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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 113 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access  
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Developments in Atmospheric Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access  
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 212)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 144)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Nīvār     Open Access  
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access  
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal  
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access  
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weather     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access  
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Number of Followers: 6  

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ISSN (Print) 2225-1154
Published by MDPI Homepage  [238 journals]
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 133: Extreme Ground Snow Loads in Europe from 1951
           to 2100

    • Authors: Pietro Croce, Paolo Formichi, Filippo Landi
      First page: 133
      Abstract: Lightweight roofs are extremely sensitive to extreme snow loads, as confirmed by recently occurring failures all over Europe. Obviously, the problem is further emphasized in warmer climatic areas, where low design values are generally foreseen for snow loads. Like other climatic actions, representative values of snow loads provided in structural codes are usually derived by means of suitable elaborations of extreme statistics, assuming climate stationarity over time. As climate change impacts are becoming more and more evident over time, that hypothesis is becoming controversial, so that suitable adaptation strategies aiming to define climate resilient design loads need to be implemented. In the paper, past and future trends of ground snow load in Europe are assessed for the period 1950–2100, starting from high-resolution climate simulations, recently issued by the CORDEX program. Maps of representative values of snow loads adopted for structural design, associated with an annual probability of exceedance p = 2%, are elaborated for Europe. Referring to the historical period, the obtained maps are critically compared with the current European maps based on observations. Factors of change maps, referred to subsequent time windows are presented considering RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission trajectories, corresponding to medium and maximum greenhouse gas concentration scenarios. Factors of change are thus evaluated considering suitably selected weather stations in Switzerland and Germany, for which high quality point measurements, sufficiently extended over time are available. Focusing on the investigated weather stations, the study demonstrates that climate models can appropriately reproduce historical trends and that a decrease of characteristic values of the snow loads is expected over time. However, it must be remarked that, if on one hand the mean value of the annual maxima tends to reduce, on the other hand, its standard deviation tends to increase, locally leading to an increase of the extreme values, which should be duly considered in the evaluation of structural reliability over time.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-08-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9090133
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 134: Drought Early Warning in Agri-Food Systems

    • Authors: Maarten van Ginkel, Chandrashekhar Biradar
      First page: 134
      Abstract: Droughts will increase in frequency, intensity, duration, and spread under climate change. Drought affects numerous sectors in society and the natural environment, including short-term reduced crop production, social conflict over water allocation, severe outmigration, and eventual famine. Early action can prevent escalation of impacts, requiring drought early warning systems (DEWSs) that give current assessments and sufficient notice for active risk management. While most droughts are relatively slow in onset, often resulting in late responses, flash droughts are becoming more frequent, and their sudden onset poses challenging demands on DEWSs for timely communication. We examine several DEWSs at global, regional, and national scales, with a special emphasis on agri-food systems. Many of these have been successful, such as some of the responses to 2015–2017 droughts in Africa and Latin America. Successful examples show that early involvement of stakeholders, from DEWS development to implementation, is crucial. In addition, regional and global cooperation can cross-fertilize with new ideas, reduce reaction time, and raise efficiency. Broadening partnerships also includes recruiting citizen science and including seemingly subjective indigenous knowledge that can improve monitoring, data collection, and uptake of response measures. More precise and more useful DEWSs in agri-food systems will prove even more cost-effective in averting the need for emergency responses, improving global food security.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-08-26
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9090134
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 135: Orchestrating the Participation of Women
           Organisations in the UNFCCC Led Climate Finance Decision Making

    • Authors: Svetlana Frenova
      First page: 135
      Abstract: The study applies orchestration as a conceptual framework to provide early evidence on the engagement of women organisations in UNFCCC-led climate finance governance and reflect on the quality of their mobilisation. Women organisations are one of the non-state stakeholders, whose role is acknowledged in the UNFCCC Decision 3/CP.25 for improving gender-responsiveness of climate finance. Within the UNFCCC, orchestration is used as a governance approach to enhance the mobilisation of non-state actors for facilitating the implementation of policy goals. The study utilises mixed methods including document review and interviews with key informants. The findings of the study indicate that the quality of orchestration has been low, i.e., the engagement of women organisations in the UNFCCC-led climate finance decision making has, so far, been limited. This is due to the lack of policy convergence on the purposes of orchestration, as well as the newness, and complexity of the issues at the intersection of climate finance and gender. While the concept of orchestration is intended to enhance decision making practices, the study suggests that in the case of the engagement of women organisations in the UNFCCC-led climate finance governance, orchestration is used only for symbolic purposes. To make the engagement of women organisations more meaningful, there is a need to diversify the existing orchestration practices and improve consistency in policy framing.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-08-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9090135
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 136: Climate Change Mitigation Potential of Wind

    • Authors: Rebecca J. Barthelmie, Sara C. Pryor
      First page: 136
      Abstract: Global wind resources greatly exceed current electricity demand and the levelized cost of energy from wind turbines has shown precipitous declines. Accordingly, the installed capacity of wind turbines grew at an annualized rate of about 14% during the last two decades and wind turbines now provide ~6–7% of the global electricity supply. This renewable electricity generation source is thus already playing a role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector. Here we document trends within the industry, examine projections of future installed capacity increases and compute the associated climate change mitigation potential at the global and regional levels. Key countries (the USA, UK and China) and regions (e.g., EU27) have developed ambitious plans to expand wind energy penetration as core aspects of their net-zero emissions strategies. The projected climate change mitigation from wind energy by 2100 ranges from 0.3–0.8 °C depending on the precise socio-economic pathway and wind energy expansion scenario followed. The rapid expansion of annual increments to wind energy installed capacity by approximately two times current rates can greatly delay the passing of the 2 °C warming threshold relative to pre-industrial levels. To achieve the required expansion of this cost-effective, low-carbon energy source, there is a need for electrification of the energy system and for expansion of manufacturing and installation capacity.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9090136
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 137: Shortwave Irradiance (1950 to 2020): Dimming,
           Brightening, and Urban Effects in Central Arizona'

    • Authors: Anthony Brazel, Roger Tomalty
      First page: 137
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term change in shortwave irradiance in central Arizona (1950–2020) and to detect apparent dimming/brightening trends that may relate to many other global studies. Global Energy Budget Archives (GEBA) monthly data were accessed for the available years 1950–1994 for Phoenix, Arizona and other selected sites in the Southwest desert. Monthly data of the database called gridMET were accessed, a 4-km gridded climate data based on NLDAS-2 and available for the years 1979–2020. Three Agricultural Meteorological Network (AZMET) automated weather stations in central Arizona have observed hourly shortwave irradiance over the period 1987–present. Two of the rural AZMET sites are located north and south of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area, and another site is in the center of the city of Phoenix. Using a combination of GEBA, gridMET, and AZMET data, annual time series demonstrate dimming up to late 1970s, early 1980s of −30 W/m2 (−13%), with brightening changes in the gridMET data post-1980 of +9 W/m2 (+4.6%). An urban site of the AZMET network showed significant reductions post-1987 up to 2020 of −9 W/m2 (3.8%) with no significant change at the two rural sites.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9090137
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 138: Drought Coincided with, but Does Not Explain,
           Late Holocene Megafauna Extinctions in SW Madagascar

    • Authors: Sean W. Hixon, Jason H. Curtis, Mark Brenner, Kristina G. Douglass, Alejandra I. Domic, Brendan J. Culleton, Sarah J. Ivory, Douglas J. Kennett
      First page: 138
      Abstract: Climate drying could have transformed ecosystems in southern Madagascar during recent millennia by contributing to the extinction of endemic megafauna. However, the extent of regional aridification during the past 2000 years is poorly known, as are the responses of endemic animals and economically important livestock to drying. We inferred ~1600 years of climate change around Lake Ranobe, SW Madagascar, using oxygen isotope analyses of monospecific freshwater ostracods (Bradleystrandesia cf. fuscata) and elemental analyses of lake core sediment. We inferred past changes in habitat and diet of introduced and extinct endemic megaherbivores using bone collagen stable isotope and 14C datasets (n = 63). Extinct pygmy hippos and multiple giant lemur species disappeared from the vicinity of Ranobe during a dry interval ~1000–700 cal yr BP, but the simultaneous appearance of introduced cattle, high charcoal concentrations, and other evidence of human activity confound inference of drought-driven extirpations. Unlike the endemic megafauna, relatively low collagen stable nitrogen isotope values among cattle suggest they survived dry intervals by exploiting patches of wet habitat. Although megafaunal extirpations coincided with drought in SW Madagascar, coupled data from bone and lake sediments do not support the hypothesis that extinct megafauna populations collapsed solely because of drought. Given that the reliance of livestock on mesic patches will become more important in the face of projected climate drying, we argue that sustainable conservation of spiny forests in SW Madagascar should support local livelihoods by ensuring that zebu have access to mesic habitat. Additionally, the current interactions between pastoralism and riparian habitats should be studied to help conserve the island’s biodiversity.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9090138
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 139: Temperature and Precipitation Extremes over
           the Iberian Peninsula under Climate Change Scenarios: A Review

    • Authors: Susana C. Pereira, David Carvalho, Alfredo Rocha
      First page: 139
      Abstract: This paper presents the results of a systematic review of temperature and precipitation extremes over the Iberian Peninsula, focusing on observed changes in temperature and precipitation during the past years and what are the projected changes by the end of the 21st century. The purpose of this review is to assess the current literature about extreme events and their change under global warming. Observational and climate modeling studies from the past decade were considered in this review. Based on observational evidence and in climate modeling experiments, mean and maximum temperatures are projected to increase about 2 °C around the mid-century and up to 4 °C by the end of the century. The more pronounced warming is expected in summer for the central-south region of IP, with temperatures reaching 6 °C to 8 °C around 2100. Days with maximum temperature exceeding 30 °C and 40 °C will become more common (20 to 50 days/year), and the heatwaves will be 7 to 10 times more frequent. Significative reduction in events related to cold extremes. The climate change signal for precipitation in IP shows a considerable decline in precipitation (10–15%) for all seasons except winter. It is predicted that heavy precipitation will increase by 7% to 15%. Extreme precipitation will increase slightly (5%) by mid-century, then decline to 0% by 2100. Significant reduction in wet days (40% to 60%) followed by a dryness trend more pronounced by the end of the century.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9090139
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 140: Ensembles for Viticulture Climate
           Classifications of the Willamette Valley Wine Region

    • Authors: Brian Skahill, Bryan Berenguer, Manfred Stoll
      First page: 140
      Abstract: Future climate projections provide an opportunity to evaluate cultivar climate classification and preferred styles of wine production for a wine grape growing region. However, ensemble selection must account for downscaled archive model skills and interdependence rather than be arbitrary and subjective. Relatedly, methods for generalizing climate model choice remain uncertain, particularly for identifying optimal ensemble subsets. In this study we consider the complete archive of the thirty-two Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) daily Localized Constructed Analogs (LOCA) downscaled historic datasets and their observational data that were used for downscaling and bias corrections. We apply four model averaging methods to determine optimal ensembles for the computation of six common climate classification indices for the Willamette Valley (WV) American Viticultural Area (AVA). Among the four methods evaluated, elastic-net regularization consistently performed best with identifying optimal ensemble subsets. Variation exists among the optimal ensembles computed for each of the six bioclimatic indices. However, a subset of approximately seven to ten climate models were consistently excluded across all six indices’ ensembles. While specific to the archive and wine region, optimal ensemble sizes were noticeably larger than ensemble sizes commonly employed in published studies. Results are reported such that they can be used by researchers to independently perform analyses involving any one of the six bioclimatic indices throughout the WV AVA while using historic and future LOCA CMIP5 climate projections. The data and methods employed herein are applicable for other wine regions.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9090140
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 141: Adaptation to Climate Change by Australian

    • Authors: John Freebairn
      First page: 141
      Abstract: Climate change in the form of higher temperatures, changes of rainfall patterns, and for some, more natural disasters will reduce the returns from current farming choices on what to produce and the production methods. Variation of climate change across regions and uncertainty about the magnitudes of change call for a diverse mix of adaptations to climate change across different regions and individual farms. This paper considers the institutional structure for effective climate change adaptation by Australian farms. It is argued that a rerun of the history of successful adaptation of farms to new technology, changes in output and input prices, natural climate variation, and other circumstances can be repeated for climate change adaptation. Individual farms can benefit from incentives and rewards to revise their decisions, which will combine with better individual outcomes. Complementary support by the government includes the provision of climate change and weather forecast information, support for research into new technology, help to evaluate the pros and cons of alternative choices, and provision of a social safety net for those unable to adapt.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9090141
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 142: Effects of Climate Conditions on TP
           Outsourcing in Lake Kinneret (Israel)

    • Authors: Moshe Gophen
      First page: 142
      Abstract: Since the mid-1980s, significant changes in climate conditions have occurred, and trends of dryness in the Kinneret drainage basin have been documented, including a temperature increase and precipitation decline. The precipitation decline, and consequently the reduction in river discharge, resulted in a decrease in TP (total phosphorus) flux into Lake Kinneret. After the drainage of the Hula natural wetlands and old Lake Hula during the 1950s, the ecological characteristics of the Hula Valley were modified. Nutrient fluxes downstream into Lake Kinneret were therefore predicted. The impacts of climate conditions (precipitation and discharge) on TP (total phosphorus) outsourcing through erosive action are significant: higher and lower discharge enhances and reduces TP load, respectively. The total TP flushing range from the Hula Valley peat soil through the subterranean medium and where TP is directed are not precisely known but are probably outside Lake Kinneret. Most runoff water and mediated TP originates from bedrock through erosive action. Long-term records of TP concentrations in headwaters and potential resources in the Hula Valley confirmed the significant influence of climate conditions on the outsourcing of TP capacity. The impacts of agricultural development, external fertilizer loads and migratory cranes in the winter are probably insignificant.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9090142
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 143: Distributed Energy Balance Flux Modelling of
           Mass Balances in the Artesonraju Glacier and Discharge in the Basin of
           Artesoncocha, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    • Authors: María Fernanda Lozano Gacha, Manfred Koch
      First page: 143
      Abstract: A distributed energy balance model (DEBAM) is applied to estimate the mass balance of the Artesonraju glacier in the Cordillera Blanca (CB), Peru, and to simulate the ensuing discharge into its respective basin, Artesoncocha. The energy balance model calibrations show that, by using seasonal albedos, reasonable results for mass balances and discharge can be obtained, as witnessed by annually aggregated Nash Sutcliffe coefficients (E) of 0.60–0.87 for discharge and of 0.58–0.71 for mass measurements carried out in the period 2004–2007. Mass losses between −1.42 and −0.45 m.w.e. are calculated for that period. The elevation line altitudes (ELAs), which lie between 5009 and 5050 m.a.s.l., are also well simulated, compared to those measured by the Unidad Glaciologica de Recursos Hídricos del Perú (UGRH). It is demonstrated that the net radiation which drives the energy balance and melting processes is mainly affected by the amount of reflected shortwave radiation from the different surfaces. Moreover, the longwave radiation sinks between 63 and 73% of solar radiative energy in the dry season. Further sensitivity studies indicate that the assumed threshold temperature T0 is crucial in mass balance simulations, as it determines the extension of areas with different albedos. An optimal T0 between 2.6 and 3.8 °C is deduced from these simulations.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9090143
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 144: Predicting Water Availability in Water Bodies
           under the Influence of Precipitation and Water Management Actions Using

    • Authors: Harleen Kaur, Mohammad Afshar Alam, Saleha Mariyam, Bhavya Alankar, Ritu Chauhan, Rana Muhammad Adnan, Ozgur Kisi
      First page: 144
      Abstract: Recently, awareness about the significance of water management has risen as population growth and global warming increase, and economic activities and land use continue to stress our water resources. In addition, global water sustenance efforts are crippled by capital-intensive water treatments and water reclamation projects. In this paper, a study of water bodies to predict the amount of water in each water body using identifiable unique features and to assess the behavior of these features on others in the event of shock was undertaken. A comparative study, using a parametric model, was conducted among Vector Autoregression (VAR), the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), and the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model for determining the change in water level and water flow of water bodies. Besides, orthogonalized impulse responses (OIR) and forecast error variance decompositions (FEVD) explaining the evolution of water levels and flow rates, the study shows the significance of VAR/VECM models over LSTM. It was found that on some water bodies, the VAR model gave reliable results. In contrast, water bodies such as water springs gave mixed results of VAR/VECM.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9090144
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 9 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 121: Conceptual Model for the Vulnerability
           Assessment of Springs in the Indian Himalayas

    • Authors: Denzil Daniel, Aavudai Anandhi, Sumit Sen
      First page: 121
      Abstract: The Indian Himalayan Region is home to nearly 50 million people, more than 50% of whom are dependent on springs for their sustenance. Sustainable management of the nearly 3 million springs in the region requires a framework to identify the springs most vulnerable to change agents which can be biophysical or socio-economic, internal or external. In this study, we conceptualize vulnerability in the Indian Himalayan springs. By way of a systematic review of the published literature and synthesis of research findings, a scheme of identifying and quantifying these change agents (stressors) is presented. The stressors are then causally linked to the characteristics of the springs using indicators, and the resulting impact and responses are discussed. These components, viz., stressors, state, impact, and response, and the linkages are used in the conceptual framework to assess the vulnerability of springs. A case study adopting the proposed conceptual model is discussed for Mathamali spring in the Western Himalayas. The conceptual model encourages quantification of stressors and promotes a convergence to an evidence-based decision support system for the management of springs and the dependent ecosystems from the threat due to human development and climate change.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9080121
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 122: Hydro-Meteorological Trends in an Austrian
           Low-Mountain Catchment

    • Authors: Gerald Krebs, David Camhy, Dirk Muschalla
      First page: 122
      Abstract: While ongoing climate change is well documented, the impacts exhibit a substantial variability, both in direction and magnitude, visible even at regional and local scales. However, the knowledge of regional impacts is crucial for the design of mitigation and adaptation measures, particularly when changes in the hydrological cycle are concerned. In this paper, we present hydro-meteorological trends based on observations from a hydrological research basin in Eastern Austria between 1979 and 2019. The analyzed variables include air temperature, precipitation, and catchment runoff. Additionally, the number of wet days, trends for catchment evapotranspiration, and computed potential evapotranspiration were derived. Long-term trends were computed using a non-parametric Mann–Kendall test. The analysis shows that while mean annual temperatures were decreasing and annual temperature minima remained constant, annual maxima were rising. Long-term trends indicate a shift of precipitation to the summer, with minor variations observed for the remaining seasons and at an annual scale. Observed precipitation intensities mainly increased in spring and summer between 1979 and 2019. Catchment actual evapotranspiration, computed based on catchment precipitation and outflow, showed no significant trend for the observed time period, while potential evapotranspiration rates based on remote sensing data increased between 1981 and 2019.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9080122
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 123: Simulations of Ozone Feedback Effects on the
           Equatorial Quasi-Biennial Oscillation with a Chemistry–Climate Model

    • Authors: Kiyotaka Shibata
      First page: 123
      Abstract: Ozone feedback effects on the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) were investigated with a chemistry–climate model (CCM) by modifying ozone abundance in the radiative process. Under a standard run for 50 years, the CCM could realistically reproduce the QBO of about a 28-month period for wind and ozone. Five experiment runs were made for 20 years through varying ozone abundance only in the equatorial stratosphere from 100 to 10 hPa by −40, −20, −10, +10, and +20%, respectively, after the chemistry module and transferring the resultant ozone to the radiation calculation. It was found that the modification of ozone abundance in the radiation substantially changed the period of the QBO but slightly influenced the amplitude of the QBO. The 10% and 20% increase runs led to longer QBO periods (31 and 34 months) than that of the standard run, i.e., lengthening by 3 and 6 months, while the 10%, 20%, and 40% decrease runs resulted in shorter periods (24, 22, and 17 months), i.e., shortening by 4, 6, and 11 months. These substantial changes in the QBO period in the experiment runs indicate that the ozone feedback significantly affects the QBO dynamics through the modulation in solar heating.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9080123
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 124: Climatology of Three-Dimensional
           Eliassen–Palm Wave Activity Fluxes in the Northern Hemisphere
           Stratosphere from 1981 to 2020

    • Authors: Indrė Gečaitė
      First page: 124
      Abstract: Based on the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis data from 1981 to 2020, the climatological features of the vertical components of three-dimensional Eliassen–Palm (EP) wave activity fluxes (WAF) were investigated. The parameter is related to eddy heat flux and is a key indicator of the upward and downward propagation of quasi-stationary planetary-scale waves. Northern Hemisphere data from a 30 km height (or about a 10-hPa level) were used for the analysis. We evaluated the extreme values (daily maxima and minima) of the vertical WAFs, the probability of their recurrences, and their interannual and daily variability observed over the last four decades. The correlation between the upward EP WAF maxima and the 10-hPa stratosphere temperature anomalies were examined. The results show that very close relationships exist between these two parameters with a short time lag, but the initial state of the stratosphere is a key factor in determining the strength of these relationships. Moreover, trends over the last 40 years were evaluated. In this research, we did not find any significant changes in the extreme values of the vertical WAFs. Finally, the dominant spatial patterns of upward and downward extreme WAFs were evaluated. The results show that there are three main regions in the stratosphere where extremely intensive upward and downward WAFs can be observed.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9080124
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 125: Flood Risk Assessment under Climate Change:
           The Petite Nation River Watershed

    • Authors: Khalid Oubennaceur, Karem Chokmani, Yves Gauthier, Claudie Ratte-Fortin, Saeid Homayouni, Jean-Patrick Toussaint
      First page: 125
      Abstract: In Canada, climate change is expected to increase the extreme precipitation events by magnitude and frequency, leading to more intense and frequent river flooding. In this study, we attempt to map the flood hazard and damage under projected climate scenarios (2050 and 2080). The study was performed in the two most populated municipalities of the Petite Nation River Watershed, located in southern Quebec (Canada). The methodology follows a modelling approach, in which climate projections are derived from the Hydroclimatic Atlas of Southern Quebec following two representative concentration pathways (RCPs) scenarios, i.e., RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. These projections are used to predict future river flows. A frequency analysis was carried out with historical data of the peak flow (period 1969–2018) to derive different return periods (2, 20, and 100 years), which were then fed into the GARI tool (Gestion et Analyse du Risque d’Inondation). This tool is used to simulate flood hazard maps and to quantify future flood risk changes. Projected flood hazard (extent and depth) and damage maps were produced for the two municipalities under current and for future scenarios. The results indicate that the flood frequencies are expected to show a minor decrease in peak flows in the basin at the time horizons, 2050 and 2080. In addition, the depth and inundation areas will not significantly change for two time horizons, but instead show a minor decrease. Similarly, the projected flood damage changes in monetary losses are projected to decrease in the future. The results of this study allow one to identify present and future flood hazards and vulnerabilities, and should help decision-makers and the public to better understand the significance of climate change on flood risk in the Petite Nation River watershed.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9080125
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 126: Mass Balance Sensitivity and Future
           Projections of Rabots Glaciär, Sweden

    • Authors: Moon Taveirne, Laura Ekemar, Berta González Sánchez, Josefine Axelsson, Qiong Zhang
      First page: 126
      Abstract: Glacier mass balance is heavily influenced by climate, with responses of individual glaciers to various climate parameters varying greatly. In northern Sweden, Rabots Glaciär’s mass balance has decreased since it started being monitored in 1982. To relate Rabots Glaciär’s mass balance to changes in climate, the sensitivity to a range of parameters is computed. Through linear regression of mass balance with temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed and incoming radiation the climate sensitivity is established and projections for future summer mass balance are made. Summer mass balance is primarily sensitive to temperature at −0.31 m w.e. per °C change, while winter mass balance is mainly sensitive to precipitation at 0.94 m w.e. per % change. An estimate using summer temperature sensitivity projects a dramatic decrease in summer mass balance to −3.89 m w.e. for the 2091–2100 period under climate scenario RCP8.5. With large increases in temperature anticipated for the next century, more complex modelling studies of the relationship between climate and glacier mass balance is key to understanding the future development of Rabots Glaciär.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9080126
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 127: Identification of Weather Influences on Flight
           Punctuality Using Machine Learning Approach

    • Authors: Sakdirat Kaewunruen, Jessada Sresakoolchai, Yue Xiang
      First page: 127
      Abstract: One of the top long-term threats to airport resilience is extreme climate-induced conditions, which negatively affect the airport and flight operations. Recent examples, including hurricanes, storms, extreme temperatures (cold/hot), and heavy rains, have damaged airport facilities, interrupted air traffic, and caused higher operational costs. With the development of civil aviation and the pre-COVID-19 surging demand for flights, the passengers’ complaints of flight delay increased, according to FoxBusiness. This study aims to discover the weather factors affecting flight punctuality and determine a high-dimensional scale of consequences stemming from weather conditions and flight operational aspects. Machine learning has been developed in correlation with the weather and statistical data for operations at Birmingham Airport as a case study. The cross-correlated datasets have been kindly provided by Birmingham Airport and the Meteorological Office. The scope and emphasis of this study is placed on the machine learning application to practical flight punctuality prediction in relation to climate conditions. Random forest, artificial neural network, support vector machine, and linear regression are used to develop predictive models. Grid-search and cross-validation are used to select the best parameters. The model can grasp the trend of flight punctuality rates well where R2 is 0.80 and the root mean square error (RMSE) is less than 15% using the model developed by random forest technique. The insights derived from this study will help Airport Authorities and the Insurance industry in predicting the scale of consequences in order to promptly enact and enable adaptative airport climate resilience plans, including air traffic rescheduling, financial resilience to climate variances and extreme weather conditions.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9080127
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 128: Adaptive Heritage: Is This Creative Thinking
           or Abandoning Our Values'

    • Authors: Jim Perry, Iain J. Gordon
      First page: 128
      Abstract: Protected areas, such as natural World Heritage sites, RAMSAR wetlands and Biosphere Reserves, are ecosystems within landscapes. Each site meets certain criteria that allow it to qualify as a heritage or protected area. Both climate change and human influence (e.g., incursion, increased tourist visitation) are altering biophysical conditions at many such sites. As a result, conditions at many sites are falling outside the criteria for their original designation. The alternatives are to change the criteria, remove protection from the site, change site boundaries such that the larger or smaller landscape meets the criteria, or manage the existing landscape in some way that reduces the threat. This paper argues for adaptive heritage, an approach that explicitly recognizes changing conditions and societal value. We discuss the need to view heritage areas as parts of a larger landscape, and to take an adaptive approach to the management of that landscape. We offer five themes of adaptive heritage: (1) treat sites as living heritage, (2) employ innovative governance, (3) embrace transparency and accountability, (4) invest in monitoring and evaluation, and (5) manage adaptively. We offer the Australian Wet Tropics as an example where aspects of adaptive heritage currently are practiced, highlighting the tools being used. This paper offers guidance supporting decisions about natural heritage in the face of climate change and non-climatic pressures. Rather than delisting or lowering standards, we argue for adaptive approaches.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9080128
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 129: Local Melon and Watermelon Crop Populations to
           Moderate Yield Responses to Climate Change in North Africa

    • Authors: Stuart Alan Walters, Mimouni Abdelaziz, Rachid Bouharroud
      First page: 129
      Abstract: Climate change is having a tremendous influence on world food production, with arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas especially susceptible. In these areas, locally adapted crop varieties or landraces can be used to mitigate the influence of climate change on current and future food security challenges. The high genetic diversity within these populations allows for crops to adapt to changing environments or other stresses that influence growth and productivity. Thus, local Moroccan melon (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) landraces were compared to pure-line varieties in southwestern Morocco to identify their adaptability and possible ability to mitigate current and future climate change. Results indicated that the melon and watermelon landraces evaluated most likely could help mitigate yield losses from climate change in this area of Morocco. ‘AitOulyad’, a local muskmelon type, and ‘Rasmouka Ananas’ were both outstanding melon landraces with high plant vigor and yields. For watermelon, ‘AitOulyad’ had extremely high yields but had high numbers of seed in the flesh, while ‘Rasmouka’ had a lower yield, fewer seeds in the flesh, and a higher fruit consistency. This research indicates that melon and watermelon landraces in this area of southwestern Morocco with a semi-arid to arid climate will continue to play a major role in crop adaptation to maintain high productivity under a rapidly changing environment.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9080129
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 130: Plant Species Richness in Multiyear Wet and
           Dry Periods in the Chihuahuan Desert

    • Authors: Debra P. C. Peters, Heather M. Savoy, Susan Stillman, Haitao Huang, Amy R. Hudson, Osvaldo E. Sala, Enrique R. Vivoni
      First page: 130
      Abstract: In drylands, most studies of extreme precipitation events examine effects of individual years or short-term events, yet multiyear periods (>3 y) are expected to have larger impacts on ecosystem dynamics. Our goal was to take advantage of a sequence of multiple long-term (4-y) periods (dry, wet, average) that occurred naturally within a 26-y time frame to examine responses of plant species richness to extreme rainfall in grasslands and shrublands of the Chihuahuan Desert. Our hypothesis was that richness would be related to rainfall amount, and similar in periods with similar amounts of rainfall. Breakpoint analyses of water-year precipitation showed five sequential periods (1993–2018): AVG1 (mean = 22 cm/y), DRY1 (mean = 18 cm/y), WET (mean = 30 cm/y), DRY2 (mean = 18 cm/y), and AVG2 (mean = 24 cm/y). Detailed analyses revealed changes in daily and seasonal metrics of precipitation over the course of the study: the amount of nongrowing season precipitation decreased since 1993, and summer growing season precipitation increased through time with a corresponding increase in frequency of extreme rainfall events. This increase in summer rainfall could explain the general loss in C3 species after the wet period at most locations through time. Total species richness in the wet period was among the highest in the five periods, with the deepest average storm depth in the summer and the fewest long duration (>45 day) dry intervals across all seasons. For other species-ecosystem combinations, two richness patterns were observed. Compared to AVG2, AVG1 had lower water-year precipitation yet more C3 species in upland grasslands, creosotebush, and mesquite shrublands, and more C4 perennial grasses in tarbush shrublands. AVG1 also had larger amounts of rainfall and more large storms in fall and spring with higher mean depths of storm and lower mean dry-day interval compared with AVG2. While DRY1 and DRY2 had the same amount of precipitation, DRY2 had more C4 species than DRY1 in creosote bush shrublands, and DRY1 had more C3 species than DRY2 in upland grasslands. Most differences in rainfall between these periods occurred in the summer. Legacy effects were observed for C3 species in upland grasslands where no significant change in richness occurred from DRY1 to WET compared with a 41% loss of species from the WET to DRY2 period. The opposite asymmetry pattern was found for C4 subdominant species in creosote bush and mesquite shrublands, where an increase in richness occurred from DRY1 to WET followed by no change in richness from WET to DRY2. Our results show that understanding plant biodiversity of Chihuahuan Desert landscapes as precipitation continues to change will require daily and seasonal metrics of rainfall within a wet-dry period paradigm, as well as a consideration of species traits (photosynthetic pathways, lifespan, morphologies). Understanding these relationships can provide insights into predicting species-level dynamics in drylands under a changing climate.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9080130
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 131: Transportation Network Companies: Drivers’
           Perceptions of Ride-Sharing Regarding Climate Change and Extreme Weather

    • Authors: Sandra Olivia Brugger, Theresa Watts
      First page: 131
      Abstract: The transportation sector is a major factor contributing to climate change. Transportation Network Companies (TNC) may become part of solutions to reduce emissions and their drivers play an important role in doing so. This study aims to understand TNC driver’s perceptions of climate change, to understand how climate change and extreme weather affects their business and how they see their role in contributing to or mitigating climate change. We conducted an in-person survey of TNC drivers in Nevada, USA, and analyzed the derived information with descriptive statistics and content analysis. Among the 75 TNC drivers, almost half believe climate change is happening and is caused by human activities. We found TNC drivers and their business are affected by extreme weather events. Currently the drivers do not see their role in mitigating climate change and lack the awareness of green initiatives already in place by TNCs’. We conclude that TNCs could increase their climate change responsibility by providing driver incentives for cars with reduced emissions or by geographically expanding customer incentives for using sustainable TNC options such as car-pooling. By doing so, TNC may play a role in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and traffic congestion; thus, contributing to improved sustainable transportation practices.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-08-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9080131
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 132: Effects of Climate Change on the Future of
           Heritage Buildings: Case Study and Applied Methodology

    • Authors: Harold Enrique Huerto-Cardenas, Niccolò Aste, Claudio Del Pero, Stefano Della Torre, Fabrizio Leonforte
      First page: 132
      Abstract: Heritage buildings and the precious artworks contained therein, represent inestimable cultural and artistic evidence from the past that must be properly preserved for future generations. In the last decades, climate change has gained relevance and is becoming crucial to assess the building performance under such effect to provide timely mitigation actions to preserve our cultural heritage. In this regard, this paper outlines a method that combines different experimental activities and tools to forecast possible future risks due to climate change for the conservation of the artworks and provide its application in a relevant case study in Italy, the Duomo di Milano. In detail, the suggested method consists of the monitoring of the building indoor climate to validate a simulation model, defining possible future scenarios based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projections, and evaluation of the future conservation risks of the main artworks. The results of the analysis carried out, show that for some artworks (e.g., stone sculptures, some organic materials, etc.), the conservation conditions will not worsen compared to the current situation, while for others (e.g., paintings, wooden objects, etc.) the risk of deterioration is expected to increase substantially. This study helps to understand how the future climate can affect the indoor environment of a huge masonry building and allow to plan targeted mitigation strategies aimed to reduce the future risks.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-08-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9080132
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 8 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 103: Precipitation Climatology for the Arid Region
           of the Arabian Peninsula—Variability, Trends and Extremes

    • Authors: Platon Patlakas, Christos Stathopoulos, Helena Flocas, Nikolaos S. Bartsotas, George Kallos
      First page: 103
      Abstract: The Arabian Peninsula is a region characterized by diverse climatic conditions due to its location and geomorphological characteristics. Its precipitation patterns are characterized by very low annual amounts with great seasonal and spatial variability. Moreover, extreme events often lead to flooding and pose threat to human life and activities. Towards a better understanding of the spatiotemporal features of precipitation in the region, a thirty-year (1986-2015) climatic analysis has been prepared with the aid of the state-of-the-art numerical modeling system RAMS/ICLAMS. Its two-way interactive nesting capabilities, explicit cloud microphysical schemes with seven categories of hydrometeors and the ability to handle dust aerosols as predictive quantities are significant advantages over an area where dust is a dominant factor. An extended evaluation based on in situ measurements and satellite records revealed a good model behavior. The analysis was performed in three main components; the mean climatic characteristics, the rainfall trends and the extreme cases. The extremes are analyzed under the principles of the extreme value theory, focusing not only on the duration but also on the intensity of the events. The annual and monthly rainfall patterns are investigated and discussed. The spatial distribution of the precipitation trends revealed insignificant percentage differences in the examined period. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the eastern part and the top half of the western Arabian Peninsula presented the lowest risk associated with extreme events. Apart from the pure scientific interest, the present study provides useful information for different sectors of society and economy, such as civil protection, constructions and reinsurance.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9070103
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 104: Introducing the Built Environment in a
           Changing Climate: Interactions, Challenges, and Perspectives

    • Authors: Giulia Ulpiani, Michele Zinzi
      First page: 104
      Abstract: Planning for climate change adaptation is among the most complex challenges cities are facing today [...]
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9070104
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 105: Integrated Water Vapor during Rain and
           Rain-Free Conditions above the Swiss Plateau

    • Authors: Klemens Hocke, Leonie Bernet, Wenyue Wang, Christian Mätzler, Maxime Hervo, Alexander Haefele
      First page: 105
      Abstract: Water vapor column density, or vertically-integrated water vapor (IWV), is monitored by ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR) and ground-based receivers of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). For rain periods, the retrieval of IWV from GNSS Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD) neglects the atmospheric propagation delay of the GNSS signal by rain droplets. Similarly, it is difficult for ground-based dual-frequency single-polarisation microwave radiometers to separate the microwave emission of water vapor and cloud droplets from the rather strong microwave emission of rain. For ground-based microwave radiometry at Bern (Switzerland), we take the approach that IWV during rain is derived from linearly interpolated opacities before and after the rain period. The intermittent rain periods often appear as spikes in the time series of integrated liquid water (ILW) and are indicated by ILW ≥0.4 mm. In the present study, we assume that IWV measurements from radiosondes are not affected by rain. We intercompare the climatologies of IWV(rain), IWV(no rain), and IWV(all) obtained by radiosonde, ground-based GNSS atmosphere sounding, ground-based MWR, and ECMWF reanalysis (ERA5) at Payerne and Bern in Switzerland. In all seasons, IWV(rain) is 3.75 to 5.94 mm greater than IWV(no rain). The mean IWV differences between GNSS and radiosonde at Payerne are less than 0.26 mm. The datasets at Payerne show a better agreement than the datasets at Bern. However, the MWR at Bern agrees with the radiosonde at Payerne within 0.41 mm for IWV(rain) and 0.02 mm for IWV(no rain). Using the GNSS and rain gauge measurements at Payerne, we find that IWV(rain) increases with increase of the precipitation rate during summer as well as during winter. IWV(rain) above the Swiss Plateau is quite well estimated by GNSS and MWR though the standard retrievals are limited or hampered during rain periods.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9070105
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 106: Synoptic–Dynamic Patterns Affecting Iran’s
           Autumn Precipitation during ENSO Phase Transitions

    • Authors: Faranak Bahrami, Abbas Ranjbar Saadatabadi, Nir Y. Krakauer, Tayyebeh Mesbahzadeh, Farshad Soleimani Sardoo
      First page: 106
      Abstract: We compared the effect on autumn (October, November, December) precipitation over Iran during two types of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase transitions from the perspective of anomalies in wave activity flux and sea level pressure along the Atlantic–Mediterranean storm track, as well as precipitation. We used Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) to identify the transition phases of ENSO (El Niño to La Niña and also La Niña to El Niño, referred to as type 1 and type 2, respectively). Climate data during the period of 1950 to 2019 used in this study is derived from NCEP-NCAR reanalysis. In order to investigate the intensity and direction of Rossby wave trains in different ENSO transitions, we used the wave activity flux parameter, and to evaluate the statistical significance of values, we calculated Student’s t-test. The impact of the Atlantic storm track on the Mediterranean storm track was shown to be greater in type 2 transitions. Further, the existence of a stronger wave source region in the Mediterranean region during type 2 transitions was established. Results also showed the weakening of the Iceland low and Azores high pressure in type 1 transitions and the reinforcement of both in type 2, with the differences being significant at up to a 99% confidence level. Pressure values over Iran were at or below normal in type 1 years and below normal in type 2. Finally, the composite analysis of precipitation anomaly revealed that during ENSO type 1 transitions, most regions of Iran experienced low precipitation, while in type 2, the precipitation was more than average, statistically significant at 75% confidence level or higher over the northern half of the country.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9070106
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 107: Assessing Impact of Climate Variability in
           Southwest Coastal Bangladesh Using Livelihood Vulnerability Index

    • Authors: Sabrina Mehzabin, M. Shahjahan Mondal
      First page: 107
      Abstract: This study analyzed the variability of rainfall and temperature in southwest coastal Bangladesh and assessed the impact of such variability on local livelihood in the last two decades. The variability analysis involved the use of coefficient of variation (CV), standardized precipitation anomaly (Z), and precipitation concentration index (PCI). Linear regression analysis was conducted to assess the trends, and a Mann–Kendall test was performed to detect the significance of the trends. The impact of climate variability was assessed by using a livelihood vulnerability index (LVI), which consisted of six livelihood components with several sub-components under each component. Primary data to construct the LVIs were collected through a semi-structed questionnaire survey of 132 households in a coastal polder. The survey data were triangulated and supplemented with qualitative data from focused group discussions and key informant interviews. The results showed significant rises in temperature in southwest coastal Bangladesh. Though there were no discernable trends in annual and seasonal rainfalls, the anomalies increased in the dry season. The annual PCI and Z were found to capture the climate variability better than the currently used mean monthly standard deviation. The comparison of the LVIs of the present decade with the past indicated that the livelihood vulnerability, particularly in the water component, had increased in the coastal polder due to the increases in natural hazards and climate variability. The index-based vulnerability analysis conducted in this study can be adapted for livelihood vulnerability assessment in deltaic coastal areas of Asia and Africa.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9070107
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 108: Data-Driven Analysis of Forest–Climate
           Interactions in the Conterminous United States

    • Authors: Olga Rumyantseva, Nikolay Strigul
      First page: 108
      Abstract: A predictive understanding of interactions between vegetation and climate has been a grand challenge in terrestrial ecology for over 200 years. Developed in recent decades, continental-scale monitoring of climate and forest dynamics enables quantitative examination of vegetation–climate relationships through a data-driven paradigm. Here, we apply a data-intensive approach to investigate forest–climate interactions across the conterminous USA. We apply multivariate statistical methods (stepwise regression, principal component analysis) including machine learning to infer significant climatic drivers of standing forest basal area. We focus our analysis on the ecoregional scale. For most ecoregions analyzed, both stepwise regression and random forests indicate that factors related to precipitation are the most significant predictors of forest basal area. In almost half of US ecoregions, precipitation of the coldest quarter is the single most important driver of basal area. The demonstrated data-driven approach may be used to inform forest-climate envelope modeling and the forecasting of large-scale forest dynamics under climate change scenarios. These results have important implications for climate, biodiversity, industrial forestry, and indigenous communities in a changing world.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9070108
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 109: A Long-Term Spatiotemporal Analysis of
           Vegetation Greenness over the Himalayan Region Using Google Earth Engine

    • Authors: Nikul Kumari, Ankur Srivastava, Umesh Chandra Dumka
      First page: 109
      Abstract: The Himalayas constitute one of the richest and most diverse ecosystems in the Indian sub-continent. Vegetation greenness driven by climate in the Himalayan region is often overlooked as field-based studies are challenging due to high altitude and complex topography. Although the basic information about vegetation cover and its interactions with different hydroclimatic factors is vital, limited attention has been given to understanding the response of vegetation to different climatic factors. The main aim of the present study is to analyse the relationship between the spatiotemporal variability of vegetation greenness and associated climatic and hydrological drivers within the Upper Khoh River (UKR) Basin of the Himalayas at annual and seasonal scales. We analysed two vegetation indices, namely, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) time-series data, for the last 20 years (2001–2020) using Google Earth Engine. We found that both the NDVI and EVI showed increasing trends in the vegetation greening during the period under consideration, with the NDVI being consistently higher than the EVI. The mean NDVI and EVI increased from 0.54 and 0.31 (2001), respectively, to 0.65 and 0.36 (2020). Further, the EVI tends to correlate better with the different hydroclimatic factors in comparison to the NDVI. The EVI is strongly correlated with ET with r2 = 0.73 whereas the NDVI showed satisfactory performance with r2 = 0.45. On the other hand, the relationship between the EVI and precipitation yielded r2 = 0.34, whereas there was no relationship was observed between the NDVI and precipitation. These findings show that there exists a strong correlation between the EVI and hydroclimatic factors, which shows that changes in vegetation phenology can be better captured using the EVI than the NDVI.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9070109
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 110: Observed Daily Temperature Variability and
           Extremes over Southeastern USA (1978–2017)

    • Authors: Souleymane Fall, Kapo M. Coulibaly, Joseph E. Quansah, Gamal El Afandi, Ramble Ankumah
      First page: 110
      Abstract: This study presents an analysis of extreme temperature events over southeastern USA from 1978 to 2017. This region is part of the so-called ‘warming hole’ where long-term surface temperature trends are negative or non-significant, in contrast with the remainder of the country. This study examines whether this distinctive characteristic reflects on the region’s trends in temperature extremes. Daily maximum and minimum temperatures from the US Historical Climatology Network were used to compute extreme indices recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices. Temperature extreme indices computed for all stations using the RClimDex package were gridded onto a regular latitude–longitude grid, and a spatiotemporal analysis of associated trends was performed. The results point to a tendency toward warming due to increasing trends in the annual occurrence of the hottest day, the warmest night, warm days, warm nights, summer days, tropical nights, and warm spells, as well as decreases in cool nights, cool days, and frost days. Statistically significant trend changes over large portions of the Southeast were dominated by increases in the frequency of the coldest night, summer days, and warm nights, and decreases in cool nights and frost days. Comparison of our results with other global and regional studies indicate that most of the extreme temperature changes over the Southeast are consistent with findings from other parts of the United States (US) and the world. Overall, this study shows that being part of the ‘warming hole’ does not preclude southeastern US from an intensification of temperature extremes, whether it is an increase in warm extremes or a decrease in cold ones. Further, the results suggest that, should the current trends continue in the long term, the Southeast will not be considered as being part of a warming hole anymore.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9070110
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 111: Assessment of Climatic Parameters for Future
           Climate Change in a Major Agricultural State in India

    • Authors: Ranjeet Kumar Jha, Prasanta K. Kalita, Richard A. Cooke
      First page: 111
      Abstract: The change in future climate will have a prominent impact on crop production and water requirement. Crop production is directly related to climatic variables. Temperature, solar radiation, wind, precipitation, CO2 concentration and other climatic variables dictate crop yield. This study, based on long-term historical data, investigates the patterns and changes in climatic variables (precipitation, temperature, and solar radiation) that would most significantly affect the future crop production in many parts of the world, and especially in India, where most farmers depend on rainfall for rice production. Statistical analyses—box and whisker plot, mean absolute error, Taylor diagram, double mass curve, Mann–Kendall trend test, and projected climate change—were used to assess the significance of the climatic factors for the purpose of agricultural modeling. Large variability in precipitation may cause the flash floods and affect the farming, and at the same time, increase in temperature from baseline period will lead to high water requirement by crops, and may cause drought if rainfall does not occur. Decrease in solar radiation will affect crop growth and development, and thus, would hamper the crop production. The results of this study would be useful in identifying the negative issues arising from climate change in future agricultural practices in Bihar, India. Furthermore, the results can also help in developing management strategies to combat the climate change impact on crop production.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9070111
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 112: Sensitivity of Winter Barley Yield to Climate
           Variability in a Pleistocene Loess Area

    • Authors: Kurt Heil, Sebastian Gerl, Urs Schmidhalter
      First page: 112
      Abstract: Global climate change is predicted to increase temperatures and change the distribution of precipitation. However, there is high uncertainty regarding the regional occurrence and intensity of climate change. Therefore, this work examines the effects of climate parameters on the long-term yields of winter barley and assesses the parameters affecting plant development throughout the year and in specific growth phases. The investigation was carried out in an area with Pleistocene loess, a highly fertile site in Germany. The effect of climate on crop yields was modeled with monthly weather parameters and additional indices such as different drought parameters, heat-related stress, late spring frost, early autumn frost, and precipitation-free periods. Residuals and yield values were treated as dependent variables. The residuals were determined from long-term yield trends using the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method. The results indicated that temperature and precipitation are significant in all calculations in all variants, but to a lesser degree when considered as sums or mean values, compared with specific indices (e.g., frost-alternating days, the temperature threshold, the precipitation intensity, rain-free days, the early/late frost index, and the de Martonne–Reichel dryness index). The inter-annual variations in crop yields were mainly determined by the prevailing climatic conditions in winter as well as the transition periods from the warmer season to winter and vice versa. The main winter indices were the temperature threshold, frost-alternating days, and precipitation intensity. During the main growth periods, only the precipitation intensity was significant. These findings can be attributed to the high available field water capacity of this site, which overcomes the need for summer precipitation if the soil water storage is replenished during winter.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9070112
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 113: Performance Evaluation and Comparison of
           Satellite-Derived Rainfall Datasets over the Ziway Lake Basin, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Aster Tesfaye Hordofa, Olkeba Tolessa Leta, Tena Alamirew, Nafyad Serre Kawo, Abebe Demissie Chukalla
      First page: 113
      Abstract: Consistent time series rainfall datasets are important in performing climate trend analyses and agro-hydrological modeling. However, temporally consistent ground-based and long-term observed rainfall data are usually lacking for such analyses, especially in mountainous and developing countries. In the absence of such data, satellite-derived rainfall products, such as the Climate Hazard Infrared Precipitations with Stations (CHIRPS) and Global Precipitation Measurement Integrated Multi-SatellitE Retrieval (GPM-IMERG) can be used. However, as their performance varies from region to region, it is of interest to evaluate the accuracy of satellite-derived rainfall products at the basin scale using ground-based observations. In this study, we evaluated and demonstrated the performance of the three-run GPM-IMERG (early, late, and final) and CHIRPS rainfall datasets against the ground-based observations over the Ziway Lake Basin in Ethiopia. We performed the analysis at monthly and seasonal time scales from 2000 to 2014, using multiple statistical evaluation criteria and graphical methods. While both GPM-IMERG and CHIRPS showed good agreement with ground-observed rainfall data at monthly and seasonal time scales, the CHIRPS products slightly outperformed the GPM-IMERG products. The study thus concluded that CHIRPS or GPM-IMERG rainfall data can be used as a surrogate in the absence of ground-based observed rainfall data for monthly or seasonal agro-hydrological studies.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9070113
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 114: Recent Climatic Trends and Analysis of Monthly
           Heating and Cooling Degree Hours in Sydney

    • Authors: Iro Livada, Andri Pyrgou, Shamila Haddad, Mahsan Sadeghi, Mattheos Santamouris
      First page: 114
      Abstract: Recent climatic trends of two nearby stations in Sydney were examined in terms of hourly ambient air temperature and wind direction for the time period 1999–2019. A reference was set for the monthly number of cooling (CDH) and heating (HDH) degree hours and the number of monthly hours that temperatures exceeded 24 °C (T24) or were below 14 °C (T14), parameters affecting not only the energy demands but also the quality of life. The degree hours were linked to the dominant synoptic conditions and the local phenomena: sea breeze and inland winds. The results indicated that both areas had higher mean monthly number of HDH (980–1421) than CDH (397–748), thus higher heating demands. The results also showed a higher mean monthly number of T14 (34–471) than T24 (40–320). A complete spatiotemporal profile of the climatic variations was given through the analysis of their dynamic progress and correlation. In order to estimate the daily values of CDH and HDH, T24 and T14 empirical models were calculated per month based on the maximum and minimum daily air temperatures. The use of forecasted weather conditions and the created empirical models may later be used in the energy planning scenarios.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9070114
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 115: Challenges and Opportunities of Coal Phase-Out
           in Western Macedonia

    • Authors: Dimitris Ziouzios, Evangelos Karlopoulos, Panagiotis Fragkos, Zoi Vrontisi
      First page: 115
      Abstract: As part of the European Green Deal, the EU aims to become climate-neutral and reach net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Ιn this context, EU member states are required to develop a national strategy to achieve the required emissions reductions under the Paris Agreement and EU climate goals. Western Macedonia is a region in North-western Greece with its economy largely dominated by lignite mining, lignite-fired power plants and district heating systems. In 2019, the Greek Government set the goal of withdrawing all lignite plants by 2028, with most units being withdrawn already by 2023. This decision has had an immense socio-economic impact on the region of Western Macedonia. This research work reflects the current situation at the socio-economic and socio-political level in Western Macedonia and discusses the policies implemented in the context of the lignite phase-out process to ensure a just transition for households and businesses of the region. Although there is not a ‘one-size-fits-all’ blueprint for successful low-carbon transitions of high-carbon intensive regional economies, the main target of our paper is understanding the impacts, challenges and opportunities of decarbonizing Western Macedonia.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9070115
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 116: Analysis of Urban Greening Scenarios for
           Improving Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Neighbourhoods of Lecce (Southern

    • Authors: Elisa Gatto, Fabio Ippolito, Gennaro Rispoli, Oliver Savio Carlo, Jose Luis Santiago, Eeva Aarrevaara, Rohinton Emmanuel, Riccardo Buccolieri
      First page: 116
      Abstract: This study analyses the interactions and impacts between multiple factors i.e., urban greening, building layout, and meteorological conditions that characterise the urban microclimate and thermal comfort in the urban environment. The focus was on two neighbourhoods of Lecce city (southern Italy) characterised through field campaigns and modelling simulations on a typical hot summer day. Field campaigns were performed to collect greening, building geometry, and microclimate data, which were employed in numerical simulations of several greening scenarios using the Computational Fluid Dynamics-based and microclimate model ENVI-met. Results show that, on a typical summer day, trees may lead to an average daily decrease of air temperature by up to 1.00 °C and an improvement of thermal comfort in terms of Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT) by up to 5.53 °C and Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) by up to 0.53. This decrease is more evident when the urban greening (in terms of green surfaces and trees) is increased by 1266 m2 in the first neighbourhood and 1988 m2 in the second one, with respect to the current scenario, proving that shading effect mainly contributes to improving the urban microclimate during daytime. On the contrary, the trapping effect of heat, stored by the surfaces during the day and released during the evening, induces an increase of the spatially averaged MRT by up to 2 °C during the evenings and a slight deterioration of thermal comfort, but only locally where the concentration of high LAD trees is higher. This study contributes to a better understanding of the ecosystem services provided by greening with regard to microclimate and thermal comfort within an urban environment for several hours of the day. It adds knowledge about the role of green areas in a Mediterranean city, an important hot spot of climate change, and thus it can be a guide for important urban regeneration plans.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9070116
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 117: Determinants of Smallholder Livestock
           Farmers’ Household Resilience to Food Insecurity in South Africa

    • Authors: Vuyiseka A. Myeki, Yonas T. Bahta
      First page: 117
      Abstract: This study identified factors affecting livestock farmers’ agricultural drought resilience to food insecurity in Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Data of 217 smallholder livestock farmers were used in a principal component analysis to estimate the agricultural drought resilience index. The structural equation approach was then applied to assess smallholder livestock farmers’ resilience to food insecurity. The study found that most smallholder livestock farmers (81%) were not resilient to agricultural drought. Assets (β = 0.150), social safety nets (β = 0.001), and adaptive capacity (β = 0.171) indicators positively impacted households’ resilience to food insecurity with 5% significance. Climate change indicators negatively impacted households’ resilience to food insecurity. Two variables were included under climate change, focusing on drought, namely drought occurrence (β = −0.118) and drought intensity (β = −0.021), which had a negative impact on household resilience to food insecurity with 10% significance. The study suggests that smallholder livestock farmers need assistance from the government and various stakeholders to minimize vulnerability and boost their resilience to food insecurity.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9070117
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 118: Functional Data Visualization and Outlier
           Detection on the Anomaly of El Niño Southern Oscillation

    • Authors: Jamaludin Suhaila
      First page: 118
      Abstract: The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a well-known cause of year-to-year climatic variations on Earth. Floods, droughts, and other natural disasters have been linked to the ENSO in various parts of the world. Hence, modeling the ENSO’s effects and the anomaly of the ENSO phenomenon has become a main research interest. Statistical methods, including linear and nonlinear models, have intensively been used in modeling the ENSO index. However, these models are unable to capture sufficient information on ENSO index variability, particularly on its temporal aspects. Hence, this study adopted functional data analysis theory by representing a multivariate ENSO index (MEI) as functional data in climate applications. This study included the functional principal component, which is purposefully designed to find new functions that reveal the most important type of variation in the MEI curve. Simultaneously, graphical methods were also used to visualize functional data and capture outliers that may not have been apparent from the original data plot. The findings suggest that the outliers obtained from the functional plot are then related to the El Niño and La Niña phenomena. In conclusion, the functional framework was found to be more flexible in representing the climate phenomenon as a whole.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9070118
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 119: Time Series Analysis of Climatic Variables in
           Peninsular Spain. Trends and Forecasting Models for Data between 20th and
           21st Centuries

    • Authors: Pitshu Mulomba Mukadi, Concepción González-García
      First page: 119
      Abstract: Time series of mean monthly temperature and total monthly precipitation are two of the climatic variables most easily obtained from weather station records. There are many studies analyzing historical series of these variables, particularly in the Spanish territory. In this study, the series of these two variables in 47 stations of the provincial capitals of mainland Spain were analyzed. The series cover time periods from the 1940s to 2013; the studies reviewed in mainland Spain go up to 2008. ARIMA models were used to represent their variation. In the preliminary phase of description and identification of the model, a study to detect possible trends in the series was carried out in an isolated manner. Significant trends were found in 15 of the temperature series, and there were trends in precipitation in only five of them. The results obtained for the trends are discussed with reference to those of other, more detailed studies in the different regions, confirming whether the same trend was maintained over time. With the ARIMA models obtained, 12-month predictions were made by measuring errors with the observed data. More than 50% of the series of both were modeled. Predictions with these models could be useful in different aspects of seasonal job planning, such as wildfires, pests and diseases, and agricultural crops.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9070119
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 120: Trends of Hydroclimatic Intensity in Colombia

    • Authors: Oscar Mesa, Viviana Urrea, Andrés Ochoa
      First page: 120
      Abstract: Prediction of precipitation changes caused by global climate change is a practical and scientific problem of high complexity. To advance, we look at the record of all available rain gauges in Colombia and at the CHIRPS database to estimate trends in essential variables describing precipitation, including HY-INT, an index of the hydrologic cycle’s intensity. Most of the gauges and cells do not show significant trends. Moreover, the signs of the statistically significant trends are opposite between the two datasets. Satisfactory explanation for the discrepancy remains open. Among the CHIRPS database’s statistically significant trends, the western regions (Pacific and Andes) tend to a more intense hydrologic cycle, increasing both intensity and mean dry spell length, whereas for the northern and eastern regions (Caribbean, Orinoco, and Amazon), the tendencies are opposite. This dipole in trends suggests different mechanisms: ENSO affects western Colombia more directly, whereas rainfall in the eastern regions depends more on the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Amazon basin dynamics. Nevertheless, there is countrywide accord among gauges and cells with significant increasing trends for annual precipitation. Overall, these observations constitute essential evidence of the need for developing a more satisfactory theory of climate change effects on tropical precipitation.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9070120
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 7 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 88: Costs and Distributional Effects of Climate
           Transformation of the Vehicle Fleet in the EU

    • Authors: Ing-Marie Gren, Abenezer Zeleke Aklilu
      First page: 88
      Abstract: This study estimates the minimum total cost and distributional effects among countries transforming the car fleet in the EU to reduce emissions of carbon dioxides by 2050 by switching from fossil fuel-driven passenger cars to hybrid and electric-driven cars. Minimum cost is estimated using a dynamic optimization model in which costs are calculated as decreases in consumer surplus in the demand for vehicles under given annual increases in travel demand, carbon efficiency and technological improvement of electric cars. Distributional effects are calculated for the cost-effective allocation of costs among the EU member states and UK. Calculations are made for different emission reductions, and the cost for achieving a 60% reduction from the 1990 emission level ranges between 0.13% and 0.61% of the EU’s GDP depending on assumptions about development of travel demand and carbon efficiency. The results indicate a slightly regressive allocation in most scenarios, where the cost share is relatively high for low income countries.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9060088
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 89: Validation of the High-Altitude Wind and Rain
           Airborne Profiler during the Tampa Bay Rain Experiment

    • Authors: Jonathan Coto, Linwood Jones, Gerald M. Heymsfield
      First page: 89
      Abstract: This paper deals with the validation of rain rate and wind speed measurements from the High-Altitude Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP), which occurred in September 2013 when the NASA Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle passed over an ocean rain squall line in the Gulf of Mexico near the North Florida coast. The three-dimensional atmospheric rain distribution and the associated ocean surface wind vector field were simultaneously measured by two independent remote sensing and two in situ systems, namely the ground-based National Weather Service Next-Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD); the European Space Agency satellite Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), and two instrumented weather buoys. These independent measurements provided the necessary data to calibrate the HIWRAP radar using the measured ocean radar backscatter and to validate the HIWRAP rain and wind vector retrievals against NEXRAD, ASCAT and ocean buoys observations. In addition, this paper presents data processing procedures for the HIWRAP instrument, including the development of a geometric model to collocate time-morphed rain rates from the NEXRAD radar with HIWRAP atmospheric rain profiles. Results of the rain rate intercomparison are presented, and they demonstrate excellent agreement with the NEXRAD time-interpolated rain volume scans. In our analysis, we find that HIWRAP produces wind and rain rates that are consistent with the supporting ground and satellite estimates, thereby providing validation of the geolocation, the calibration, and the geophysical retrieval algorithms for the HIWRAP instrument.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9060089
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 90: Climate Change Perceptions by Smallholder
           Coffee Farmers in the Northern and Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    • Authors: Suzana G. Mbwambo, Sixbert K. Mourice, Akwilin J. P. Tarimo
      First page: 90
      Abstract: Smallholder farmers are among the most vulnerable groups to climate change. Efforts to enhance farmers’ adaptation to climate change are hindered by lack of information on how they are experiencing and responding to climate change. Therefore, this paper examines smallholder farmers’ perceptions of climate change, factors influencing their perceptions, and the impacts and adaptation strategies adopted over the past three to four decades. A list of farmers was obtained from the Agricultural Marketing Cooperative Society (AMCOS) and filtered on the basis of age and farming experience. In order to explore factors influencing household perceptions of climate change, a structured questionnaire was administered to the randomly selected household heads. Data on rainfall and temperature were acquired from Lyamungo and Burka Coffee estate (Northern Highlands zone) and Mbimba and Mbinga (Southern Highlands zone) offices of the Tanzania Meteorological Agency (TMA) with the exception of data from Burka Coffee estate, which were acquired from a private operator. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Farmers’ perceptions were consistent with meteorological data both pointing to significant decline in rainfall and increase in temperature since 1979. Factors such as level of education, farming experience, and access to climate information influenced farmers’ perception on climate change aspects. Based on these results, it is recommended to enhance timely and accurate weather information delivery along with developing institutions responsible for education and extension services provision. The focus of education or training should be on attenuating the impacts of climate change through relevant adaptation measures in each coffee-growing region.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9060090
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 91: Ecosystem-Based Adaptation to Protect Avian
           Species in Coastal Communities in the Greater Niagara Region, Canada

    • Authors: Samantha Gauthier, Bradley May, Liette Vasseur
      First page: 91
      Abstract: Coastal communities are increasingly vulnerable to climate change and its effects may push coastal ecosystems to undergo irreversible changes. This is especially true for shorebirds with the loss of biodiversity and resource-rich habitats to rest, refuel, and breed. To protect these species, it is critical to conduct research related to nature-based Solutions (NbS). Through a scoping review of scientific literature, this paper initially identified 85 articles with various ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) strategies that could help conserve shorebird populations and promote ecotourism. Of these 85 articles, 28 articles had EbA strategies that were examined, with some like coral reefs and mangroves eliminated as they were inappropriate for this region. The scoping review identified four major EbA strategies for the Greater Niagara Region with living shorelines and beach nourishment being the most suitable, especially when combined. These strategies were then evaluated against the eight core principles of nature-based solutions protecting shorebird as well as human wellbeing. Living shoreline strategy was the only one that met all eight NbS principles. As the coastline of the region greatly varies in substrate and development, further research will be needed to decide which EbA strategies would be appropriate for each specific area to ensure their efficacy.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9060091
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 92: Water Quality Threats, Perceptions of Climate
           Change and Behavioral Responses among Farmers in the Ethiopian Rift Valley

    • Authors: Tewodros R. Godebo, Marc A. Jeuland, Christopher J. Paul, Dagnachew L. Belachew, Peter G. McCornick
      First page: 92
      Abstract: This work aims to assess water quality for irrigated agriculture, alongside perceptions and adaptations of farmers to climate change in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). Climate change is expected to cause a rise in temperature and variability in rainfall in the region, reducing surface water availability and raising dependence on groundwater. The study data come from surveys with 147 farmers living in the Ziway–Shala basin and water quality assessments of 162 samples from groundwater wells and surface water. Most groundwater samples were found to be unsuitable for long term agricultural use due to their high salinity and sodium adsorption ratio, which has implications for soil permeability, as well as elevated bicarbonate, boron and residual sodium carbonate concentrations. The survey data indicate that water sufficiency is a major concern for farmers that leads to frequent crop failures, especially due to erratic and insufficient rainfall. An important adaptation mechanism for farmers is the use of improved crop varieties, but major barriers to adaptation include a lack of access to irrigation water, credit or savings, appropriate seeds, and knowledge or information on weather and climate conditions. Local (development) agents are identified as vital to enhancing farmers’ knowledge of risks and solutions, and extension programs must therefore continue to promote resilience and adaptation in the area. Unfortunately, much of the MER groundwater that could be used to cope with declining viability of rainfed agriculture and surface water availability, is poor in quality. The use of saline groundwater could jeopardize the agricultural sector, and most notably commercial horticulture and floriculture activities. This study highlights the complex nexus of water quality and sufficiency challenges facing the agriculture sector in the region, and should help decision-makers to design feasible strategies for enhancing adaptation and food security.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9060092
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 93: Challenges and Opportunities for Climate Change
           Education (CCE) in East Africa: A Critical Review

    • Authors: Abigael Apollo, Marcellus Forh Mbah
      First page: 93
      Abstract: It is undoubtedly clear that climate change is happening, and its adverse impacts could reverse the progress made toward meeting sustainable development goals. The global crisis poses one of the most severe challenges to reducing poverty and existing inequalities, especially in developing countries that are projected to be highly vulnerable to climate variability. However, the education sector provides an untapped opportunity for successful climate change adaptation and mitigation through knowledge and skill acquisitions, and consequently, positive behavioral change. Specifically, education can capacitate individuals and communities to make informed decisions and take practical actions for climate-resilient sustainable development. This study is focused on East Africa, a region whose economy heavily relies on climate-dependent activities. At present, East African governments are already embedding climate change in their school curriculum. However, they lack coherent approaches to leverage climate change education as a tool in their adaptation and mitigation strategies. Therefore, this review explores some of the critical barriers to climate change education and possible opportunities for leveraging learning to promote sustainable development in East Africa.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9060093
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 94: Climate Change Projections of Dry and Wet
           Events in Iberia Based on the WASP-Index

    • Authors: Cristina Andrade, Joana Contente, João A. Santos
      First page: 94
      Abstract: The Weighted Anomaly of Standardized Precipitation Index (WASP-Index) was computed over Iberia for three monthly timescales (3-month, 6-month and 12-month) in 1961–2020, based on an observational gridded precipitation dataset (E-OBS), and between 2021 and 2070, based on bias-corrected precipitation generated by a six-member climate model ensemble from EURO-CORDEX, under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The area-mean values revealed an upward trend in the frequency of occurrence of intermediate-to-severe dry events over Iberia, which will be strengthened in the future, particularly for the 12-month WASP (12m-WASP) intermediate dry events under RCP8.5. Besides, the number of 3-month WASP (3m-WASP) intermediate-to-severe wet events is projected to increase (mostly the severest events under RCP4.5) but no evidence was found for an increase in the number of more persistent 12m-WASP wet events under both RCPs. Despite important spatial heterogeneities, an increase/decrease of the intensity, duration and frequency of occurrence of the 12m-WASP intermediate-to-severe dry/wet events was found under both scenarios, mainly in the southernmost regions of Iberia (mainly Comunidad Valenciana, Región de Murcia, Andalucía in Spain, Alentejo, and Algarve in Portugal), thus becoming more exposed to prolonged and severe droughts in the future. This finding corroborates the results of previous studies.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9060094
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 95: An Institutional-Based Governance Framework for
           Energy Efficiency Promotion in Small Island Developing States

    • Authors: Kalim U. Shah, Pravesh Raghoo, Dinesh Surroop
      First page: 95
      Abstract: Energy efficiency and conservation policy continues to take the proverbial “backseat” to energy access and renewable energy policy discourses in small island developing states (SIDS). In this study, we intend to motivate the energy efficiency policy agenda to encourage more action. To do so, we review the current energy challenges in SIDS and the role of energy efficiency in addressing those challenges, discuss the trends in the rate of improvement in energy efficiency in SIDS, exhibit an updated list of energy efficiency programs and initiatives being implemented in SIDS, consider barriers to energy efficiency implementation and set forth a policy-focused plan to accelerate action. Barriers for the adoption of energy efficiency policies continue to be institutional and policy- and governance-oriented; economic and financial; informational; and technical. A four-pronged policy advancement approach tackling initiation, incentivization, information and investment is recommended to tap the potential gains from energy efficiency. We attempt here, based on our findings, to offer a more practically executable plan of action, focusing squarely on combining institutional arrangements, policy requirements and current energy efficiency affairs in SIDS.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9060095
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 96: Analysis of Climate Variability and Trends in
           Southern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Abrham Belay, Teferi Demissie, John W. Recha, Christopher Oludhe, Philip M. Osano, Lydia A. Olaka, Dawit Solomon, Zerihun Berhane
      First page: 96
      Abstract: This study investigated the trends and variability of seasonal and annual rainfall and temperature data over southern Ethiopia using time series analysis for the period 1983–2016. Standard Anomaly Index (SAI), Coefficient of Variation (CV), Precipitations Concentration Index (PCI), and Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) were used to examine rainfall variability and develop drought indices over southern Ethiopia. Temporal changes of rainfall trends over the study period were detected using Mann Kendall (MK) trend test and Sen’s slope estimator. The results showed that the region experienced considerable rainfall variability and change that resulted in extended periods of drought and flood events within the study period. Results from SAI and SPI indicated an inter-annual rainfall variability with the proportions of years with below and above normal rainfall being estimated at 56% and 44% respectively. Results from the Mann Kendall trend test indicated an increasing trend of annual rainfall, Kiremt (summer) and Bega (dry) seasons whereas the Belg (spring) season rainfall showed a significant decreasing trend (p < 0.05). The annual rate of change for mean, maximum and minimum temperatures was found to be 0.042 °C, 0.027 °C, and 0.056 °C respectively. The findings from this study can be used by decision-makers in taking appropriate measures and interventions to avert the risks posed by changes in rainfall and temperature variability including extremes in order to enhance community adaptation and mitigation strategies in southern Ethiopia.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9060096
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 97: Measuring Household Resilience to Cyclone
           Disasters in Coastal Bangladesh

    • Authors: Abdullah Al-Maruf, J. Craig Jenkins, Amelie Bernzen, Boris Braun
      First page: 97
      Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to measure the level of household resilience to cyclone and storm surges in the coastal area of Bangladesh. We draw on four general disaster frameworks in terms of addressing household-level resilience to cyclones and storm surges. We use a composite indicator approach organized around four components: (1) household infrastructure (HI); (2) household economic capacity (HEC); (3) household self-organization and learning (HSoL), and; (4) social safety nets (SSN). Drawing on a household survey (N = 1188) in nine coastal union parishads in coastal Bangladesh purposively selected as among the most vulnerable places in the world, we use principal components analysis applied to a standardized form of the survey data that identifies key household resilience features. These household index scores can be used for the assessment and monitoring of household capacities, training, and other efforts to improve household cyclone resilience. Our innovative methodological approach allows us to (a) identify patterns and reveal the underlying factors that accurately describe the variation in the data; (b) reduce a large number of variables to a much smaller number of core dimensions of household resilience, and (c) to detect spatial variations in resilience among communities. Aggregated to the community level, our new index reveals significant differences in community cyclone resilience in different areas of the coastal region. In this way, we can show that shoreline and island communities, in particular, have significant deficits in terms of household resilience, which seem to be mutually reinforcing one another and making for lower resilience.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9060097
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 98: Hydroclimatic Variability in the Bilate
           Watershed, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Yoseph Arba Orke, Ming-Hsu Li
      First page: 98
      Abstract: It is important to understand variations in hydro-meteorological variables to provide crucial information for water resource management and agricultural operation. This study aims to provide comprehensive investigations of hydroclimatic variability in the Bilate watershed for the period 1986 to 2015. Coefficient of variation (CV) and the standardized anomaly index (SAI) were used to assess the variability of rainfall, temperature, and streamflow. Changing point detection, the Mann–Kendell test, and the Sen’s slope estimator were employed to detect shifting points and trends, respectively. Rainfall and streamflow exhibited higher variability in the Bega (dry) and Belg (minor rainy) seasons than in the Kiremt (main rainy) season. Temperature showed an upward shift of 0.91 °C in the early 1990s. Reduction in rainfall (−11%) and streamflow (−42%) were found after changing points around late 1990s and 2000s, respectively. The changing points detected were likely related to the ENSO episodes. The trend test indicated a significant rise in temperature with a faster increase in the minimum temperature (0.06 °C/year) than the maximum temperature (0.02 °C/year). Both annual mean rainfall and streamflow showed significant decreasing trends of 8.32 mm/year and 3.64 mm/year, respectively. With significant increase in temperature and reduction in rainfall, the watershed has been experiencing a decline in streamflow and a shortage of available water. Adaptation measures should be developed by taking the increasing temperature and the declining and erratic nature of rainfall into consideration for water management and agricultural activities.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9060098
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 99: (How) Does Diversity Still Matter for the
           IPCC' Instrumental, Substantive and Co-Productive Logics of Diversity
           in Global Environmental Assessments

    • Authors: Adam Standring, Rolf Lidskog
      First page: 99
      Abstract: To what extent has the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) succeeded in its ambition to shape a more diverse environmental expertise' In what ways are diversity important to the IPCC' What purposes does diversity serve in the IPCC’s production of global environmental assessments and thus environmental knowledge in general' These questions are explored by analyzing quantitative demographic data of the latest two assessment cycles (AR5 and AR6) and qualitative data from a semi-structured interview study with IPCC experts. The analysis shows that there have been improvements in diversity in recent years across measures of gender (women comprising 34% of authors in AR6 compared to 21% in AR5), regional representation and the proportion of authors from developing countries (35% in AR6 compared to 31% in AR5). These improvements have not, however, been distributed evenly when looking at the seniority of authors, nor when comparing across working groups, with WGI (the physical science) remaining much less diverse (28% female authors) than WGII (impacts) (41% female authors) and WGIII (mitigation) (32% female authors). The interviews suggest that rather than viewing diversity as a challenge it should be viewed as an opportunity to build capacity. Distinctions between scientific expertise and ‘diversity of voice’ need to be reconsidered in terms of both the substantive and instrumental value that a diverse range of knowledge, experience and skills add to the process of the scientific assessment of climate knowledge. In the concluding discussion, three points are raised: (i) the issue of diversity will probably grow in importance due to the fact that the complex task of transforming society has increasingly come into focus; (ii) the issue of diversity will be crucial for IPCC to maintain and develop its capacity to make assessments; (iii) the issue of diversity should not be reduced to simply a means for improving the process of making assessments, but should also improve the outcomes of the assessments.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9060099
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 100: Integrating the Sustainable Development Goals
           (SDGs) into Urban Climate Plans in the UK and Japan: A Text Analysis

    • Authors: Leticia Ozawa-Meida, Fernando Ortiz-Moya, Birgit Painter, Matthew Hengesbaugh, Ryoko Nakano, Tetsuro Yoshida, Eric Zusman, Subhes Bhattacharyya
      First page: 100
      Abstract: Cities are increasingly adopting potentially sustainable climate plans. Integrating the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) into these plans could help stabilize the climate while generating jobs, narrowing equity gaps, fostering innovation, and delivering other sustainability benefits. Yet, how much cities are integrating the SDGs into climate plans remains poorly understood. This article shed light on this question with a text analysis of SDG “keywords” in climate plans for two British and two Japanese cities. The results revealed that none of the surveyed cities have connected climate with socioeconomic priorities covered in SDG1 (poverty), SDG8 (employment), SDG5 (gender), and SDG10 (inequalities). Meanwhile, the United Kingdom cities made more connections between climate and responsible consumption and production (SDG12) than the Japanese cities. Further, Kyoto, Japan shares a climate-SDGs linkages profile that resembles the United Kingdom cities more than Kawasaki. Though not without limitations, text analysis can facilitate the city-to-city peer learning needed to make urban climate plans sustainable within and across countries.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9060100
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 101: An Alternative Co-Benefit Framework
           Prioritizing Health Impacts: Potential Air Pollution and Climate Change
           Mitigation Pathways through Energy Sector Fuel Substitution in South Korea

    • Authors: Phillips, Jung
      First page: 101
      Abstract: South Korea had the highest annual average PM2.5 exposure levels in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 2019, and air pollution is consistently ranked as citizens’ top environmental concern. South Korea is also one of the world’s top ten emitter countries of CO2. Co-benefit mitigation policies can address both air pollution and climate change. Utilizing an alternative co-benefit approach, which views air pollution reduction as the primary goal and climate change mitigation as secondary, this research conducts a scenario analysis to forecast the health and climate benefits of fuel substitution in South Korea’s electricity generation sector. Health benefits are calculated by avoided premature mortality and years of life lost (YLL) due to ischemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI). The study finds that use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) instead of coal over the 2022-2050 period would result in an average of 116 fewer premature deaths (1,152 YLL) and 80.8 MTCO2e fewer emissions per year. Over the same period, maintaining and maximizing the use of its nuclear energy capacity, combined with replacing coal use with LNG, would result in an average of 161 fewer premature deaths (1,608 YLL) and 123.7 MTCO2e fewer emissions per year.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9060101
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 102: Review and Comparative Study of Decision
           Support Tools for the Mitigation of Urban Heat Stress

    • Authors: Aiman Mazhar Qureshi, Ahmed Rachid
      First page: 102
      Abstract: Over the last few decades, Urban Heat Stress (UHS) has become a crucial concern of scientists and policy-makers. Many projects have been implemented to mitigate Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects using nature-based solutions. However, decision-making and selecting an adequate framework are difficult because of complex interactions between natural, social, economic and built environments. This paper contributes to the UHI issue by: (i) identifying the most important key factors of a Decision Support Tool (DST) used for urban heat mitigation, (ii) presenting multi-criteria methods applied to urban heat resilience, (iii) reviewing existing spatial and non-spatial DSTs, (iv) and analyzing, classifying and ranking DSTs. It aims to help decision-makers through an overview of the pros and cons of existing DSTs and indicate which tool is providing maximum support for choosing and planning heat resilience measures from the designing phase to the heat mitigation phase. This review shows that Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) can be used for any pilot site and the criteria can be adapted to the given location accordingly. It also highlights that GIS-based spatial tools have an effective decision support system (DSS) because they offer a quick assessment of interventions and predict long-term effects of urban heat. Through a comparative study using specific chosen criteria, we conclude that the DSS tool is well suited and fulfils many prerequisites to support new policies and interventions to mitigate UHS.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9060102
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 69: The Politics of Maladaptation

    • Authors: Leigh Glover, Mikael Granberg
      First page: 69
      Abstract: An emerging component of the adaptation discourse, embracing theory, practice and review, is that of the negative assessment of adaptation, namely, maladaptation. Political theories and concepts have been applied as one of these assessment tools, giving rise to a political critique of maladaptation. Such a critique contrasts with the more conventional scientific and technical assessments of adaptation policies, programs and practices. Key political themes in studies of maladaptation include resource management and allocations, decision making processes, equity and fairness, gender, power and influence, and Nature and ecology. Within the scholarship on the politics of maladaptation, overlapping frameworks can be identified. Critiques of adaptation have been applied to the preconditions of adaptation, adaptation decision making processes and institutions, and to adaptation outcomes. There are a number of conceptual challenges in undertaking political analyses of adaptation. In this article, we outline the origins of the adaptation and maladaptation concepts, we describe the key political issues, we identify the application of politics in the maladaptation discourse and identify the major political perspectives. Finally, we draw conclusions on the state of the maladaptation discourse.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050069
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 70: Climate Change in the 2019 Canadian Federal

    • Authors: Shelley Boulianne, Stephanie Belland, Nikita Sleptcov, Anders Olof Larsson
      First page: 70
      Abstract: In the weeks before the 2019 federal election, climate change strikes occurred in Canada and across the globe, which may have increased the salience of this policy issue. We use two data sources to examine the role of climate change in the 2019 federal election: a representative survey of 1500 Canadians and 2109 Facebook posts from the five major party leaders. After accounting for political ideology and region, we find that concern about climate change was a strong positive predictor of liberal support. We triangulate these findings by analyzing Facebook posts. We find that left-wing politicians were more likely to post about climate change and that posts about climate change received more likes, comments, and shares than other posts. This higher level of user engagement did not differ depending on which political party posted the climate change message. The combination of sources offers news insights into citizen-elite interactions and electoral outcomes. Climate change was important in the election, whether this importance was measured through survey data or user engagement with leaders’ climate change posts.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050070
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 71: Determination of a New Coastal ENSO Oceanic
           Index for Northern Peru

    • Authors: Edgard Gonzales, Eusebio Ingol
      First page: 71
      Abstract: In 2017, extreme rainfall events occurred in the northern portion of Peru, causing nearly 100,000 victims, according to the National Emergency Operations Center (COEN). This climatic event was attributed to the occurrence of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine and differentiate between the occurrence of canonical ENSO, with a new type of ENSO called “El Niño Costero” (Coastal El Niño). The polynomial equation method was used to analyze the data from the different types of existing ocean indices to determine the occurrence of ENSO. It was observed that the anomalies of sea surface temperature (SST) 2.5 °C (January 2016) generated the “Modoki El Niño” and that the anomaly of SST −0.3 °C (January 2017) generated the “Modoki La Niña”; this sequential generation generated El Niño Costero. This new knowledge about the sui generis origin of El Niño Costero, based on the observations of this analysis, will allow us to identify and obtain important information regarding the occurrence of this event. A new oceanic index called the Pacific Regional Equatorial Index (PREI) was proposed to follow the periodic evolution and forecast with greater precision a new catastrophic event related to the occurrence of El Niño Costero and to implement prevention programs.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050071
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 72: Evolution of the Arabian Sea Upwelling from the
           Last Millennium to the Future as Simulated by Earth System Models

    • Authors: Xing Yi, Birgit Hünicke, Eduardo Zorita
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Arabian Sea upwelling in the past has been generally studied based on the sediment records. We apply two earth system models and analyze the simulated water vertical velocity to investigate coastal upwelling in the western Arabian Sea over the last millennium. In addition, two models with slightly different configurations are also employed to study the upwelling in the 21st century under the strongest and the weakest greenhouse gas emission scenarios. With a negative long-term trend caused by the orbital forcing of the models, the upwelling over the last millennium is found to be closely correlated with the sea surface temperature, the Indian summer Monsoon and the sediment records. The future upwelling under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario reveals a negative trend, in contrast with the positive trend displayed by the upwelling favorable along-shore winds. Therefore, it is likely that other factors, like water stratification in the upper ocean layers caused by the stronger surface warming, overrides the effect from the upwelling favorable wind. No significant trend is found for the upwelling under the RCP2.6 scenario, which is likely due to a compensation between the opposing effects of the increase in upwelling favorable winds and the water stratification.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050072
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 73: Multisector Risk Identification to Assess
           Resilience to Flooding

    • Authors: Maria do Céu Almeida, Maria João Telhado, Marco Morais, João Barreiro
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Climate trends suggest an increase in the frequency of intense rainfall events and the aggravation of existing conditions in terms of flooding in urban areas. In coastal areas, conditions are aggravated by coexistence with coastal overtopping. Flood risk control is complex, and the interdependencies among the services and sectors in urban areas imply the need for adoption of approaches that embrace the interplay between service providers to ensure critical urban functions. Flooding incorporates several hazards. Assessment of resilience to multiple hazards in complex environments benefits from integrated and multi-sectoral approaches. A common constraint resides in the limited data and tools available for undertaking these complex assessments. This paper proposes a risk-based methodology to assess urban areas’ resilience to flooding by addressing sectors’ interdependencies in a context of limited data and ready-to-use tools. Multisector flood risk identification is pursued with the support of a geographic information system and is applied to Lisbon with a focus on the cascading effects of drainage system failures on buildings, populations, mobility, waste management, and electricity supply. The results demonstrate the potential for combining data and knowledge from different sources with dual modelling approaches, thus allowing one to obtain trends of exposure and vulnerability to flooding for current and climate change scenarios. This methodology facilitates dialogue among stakeholders and decision levels by contributing to capacity building, and it contributes to sustainable development.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050073
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 74: The Quality of Air in Polish Health Resorts
           with an Emphasis on Health on the Effects of Benzo(a)pyrene in 2015–2019

    • Authors: Ewa Anioł, Jacek Suder, Jan Stefan Bihałowicz, Grzegorz Majewski
      First page: 74
      Abstract: The aim of this paper was to analyze the impact of air pollution and meteorological conditions on the effectiveness of recreation in selected health resorts in Poland in 2015–2019. Four municipalities with the status of health resorts were compared in terms of exposure to harmful air pollutants such as PM10, NO2, SO2, and B(a)P in PM10. In this paper, a comprehensive statistical analysis was performed by determining the basic statistics of the measurement series. In addition, analyses of the occurrence of episodes of elevated PM10 concentrations in health resorts in Poland, as well as correlation and regression analyses, were performed. Statistical analysis showed no annual mean exceedances for the air pollutants analyzed. Average annual concentrations of harmful pollutants decreased year by year in Rabka Zdrój and also in Ciechocinek. The situation was different in Sopot and Ustroń, where the average annual pollution remained at a similar level and there was no downward trend. Studies have shown that travel to spa communities for health purposes can be problematic because air quality, while not exceeding average annual standards, is not satisfactory. To effectively address public health concerns, it is also necessary to consider meteorological conditions when analyzing air quality. A detailed analysis of the impact of meteorological conditions (average air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, and visibility) on air quality, based on forecasts, will also help in the implementation of air protection plans and strengthen the control of harmful pollutant levels. Measures to reduce the levels of harmful pollutants will affect the effectiveness of patient treatment in spas. The article presents the correct way to conduct reliable monitoring of air quality and meteorological conditions, where it is particularly important.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050074
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 75: Attitude Changes of Stakeholders towards
           Climate Change Adaptation Policies in Agricultural Sector by Online

    • Authors: Kenshi Baba, Eri Amanuma, Motoko Kosugi
      First page: 75
      Abstract: This study set up online virtual communities consisting of farmers and stakeholders involved in agriculture and nonfarmers living in rural areas interested in agricultural production. We conducted a deliberation within the communities for 14 days on identifying important climate change adaptation policies for 30 years later under climate change impacts with the relevant knowledge from experts. During the deliberation, after self-introduction took place including the realization of climate change impacts, the participants were provided with the expert knowledge on impacts of climate change, adaptation policies in agricultural sector and so on, then the following discussions covered issues such as the distribution of agricultural produce, insufficient successors, and support for farmers, such as impacts on crops during disasters concerning future scenarios. Attitude changes before and after deliberation were observed in terms of the pros and cons of climate change adaptation policies in agriculture and rural areas, but statistically significant differences were not observed. On the other hand, a statistically significant change was observed in some determinants of the pros and cons, such as the perceived effectiveness and goal intention. This structural change results from that the participants became aware of a different perspective through deliberation. Thus, the online deliberation process was effective to some extent in increasing knowledge and promoting deeper understanding among participants during inquiry and reasoning was deepened in the process as they listened to the opinions of others in a different position with a different idea as well as read and search for scientific findings and information provided by experts.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050075
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 76: Beyond Planning Tools: Experiential Learning in
           Climate Adaptation Planning and Practices

    • Authors: Kristen M. Schmitt, Todd A. Ontl, Stephen D. Handler, Maria K. Janowiak, Leslie A. Brandt, Patricia R. Butler-Leopold, P. Danielle Shannon, Courtney L. Peterson, Christopher W. Swanston
      First page: 76
      Abstract: In the past decade, several dedicated tools have been developed to help natural resources professionals integrate climate science into their planning and implementation; however, it is unclear how often these tools lead to on-the-ground climate adaptation. Here, we describe a training approach that we developed to help managers effectively plan to execute intentional, climate-informed actions. This training approach was developed through the Climate Change Response Framework (CCRF) and uses active and focused work time and peer-to-peer interaction to overcome observed barriers to using adaptation planning tools. We evaluate the effectiveness of this approach by examining participant evaluations and outlining the progress of natural resources projects that have participated in our trainings. We outline a case study that describes how this training approach can lead to place and context-based climate-informed action. Finally, we describe best practices based on our experience for engaging natural resources professionals and helping them increase their comfort with climate-informed planning.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050076
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 77: Influence of the Coupling South Atlantic
           Convergence Zone-El Niño-Southern Oscillation (SACZ-ENSO) on the
           Projected Precipitation Changes over the Central Andes

    • Authors: Juan C. Sulca, Rosmeri P. da Rocha
      First page: 77
      Abstract: There are no studies related to the influence of the coupling between the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) pattern variability on future changes in the austral summer (December-February, DJF) precipitation over the central Andes. Therefore, we evaluated the historical simulations (1980–2005) and projections (2070–2099) for the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP 8.5) scenario of 25 global climate models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). Moreover, we also consider the Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) projections nested in three CMIP5 GCMs (GFDL-ESM2M, MPI-ESM-MR, and HadGEM2-ES) under RCP 8.5. We separate the CMIP5 GCMs according to their abilities to simulate the nonlinear characteristics of ENSO and the SACZ for the historical period. We found that only three out of 25 CMIP5 GCMs (hereafter group A) simulate the nonlinear characteristics of ENSO and the SACZ during the historical period. Although most CMIP5 GCM project DJF precipitation decreases over the central Andes, group A project precipitation increases related to the projected increase in deep convection over the central Peruvian Amazon. On the regional scale, only RegGFDL (nested in a group A CMIP5 GCM) projects a statistically significant increase in DJF precipitation (~5–15%) over the northern central Andes and the central Peruvian Amazon. Conversely, all RegCM4 simulations project a decrease in DJF precipitation (~−10%) over the southern central Andes.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050077
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 78: A Simple Theoretical Model for Lags and
           Asymmetries of Surface Temperature

    • Authors: Gabriele Di Bona, Andrea Giacobbe
      First page: 78
      Abstract: Here, we study three fundamental climatic phenomena: The seasonal lag, the diurnal lag, and the asymmetry of daily temperature variation. We write a nonlinear ODE based on an energy balance for surface temperature and humidity. The model focuses on small regions of the Earth’s surface; it reproduces the three phenomena with a reasonable accuracy if a few parameters are chosen according to the climatic type of the regions. The plots in this manuscript compare real climatic data with numerical solutions of the model we propose. The model takes into account the doubly periodic forcing of the solar radiation (annual and daily), IR radiation, the existence of thermodynamic bodies with different thermal inertia (land and oceans), and the effect of humidity on the thermal inertia of the air. We write the equations using astronomical parameters with the possibility of applications to exoplanets in mind. We conclude this article investigating the evolution of temperatures in Catania and Sydney if the Earth was on an orbit around the Sun with the same mean distance but greater eccentricity.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050078
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 79: Landscape Conservation Forecasting for
           Data-Poor at-Risk Species on Western Public Lands, United States

    • Authors: Louis Provencher, Kevin Badik, Tanya Anderson, Joel Tuhy, Dan Fletcher, Elaine York, Sarah Byer
      First page: 79
      Abstract: Managing vast federal public lands governed by multiple land use policies creates challenges when demographic data on at-risk species are lacking. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management Cedar City Field Office used this project in the Black Mountains (Utah) to inform vegetation management supporting at-risk greater sage-grouse and Utah prairie dog planning. Ecological systems were mapped from satellite remote sensing imagery and used to model species habitat suitability under two levels of management activity (custodial, preferred) and climate scenarios for historic and two global circulation models. Spatial state-and-transition models of ecological systems were simulated for all six scenarios up to 60 years while coupled with expert-developed habitat suitability indices. All ecological systems are at least moderately departed from reference conditions in 2012, whereas habitat suitability was 50.5% and 48.4% for sage-grouse and prairie dog, respectively. Management actions replaced non-native annual grasslands with perennial grasses, removed conifers, and controlled exotic forbs. The drier climate most affected ecological departure and prairie dog habitat suitability at 30 years only. Different climates influenced spatial patterns of sage-grouse habitat suitability, but nonspatial values were unchanged. Climate impacts on fire, vegetation succession, and restoration explain many results. Front-loading restoration is predicted to benefit under future drier climate.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050079
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 80: Climatic Analysis of Wind Patterns to Enhance
           Sailors’ Performance during Races

    • Authors: Pietro Masino, Roberto Bellasio, Roberto Bianconi, Angelo Besana, Alessandro Pezzoli
      First page: 80
      Abstract: The impact of environmental and meteorological conditions when dealing with sport performance has been demonstrated by several studies carried out in recent years. Among the meteorological variables with the greatest effect are temperature, humidity, precipitation, and wind direction and speed. This research focused on analyzing and forecasting the wind patterns occurring in Enoshima Bay (Japan). In particular, the objective of this study was to provide support and guidance to sailors in the preparation of the race strategy, thanks to an in-depth knowledge of these meteorological variables. To do this, an innovative method was used. First, through the combined use of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and CALMET models, a simulation was performed, in order to reconstruct an offshore database of a recent 10-year period (2009–2018) over the race area, inside the bay. Subsequently, the verification of hind-cast was performed: the wind data measured at sea were compared with the data extracted from the CALMET database to verify the validity of the model. The verification was performed through three statistical indexes: BIAS, MAE, and PCC. The analysis showed mixed results, depending on the examined pattern, but made it possible to identify the days that best simulated the reality. Then, the wind data from the selected days were summarized and collected in plots, tables, and maps to design a decision support service (DSS), in order to provide athletes with the necessary information in a simple and effective way. In conclusion, we state that the application of this method extends beyond the sports field. Indeed, the study of wind patterns may be necessary in the design of actions to contrast and adapt to climate change, particularly in coastal areas.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050080
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 81: Global Surface Temperature: A New Insight

    • Authors: Mohammad Valipour, Sayed M. Bateni, Changhyun Jun
      First page: 81
      Abstract: This paper belongs to our Special Issue “Application of Climate Data in Hydrologic Models” [...]
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050081
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 82: Air Pollution and Climate Drive Annual Growth
           in Ponderosa Pine Trees in Southern California

    • Authors: Hillary S. Jenkins
      First page: 82
      Abstract: The ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa, Douglas ex C. Lawson) is a climate-sensitive tree species dominant in the mixed conifer stands of the San Bernardino Mountains of California. However, the close proximity to the city of Los Angeles has resulted in extremely high levels of air pollution. Nitrogen (N) deposition, resulting from nitrous oxides emitted from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, has been recorded in this region since the 1980s. The impact of this N deposition on ponderosa pine growth is complex and often obscured by other stressors including climate, bark beetle attack, and tropospheric ozone pollution. Here I use a 160-year-long (1855–2015) ponderosa pine tree ring chronology to examine the annual response of tree growth to both N deposition and climate in this region. The chronology is generated from 34 tree cores taken near Crestline, CA. A stepwise multiple regression between the tree ring chronology and various climate and air pollution stressors indicates that drought conditions at the end of the rainy season (March) and NO2 pollution during the water year (pOct-Sep) exhibit primary controls on growth (r2-adj = 0.65, p < 0.001). The direct correlation between NO2 and tree growth suggests that N deposition has a positive impact on ponderosa pine bole growth in this region. However, it is important to note that ozone, a known stressor to ponderosa pine trees, and NO2 are also highly correlated (r = 0.84, p < 0.05). Chronic exposure to both ozone and nitrogen dioxide may, therefore, have unexpected impacts on tree sensitivity to climate and other stressors in a warming world.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050082
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 83: Bottom-Up Drivers for Global Fish Catch
           Assessed with Reconstructed Ocean Biogeochemistry from an Earth System

    • Authors: Hyo-Jong Song, Jong-Yeon Park
      First page: 83
      Abstract: Identifying bottom-up (e.g., physical and biogeochemical) drivers for fish catch is essential for sustainable fishing and successful adaptation to climate change through reliable prediction of future fisheries. Previous studies have suggested the potential linkage of fish catch to bottom-up drivers such as ocean temperature or satellite-retrieved chlorophyll concentration across different global ecosystems. Robust estimation of bottom-up effects on global fisheries is, however, still challenging due to the lack of long-term observations of fisheries-relevant biotic variables on a global scale. Here, by using novel long-term biological and biogeochemical data reconstructed from a recently developed data assimilative Earth system model, we newly identified dominant drivers for fish catch in globally distributed coastal ecosystems. A machine learning analysis with the inclusion of reconstructed zooplankton production and dissolved oxygen concentration into the fish catch predictors provides an extended view of the links between environmental forcing and fish catch. Furthermore, the relative importance of each driver and their thresholds for high and low fish catch are analyzed, providing further insight into mechanistic principles of fish catch in individual coastal ecosystems. The results presented herein suggest the potential predictive use of their relationships and the need for continuous observational effort for global ocean biogeochemistry.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050083
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 84: Assessment of the Water-Energy Nexus under
           Future Climate Change in the Nile River Basin

    • Authors: Abay Yimere, Engdawork Assefa
      First page: 84
      Abstract: This study investigated the Water-Energy relationship in the Nile River Basin under changing climate conditions using an energy and water model. Climate change will likely affect both water and energy resources, which will create challenges for future planning and decision making, particularly considering the uncertainty surrounding the direction and magnitude of such effects. According to the assessment model, when countries depend heavily on hydropower for energy, power generation is determined by climate variability. For example, Ethiopia, Egypt, and Sudan are more hydropower-dependent than Burundi or Rwanda. As a result, the trading relationships and economic gains of these countries shift according to climate variability. Among 18 climate scenarios, four demonstrate a change in climate and runoff. Under these scenarios, trading partnerships and economic gains will favor Ethiopia and Egypt instead of Sudan and Egypt. This study examines the extent of potential climate challenges, their effects on the Nile River Basin, and recommends several solutions for environmental planners and decision makers. Although the proposed model has the novel ability of conducting scientific analyses with limited data, this research is still limited by data accessibility. Finally, the study will contribute to the literature on the climate chamber effects on regional and international trade.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050084
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 85: Erratum: Kambezidis et al. Climate Change and
           Thermal Comfort in Greece. Climate 2021, 9, 10

    • Authors: Harry D. Kambezidis, Basil E. Psiloglou, Konstantinos V. Varotsos, Christos Giannakopoulos
      First page: 85
      Abstract: The author wishes to make the following corrections to the paper [...]
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050085
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 86: Bivariate Modelling of a Teleconnection Index
           and Extreme Rainfall in a Small North Atlantic Island

    • Authors: Luis Angel Espinosa, Maria Manuela Portela, João Dehon Pontes Filho, Martina Zelenakova
      First page: 86
      Abstract: This paper explores practical applications of bivariate modelling via copulas of two likely dependent random variables, i.e., of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) coupled with extreme rainfall on the small island of Madeira, Portugal. Madeira, due to its small size (∼740 km2), very pronounced mountain landscape, and location in the North Atlantic, experiences a wide range of rainfall regimes, or microclimates, which hamper the analyses of extreme rainfall. Previous studies showed that the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on extreme rainfall is at its largest in the North Atlantic sector, with the likelihood of increased rainfall events from December through February, particularly during negative NAO phases. Thus, a copula-based approach was adopted for teleconnection, aiming at assigning return periods of daily values of an NAO index (NAOI) coupled with extreme daily rainfalls—for the period from December 1967 to February 2017—at six representative rain gauges of the island. The results show that (i) bivariate copulas describing the dependence characteristics of the underlying joint distributions may provide useful analytical expressions of the return periods of the coupled previous NAOI and extreme rainfall and (ii) that recent years show signs of increasing climate variability with more anomalous daily negative NAOI along with higher extreme rainfall events. These findings highlight the importance of multivariate modelling for teleconnections of prominent patterns of climate variability, such as the NAO, to extreme rainfall in North Atlantic regions, especially in small islands that are highly vulnerable to the effects of abrupt climate variability.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050086
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 87: Climate Change, Ecosystem Processes and
           Biological Diversity Responses in High Elevation Communities

    • Authors: Timothy R. Seastedt, Meagan F. Oldfather
      First page: 87
      Abstract: The populations, species, and communities in high elevation mountainous regions at or above tree line are being impacted by the changing climate. Mountain systems have been recognized as both resilient and extremely threatened by climate change, requiring a more nuanced understanding of potential trajectories of the biotic communities. For high elevation systems in particular, we need to consider how the interactions among climate drivers and topography currently structure the diversity, species composition, and life-history strategies of these communities. Further, predicting biotic responses to changing climate requires knowledge of intra- and inter-specific climate associations within the context of topographically heterogenous landscapes. Changes in temperature, snow, and rain characteristics at regional scales are amplified or attenuated by slope, aspect, and wind patterns occurring at local scales that are often under a hectare or even a meter in extent. Community assemblages are structured by the soil moisture and growing season duration at these local sites, and directional climate change has the potential to alter these two drivers together, independently, or in opposition to one another due to local, intervening variables. Changes threaten species whose water and growing season duration requirements are locally extirpated or species who may be outcompeted by nearby faster-growing, warmer/drier adapted species. However, barring non-analogue climate conditions, species may also be able to more easily track required resource regimes in topographically heterogenous landscapes. New species arrivals composed of competitors, predators and pathogens can further mediate the direct impacts of the changing climate. Plants are moving uphill, demonstrating primary succession with the emergence of new habitats from snow and rock, but these shifts are constrained over the short term by soil limitations and microbes and ultimately by the lack of colonizable terrestrial surfaces. Meanwhile, both subalpine herbaceous and woody species pose threats to more cold-adapted species. Overall, the multiple interacting direct and indirect effects of the changing climate on high elevation systems may lead to multiple potential trajectories for these systems.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050087
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 53: Exceedance and Return Period of High
           Temperature in the African Region

    • Authors: Alemtsehai A. Turasie
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Several studies have indicated that the social, economic and other impacts of global warming can be linked with changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather/climate events. Developing countries, particularly in the African region, are highly affected by extreme events such as high temperature, usually followed/accompanied by drought. Therefore, studying the probability of occurrence and return period of extreme temperatures, and possible change in these parameters, is of high importance for climate-related policy making and preparedness works in the region. This study aims to address these issues by assessing probability of exceedance and return period of extremes in annual maximum and annual mean temperatures. The analyses of historical data in this study showed that extremes in both annual maximum and mean temperature are highly likely to be exceeded more often in the future compared to the past. For the extreme event marker (threshold) defined in this study, probability of 3 exceedances in the following 19 years (for instance), at any gridpoint, is estimated to be at least 10% for extremes in annual maxima and at least 15% for those in annual means. Most places in the region, however, have much higher (up to 20%) probability of exceedance. The estimated probability of exceedance has shown increasing tendency with time. Return period, based on the most recent data, of extremes in annual maximum temperature is found to be less than 6.5 years at about 48% of the gridpoints in the region. Similarly, return period of extremes in annual mean temperature is estimated to be less than 5.5 years at about 82% of places in the region. These estimates have also shown a strong tendency of getting shorter as time goes on. On average, extremes in annual mean temperature were found to have shorter return periods (4–7 years) compared to those in annual maximum temperature (6–10 years), at 95% confidence. The empirical results presented in this study are generally in agreement with IPCC’s projections of increased warming trend. This data-driven, robust method is used in the present study and the results can also be considered as an alternative approach for detecting changes in climate via estimating and assessing possible changes in frequency of extreme events with time.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040053
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 54: Vegetation and Glacier Trends in the Area of
           the Maritime Alps Natural Park (Italy): MaxEnt Application to Predict
           Habitat Development

    • Authors: Elena Comino, Adriano Fiorucci, Maurizio Rosso, Andrea Terenziani, Anna Treves
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Climate change is significantly affecting ecosystem services and leading to strong impacts on the extent and distribution of glaciers and vegetation. In this context, species distribution models represent a suitable instrument for studying ecosystem development and response to climate warming. This study applies the maximum entropy model, MaxEnt, to evaluate trends and effects of climate change for three environmental indicators in the area of the Alpi Marittime Natural Park under the Municipality of Entracque (Italy). Specifically, this study focuses on the magnitude of the retreat of six glaciers and on the distribution of two different plant communities, Alnus viridis scrub and Fagus sylvatica forest associated with Acer pseudoplatanus and tall herbs (megaforbie), in relation to predicted increases in mean temperatures. MaxEnt software was used to model and observe changes over a thirty-year period, developing three scenarios: a present (2019), a past (1980) and a future (2050) using 24 “environmental layers”. This study showed the delicate climate balances of these six small glaciers that, in the next 30 years, are likely to undergo an important retreat (≈−33%) despite the high altitude and important snowfall that still characterize the area. At the same time, it is predicted that the two plant communities will invade those higher altitude territories that, not so long ago, were inhospitable, expanding their habitat by 50%. The MaxEnt application to glaciers has shown to be an effective tool that offers a new perspective in the climate change field as well as in biodiversity conservation planning.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040054
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 55: Assessing Future Impacts of Climate Change on
           Streamflow within the Alabama River Basin

    • Authors: Joseph E. Quansah, Amina B. Naliaka, Souleymane Fall, Ramble Ankumah, Gamal El Afandi
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Global climate change is expected to impact future precipitation and surface temperature trends and could alter local hydrologic systems. This study assessed the likely hydrologic responses and changes in streamflow due to future climate change within the Alabama River Basin (ARB) for the mid-21st century 2045 (“2030–2060”) and end-21st century 2075 (“2060–2090”). Using an integrated modeling approach, General Circulation Model (GCM) datasets; the Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques Climate Model 5 (CNRM-CM5), the Community Earth System Model, version 1–Biogeochemistry (CESM1- BGC.1), and the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 2 (HADGEM2-AO.1), under medium Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5, and based on World Climate Research Program (WCRP)’s Couple Model Intercomparison Phase 5 (CMIP5), were assimilated into calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Mann–Kendall and Theil Sen’s slope were used to assess the trends and magnitude of variability of the historical climate data used for setting up the model. The model calibration showed goodness of fit with minimum Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) coefficient values of 0.83 and Coefficient of Determination (R2) of 0.88 for the three gages within the ARB. Next, the research assessed changes in streamflow for the years 2045 and 2075 against that of the reference baseline year of 1980. The results indicate situations of likely increase and decrease in mean monthly streamflow discharge and increase in the frequency and variability in peak flows during the periods from the mid to end of the 21st century. Seasonally, monthly streamflow increases between 50% and 250% were found for spring and autumn months with decreases in summer months for 2045. Spring and summer months for 2075 resulted in increased monthly streamflow between 50% and 300%, while autumn and spring months experienced decreased streamflow. While the results are prone to inherent uncertainties in the downscaled GCM data used, the simulated dynamics in streamflow and water availability provide critical information for stakeholders to develop sustainable water management and climate change adaptation options for the ARB.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040055
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 56: Monthly and Seasonal Drought Characterization
           Using GRACE-Based Groundwater Drought Index and Its Link to
           Teleconnections across South Indian River Basins

    • Authors: Kuruva Satish Kumar, Pallakury AnandRaj, Koppala Sreelatha, Deepak Singh Bisht, Venkataramana Sridhar
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Traditional drought monitoring is based on observed data from both meteorological and hydrological stations. Due to the scarcity of station observation data, it is difficult to obtain accurate drought distribution characteristics, and also tedious to replicate the large-scale information of drought. Thus, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data are utilized in monitoring and characterizing regional droughts where ground station data is limited. In this study, we analyzed and assessed the drought characteristics utilizing the GRACE Groundwater Drought Index (GGDI) over four major river basins in India during the period of 2003–2016. The spatial distribution, temporal evolution of drought, and trend characteristics were analyzed using GGDI. Then, the relationship between GGDI and climate factors were evaluated by the method of wavelet coherence. The results indicate the following points: GRACE’s quantitative results were consistent and robust for drought assessment; out of the four basins, severe drought was noticed in the Cauvery river basin between 2012 and 2015, with severity of −27 and duration of 42 months; other than Godavari river basin, the remaining three basins displayed significant negative trends at monthly and seasonal scales; the wavelet coherence method revealed that climate factors had a substantial effect on GGDI, and the impact of Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) on drought was significantly high, followed by Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Index (namely, NINO3.4) and Multivariate El Niño–Southern Oscillation Index (MEI) in all the basins. This study provides reliable and robust quantitative result of GRACE water storage variations that shares new insights for further drought investigation.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040056
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 57: Differences in the Reaction of North Equatorial
           Countercurrent to the Developing and Mature Phase of ENSO Events in the
           Western Pacific Ocean

    • Authors: Yusuf Jati Wijaya, Yukiharu Hisaki
      First page: 57
      Abstract: The North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) is an eastward zonal current closely related to an El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. This paper investigated the variations of NECC in the Western Pacific Ocean over 25 years (1993–2017) using satellite data provided by the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) and the Remote Sensing System (RSS). The first mode of empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis showed that the NECC strengthened or weakened in each El Niño (La Niña) event during the developing or mature phase, respectively. We also found that the NECC shifting was strongly coincidental with an ENSO event. During the developing phase of an El Niño (La Niña) event, the NECC shifted southward (northward), and afterward, when it entered the mature phase, the NECC tended to shift slightly northward (southward). Moreover, the NECC strength was found to have undergone a weakening during the 2008–2017 period.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040057
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 58: Monitoring Urban Deprived Areas with Remote
           Sensing and Machine Learning in Case of Disaster Recovery

    • Authors: Saman Ghaffarian, Sobhan Emtehani
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Rapid urbanization and increasing population in cities with a large portion of them settled in deprived neighborhoods, mostly defined as slum areas, have escalated inequality and vulnerability to natural disasters. As a result, monitoring such areas is essential to provide information and support decision-makers and urban planners, especially in case of disaster recovery. Here, we developed an approach to monitor the urban deprived areas over a four-year period after super Typhoon Haiyan, which struck Tacloban city, in the Philippines, in 2013, using high-resolution satellite images and machine learning methods. A Support Vector Machine classification method supported by a local binary patterns feature extraction model was initially performed to detect slum areas in the pre-disaster, just after/event, and post-disaster images. Afterward, a dense conditional random fields model was employed to produce the final slum areas maps. The developed method detected slum areas with accuracies over 83%. We produced the damage and recovery maps based on change analysis over the detected slum areas. The results revealed that most of the slum areas were reconstructed 4 years after Typhoon Haiyan, and thus, the city returned to the pre-existing vulnerability level.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040058
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 59: Glacio-Nival Regime Creates Complex
           Relationships between Discharge and Climatic Trends of Zackenberg River,
           Greenland (1996–2019)

    • Authors: Karlijn Ploeg, Fabian Seemann, Ann-Kathrin Wild, Qiong Zhang
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Arctic environments experience rapid climatic changes as air temperatures are rising and precipitation is increasing. Rivers are key elements in these regions since they drain vast land areas and thereby reflect various climatic signals. Zackenberg River in northeast Greenland provides a unique opportunity to study climatic influences on discharge, as the river is not connected to the Greenland ice sheet. The study aims to explain discharge patterns between 1996 and 2019 and analyse the discharge for correlations to variations in air temperature and both solid and liquid precipitation. The results reveal no trend in the annual discharge. A lengthening of the discharge period is characterised by a later freeze-up and extreme discharge peaks are observed almost yearly between 2005 and 2017. A positive correlation exists between the length of the discharge period and the Thawing Degree Days (r=0.52,p<0.01), and between the total annual discharge and the annual maximum snow depth (r=0.48,p=0.02). Thereby, snowmelt provides the main source of discharge in the first part of the runoff season. However, the influence of precipitation on discharge could not be fully identified, because of uncertainties in the data and possible delays in the hydrological system. This calls for further studies on the relationship between discharge and precipitation. The discharge patterns are also influenced by meltwater from the A.P. Olsen ice cap and an adjacent glacier-dammed lake which releases outburst floods. Hence, this mixed hydrological regime causes different relationships between the discharge and climatic trends when compared to most Arctic rivers.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040059
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 60: Projections of Local Knowledge-Based Adaptation
           Strategies of Mexican Coffee Farmers

    • Authors: Patricia Ruiz-García, Cecilia Conde-Álvarez, Jesús David Gómez-Díaz, Alejandro Ismael Monterroso-Rivas
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Local knowledge can be a strategy for coping with extreme events and adapting to climate change. In Mexico, extreme events and climate change projections suggest the urgency of promoting local adaptation policies and strategies. This paper provides an assessment of adaptation actions based on the local knowledge of coffee farmers in southern Mexico. The strategies include collective and individual adaptation actions that farmers have established. To determine their viability and impacts, carbon stocks and fluxes in the system’s aboveground biomass were projected, along with water balance variables. Stored carbon contents are projected to increase by more than 90%, while maintaining agroforestry systems will also help serve to protect against extreme hydrological events. Finally, the integration of local knowledge into national climate change adaptation plans is discussed and suggested with a local focus. We conclude that local knowledge can be successful in conserving agroecological coffee production systems.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040060
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 61: The Occurrence of Drought in Mopani District
           Municipality, South Africa: Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation

    • Authors: Ndamulelo Nembilwi, Hector Chikoore, Edmore Kori, Rendani B. Munyai, Tshilidzi C. Manyanya
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Mopani District Municipality in the northeast of South Africa is largely semi-arid and frequently affected by meteorological droughts. The recent 2015/16 event had devastating impacts on water levels, crop yields, livestock herds and rural livelihoods. We investigated the nature of the drought hazard; its impacts, including vulnerability of rural communities in Mopani District and adaptation strategies they have employed to cope with drought. A mixed methods approach with both quantitative and qualitative datasets was used. The district was divided into two distinct climatic areas: the drier eastern lowveld and the wetter western bushveld. Questionnaires were administered among community members whilst key informant interviews were conducted among relevant government and municipal officials. Climate data was used to characterize historical drought using a Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index whilst vegetation anomaly maps were used to demonstrate impacts. Spatially distinct patterns of drought conditions were evident with harsh and dry conditions towards the east. It was found that nearly half the time there is some form of drought or another in the district mostly linked to the remote El Nino phenomenon. In several areas, rain-fed agriculture is no longer tenable, with a direct impact on rural livelihoods. A Household Vulnerability Index determined variable levels of vulnerability such that different strategies are employed to adapt to drought some of which cause environmental problems. Local government intervention strategies include supply of seeds and fertilisers, providing cheap fodder and supplying water using trucks. The findings of this study contribute to disaster risk reduction efforts in a region that is highly vulnerable to current and future climate-risks.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040061
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 62: Comparison of Multiple Maximum and Minimum
           Temperature Datasets at Local Level: The Case Study of North Horr
           Sub-County, Kenya

    • Authors: Giovanni Siciliano, Velia Bigi, Ingrid Vigna, Elena Comino, Maurizio Rosso, Elena Cristofori, Alessandro Demarchi, Alessandro Pezzoli
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Climate analyses at a local scale are an essential tool in the field of sustainable development. The evolution of reanalysis datasets and their greater reliability contribute to overcoming the scarcity of observed data in the southern areas of the world. The purpose of this study is to compute the reference monthly values and ranges of maximum and minimum temperatures for the eight main inhabited villages of North Horr Sub-County, in northern Kenya. The official ten-day dataset derived from the Kenyan Meteorological Department (KMD), the monthly datasets derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis (ERA), the Observational-Reanalysis Hybrid (ORH) and the Climate Limited Area Mode driven by HadG-EM2-ES (HAD) are assessed on a local scale using the most common statistical indices to determine which is more reliable in representing monthly maximum and minimum temperatures. Overall, ORH datasets showed lower biases and errors in representing local temperatures. Through an innovative methodology, a new set of monthly mean temperature values and ranges derived from ORH datasets are calculated for each location in the study area, in order to guarantee to locals an historical benchmark to compare present observations. The findings of this research provide insights for environmental risk management, supporting local populations in reducing their vulnerability.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040062
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 63: How Do the Cultural Dimensions of Climate Shape
           Our Understanding of Climate Change'

    • Authors: Jason Alexandra
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Climatic events express the dynamics of the Earth’s oceans and atmosphere, but are profoundly personal and social in their impacts, representation and comprehension. This paper explores how knowledge of the climate has multiple scales and dimensions that intersect in our experience of the climate. The climate is objective and subjective, scientific and cultural, local and global, and personal and political. These divergent dimensions of the climate frame the philosophical and cultural challenges of a dynamic climate. Drawing on research into the adaptation in Australia’s Murray Darling Basin, this paper outlines the significance of understanding the cultural dimensions of the changing climate. This paper argues for greater recognition of the ways in which cultures co-create the climate and, therefore, that the climate needs to be recognised as a socio-natural hybrid. Given the climate’s hybrid nature, research should aim to integrate our understanding of the social and the natural dimensions of our relationships to a changing climate.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040063
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 64: Climate Aridity and the Geographical Shift of
           Olive Trees in a Mediterranean Northern Region

    • Authors: Jesús Rodrigo-Comino, Rosanna Salvia, Giovanni Quaranta, Pavel Cudlín, Luca Salvati, Antonio Gimenez-Morera
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Climate change leverages landscape transformations and exerts variable pressure on natural environments and rural systems. Earlier studies outlined how Mediterranean Europe has become a global hotspot of climate warming and land use change. The present work assumes the olive tree, a typical Mediterranean crop, as a candidate bioclimatic indicator, delineating the latent impact of climate aridity on traditional cropping systems at the northern range of the biogeographical distribution of the olive tree. Since the olive tree follows a well-defined latitude gradient with a progressive decline in both frequency and density moving toward the north, we considered Italy as an appropriate case to investigate how climate change may (directly or indirectly) influence the spatial distribution of this crop. By adopting an exploratory approach grounded in the quali-quantitative analysis of official statistics, the present study investigates long-term changes over time in the spatial distribution of the olive tree surface area in Northern Italy, a region traditionally considered outside the ecological range of the species because of unsuitable climate conditions. Olive tree cultivated areas increased in Northern Italy, especially in flat districts and upland areas, while they decreased in Central and Southern Italy under optimal climate conditions, mostly because of land abandonment. The most intense expansion of the olive tree surface area in Italy was observed in the northern region between 1992 and 2000 and corresponded with the intensification of winter droughts during the late 1980s and the early 1990s and local warming since the mid-1980s. Assuming the intrinsic role of farmers in the expansion of the olive tree into the suboptimal land of Northern Italy, the empirical results of our study suggest how climate aridity and local warming may underlie the shift toward the north in the geographical range of the olive tree in the Mediterranean Basin. We finally discussed the implications of the olive range shift as a part of a possible landscape scenario for a more arid future.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040064
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 65: IMERG-Based Meteorological Drought Analysis
           over Italy

    • Authors: Tommaso Caloiero, Giulio Nils Caroletti, Roberto Coscarelli
      First page: 65
      Abstract: The Mediterranean region is an area particularly susceptible to water scarcity and drought. In this work, drought has been analyzed in Italy using multiple timescales of the standardized precipitation index (SPI) evaluated from the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement product from 2000 to 2020. In particular, drought characteristics (severity, duration, and intensity) have been estimated by means of the run theory applied to the SPI values calculated in 3325 grid points falling within the Italian territory. Results clearly indicate that although a high number of drought events has been identified for the short timescale, these events present a lower duration and lesser severity than the long-timescale droughts. The main outcomes of this study, with the indication of the spatial distribution of the drought characteristics in Italy, allow identifying the areas that could also face water stress conditions in the future, thus requiring drought monitoring and adequate adaptation strategies.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040065
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 66: Substantial Climate Response outside the Target
           Area in an Idealized Experiment of Regional Radiation Management

    • Authors: Sudhakar Dipu, Johannes Quaas, Martin Quaas, Wilfried Rickels, Johannes Mülmenstädt, Olivier Boucher
      First page: 66
      Abstract: Radiation management (RM) has been proposed as a conceivable climate engineering (CE) intervention to mitigate global warming. In this study, we used a coupled climate model (MPI-ESM) with a very idealized setup to investigate the efficacy and risks of CE at a local scale in space and time (regional radiation management, RRM) assuming that cloud modification is technically possible. RM is implemented in the climate model by the brightening of low-level clouds (solar radiation management, SRM) and thinning of cirrus (terrestrial radiation management, TRM). The region chosen is North America, and we simulated a period of 30 years. The implemented sustained RM resulted in a net local radiative forcing of −9.8 Wm−2 and a local cooling of −0.8 K. Surface temperature (SAT) extremes (90th and 10th percentiles) show negative anomalies in the target region. However, substantial climate impacts were also simulated outside the target area, with warming in the Arctic and pronounced precipitation change in the eastern Pacific. As a variant of RRM, a targeted intervention to suppress heat waves (HW) was investigated in further simulations by implementing intermittent cloud modification locally, prior to the simulated HW situations. In most cases, the intermittent RRM results in a successful reduction of temperatures locally, with substantially smaller impacts outside the target area compared to the sustained RRM.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040066
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 67: On the Breaking of the Milankovitch Cycles
           Triggered by Temperature Increase: The Stochastic Resonance Response

    • Authors: Maria Teresa Caccamo, Salvatore Magazù
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Recent decades have registered the hottest temperature variation in instrumentally recorded data history. The registered temperature rise is particularly significant in the so-called hot spot or sentinel regions, characterized by higher temperature increases in respect to the planet average value and by more marked connected effects. In this framework, in the present work, following the climate stochastic resonance model, the effects, due to a temperature increase independently from a specific trend, connected to the 105 year Milankovitch cycle were tested. As a result, a breaking scenario induced by global warming is forecasted. More specifically, a wavelet analysis, innovatively performed with different sampling times, allowed us, besides to fully characterize the cycles periodicities, to quantitatively determine the stochastic resonance conditions by optimizing the noise level. Starting from these system resonance conditions, numerical simulations for increasing planet temperatures have been performed. The obtained results show that an increase of the Earth temperature boosts a transition towards a chaotic regime where the Milankovitch cycle effects disappear. These results put into evidence the so-called threshold effect, namely the fact that also a small temperature increase can give rise to great effects above a given threshold, furnish a perspective point of view of a possible future climate scenario, and provide an account of the ongoing registered intensity increase of extreme meteorological events.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040067
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 68: Mapping Vulnerability of Cotton to Climate
           Change in West Africa: Challenges for Sustainable Development

    • Authors: Mary Ann Cunningham, Nicholas S. Wright, Penelope B. Mort Ranta, Hannah K. Benton, Hassan G. Ragy, Christopher J. Edington, Chloe A. Kellner
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Climate models project vulnerability to global warming in low-income regions, with important implications for sustainable development. While food crops are the priority, smallholder cash crops support food security, education, and other priorities. Despite its importance as a populous region subject to substantial climate change, West Africa has received relatively slight attention in spatial assessments of climate impacts. In this region, rainfed cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) provides essential smallholder income. We used a spatially explicit species distribution model to project likely changes in the spatial distribution of suitable climates for rainfed cotton in West Africa. We modeled suitable climate conditions from the recent past (1970–2000) and projected the range of those conditions in 2050 (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5). The suitable area declined by 60 percent under RCP4.5 and by 80 percent under RCP8.5. Of 15 countries in the study area, all but two declined to less than ten percent suitable under RCP8.5. The annual precipitation was the most influential factor in explaining baseline cotton distribution, but 2050 temperatures appear to become the limiting factor, rising beyond the range in which rainfed cotton has historically been grown. Adaptation to these changes and progress on sustainable development goals will depend on responses at multiple scales of governance, including global support and cooperation.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040068
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 145: The Effect of Climate Variability on Maize
           Production in the Ejura-Sekyedumase Municipality, Ghana

    • Authors: Godwin P. Cudjoe, Phillip Antwi-Agyei, Benjamin A. Gyampoh
      First page: 145
      Abstract: Agriculture is one of the sectors most susceptible to changes in climatic conditions. The impact is even stronger in Africa, where rain-fed agriculture is vital for daily subsistence, but where adaptive capacity is low. It is therefore crucial to increase the understanding of the actual climate change dynamics on agricultural productivity. This study examined the effects of changes in climatic variables such as rainfall and temperature on maize production in the Ejura-Sekyedumase Municipality, Ghana. Regression, chi-square and trend analyses were used to establish the relationship between climate variables (rainfall and temperature) and maize yield in the study area. This was supplemented with participatory household interviews with 120 farmers to understand the perception of farmers on rainfall and temperature patterns. The results from the study respondents and trend analysis show that rainfall is shorter in terms of duration and less predictable, whilst temperature has increased. The findings suggest that the general relationship between rainfall, temperature and maize yield is such that maize yield increased with increasing rainfall of the right amount and distribution pattern and decreased with increasing temperature. The study concludes that climate variability and/or change is evident in the study area and its effect on maize yield is severe.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9100145
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 146: What Drives Climate Action in Canada’s
           Provincial North' Exploring the Role of Connectedness to Nature,
           Climate Worry, and Talking with Friends and Family

    • Authors: Lindsay P. Galway, Thomas Beery, Chris Buse, Maya K. Gislason
      First page: 146
      Abstract: Despite widespread calls to action from the scientific community and beyond, a concerning climate action gap exists. This paper aims to enhance our understanding of the role of connectedness to nature in promoting individual-level climate action in a unique setting where climate research and action are lacking: Canada’s Provincial North. To begin to understand possible pathways, we also examined whether climate worry and talking about climate change with family and friends mediate the relationship between connectedness to nature and climate action. We used data collected via postal surveys in two Provincial North communities, Thunder Bay (Ontario), and Prince George (British Columbia) (n = 628). Results show that connectedness to nature has a direct positive association with individual-level climate action, controlling for gender and education. Results of parallel mediation analyses further show that connectedness to nature is indirectly associated with individual-level climate action, mediated by both climate worry and talking about climate change with family and friends. Finally, results suggest that climate worry and talking about climate change with family and friends serially mediate the relationship between connectedness to nature and with individual-level climate action. These findings are relevant for climate change engagement and action, especially across Canada’s Provincial North, but also in similar settings characterized by marginalization, heightened vulnerability to climate change, urban islands within vast rural and remote landscapes, and economies and social identities tied to resource extraction. Drawing on these findings, we argue that cultivating stronger connections with nature in the places where people live, learn, work, and play is an important and currently underutilized leverage point for promoting individual-level climate action. This study therefore adds to the current and increasingly relevant calls for (re-)connecting with nature that have been made by others across a range of disciplinary and sectoral divides.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9100146
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 147: Potential for More Sustainable Energy Usage in
           the Postharvest Handling of Horticultural Produce through Management of

    • Authors: Ron Baden Howe Wills
      First page: 147
      Abstract: The perishable nature of fruit and vegetables requires some technological intervention to maintain quality during handling and marketing. The technology of choice for many years has been use of low temperatures as it is effective in reducing metabolism and hence extend postharvest life. However, refrigerated storage is energy intensive and the growing urgency to reduce international greenhouse gas emissions has created a need for technologies that are more environmentally sustainable but still acceptable to consumers. Ethylene is well known to promote ripening and senescence of fruit and vegetables. This presentation will review the existing data that support the potential for managing the concentration of ethylene in the atmosphere around produce in postharvest situations to allow a reduced reliance on refrigeration and thus reduce energy consumption. Methods for managing ethylene levels around produce, and barriers that need to be overcome in order to move from a temperature-based mindset are discussed.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9100147
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 148: Non-Conventional Agricultural Spaces and
           Climate Change: The Cases of Le Grenier boréal and Lufa Farms in Quebec,

    • Authors: Mélanie Doyon, Juan-Luis Klein
      First page: 148
      Abstract: The objective of this text is to present a reflection on the link between local initiatives to combat food insecurity and actions adapting to climate change. To this end, two case studies of ongoing experiments in the Canadian province of Quebec will be presented and compared. While these two cases are very different in terms of location, production and people involved, they share the objective of bringing fresh and healthy food, produced locally, to the population of their territory and of rethinking the relationship of the community to nature through food production. Despite their significant differences, each of these two cases features actions for responding to problems that have a common cause: an agro-industrial food system that, by decoupling the locations of production and consumption, in order to maximize the economic profitability of the capital invested, has compromised both the health of citizens and the ecological balance.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9100148
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 149: Road Salt Damage to Historical Milestones
           Indicates Adaptation of Winter Roads to Future Climate Change May Damage
           Arctic Cultural Heritage

    • Authors: Hans Antonson, Philip Buckland, Göran Blomqvist
      First page: 149
      Abstract: There is no doubt that anthropogenic global warming is accelerating damage to cultural heritage. Adaptation measures are required to reduce the loss of sites, monuments and remains. However, little research has been directed towards understanding potential impacts of climate adaptation measures in other governmental sectors on cultural heritage. We provide a case study demonstrating that winter road salt, used to reduce ice related accidents, damages historical iron milestones. As the climate warms, road salt use will move north into areas where sites have been protected by contiguous winter snow cover. This will expose Artic/sub-Arctic cultural heritage, including Viking graves and Sami sites, to a new anthropogenic source of damage. Research and planning should therefore include the evaluation of secondary impacts when choosing climate adaptation strategies.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9100149
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 150: Dynamical Downscaling of Surface Air
           Temperature and Wind Field Variabilities over the Southeastern Levantine
           Basin, Mediterranean Sea

    • Authors: Mohamed ElBessa, Saad Mesbah Abdelrahman, Kareem Tonbol, Mohamed Shaltout
      First page: 150
      Abstract: The characteristics of near surface air temperature and wind field over the Southeastern Levantine (SEL) sub-basin during the period 1979–2018 were simulated. The simulation was carried out using a dynamical downscaling approach, which requires running a regional climate model system (RegCM-SVN6994) on the study domain, using lower-resolution climate data (i.e., the fifth generation of ECMWF atmospheric reanalysis of the global climate ERA5 datasets) as boundary conditions. The quality of the RegCM-SVN simulation was first verified by comparing its simulations with ERA5 for the studied region from 1979 to 2018, and then with the available five WMO weather stations from 2007 to 2018. The dynamical downscaling results proved that RegCM-SVN in its current configuration successfully simulated the observed surface air temperature and wind field. Moreover, RegCM-SVN was proved to provide similar or even better accuracy (during extreme events) than ERA5 in simulating both surface air temperature and wind speed. The simulated annual mean T2m by RegCM-SVN (from 1979 to 2018) was 20.9 °C, with a positive warming trend of 0.44 °C/decade over the study area. Moreover, the annual mean wind speed by RegCM-SVN was 4.17 m/s, demonstrating an annual negative trend of wind speed over 92% of the study area. Surface air temperatures over SEL mostly occurred within the range of 4–31 °C; however, surface wind speed rarely exceeded 10 m/s. During the study period, the seasonal features of T2m showed a general warming trend along the four seasons and showed a wind speed decreasing trend during spring and summer. The results of the RegCM-SVN simulation constitute useful information that could be utilized to fully describe the study area in terms of other atmospheric parameters.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9100150
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 151: Geospatial Assessment of Flood-Tolerant Rice
           Varieties to Guide Climate Adaptation Strategies in India

    • Authors: Nisha Koppa, Giriraj Amarnath
      First page: 151
      Abstract: Rice is the most important food crop. With the largest rain-fed lowland area in the world, flooding is considered as the most important abiotic stress to rice production in India. With climate change, it is expected that the frequency and severity of the floods will increase over the years. These changes will have a severe impact on the rain-fed agriculture production and livelihoods of millions of farmers in the flood affected region. There are numerous flood risk adaptation and mitigation options available for rain-fed agriculture in India. Procuring, maintaining and distributing the newly developed submergence-tolerant rice variety called Swarna-Sub1 could play an important role in minimizing the effect of flood on rice production. This paper assesses the quantity and cost of a flood-tolerant rice seed variety- Swarna-Sub1, that would be required during the main cropping season of rice i.e., kharif at a district level for 17 major Indian states. The need for SS1 seeds for rice production was assessed by developing a geospatial framework using remote sensing to map the suitability of SS1, to help stakeholders prepare better in managing the flood risks. Results indicate that districts of Bihar, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh will require the highest amount of SS1 seeds for flood adaptation strategies. The total estimated seed requirement for these 17 states would cost around 370 crores INR, less than 0.01 percent of Indian central government’s budget allocation for agriculture sector.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9100151
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 152: Water Sensitive Cities: An Integrated Approach
           to Enhance Urban Flood Resilience in Parma (Northern Italy)

    • Authors: Arianna Dada, Christian Urich, Francesca Berteni, Michèle Pezzagno, Patrizia Piro, Giovanna Grossi
      First page: 152
      Abstract: Climate change is globally causing more intense meteorological phenomena. Our cities experience increased rainfall intensity, more intense heat waves, and prolonged droughts providing economic, social, health and environmental challenges. Combined with population growth and rapid urbanization, the increasing impact of climate change will make our cities more and more vulnerable, especially to urban flooding. In order to adapt our urban water systems to these challenges, the adoption of newly emerging water management strategies is required. The complexity and scale of this challenge calls for the integration of knowledge from different disciplines and collaborative approaches. The water sensitive cities principles provide guidance for developing new techniques, strategies, policies, and tools to improve the livability, sustainability, and resilience of cities. In this study, the DAnCE4Water modeling approach promoting the development of water sensitive cities was applied to Parma, an Italian town that has faced serious water issues in the last few years. The city, indeed, had to face the consequences of flooding several times, caused by the inadequacy of both the network of open channels and the sewerage network due to the urban expansion and climate change of the last 30 years. Through the model, the efficiency of decentralized technologies, such as green roofs and porous pavement, and their integration with the existing centralized combined sewer system was assessed under a range of urban development scenarios. The obtained results show that the adoption of an integrated approach, including soft engineering hydraulic strategies, consisting in the use of natural and sustainable solutions, can increase resilience to urban flooding. Further, the study shows that there is a critical need for strategic investment in solutions that will deliver long-term sustainable outcomes.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9100152
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 10 (2021)
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