and vegetation parameters interact and moderate each other. We also demonstrate how sensitive thermal comfort indices such as temperature and relative humidity are to the built environment parameters during different hours of a day. This study’s findings highlight the necessity of prioritizing heat mitigation interventions based on the site’s physical characteristics and landscape features and avoiding generic strategies for all types of urban environments.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040060
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 39: Cloud-Based Decision Support System for Air
           Quality Management

    • Authors: Vasilis Evagelopoulos, Nikolaos D. Charisiou, Milton Logothetis, Georgios Evagelopoulos, Christopher Logothetis
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Air quality is important for the protection of human health, the environment and our cultural heritage and it is an issue that will acquire increased significance in the future due to the adverse effects of climate change. Thus, it is important to not simply monitor air quality, but to make information immediately available to those responsible for monitoring the networks, to policy/decision makers, but also to the general population. Moreover, the development of information technologies over the last couple of decades has allowed the proliferation of real-time pollution monitoring. The work presented herein concerns the development of an effective way of monitoring environmental parameters using dedicated software. It offers a complete suite of applications that support environmental data collection management and reporting for air quality and associated meteorology. It combines modern technologies for the proper monitoring of air quality networks, which can consist of one or more measuring stations. Innovatively, it also focuses on how to effectively present the relevant information, utilizing modern technologies, such as cloud and mobile applications, to network engineers, policy/decision managers, and to the general public at large. It also has the capability of notifying appropriate personnel in the event of failures, overruns or abnormal values. The system, in its current configuration, handles information from six networks that include over 55 air pollution monitoring stations that are located throughout Greece. This practical application has shown that the system can achieve high data availability rates, even higher than 99% during the year.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030039
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 40: Status of Food Security in East and Southeast
           Asia and Challenges of Climate Change

    • Authors: Hen-I Lin, Ya-Yin Yu, Fang-I Wen, Po-Ting Liu
      First page: 40
      Abstract: This review briefly summarizes the situation regarding food security in East and Southeast Asia. In accordance with the World Food Summit definition and 2009 Declaration of the World Summit on Food Security, the four pillars of food security—food availability, access to food, the stability of food supplies, and food utilization—are closely scrutinized along with the characteristics of food security at the sub-regional level. Historical trends for the agricultural economy and the food trade, such as food imports and exports, production and consumption, and the food price index in the sub-region, are presented and statistically analysed. Additionally, because agricultural industry in this region is vulnerable to climate change, issues about how climate change affects food security in food production systems, agricultural livelihoods, nutrition, and food policy making, which can be linked to the four pillars in different ways, are also discussed.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030040
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 41: Changing Air Quality and the Ozone Weekend
           Effect during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    • Authors: William A. Gough, Vidya Anderson
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Air pollutants, NO, NO2, and O3, were examined from April to June 2020 and compared to a 10-year (2010–2019) climatology of these pollutants for two monitoring sites in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, coinciding with local lockdown measures during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. NO and NO2 values were lower than any of the preceding 10 years at the two Toronto sites for both weekdays and weekends. Ozone concentrations did not have a corresponding decrease and in fact increased for weekdays, similar to other parts of the world. The well-documented ozone weekend effect was considerably muted during the morning rush hour throughout this pandemic period. A Fisher exact test on hourly averaged data revealed statistically significant record hourly minimums for NO and NO2, but this was not found for ozone, consistent with the aggregate ranking results. These findings are likely the result of considerably reduced vehicular traffic during this time and ozone chemistry in a NOx-saturated (VOC limited) environment. This has important implications for ozone abatement strategies.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030041
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 42: Impacts of Multiple Hurricanes and Tropical
           Storms on Watershed Hydrological Processes in the Florida Panhandle

    • Authors: Ying Ouyang, Johnny M. Grace, Prem B. Parajuli, Peter V. Caldwell
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Hurricanes and tropical storms (TS) are infrequent but disastrous events to human lives, social activities, and terrestrial ecosystems in coastal regions. Using the Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA)’s Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS) model, principal component analysis (PCA), and principal factor analysis (PFA), we estimated impacts of multiple hurricanes and TS on hydrological processes in agricultural and forested watersheds. Five hurricanes and four TS that passed near or through the Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint River basin (ACFRB) of the Florida panhandle from 1966 to 2018 were selected to estimate their impacts on rainfall, potential evapotranspiration (PET), evapotranspiration (ET), soil water percolation, surface runoff, stream discharge, groundwater recharge, and water yield (WYLD). Simulations showed that the category of hurricanes was not highly related to the amounts of rainfall, runoff, discharge, and WYLD. Based on PCA and PFA, PET and ET were highly and negatively, rainfall and discharge were highly and positively, and percolation, runoff, groundwater recharge and WYLD were moderately and positively affected by the hurricanes and TS at the ACFRB in the recent 50 years. This study provides water resource managers with critical insights into how multiple hurricanes and TS affected hydrological processes in agricultural and forested watersheds of the coastal region.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030042
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 43: Impact of Dietary Meat and Animal Products on
           GHG Footprints: The UK and the US

    • Authors: Rebecca J. Barthelmie
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Direct and indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the ~30+ billion animals consumed as food each year contribute ~14–16% of the global total. The aim of this research is to determine the contribution of meat and animal products to individual GHG footprints. Top-down estimates of GHG emissions from each livestock species are determined using livestock numbers, types, and region-specific emission factors. Comparing livestock emissions with those from individual countries, cattle rank as the third largest emitter after China and the United States (US). The largest uncertainty in these emissions calculations is in the range of emissions factors. Global top-down calculations indicate that the per capita GHG footprint from livestock emissions alone are approximately 1 tCO2eyr−1. For the United Kingdom (UK) and the US, the calculated GHG livestock-related footprints are 1.1 tCO2eyr−1 and 1.6 tCO2eyr−1 per person, respectively. Bottom-up calculations focused on the UK and the US from consumption figures indicated emissions related to meat consumption are approximately 1.3–1.5 tCO2eyr−1 per person. Comparing dietary changes with other ways of reducing GHG footprints indicates removing dietary meat is similar to avoiding one long-haul flight each year and a larger reduction than driving 100 miles less each week.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030043
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 44: Evaluation of Long-Term Trends of Rainfall in
           Perak, Malaysia

    • Authors: Muhammad Faisal Hanif, Muhammad Raza Ul Mustafa, Muhammad Usman Liaqat, Ahmad Mustafa Hashim, Khamaruzaman Wan Yusof
      First page: 44
      Abstract: This study aimed to examine the spatiotemporal seasonal and annual trends of rainfall indices in Perak, Malaysia, during the last 35 years, as any seasonal or spatial variability in rainfall may influence the regional hydrological cycle and water resources. Mann–Kendall and Sequential Mann–Kendall (SMK) tests were used to assess seasonal and annual trends. Precipitation concentration index was used to estimate variations in rainfall concentration, and Theil–Sen’s slope estimator was used to determine the spatial variability of rainfall. It was found that most of the rainfall indices are showing decreasing trends, and it was most prominent for the southwest monsoon season with a decreasing rate of 2.20 mm/year. The long-term trends for seasonal rainfall showed that rainfall declined by 0.29 mm/year during the southwest monsoon. In contrast, the northeast and the inter-monsoon seasons showed slight increases. Rainfall decreased gradually from 1994 to 2008, and the trend became more pronounced in 2008. On a spatial basis, rainfall trends have shifted from the western regions (i.e., −19 mm/year) to the southeastern regions (i.e., 10 mm/year). Overall, slightly decreasing trends in rainfall were observed in Perak Malaysia.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030044
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 45: Potential Sea Level Rise Impacts in Acapulco
           Diamante, Mexico

    • Authors: Ramiro Salvador Gómez-Villerías, Adalberto Tejeda-Martínez, Ana Cecilia Conde Álvarez, Maximino Reyes Umaña, José Luis Rosas-Acevedo, Manuel Ignacio Ruz Vargas, Erick Alfonso Galán Castro
      First page: 45
      Abstract: The potential impacts of sea level in the study region are presented using the Integrated Procedure for Estimate Sea Level Impacts (IPESLI), made up of Landsat images, official databases, and design software for geographic information systems. IPESLI is useful in areas with little georeferenced and validated information. The sea level projections are based on the climate projections, which incorporate the possible attenuation of the ice sheet near the upper end of Antarctica. Flood risk statistics were used to simulate the frequency of extreme flooding across the planet. The IPESLI was calibrated using seven field visits to compare the height values generated by the digital elevation model against the in situ data. The inundation maps generated in the study can be used to find the most vulnerable areas and initiate decision making for coastal adaptation. The IPESLI procedure has the potential to contribute to the formation of a communication bridge between climate change science and policy makers. The projection is profound for all scenarios, but it is particularly devastating for the Acapulco Diamante area if we start with the worst future climate scenario (SSP5-RCP8.5).
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030045
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 46: Climate Change, Voluntary Immobility, and
           Place-Belongingness: Insights from Togoru, Fiji

    • Authors: Merewalesi Yee, Annah E. Piggott-McKellar, Celia McMichael, Karen E. McNamara
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Many low-lying communities around the world are increasingly experiencing coastal hazard risks. As such, climate-related relocation has received significant global attention as an adaptation response. However, emerging cases of populations resisting relocation in preference for remaining in place are emerging. This paper provides an account of residents of Togoru, a low-lying coastal settlement on Viti Levu Island, Fiji. Despite facing significant coastal impacts in the form of coastal erosion, tidal inundation, and saltwater intrusion, Togoru residents are opposing plans for relocation; instead opting for in-situ adaptation. We conceptualize place-belongingness to a land and people—through personal, historic and ancestral, relational, cultural, economic, and legal connections—as critical to adaptation and mobility decision-making. We argue that for adaptation strategies to be successful and sustainable, they must acknowledge the values, perspectives, and preferences of local people and account for the tangible and intangible connections to a place.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030046
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 47: High-Resolution Estimation of Monthly Air
           Temperature from Joint Modeling of In Situ Measurements and Gridded
           Temperature Data

    • Authors: Bradley Wilson, Jeremy R. Porter, Edward J. Kearns, Jeremy S. Hoffman, Evelyn Shu, Kelvin Lai, Mark Bauer, Mariah Pope
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Surface air temperature is an important variable in quantifying extreme heat, but high-resolution temporal and spatial measurement is limited by sparse climate-data stations. As a result, hyperlocal models of extreme heat involve intensive physical data collection efforts or analyze satellite-derived land-surface temperature instead. We developed a geostatistical model that integrates in situ climate-quality temperature records, gridded temperature data, land-surface temperature estimates, and spatially consistent covariates to predict monthly averaged daily maximum surface-air temperatures at spatial resolutions up to 30 m. We trained and validated the model using data from North Carolina. The fitted model showed strong predictive performance with a mean absolute error of 1.61 ∘F across all summer months and a correlation coefficient of 0.75 against an independent hyperlocal temperature model for the city of Durham. We show that the proposed model framework is highly scalable and capable of producing realistic temperature fields across a variety of physiographic settings, even in areas where no climate-quality data stations are available.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030047
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 135: Embodied Carbon Emissions of the Residential
           Building Stock in the United States and the Effectiveness of Mitigation

    • Authors: Ming Hu
      First page: 135
      Abstract: According to the 2021 Global Status Report for Buildings and Construction published by the United Nations Environment Programme, global carbon emissions from the building sector in 2019 were nearly 14 gigatons (Gt), representing 38% of total global carbon emissions, including 10% from building construction. In the United States, the largest knowledge gap regarding embodied carbon in buildings exists at the whole-building level. The first step in creating informative policy to reduce embodied carbon emissions is to map the existing building stock emissions and changes over time to understand the primary contributing building types and hot spots (states), and then to compare and analyze mitigation scenarios. To fill this knowledge gap, this study first developed a bottom-up model to assess the embodied carbon of the US residential building stock by using 64 archetypes to represent the building stock. Then, the embodied carbon characteristics of the current building stock were analyzed, revealing that the primary contributor was single-family detached (SD) houses. The results indicated that the exterior wall was a major contributor, and that small multifamily housing was the most embodied carbon-intense building type. Two scenarios, the baseline scenario and progressive scenario, were formed to evaluate the effectiveness of six mitigation strategies. The progressive scenario with all mitigation strategies (M1–M6) applied produced a total reduction of 33.13 Gt CO2eq (42%) in the cumulative residential building stock related to carbon emissions during 2022–2050, and a total reduction of 88.34 Gt CO2eq (80%) during 2022–2100. The results show that with an embodied carbon emissions reduction in the progressive scenario (42% by 2100), the total embodied carbon emissions comply with the carbon budget of a 2 °C pathway, but will exceed the budget for a 1.5 °C pathway.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10100135
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 136: The Western Pacific North Equatorial
           Countercurrent Responses to Two Forms of El Niño During the Period
           1978 to 2017

    • Authors: Wijaya, Wisha, Hisaki
      First page: 136
      Abstract: This research aims to examine how the Western Pacific North equatorial countercurrent (NECC) flow reacts to two different forms of El Niño (EN) over a 40-year period. To establish the prevailing modes for each season, we implemented Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis on the eastward current component of the Ocean Reanalysis System 5 (ORAS5) dataset. In comparison to the Central Pacific (CP) episode, the time series principal component of the first mode (PC1) demonstrated that the strongest NECC’s magnitude often emerged during the development period (spring to fall) of the Eastern Pacific (EP) EN event. However, in episode CP 2002/2003, we witnessed an abnormal behavior in which the stronger NECC manifested. This was due to the emergence of a strong anomalous westerly wind, which differed from other CP events and forced the NECC’s magnitude to be greater. When approaching the peak stage, on the other hand, the magnitude of the NECC during the CP episode was typically greater than that of the EP episode. The NECC’s magnitude fell greatly in the second year of the EP episode, particularly during the spring season, since most EP episodes would transition into an La Niña (LN) event in the succeeding event. During the EP EN, it was found that the strength of the westerly wind had a bigger effect on the NECC than during the CP EN.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10100136
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 137: Intensity, Duration and Spatial Coverage of
           Aridity during Meteorological Drought Years over Northeast Thailand

    • Authors: Tenanile Dlamini, Veeranun Songsom, Werapong Koedsin, Raymond J. Ritchie
      First page: 137
      Abstract: Gaps in drought monitoring result in insufficient preparation measures for vulnerable areas. This paper employed the standardized precipitation index (SPI) to identify meteorological drought years and the Thornthwaite aridity index (TAI) to evaluate aridity in three provinces of northeast Thailand growing cassava and sugarcane at massive scales. Precipitation and temperature data were sourced from Global Land Data Assimilation System-2 (GLDAS-2) Noah Model products at 0.25 degree resolution and used for calculating the drought indices. This study was conducted for the period of 2004 to 2015. The SPI was computed for 1, 3 and 6 months scales to measure short- to medium-term moisture. The results indicated major meteorological drought years as 2004, 2005, 2010, 2012, 2014 and 2015. A range of 1 to 3 months of extreme rainfall shortage was experienced during each of these years, including the growing season of 2004, 2012 and 2015. TAI-based results indicated that the area experiences an average of 7 to 8 months of aridity during drought periods, compared to the historical overall average of 6 months. The spatial TAI for the major drought years indicated delayed onset, intermittency or early cut-off of the rainy season. The year 2004 was the most intense in terms of aridity. The longest duration of aridness for some areas was between 9 and 10 months in 2012 and 2014, respectively. In terms of spatial coverage, all meteorological drought years had out-of-season aridity. Based on the region’s historical records, this highlighted an increase in the frequency of droughts and duration of aridity. A disturbance in the growing season has the potential to affect crop yields, hence, the need to improve and strengthen existing adaptive measures for agriculture as the main source of food and income in the northeast.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10100137
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 138: On the Intercontinental Transferability of
           Regional Climate Model Response to Severe Forestation

    • Authors: Olivier Asselin, Martin Leduc, Dominique Paquin, Alejandro Di Di Luca, Katja Winger, Melissa Bukovsky, Biljana Music, Michel Giguère
      First page: 138
      Abstract: The biogeophysical effects of severe forestation are quantified using a new ensemble of regional climate simulations over North America and Europe. Following the protocol outlined for the Land-Use and Climate Across Scales (LUCAS) intercomparison project, two sets of simulations are compared, FOREST and GRASS, which respectively represent worlds where all vegetation is replaced by trees and grasses. Three regional climate models were run over North America. One of them, the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), was also run over Europe in an attempt to bridge results with the original LUCAS ensemble, which was confined to Europe. Overall, the CRCM5 response to forestation reveals strong inter-continental similarities, including a pronounced wintertime and springtime warming concentrated over snow-masking evergreen forests. Crucially, these northern evergreen needleleaf forests populate lower, hence sunnier, latitudes in North America than in Europe. Snow masking reduces albedo similarly over both continents, but stronger insolation amplifies the net shortwave radiation and hence warming simulated over North America. In the summertime, CRCM5 produces a mixed response to forestation, with warming over northern needleleaf forests and cooling over southern broadleaf forests. The partitioning of the turbulent heat fluxes plays a major role in determining this response, but it is not robust across models over North America. Implications for the inter-continental transferability of the original LUCAS results are discussed.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10100138
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 10 (2022)
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