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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 112 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Climate Change Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access  
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate Summary of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 66)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Developments in Atmospheric Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access  
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mathematics of Climate and Weather Forecasting     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 134)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Nīvār     Open Access  
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access  
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal  
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Cryosphere Discussions (TCD)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weather     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access  
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2225-1154
Published by MDPI Homepage  [233 journals]
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 69: The Politics of Maladaptation

    • Authors: Leigh Glover, Mikael Granberg
      First page: 69
      Abstract: An emerging component of the adaptation discourse, embracing theory, practice and review, is that of the negative assessment of adaptation, namely, maladaptation. Political theories and concepts have been applied as one of these assessment tools, giving rise to a political critique of maladaptation. Such a critique contrasts with the more conventional scientific and technical assessments of adaptation policies, programs and practices. Key political themes in studies of maladaptation include resource management and allocations, decision making processes, equity and fairness, gender, power and influence, and Nature and ecology. Within the scholarship on the politics of maladaptation, overlapping frameworks can be identified. Critiques of adaptation have been applied to the preconditions of adaptation, adaptation decision making processes and institutions, and to adaptation outcomes. There are a number of conceptual challenges in undertaking political analyses of adaptation. In this article, we outline the origins of the adaptation and maladaptation concepts, we describe the key political issues, we identify the application of politics in the maladaptation discourse and identify the major political perspectives. Finally, we draw conclusions on the state of the maladaptation discourse.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050069
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 70: Climate Change in the 2019 Canadian Federal

    • Authors: Shelley Boulianne, Stephanie Belland, Nikita Sleptcov, Anders Olof Larsson
      First page: 70
      Abstract: In the weeks before the 2019 federal election, climate change strikes occurred in Canada and across the globe, which may have increased the salience of this policy issue. We use two data sources to examine the role of climate change in the 2019 federal election: a representative survey of 1500 Canadians and 2109 Facebook posts from the five major party leaders. After accounting for political ideology and region, we find that concern about climate change was a strong positive predictor of liberal support. We triangulate these findings by analyzing Facebook posts. We find that left-wing politicians were more likely to post about climate change and that posts about climate change received more likes, comments, and shares than other posts. This higher level of user engagement did not differ depending on which political party posted the climate change message. The combination of sources offers news insights into citizen-elite interactions and electoral outcomes. Climate change was important in the election, whether this importance was measured through survey data or user engagement with leaders’ climate change posts.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050070
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 71: Determination of a New Coastal ENSO Oceanic
           Index for Northern Peru

    • Authors: Edgard Gonzales, Eusebio Ingol
      First page: 71
      Abstract: In 2017, extreme rainfall events occurred in the northern portion of Peru, causing nearly 100,000 victims, according to the National Emergency Operations Center (COEN). This climatic event was attributed to the occurrence of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine and differentiate between the occurrence of canonical ENSO, with a new type of ENSO called “El Niño Costero” (Coastal El Niño). The polynomial equation method was used to analyze the data from the different types of existing ocean indices to determine the occurrence of ENSO. It was observed that the anomalies of sea surface temperature (SST) 2.5 °C (January 2016) generated the “Modoki El Niño” and that the anomaly of SST −0.3 °C (January 2017) generated the “Modoki La Niña”; this sequential generation generated El Niño Costero. This new knowledge about the sui generis origin of El Niño Costero, based on the observations of this analysis, will allow us to identify and obtain important information regarding the occurrence of this event. A new oceanic index called the Pacific Regional Equatorial Index (PREI) was proposed to follow the periodic evolution and forecast with greater precision a new catastrophic event related to the occurrence of El Niño Costero and to implement prevention programs.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050071
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 72: Evolution of the Arabian Sea Upwelling from the
           Last Millennium to the Future as Simulated by Earth System Models

    • Authors: Xing Yi, Birgit Hünicke, Eduardo Zorita
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Arabian Sea upwelling in the past has been generally studied based on the sediment records. We apply two earth system models and analyze the simulated water vertical velocity to investigate coastal upwelling in the western Arabian Sea over the last millennium. In addition, two models with slightly different configurations are also employed to study the upwelling in the 21st century under the strongest and the weakest greenhouse gas emission scenarios. With a negative long-term trend caused by the orbital forcing of the models, the upwelling over the last millennium is found to be closely correlated with the sea surface temperature, the Indian summer Monsoon and the sediment records. The future upwelling under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario reveals a negative trend, in contrast with the positive trend displayed by the upwelling favorable along-shore winds. Therefore, it is likely that other factors, like water stratification in the upper ocean layers caused by the stronger surface warming, overrides the effect from the upwelling favorable wind. No significant trend is found for the upwelling under the RCP2.6 scenario, which is likely due to a compensation between the opposing effects of the increase in upwelling favorable winds and the water stratification.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050072
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 73: Multisector Risk Identification to Assess
           Resilience to Flooding

    • Authors: Maria do Céu Almeida, Maria João Telhado, Marco Morais, João Barreiro
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Climate trends suggest an increase in the frequency of intense rainfall events and the aggravation of existing conditions in terms of flooding in urban areas. In coastal areas, conditions are aggravated by coexistence with coastal overtopping. Flood risk control is complex, and the interdependencies among the services and sectors in urban areas imply the need for adoption of approaches that embrace the interplay between service providers to ensure critical urban functions. Flooding incorporates several hazards. Assessment of resilience to multiple hazards in complex environments benefits from integrated and multi-sectoral approaches. A common constraint resides in the limited data and tools available for undertaking these complex assessments. This paper proposes a risk-based methodology to assess urban areas’ resilience to flooding by addressing sectors’ interdependencies in a context of limited data and ready-to-use tools. Multisector flood risk identification is pursued with the support of a geographic information system and is applied to Lisbon with a focus on the cascading effects of drainage system failures on buildings, populations, mobility, waste management, and electricity supply. The results demonstrate the potential for combining data and knowledge from different sources with dual modelling approaches, thus allowing one to obtain trends of exposure and vulnerability to flooding for current and climate change scenarios. This methodology facilitates dialogue among stakeholders and decision levels by contributing to capacity building, and it contributes to sustainable development.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050073
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 74: The Quality of Air in Polish Health Resorts
           with an Emphasis on Health on the Effects of Benzo(a)pyrene in 2015–2019

    • Authors: Ewa Anioł, Jacek Suder, Jan Stefan Bihałowicz, Grzegorz Majewski
      First page: 74
      Abstract: The aim of this paper was to analyze the impact of air pollution and meteorological conditions on the effectiveness of recreation in selected health resorts in Poland in 2015–2019. Four municipalities with the status of health resorts were compared in terms of exposure to harmful air pollutants such as PM10, NO2, SO2, and B(a)P in PM10. In this paper, a comprehensive statistical analysis was performed by determining the basic statistics of the measurement series. In addition, analyses of the occurrence of episodes of elevated PM10 concentrations in health resorts in Poland, as well as correlation and regression analyses, were performed. Statistical analysis showed no annual mean exceedances for the air pollutants analyzed. Average annual concentrations of harmful pollutants decreased year by year in Rabka Zdrój and also in Ciechocinek. The situation was different in Sopot and Ustroń, where the average annual pollution remained at a similar level and there was no downward trend. Studies have shown that travel to spa communities for health purposes can be problematic because air quality, while not exceeding average annual standards, is not satisfactory. To effectively address public health concerns, it is also necessary to consider meteorological conditions when analyzing air quality. A detailed analysis of the impact of meteorological conditions (average air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, and visibility) on air quality, based on forecasts, will also help in the implementation of air protection plans and strengthen the control of harmful pollutant levels. Measures to reduce the levels of harmful pollutants will affect the effectiveness of patient treatment in spas. The article presents the correct way to conduct reliable monitoring of air quality and meteorological conditions, where it is particularly important.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050074
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 75: Attitude Changes of Stakeholders towards
           Climate Change Adaptation Policies in Agricultural Sector by Online

    • Authors: Kenshi Baba, Eri Amanuma, Motoko Kosugi
      First page: 75
      Abstract: This study set up online virtual communities consisting of farmers and stakeholders involved in agriculture and nonfarmers living in rural areas interested in agricultural production. We conducted a deliberation within the communities for 14 days on identifying important climate change adaptation policies for 30 years later under climate change impacts with the relevant knowledge from experts. During the deliberation, after self-introduction took place including the realization of climate change impacts, the participants were provided with the expert knowledge on impacts of climate change, adaptation policies in agricultural sector and so on, then the following discussions covered issues such as the distribution of agricultural produce, insufficient successors, and support for farmers, such as impacts on crops during disasters concerning future scenarios. Attitude changes before and after deliberation were observed in terms of the pros and cons of climate change adaptation policies in agriculture and rural areas, but statistically significant differences were not observed. On the other hand, a statistically significant change was observed in some determinants of the pros and cons, such as the perceived effectiveness and goal intention. This structural change results from that the participants became aware of a different perspective through deliberation. Thus, the online deliberation process was effective to some extent in increasing knowledge and promoting deeper understanding among participants during inquiry and reasoning was deepened in the process as they listened to the opinions of others in a different position with a different idea as well as read and search for scientific findings and information provided by experts.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050075
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 76: Beyond Planning Tools: Experiential Learning in
           Climate Adaptation Planning and Practices

    • Authors: Kristen M. Schmitt, Todd A. Ontl, Stephen D. Handler, Maria K. Janowiak, Leslie A. Brandt, Patricia R. Butler-Leopold, P. Danielle Shannon, Courtney L. Peterson, Christopher W. Swanston
      First page: 76
      Abstract: In the past decade, several dedicated tools have been developed to help natural resources professionals integrate climate science into their planning and implementation; however, it is unclear how often these tools lead to on-the-ground climate adaptation. Here, we describe a training approach that we developed to help managers effectively plan to execute intentional, climate-informed actions. This training approach was developed through the Climate Change Response Framework (CCRF) and uses active and focused work time and peer-to-peer interaction to overcome observed barriers to using adaptation planning tools. We evaluate the effectiveness of this approach by examining participant evaluations and outlining the progress of natural resources projects that have participated in our trainings. We outline a case study that describes how this training approach can lead to place and context-based climate-informed action. Finally, we describe best practices based on our experience for engaging natural resources professionals and helping them increase their comfort with climate-informed planning.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9050076
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 51: The Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of
           Urban Heat Island Intensity: Implications for East Africa’s Urban

    • Authors: Xueqin Li, Lindsay C. Stringer, Martin Dallimer
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Due to the combination of climate change and the rapid growth in urban populations in Africa, many urban areas are encountering exacerbated urban heat island (UHI) effects. It is important to understand UHI effects in order to develop suitable adaptation and mitigation strategies. However, little work has been done in this regard in Africa. In this study, we compared surface UHI (SUHI) effects between cities located in different climate zones in East Africa, investigating how they change, both spatially and temporally. We quantified the annual daytime and night-time SUHI intensities in the five most populated cities in East Africa in 2003 and 2017, and investigated the links to urban area size. We consider the possible drivers of SUHI change and consider the implication for future development, highlighting the role of factors such as topography and building/construction materials. We suggest that UHI mitigation strategies targeting East African cities may benefit from more comprehensive analyses of blue and green infrastructure as this offers potential opportunities to enhance human comfort in areas where UHI effects are highest. However, this needs careful planning to avoid increasing associated issues such as disease risks linked to a changing climate.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040051
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 52: Transforming Local Climate Adaptation
           Organization: Barriers and Progress in 13 Swedish Municipalities

    • Authors: Ann-Catrin Kristianssen, Mikael Granberg
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Local strategies and policies are key in climate adaptation, although research shows significant barriers to progress. Sweden, often seen as progressive in climate change issues, has struggled in adopting a sufficient local climate adaptation organization. This article aimed to describe and analyze the climate adaptation organization in 13 Swedish municipalities from five perspectives: Problem framing, administrative and political agency, administrative and political structures, measures and solutions, and the role of learning. The mapping of these perspectives provides an opportunity to analyze barriers to local climate adaptation. Key policy documents have been studied including climate adaptation plans, crisis management plans, and regulatory documents, as well as documents from private consultants. This study showed that few municipalities have a formal organization for climate adaptation, clear structures, political support, and specific climate adaptation plans. At the same time, many of the municipalities are planning for transformation, due to a push from the county board, a lead agency in climate adaptation. There are also ample networks providing opportunities for learning among municipalities and regions. This study concluded that one key barrier is the lack of focus and prioritization in a majority of the municipalities, leaving the administrators, often planners, in a more activist position. The need for organizational mainstreaming and resources is emphasized.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040052
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 53: Exceedance and Return Period of High
           Temperature in the African Region

    • Authors: Alemtsehai A. Turasie
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Several studies have indicated that the social, economic and other impacts of global warming can be linked with changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather/climate events. Developing countries, particularly in the African region, are highly affected by extreme events such as high temperature, usually followed/accompanied by drought. Therefore, studying the probability of occurrence and return period of extreme temperatures, and possible change in these parameters, is of high importance for climate-related policy making and preparedness works in the region. This study aims to address these issues by assessing probability of exceedance and return period of extremes in annual maximum and annual mean temperatures. The analyses of historical data in this study showed that extremes in both annual maximum and mean temperature are highly likely to be exceeded more often in the future compared to the past. For the extreme event marker (threshold) defined in this study, probability of 3 exceedances in the following 19 years (for instance), at any gridpoint, is estimated to be at least 10% for extremes in annual maxima and at least 15% for those in annual means. Most places in the region, however, have much higher (up to 20%) probability of exceedance. The estimated probability of exceedance has shown increasing tendency with time. Return period, based on the most recent data, of extremes in annual maximum temperature is found to be less than 6.5 years at about 48% of the gridpoints in the region. Similarly, return period of extremes in annual mean temperature is estimated to be less than 5.5 years at about 82% of places in the region. These estimates have also shown a strong tendency of getting shorter as time goes on. On average, extremes in annual mean temperature were found to have shorter return periods (4–7 years) compared to those in annual maximum temperature (6–10 years), at 95% confidence. The empirical results presented in this study are generally in agreement with IPCC’s projections of increased warming trend. This data-driven, robust method is used in the present study and the results can also be considered as an alternative approach for detecting changes in climate via estimating and assessing possible changes in frequency of extreme events with time.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040053
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 54: Vegetation and Glacier Trends in the Area of
           the Maritime Alps Natural Park (Italy): MaxEnt Application to Predict
           Habitat Development

    • Authors: Elena Comino, Adriano Fiorucci, Maurizio Rosso, Andrea Terenziani, Anna Treves
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Climate change is significantly affecting ecosystem services and leading to strong impacts on the extent and distribution of glaciers and vegetation. In this context, species distribution models represent a suitable instrument for studying ecosystem development and response to climate warming. This study applies the maximum entropy model, MaxEnt, to evaluate trends and effects of climate change for three environmental indicators in the area of the Alpi Marittime Natural Park under the Municipality of Entracque (Italy). Specifically, this study focuses on the magnitude of the retreat of six glaciers and on the distribution of two different plant communities, Alnus viridis scrub and Fagus sylvatica forest associated with Acer pseudoplatanus and tall herbs (megaforbie), in relation to predicted increases in mean temperatures. MaxEnt software was used to model and observe changes over a thirty-year period, developing three scenarios: a present (2019), a past (1980) and a future (2050) using 24 “environmental layers”. This study showed the delicate climate balances of these six small glaciers that, in the next 30 years, are likely to undergo an important retreat (≈−33%) despite the high altitude and important snowfall that still characterize the area. At the same time, it is predicted that the two plant communities will invade those higher altitude territories that, not so long ago, were inhospitable, expanding their habitat by 50%. The MaxEnt application to glaciers has shown to be an effective tool that offers a new perspective in the climate change field as well as in biodiversity conservation planning.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040054
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 55: Assessing Future Impacts of Climate Change on
           Streamflow within the Alabama River Basin

    • Authors: Joseph E. Quansah, Amina B. Naliaka, Souleymane Fall, Ramble Ankumah, Gamal El Afandi
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Global climate change is expected to impact future precipitation and surface temperature trends and could alter local hydrologic systems. This study assessed the likely hydrologic responses and changes in streamflow due to future climate change within the Alabama River Basin (ARB) for the mid-21st century 2045 (“2030–2060”) and end-21st century 2075 (“2060–2090”). Using an integrated modeling approach, General Circulation Model (GCM) datasets; the Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques Climate Model 5 (CNRM-CM5), the Community Earth System Model, version 1–Biogeochemistry (CESM1- BGC.1), and the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 2 (HADGEM2-AO.1), under medium Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5, and based on World Climate Research Program (WCRP)’s Couple Model Intercomparison Phase 5 (CMIP5), were assimilated into calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Mann–Kendall and Theil Sen’s slope were used to assess the trends and magnitude of variability of the historical climate data used for setting up the model. The model calibration showed goodness of fit with minimum Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) coefficient values of 0.83 and Coefficient of Determination (R2) of 0.88 for the three gages within the ARB. Next, the research assessed changes in streamflow for the years 2045 and 2075 against that of the reference baseline year of 1980. The results indicate situations of likely increase and decrease in mean monthly streamflow discharge and increase in the frequency and variability in peak flows during the periods from the mid to end of the 21st century. Seasonally, monthly streamflow increases between 50% and 250% were found for spring and autumn months with decreases in summer months for 2045. Spring and summer months for 2075 resulted in increased monthly streamflow between 50% and 300%, while autumn and spring months experienced decreased streamflow. While the results are prone to inherent uncertainties in the downscaled GCM data used, the simulated dynamics in streamflow and water availability provide critical information for stakeholders to develop sustainable water management and climate change adaptation options for the ARB.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040055
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 56: Monthly and Seasonal Drought Characterization
           Using GRACE-Based Groundwater Drought Index and Its Link to
           Teleconnections across South Indian River Basins

    • Authors: Kuruva Satish Kumar, Pallakury AnandRaj, Koppala Sreelatha, Deepak Singh Bisht, Venkataramana Sridhar
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Traditional drought monitoring is based on observed data from both meteorological and hydrological stations. Due to the scarcity of station observation data, it is difficult to obtain accurate drought distribution characteristics, and also tedious to replicate the large-scale information of drought. Thus, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data are utilized in monitoring and characterizing regional droughts where ground station data is limited. In this study, we analyzed and assessed the drought characteristics utilizing the GRACE Groundwater Drought Index (GGDI) over four major river basins in India during the period of 2003–2016. The spatial distribution, temporal evolution of drought, and trend characteristics were analyzed using GGDI. Then, the relationship between GGDI and climate factors were evaluated by the method of wavelet coherence. The results indicate the following points: GRACE’s quantitative results were consistent and robust for drought assessment; out of the four basins, severe drought was noticed in the Cauvery river basin between 2012 and 2015, with severity of −27 and duration of 42 months; other than Godavari river basin, the remaining three basins displayed significant negative trends at monthly and seasonal scales; the wavelet coherence method revealed that climate factors had a substantial effect on GGDI, and the impact of Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) on drought was significantly high, followed by Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Index (namely, NINO3.4) and Multivariate El Niño–Southern Oscillation Index (MEI) in all the basins. This study provides reliable and robust quantitative result of GRACE water storage variations that shares new insights for further drought investigation.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040056
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 57: Differences in the Reaction of North Equatorial
           Countercurrent to the Developing and Mature Phase of ENSO Events in the
           Western Pacific Ocean

    • Authors: Yusuf Jati Wijaya, Yukiharu Hisaki
      First page: 57
      Abstract: The North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) is an eastward zonal current closely related to an El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. This paper investigated the variations of NECC in the Western Pacific Ocean over 25 years (1993–2017) using satellite data provided by the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) and the Remote Sensing System (RSS). The first mode of empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis showed that the NECC strengthened or weakened in each El Niño (La Niña) event during the developing or mature phase, respectively. We also found that the NECC shifting was strongly coincidental with an ENSO event. During the developing phase of an El Niño (La Niña) event, the NECC shifted southward (northward), and afterward, when it entered the mature phase, the NECC tended to shift slightly northward (southward). Moreover, the NECC strength was found to have undergone a weakening during the 2008–2017 period.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040057
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 58: Monitoring Urban Deprived Areas with Remote
           Sensing and Machine Learning in Case of Disaster Recovery

    • Authors: Saman Ghaffarian, Sobhan Emtehani
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Rapid urbanization and increasing population in cities with a large portion of them settled in deprived neighborhoods, mostly defined as slum areas, have escalated inequality and vulnerability to natural disasters. As a result, monitoring such areas is essential to provide information and support decision-makers and urban planners, especially in case of disaster recovery. Here, we developed an approach to monitor the urban deprived areas over a four-year period after super Typhoon Haiyan, which struck Tacloban city, in the Philippines, in 2013, using high-resolution satellite images and machine learning methods. A Support Vector Machine classification method supported by a local binary patterns feature extraction model was initially performed to detect slum areas in the pre-disaster, just after/event, and post-disaster images. Afterward, a dense conditional random fields model was employed to produce the final slum areas maps. The developed method detected slum areas with accuracies over 83%. We produced the damage and recovery maps based on change analysis over the detected slum areas. The results revealed that most of the slum areas were reconstructed 4 years after Typhoon Haiyan, and thus, the city returned to the pre-existing vulnerability level.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040058
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 59: Glacio-Nival Regime Creates Complex
           Relationships between Discharge and Climatic Trends of Zackenberg River,
           Greenland (1996–2019)

    • Authors: Karlijn Ploeg, Fabian Seemann, Ann-Kathrin Wild, Qiong Zhang
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Arctic environments experience rapid climatic changes as air temperatures are rising and precipitation is increasing. Rivers are key elements in these regions since they drain vast land areas and thereby reflect various climatic signals. Zackenberg River in northeast Greenland provides a unique opportunity to study climatic influences on discharge, as the river is not connected to the Greenland ice sheet. The study aims to explain discharge patterns between 1996 and 2019 and analyse the discharge for correlations to variations in air temperature and both solid and liquid precipitation. The results reveal no trend in the annual discharge. A lengthening of the discharge period is characterised by a later freeze-up and extreme discharge peaks are observed almost yearly between 2005 and 2017. A positive correlation exists between the length of the discharge period and the Thawing Degree Days (r=0.52,p<0.01), and between the total annual discharge and the annual maximum snow depth (r=0.48,p=0.02). Thereby, snowmelt provides the main source of discharge in the first part of the runoff season. However, the influence of precipitation on discharge could not be fully identified, because of uncertainties in the data and possible delays in the hydrological system. This calls for further studies on the relationship between discharge and precipitation. The discharge patterns are also influenced by meltwater from the A.P. Olsen ice cap and an adjacent glacier-dammed lake which releases outburst floods. Hence, this mixed hydrological regime causes different relationships between the discharge and climatic trends when compared to most Arctic rivers.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040059
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 60: Projections of Local Knowledge-Based Adaptation
           Strategies of Mexican Coffee Farmers

    • Authors: Patricia Ruiz-García, Cecilia Conde-Álvarez, Jesús David Gómez-Díaz, Alejandro Ismael Monterroso-Rivas
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Local knowledge can be a strategy for coping with extreme events and adapting to climate change. In Mexico, extreme events and climate change projections suggest the urgency of promoting local adaptation policies and strategies. This paper provides an assessment of adaptation actions based on the local knowledge of coffee farmers in southern Mexico. The strategies include collective and individual adaptation actions that farmers have established. To determine their viability and impacts, carbon stocks and fluxes in the system’s aboveground biomass were projected, along with water balance variables. Stored carbon contents are projected to increase by more than 90%, while maintaining agroforestry systems will also help serve to protect against extreme hydrological events. Finally, the integration of local knowledge into national climate change adaptation plans is discussed and suggested with a local focus. We conclude that local knowledge can be successful in conserving agroecological coffee production systems.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040060
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 61: The Occurrence of Drought in Mopani District
           Municipality, South Africa: Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation

    • Authors: Ndamulelo Nembilwi, Hector Chikoore, Edmore Kori, Rendani B. Munyai, Tshilidzi C. Manyanya
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Mopani District Municipality in the northeast of South Africa is largely semi-arid and frequently affected by meteorological droughts. The recent 2015/16 event had devastating impacts on water levels, crop yields, livestock herds and rural livelihoods. We investigated the nature of the drought hazard; its impacts, including vulnerability of rural communities in Mopani District and adaptation strategies they have employed to cope with drought. A mixed methods approach with both quantitative and qualitative datasets was used. The district was divided into two distinct climatic areas: the drier eastern lowveld and the wetter western bushveld. Questionnaires were administered among community members whilst key informant interviews were conducted among relevant government and municipal officials. Climate data was used to characterize historical drought using a Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index whilst vegetation anomaly maps were used to demonstrate impacts. Spatially distinct patterns of drought conditions were evident with harsh and dry conditions towards the east. It was found that nearly half the time there is some form of drought or another in the district mostly linked to the remote El Nino phenomenon. In several areas, rain-fed agriculture is no longer tenable, with a direct impact on rural livelihoods. A Household Vulnerability Index determined variable levels of vulnerability such that different strategies are employed to adapt to drought some of which cause environmental problems. Local government intervention strategies include supply of seeds and fertilisers, providing cheap fodder and supplying water using trucks. The findings of this study contribute to disaster risk reduction efforts in a region that is highly vulnerable to current and future climate-risks.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040061
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 62: Comparison of Multiple Maximum and Minimum
           Temperature Datasets at Local Level: The Case Study of North Horr
           Sub-County, Kenya

    • Authors: Giovanni Siciliano, Velia Bigi, Ingrid Vigna, Elena Comino, Maurizio Rosso, Elena Cristofori, Alessandro Demarchi, Alessandro Pezzoli
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Climate analyses at a local scale are an essential tool in the field of sustainable development. The evolution of reanalysis datasets and their greater reliability contribute to overcoming the scarcity of observed data in the southern areas of the world. The purpose of this study is to compute the reference monthly values and ranges of maximum and minimum temperatures for the eight main inhabited villages of North Horr Sub-County, in northern Kenya. The official ten-day dataset derived from the Kenyan Meteorological Department (KMD), the monthly datasets derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis (ERA), the Observational-Reanalysis Hybrid (ORH) and the Climate Limited Area Mode driven by HadG-EM2-ES (HAD) are assessed on a local scale using the most common statistical indices to determine which is more reliable in representing monthly maximum and minimum temperatures. Overall, ORH datasets showed lower biases and errors in representing local temperatures. Through an innovative methodology, a new set of monthly mean temperature values and ranges derived from ORH datasets are calculated for each location in the study area, in order to guarantee to locals an historical benchmark to compare present observations. The findings of this research provide insights for environmental risk management, supporting local populations in reducing their vulnerability.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040062
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 63: How Do the Cultural Dimensions of Climate Shape
           Our Understanding of Climate Change'

    • Authors: Jason Alexandra
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Climatic events express the dynamics of the Earth’s oceans and atmosphere, but are profoundly personal and social in their impacts, representation and comprehension. This paper explores how knowledge of the climate has multiple scales and dimensions that intersect in our experience of the climate. The climate is objective and subjective, scientific and cultural, local and global, and personal and political. These divergent dimensions of the climate frame the philosophical and cultural challenges of a dynamic climate. Drawing on research into the adaptation in Australia’s Murray Darling Basin, this paper outlines the significance of understanding the cultural dimensions of the changing climate. This paper argues for greater recognition of the ways in which cultures co-create the climate and, therefore, that the climate needs to be recognised as a socio-natural hybrid. Given the climate’s hybrid nature, research should aim to integrate our understanding of the social and the natural dimensions of our relationships to a changing climate.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040063
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 64: Climate Aridity and the Geographical Shift of
           Olive Trees in a Mediterranean Northern Region

    • Authors: Jesús Rodrigo-Comino, Rosanna Salvia, Giovanni Quaranta, Pavel Cudlín, Luca Salvati, Antonio Gimenez-Morera
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Climate change leverages landscape transformations and exerts variable pressure on natural environments and rural systems. Earlier studies outlined how Mediterranean Europe has become a global hotspot of climate warming and land use change. The present work assumes the olive tree, a typical Mediterranean crop, as a candidate bioclimatic indicator, delineating the latent impact of climate aridity on traditional cropping systems at the northern range of the biogeographical distribution of the olive tree. Since the olive tree follows a well-defined latitude gradient with a progressive decline in both frequency and density moving toward the north, we considered Italy as an appropriate case to investigate how climate change may (directly or indirectly) influence the spatial distribution of this crop. By adopting an exploratory approach grounded in the quali-quantitative analysis of official statistics, the present study investigates long-term changes over time in the spatial distribution of the olive tree surface area in Northern Italy, a region traditionally considered outside the ecological range of the species because of unsuitable climate conditions. Olive tree cultivated areas increased in Northern Italy, especially in flat districts and upland areas, while they decreased in Central and Southern Italy under optimal climate conditions, mostly because of land abandonment. The most intense expansion of the olive tree surface area in Italy was observed in the northern region between 1992 and 2000 and corresponded with the intensification of winter droughts during the late 1980s and the early 1990s and local warming since the mid-1980s. Assuming the intrinsic role of farmers in the expansion of the olive tree into the suboptimal land of Northern Italy, the empirical results of our study suggest how climate aridity and local warming may underlie the shift toward the north in the geographical range of the olive tree in the Mediterranean Basin. We finally discussed the implications of the olive range shift as a part of a possible landscape scenario for a more arid future.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040064
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 65: IMERG-Based Meteorological Drought Analysis
           over Italy

    • Authors: Tommaso Caloiero, Giulio Nils Caroletti, Roberto Coscarelli
      First page: 65
      Abstract: The Mediterranean region is an area particularly susceptible to water scarcity and drought. In this work, drought has been analyzed in Italy using multiple timescales of the standardized precipitation index (SPI) evaluated from the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement product from 2000 to 2020. In particular, drought characteristics (severity, duration, and intensity) have been estimated by means of the run theory applied to the SPI values calculated in 3325 grid points falling within the Italian territory. Results clearly indicate that although a high number of drought events has been identified for the short timescale, these events present a lower duration and lesser severity than the long-timescale droughts. The main outcomes of this study, with the indication of the spatial distribution of the drought characteristics in Italy, allow identifying the areas that could also face water stress conditions in the future, thus requiring drought monitoring and adequate adaptation strategies.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040065
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 66: Substantial Climate Response outside the Target
           Area in an Idealized Experiment of Regional Radiation Management

    • Authors: Sudhakar Dipu, Johannes Quaas, Martin Quaas, Wilfried Rickels, Johannes Mülmenstädt, Olivier Boucher
      First page: 66
      Abstract: Radiation management (RM) has been proposed as a conceivable climate engineering (CE) intervention to mitigate global warming. In this study, we used a coupled climate model (MPI-ESM) with a very idealized setup to investigate the efficacy and risks of CE at a local scale in space and time (regional radiation management, RRM) assuming that cloud modification is technically possible. RM is implemented in the climate model by the brightening of low-level clouds (solar radiation management, SRM) and thinning of cirrus (terrestrial radiation management, TRM). The region chosen is North America, and we simulated a period of 30 years. The implemented sustained RM resulted in a net local radiative forcing of −9.8 Wm−2 and a local cooling of −0.8 K. Surface temperature (SAT) extremes (90th and 10th percentiles) show negative anomalies in the target region. However, substantial climate impacts were also simulated outside the target area, with warming in the Arctic and pronounced precipitation change in the eastern Pacific. As a variant of RRM, a targeted intervention to suppress heat waves (HW) was investigated in further simulations by implementing intermittent cloud modification locally, prior to the simulated HW situations. In most cases, the intermittent RRM results in a successful reduction of temperatures locally, with substantially smaller impacts outside the target area compared to the sustained RRM.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040066
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 67: On the Breaking of the Milankovitch Cycles
           Triggered by Temperature Increase: The Stochastic Resonance Response

    • Authors: Maria Teresa Caccamo, Salvatore Magazù
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Recent decades have registered the hottest temperature variation in instrumentally recorded data history. The registered temperature rise is particularly significant in the so-called hot spot or sentinel regions, characterized by higher temperature increases in respect to the planet average value and by more marked connected effects. In this framework, in the present work, following the climate stochastic resonance model, the effects, due to a temperature increase independently from a specific trend, connected to the 105 year Milankovitch cycle were tested. As a result, a breaking scenario induced by global warming is forecasted. More specifically, a wavelet analysis, innovatively performed with different sampling times, allowed us, besides to fully characterize the cycles periodicities, to quantitatively determine the stochastic resonance conditions by optimizing the noise level. Starting from these system resonance conditions, numerical simulations for increasing planet temperatures have been performed. The obtained results show that an increase of the Earth temperature boosts a transition towards a chaotic regime where the Milankovitch cycle effects disappear. These results put into evidence the so-called threshold effect, namely the fact that also a small temperature increase can give rise to great effects above a given threshold, furnish a perspective point of view of a possible future climate scenario, and provide an account of the ongoing registered intensity increase of extreme meteorological events.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040067
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 68: Mapping Vulnerability of Cotton to Climate
           Change in West Africa: Challenges for Sustainable Development

    • Authors: Mary Ann Cunningham, Nicholas S. Wright, Penelope B. Mort Ranta, Hannah K. Benton, Hassan G. Ragy, Christopher J. Edington, Chloe A. Kellner
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Climate models project vulnerability to global warming in low-income regions, with important implications for sustainable development. While food crops are the priority, smallholder cash crops support food security, education, and other priorities. Despite its importance as a populous region subject to substantial climate change, West Africa has received relatively slight attention in spatial assessments of climate impacts. In this region, rainfed cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) provides essential smallholder income. We used a spatially explicit species distribution model to project likely changes in the spatial distribution of suitable climates for rainfed cotton in West Africa. We modeled suitable climate conditions from the recent past (1970–2000) and projected the range of those conditions in 2050 (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5). The suitable area declined by 60 percent under RCP4.5 and by 80 percent under RCP8.5. Of 15 countries in the study area, all but two declined to less than ten percent suitable under RCP8.5. The annual precipitation was the most influential factor in explaining baseline cotton distribution, but 2050 temperatures appear to become the limiting factor, rising beyond the range in which rainfed cotton has historically been grown. Adaptation to these changes and progress on sustainable development goals will depend on responses at multiple scales of governance, including global support and cooperation.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9040068
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 4 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 39: The Stationary Concentrated Vortex Model

    • Authors: Oleg Onishchenko, Viktor Fedun, Wendell Horton, Oleg Pokhotelov, Natalia Astafieva, Samuel J. Skirvin, Gary Verth
      First page: 39
      Abstract: A new model of an axially-symmetric stationary concentrated vortex for an inviscid incompressible flow is presented as an exact solution of the Euler equations. In this new model, the vortex is exponentially localised, not only in the radial direction, but also in height. This new model of stationary concentrated vortex arises when the radial flow, which concentrates vorticity in a narrow column around the axis of symmetry, is balanced by vortex advection along the symmetry axis. Unlike previous models, vortex velocity, vorticity and pressure are characterised not only by a characteristic vortex radius, but also by a characteristic vortex height. The vortex structure in the radial direction has two distinct regions defined by the internal and external parts: in the inner part the vortex flow is directed upward, and in the outer part it is downward. The vortex structure in the vertical direction can be divided into the bottom and top regions. At the bottom of the vortex the flow is centripetal and at the top it is centrifugal. Furthermore, at the top of the vortex the previously ascending fluid starts to descend. It is shown that this new model of a vortex is in good agreement with the results of field observations of dust vortices in the Earth’s atmosphere.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9030039
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 40: Observed and Projected Changes in Temperature
           and Precipitation in the Core Crop Region of the Humid Pampa, Argentina

    • Authors: Gabriela V. Müller, Miguel A. Lovino, Leandro C. Sgroi
      First page: 40
      Abstract: The core crop region of the Humid Pampa is one of the most productive agricultural lands around the world and depends highly on climate conditions. This study assesses climate variability, climate extremes, and observed and projected climate changes there, using 1911–2019 observations and CMIP5 model simulations. Since 1970, the annual mean temperature has risen by 1 °C and the mean annual minimum and maximum temperatures by 2 and 0.5 °C, respectively. The frequency of warm days and nights increased, and cold days and nights decreased. Heatwaves became longer and more intense, and cold waves decreased with less frost events. Annual precipitation increased by 10% from 1911, mainly in summer, and years with excess precipitation outnumbered those with a deficit. Both intense precipitation events and consecutive dry days grew, suggesting more annual precipitation falling on fewer days. Projections show a warming of 1 ºC by 2035, regardless of the scenario. From then on until 2100, mean temperature will increase by 2 and 3–3.5 °C in the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively. Annual precipitation will grow 8 and 16% from current values by 2100 in the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively. No major precipitation changes are projected in the RCP2.6 scenario.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9030040
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 41: Who Is Responsible for Embodied CO2'

    • Authors: Hans Sanderson
      First page: 41
      Abstract: With the Paris Agreement, countries are obliged to report greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, which will ensure that the global temperature increase is maintained well below 2 °C. The parties will report their nationally determined contributions (NDCs) in terms of plans and progress towards these targets during the postponed COP26 (Conference of the Parties under the UNFCCC) in Glasgow in November 2021. These commitments, however, do not take significant portions of the consumption-related emissions related to countries imports into account. Similarly, the majority of companies that report their emissions to CDP (Formerly Carbon Disclosure Project) also do not account for their embodied value-chain-related emissions. Municipalities, on the path towards carbon neutrality in accordance with the methods outlined by C40, also do not include imported and embodied CO2 in their total emission tallies. So, who is responsible for these emissions—the producer or the consumer' How can we ensure that the NDCs, municipalities’ and companies’ reduction targets share the responsibility of the emissions in the value chain, thus ensuring that targets and plans become sustainable, climate fair, and just in global value chains' Today the responsibility lays with the producer, which is not sustainable. We have the outline for the tools needed to quantify and transparently share the responsibility between producers and consumers at corporate, municipal and national levels based on an improved understanding of the attendant sources, causes, flows and risks of GHG emissions globally. Hybrid life cycle analysis/environmentally extended input–output (LCA/EEIO) models can for example be further developed. This will, in the end, enable everyday consumption to support a more sustainable, green and low carbon transition of our economy.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9030041
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 42: Ecoenergetic Comparison of HVAC Systems in Data

    • Authors: Alexandre F. Santos, Pedro D. Gaspar, Heraldo J. L. de Souza
      First page: 42
      Abstract: The topic of sustainability is of high importance today. Global efforts such as the Montreal Protocol (1987) and the Kigali Amendment (2016) are examples of joint work by countries to reduce environmental impacts and improve the level of the ozone layer, the choice of refrigerants and air conditioning systems, which is essential for this purpose. But what indicators are to be used to measure something so necessary' In this article, the types of air conditioning and GWP (Global Warming Potential) levels of equipment in the project phase were discussed, the issue of TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) that measures the direct and indirect environmental impacts of refrigeration equipment and air conditioning and a new methodology for the indicator was developed, the TEWI DC (DC is the direct application for Data Center), and using the formulas of this new adapted indicator it was demonstrated that the TEWI DC for Chicago (USA) was 2,784,102,640 kg CO2/10 years and Curitiba (Brazil) is 1,252,409,640 kg CO2/10 years. This difference in value corresponds to 222.30% higher annual emissions in Chicago than in Curitiba, showing that it is much more advantageous to install a Data Center in Curitiba than in Chicago in terms of environmental impact. The TEWI indicator provides a more holistic view, helping to combine energy and emissions into the same indicator.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9030042
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 43: Synoptic Climatology of Lake-Effect Snow Events
           off the Western Great Lakes

    • Authors: Jake Wiley, Andrew Mercer
      First page: 43
      Abstract: As the mesoscale dynamics of lake-effect snow (LES) are becoming better understood, recent and ongoing research is beginning to focus on the large-scale environments conducive to LES. Synoptic-scale composites are constructed for Lake Michigan and Lake Superior LES events by employing an LES case repository for these regions within the U.S. North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data for each LES event were used to construct synoptic maps of dominant LES patterns for each lake. These maps were formulated using a previously implemented composite technique that blends principal component analysis with a k-means cluster analysis. A sample case from each resulting cluster was also selected and simulated using the Advanced Weather Research and Forecast model to obtain an example mesoscale depiction of the LES environment. The study revealed four synoptic setups for Lake Michigan and three for Lake Superior whose primary differences were discrepancies in a surface pressure dipole structure previously linked with Great Lakes LES. These subtle synoptic-scale differences suggested that while overall LES impacts were driven more by the mesoscale conditions for these lakes, synoptic-scale conditions still provided important insight into the character of LES forcing mechanisms, primarily the steering flow and air–lake thermodynamics.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9030043
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 44: Changes in Frequency and Location of East Coast
           Low Pressure Systems Affecting Southeast Australia

    • Authors: Milton Speer, Lance Leslie, Joshua Hartigan, Shev MacNamara
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Low pressure systems off the southeast coast of Australia can generate intense rainfall and associated flooding, destructive winds, and coastal erosion, particularly during the cool season (April–September). Impacts depend on coastal proximity, strength and latitude. Therefore, it is important to investigate changes in frequency, duration, location, and intensity of these systems. First, an existing observation-based database of these low pressure systems, for 1970–2006, is extended to 2019, focusing on April–September and using archived Australian Bureau of Meteorology MSLP charts. Second, data consistency between 1970 and 2006 and 2007 and 2019 is confirmed. Third, permutation testing is performed on differences in means and variances between the two 25-year intervals 1970–1994 and 1995–2019. Additionally, trends in positions, durations and central pressures of the systems are investigated. p-values from permutation tests reveal statistically significant increases in mean low pressure system frequencies. Specifically, a greater frequency of both total days and initial development days only, occurred in the latter period. Statistically significant lower variance for both latitude and longitude in systems that developed in both subtropical easterly and mid-latitude westerly wind regimes indicate a shift south and east in the latter period. Furthermore, statistically significant differences in variance of development location of explosive low pressure systems that develop in a low level easterly wind regime indicate a shift further south and east. These changes are consistent with fewer systems projected to impact the east coast. Finally, important changes are suggested in the large scale atmospheric dynamics of the eastern Australian/Tasman Sea region.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9030044
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 45: Cooling Energy Use Reduction in Residential
           Buildings in Egypt Accounting for Global Warming Effects

    • Authors: Mohammad Abdollah Fadel Abdollah, Rossano Scoccia, Giulia Filippini, Mario Motta
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Residential and commercial buildings are responsible for almost 50% of the total electricity consumption in Egypt. This percentage is expected to increase due to the global warming effect. This work deals with the cooling energy use reduction strategies for residential buildings compatible with the Egyptian market accounting for the global warming effects. A study in the Egyptian market was done to explore the best available technologies in the Egyptian market. A series of dynamic simulations were executed in each city to optimize the building envelope using the best available technologies to reduce the cooling needs. Financial, energetic and environmental factors were taken into consideration, and comparative analysis was done to assess the best alternatives. The double wall with air gap and insulation on the outside was found to be the best alternative in all the cities. Moreover, simple measures to further reduce the cooling energy need were explored, such as the usage of more efficient lighting and night ventilation. This work led to an average reduction of 40% in the cooling energy needs and CO2 emissions across the three cities, with a maximum discounted payback period down to 6.3 years. Future weather files adapted to climate change were generated, and the selected passive strategies were tested to assess the validity of such strategies in the future. The cooling energy needs are expected to increase by 39%, while the peak cooling loads are also expected to increase by 23% by 2080, rendering the current installed HVAC systems undersized.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9030045
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 46: Climate Services for Renewable Energy in the
           Nordic Electricity Market

    • Authors: Kirsten Halsnæs, Lisa Bay, Per Skougaard Kaspersen, Martin Drews, Morten Andreas Dahl Larsen
      First page: 46
      Abstract: To limit global warming to less than 2 °C requires a low-carbon transition with very large shares of renewables. Options such as wind, solar and hydro are influenced by both short and longer-term weather and climate variability. While still subject to natural and anthropogenic climate forcing and fluctuating energy prices, water reservoirs can dually operate as storage and production facilities and serve to balance the more volatile production capacity from solar and wind. This paper assesses the dynamics and demands of the hydro-dominated Nordic electricity system and market and identifies untapped potential for climate services based on a combination of literature-based research, documented stakeholder needs and data sources on historical and future conditions. A critical need for both improving the appropriateness and reliability of existing climate services and for developing new tailored solutions for a broader group of stakeholders from the renewable energy sector in the Nordics is observed. The quantification of uncertainties related to short-term weather forecasts and longer-term climate predictions is also found to be important for minimizing the financial risk in relation to systems management and to overall investments in renewable energy.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9030046
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 47: Exploring Short-Term Climate Change Effects on
           Rangelands and Broad-Leaved Forests by Free Satellite Data in Aosta Valley
           (Northwest Italy)

    • Authors: Tommaso Orusa, Enrico Borgogno Mondino
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Satellite remote sensing is a power tool for the long-term monitoring of vegetation. This work, with reference to a regional case study, investigates remote sensing potentialities for describing the annual phenology of rangelands and broad-leaved forests at the landscape level with the aim of detecting eventual effects of climate change in the Alpine region of the Aosta Valley (Northwest (NW) Italy). A first analysis was aimed at estimating phenological metrics (PMs) from satellite images time series and testing the presence of trends along time. A further investigation concerned evapotranspiration from vegetation (ET) and its variation along the years. Additionally, in both the cases the following meteorological patterns were considered: air temperature anomalies, precipitation trends and the timing of yearly seasonal snow melt. The analysis was based on the time series (TS) of different MODIS collections datasets together with Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS) collection obtained through Google Earth Engine. Ground weather stations data from the Centro Funzionale VdA ranging from 2000 to 2019 were used. In particular, the MOD13Q1 v.6, MOD16A2 and MOD10A1 v.6 collections were used to derive PMs, ET and snow cover maps. The SRTM (shuttle radar topography mission) DTM (digital terrain model) was also used to describe local topography while the Coordination of Information on the Environment (CORINE) land cover map was adopted to investigate land use classes. Averagely in the area, rangelands and broad-leaved forests showed that the length of season is getting longer, with a general advance of the SOS (start of the season) and a delay in the EOS (end of the season). With reference to ET, significant increasing trends were generally observed. The water requirement from vegetation appeared to have averagely risen about 0.05 Kg·m−2 (about 0.5%) per year in the period 2000–2019, for a total increase of about 1 Kg·m−2 in 20 years (corresponding to a percentage difference in water requirement from vegetation of about 8%). This aspect can be particularly relevant in the bottom of the central valley, where the precipitations have shown a statistically significant decreasing trend in the period 2000–2019 (conversely, no significant variation was found in the whole territory). Additionally, the snowpack timing persistence showed a general reduction trend. PMs and ET and air temperature anomalies, as well as snow cover melting, proved to have significantly changed their values in the last 20 years, with a continuous progressive trend. The results encourage the adoption of remote sensing to monitor climate change effects on alpine vegetation, with particular focus on the relationship between phenology and other abiotic factors permitting an effective technological transfer.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9030047
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 48: Assessment of the Urban Heat Island Impact on
           Building Energy Performance at District Level with the EUReCA Platform

    • Authors: Pierdonato Romano, Enrico Prataviera, Laura Carnieletto, Jacopo Vivian, Michele Zinzi, Angelo Zarrella
      First page: 48
      Abstract: In recent decades, the cooling energy demand in urban areas is increasing ever faster due to the global warming and the growth of developing economies. In this perspective, the urban building energy modelling community is focusing its research activities on innovative tools and policy actions to improve cities’ sustainability. This work aims to present a novel module of the EUReCA (Energy Urban Resistance Capacitance Approach) platform for evaluating the effects of the interaction between district’s buildings in the cooling season. EUReCA predicts the urban energy demand using a bottom-up approach and low computational resources. The new module allows us to evaluate the mutual shading between buildings and the urban heat island effects, and it is well integrated with the calculation of the energy demand of buildings. The analysis was carried out considering a real case study in Padua (Italy). Results show that the urban heat island causes an average increase of 2.2 °C in the external air temperature mainly caused by the waste heat rejected from cooling systems. This involves an increase in urban cooling energy and electricity demand, which can be affected between 6 and 8%. The latter is the most affected by the urban heat island (UHI), due to the degradation it causes on the HVAC systems’ efficiency.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9030048
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 49: Where to Go or Where Not to Go—A Method for
           Advising Communities during Extreme Temperatures

    • Authors: Helena Madureira, Ana Monteiro, Sara Cruz
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Climate change is producing more extremes and increasing the number and magnitude of risks that impact people’s lives, so identifying and understanding local climate risks is a long but essential process for defining adaptation strategies. The availability of technologies to sensitize and educate people about risks, and to assist people with becoming active observers and monitors of climatic elements has helped to promote permanent surveillance and proactive attitudes towards climatic phenomena that lead to undesirable risks. This paper proposes a methodological approach to guide citizens moving around the city when extreme temperatures occur, minimizing climatic risks and negative health comes, using a very simple method based on Landsat 8 temperature data images at a subsection spatial scale level. The results obtained indicate the places of higher extreme temperatures risks, as well as some of the potential places that people can use to protect themselves. This work demonstrates the value of mapping climatic factors at a local scale and deliver tailored and accurate maps with the places suitable for alleviating bioclimatic stresses and the places that should be avoided.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9030049
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 50: Impact of Seasonal Variation in Climate on
           Water Quality of Old Woman Creek Watershed Ohio Using SWAT

    • Authors: Israel A. Olaoye, Remegio B. Confesor, Joseph D. Ortiz
      First page: 50
      Abstract: The effect of the projected 21st century climate change on water quality in Old Woman Creek (OWC) watershed was evaluated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the precipitation and temperature projections from three best Global Climate Circulation Model (GCM)l ensemble downloaded from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). These three best GCMs (GFDL-ESM2M, MPI-ESM-MR, EC-EARTH) were identified as those closest to the multivariate ensemble average of twenty different GCM-driven SWAT simulations. Seasonal analysis was undertaken in historical (1985–2014), current to near future (2018–2045), mid-century (2046–2075), and late-century (2076–2100) climate windows. The hydrological model calibration was carried out using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm and pareto optimization. Simulations were made for stream flow and nine water quality variables (sediment, organic nitrogen, organic phosphorus, mineral phosphorus, chlorophyll a, carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus) of interest. The average of twenty different CMIP5-driven SWAT simulation results showed good correlation for all the 10 variables with the PRISM-driven SWAT simulation results in the historical climate window (1985–2014). For the historical period, the result shows an over-estimation of flow, sediment, and organic nitrogen from January to March in simulations with CMIP5 inputs, relative to simulations with PRISM input. For the other climate windows, the simulation results show a progressive increase in stream flow with peak flow month shifting from April to March. The expected seasonal changes in each water quality variable have implications for the OWC estuary and Lake Erie water quality.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-03-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9030050
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 18: A Survey Instrument to Measure Skeptics’
           (Dis)Trust in Climate Science

    • Authors: Dilshani Sarathchandra, Kristin Haltinner
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Existing survey instruments of trust in science and scientists that focus on the general public are potentially insufficient to assess climate skeptics’ perspectives towards climate science. They may miss important aspects of climate science about which skeptics raise concerns, and may not accurately measure climate skeptics’ distrust in climatology. We introduce a new survey instrument developed using data gathered from interviewing 33 self-identified climate change skeptics in Idaho. The survey items capture skeptics’ beliefs regarding climate scientists’ trustworthiness and credibility, their deference to scientific authority, and their perceptions of alienation from the climate science community. We validate our survey instrument using data from an online survey administered to 1000 residents in the U.S. Pacific Northwest who are skeptical of climate change. By employing standard survey design principles, we demonstrate how our new (dis)trust in climate science instrument performs in tandem with well-known predictors of science attitudes and pro-environmentalism.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020018
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 19: Intervention of Climate-Smart Practices in
           Wheat under Rice-Wheat Cropping System in Nepal

    • Authors: Janma Jaya Gairhe, Mandeep Adhikari, Deepak Ghimire, Arun Khatri-Chhetri, Dinesh Panday
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Besides a proper agronomic management followed by Nepalese farmers, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production has been severely affected by changing climate. There are many interventions, including climate-smart practices, to cope with this situation and possibly enhance crop and soil productivity. Field experiments were set up in a randomized complete block design with six treatments (TRT) with four replications in three locations (LOC) during wheat-growing seasons in Nepal from 2014 to 2016. Treatments included (i) Controlled Practice (CP), (ii) Improved Low (IL), (iii) Improved High (IH), (iv) Climate Smart Agriculture Low (CSAL), (v) Climate Smart Agriculture Medium (CSAM), and (vi) Climate Smart Agriculture High (CSAH), whereas those LOC were Banke, Rupandehi and Morang districts. There was a significant main effect of TRT and LOC on grain yield and a significant interactionn effect of TRT × LOC on biomass yield in 2014–2015. About 55.5% additional grain yield was produced from CSAM treatment compared to CP in 2014–2015. Among locations, grain yield was the highest in Banke (3772.35 kg ha−1) followed by Rupandehi (2504.47 kg ha−1) and Morang districts (2504.47 kg ha−1). In 2015–2016, there was a significant interaction effect of TRT × LOC on grain and biomass yields. The highest grain yield was produced from CSAH treatment in Banke district in 2015–2016. Overall, grain yield and other parameters showed a better response with either of the climate-smart interventions (mostly CSAH or CSAM) despite variability in geography, climate, and other environmental factors indicating the potential of climate-smart practices to improve wheat production in southern plains of Nepal.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020019
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 20: Assessing Annual Actual Evapotranspiration
           based on Climate, Topography and Soil in Natural and Agricultural

    • Authors: Kleoniki Demertzi, Vassilios Pisinaras, Emanuel Lekakis, Evangelos Tziritis, Konstantinos Babakos, Vassilis Aschonitis
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Simple formulas for estimating annual actual evapotranspiration (AET) based on annual climate data are widely used in large scale applications. Such formulas do not have distinct compartments related to topography, soil and irrigation, and for this reason may be limited in basins with high slopes, where runoff is the dominant water balance component, and in basins where irrigated agriculture is dominant. Thus, a simplistic method for assessing AET in both natural ecosystems and agricultural systems considering the aforementioned elements is proposed in this study. The method solves AET through water balance based on a set of formulas that estimate runoff and percolation. These formulas are calibrated by the results of the deterministic hydrological model GLEAMS (Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems) for a reference surface. The proposed methodology is applied to the country of Greece and compared with the widely used climate-based methods of Oldekop, Coutagne and Turk. The results show that the proposed methodology agrees very well with the method of Turk for the lowland regions but presents significant differences in places where runoff is expected to be very high (sloppy areas and areas of high rainfall, especially during December–February), suggesting that the proposed method performs better due to its runoff compartment. The method can also be applied in a single application considering irrigation only for the irrigated lands to more accurately estimate AET in basins with a high percentage of irrigated agriculture.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020020
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 21: Uncovering Engagement Networks for Adaptation
           in Three Regional Communities: Empirical Examples from New South Wales,

    • Authors: Rebecca Cunningham, Brent Jacobs, Thomas G. Measham
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Climate change is a significant challenge for policy makers, planners and communities. While adaptation responses are generally recognised to be place-based, policy processes on adaptation often reside with central (state or national) governments that may be remote from regional communities. In this paper, we contribute to the literature regarding how diverse regional communities engage with planning and policy for climate adaptation, which is important for successful implementation. We adopt a social network analysis (SNA) approach that enables an exploration of the interaction of community networks with policy information. There are limited empirical studies of information sharing about climate adaptation policy through community knowledge networks. One previous study, located in coastal New South Wales, Australia, mapped the community’s knowledge acquisition and diffusion to reveal the underlying network structures that influenced policy engagement pathways. However, further studies are needed to determine how the features of community networks may change with local context (e.g., coastal versus inland). This paper extends previous studies to compare and contrast adaptation knowledge networks in three NSW communities: Shoalhaven (the original coastal study site), Bega (coastal) and Orange (inland). Findings suggest that the presence of a natural resource-dependent industry, local geographies and boundary spanners acting as network knowledge brokers are factors influencing community knowledge flows. The work further demonstrates the utility of SNA to measure knowledge networks that can inform government engagement and communication with communities on climate adaptation policy.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020021
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 22: A Model to Assess Eastern Cottonwood Water Flow
           Using Adjusted Vapor Pressure Deficit Associated with a Climate Change
           Impact Application

    • Authors: Ying Ouyang, Theodor D. Leininger, Heidi Renninger, Emile S. Gardiner, Lisa Samuelson
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Short-rotation woody crops have maintained global prominence as biomass feedstocks for bioenergy, in part due to their fast growth and coppicing ability. However, the water usage efficiency of some woody biomass crops suggests potential adverse hydrological impacts. Monitoring tree water use in large-scale plantations would be very time-consuming and cost-prohibitive because it would typically require the installation and maintenance of sap flux sensors and dataloggers or other instruments. We developed a model to estimate the sap flux of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides. Bartr. ex Marsh.)) grown in bioenergy plantations. This model is based on adjusted vapor pressure deficit (VPD) using Structural Thinking and Experiential Learning Laboratory with Animation (STELLA) software (Architect Version 1.8.2), and is validated using the sap flux data collected from a 4-year-old eastern cottonwood biomass production plantation. With R2 values greater than 0.79 and Nash Sutcliffe coefficients greater than 0.69 and p values < 0.001, a strong agreement was obtained between measured and predicted diurnal sap flux patterns and annual sap flux cycles. We further validated the model using eastern cottonwood sap flux data from Aiken, South Carolina, USA with a good agreement between method predictions and field measurements. The model was able to predict a typical diurnal pattern, with sap flux density increasing during the day and decreasing at night for a 5-year-old cottonwood plantation. We found that a 10% increase in VPD due to climate change increased the sap flux of eastern cottonwood by about 5%. Our model also forecasted annual sap flux characteristics of measured cycles that increased in the spring, reached a maximum in the summer, and decreased in the fall. The model developed here can be adapted to estimate sap flux of other trees species in a time- and cost-effective manner.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020022
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 23: Assessment of Climate-Driven Flood Risk and
           Adaptation Supporting the Conservation Management Plan of a Heritage Site.
           The National Art Schools of Cuba

    • Authors: Stucchi, Bignami, Bocchiola, Del Curto, Garzulino, Rosso
      First page: 23
      Abstract: This work illustrates the contribution of flood risk assessment and adaptation to set up a conservation management plan for a masterpiece of 20th-century architecture. Case study is the iconic complex, internationally known as the National Art Schools of Cuba. It consists of five buildings built in the early 1960s within a park of Habana next to the Caribbean Sea. The path of the river (Rio Quibù) crossing the estate was modified to fit the landscape design. The complex has then been exposed to the risk of flooding. The School of Ballet, located in a narrow meander of the river, slightly upstream of a bridge and partially obstructing the flow, is particularly subject to frequent flash floods from the Rio Quibù, and it needs urgent restoration. Keeping ISA Modern is a project aimed at preserving the Schools complex. Based upon in situ surveys on the Rio Quibù and local area measurements during 2019, numerical modelling, and previous work by the Cuban National Institute of Hydraulic Resources, we pursued a flood risk analysis for the area, and a preliminary analysis of available risk reduction strategies. Using HEC-RAS 2D software for hydraulic modelling, we evaluated the flooded area and the hydraulic conditions (flow depth, velocity) for floods with given return periods. Our results show that SB is a building most subject to flooding, with high levels of risk. Defense strategies as designed by Cuban authorities may include a (new) wall around the School of Ballet and widening of the river channel, with high impact and cost, although not definitive. Temporary, light, permanent, and low cost/impact flood proofing structures may be used with similar effectiveness. We demonstrate that relatively little expensive hydraulic investigation may aid flood modelling and risk assessment in support of conservation projects for historically valuable sites. This may support brainstorming and the selection of (low to high cost) adaptation and risk reduction measures in the coastal areas of Cuba in response to ever increasing extreme storms and sea level rise controlling flood dynamics under transient climate change.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020023
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 24: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Climate in 2020

    • Authors: Climate Editorial Office Climate Editorial Office
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Climate maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...]
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020024
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 25: Climate Vulnerability and Adaptation Challenges
           in Szekszárd Wine Region, Hungary

    • Authors: Buzási
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Wine producers face several challenges regarding climate change, which will affect this industry both in the present and the future. Vulnerability assessments are at the forefront of current climate research, therefore, the present paper has two main aims. First, to assess two components of climate vulnerability regarding the Szekszárd wine region, Hungary; second, to collect and analyze adaptation farming techniques in terms of environmental sustainability aspects. Exposure analyses revealed that the study area will face several challenges regarding intensive drought periods in the future. Sensitivity indicators show the climate-related characteristics of the most popular grapevines and their relatively high level of susceptibility regarding changing climatic patterns. Since both external and intrinsic factors of vulnerability show deteriorating trends, the development of adaptation actions is needed. Adaptation interventions often provide unsustainable solutions or entail maladaptation issues, therefore, an environmental-focused sustainability assessment of collected interventions was performed to avoid long-term negative path dependencies. The applied evaluation methodology pointed out that nature-based adaptation actions are preferred in comparison to using additional machines or resource-intensive solutions. This study can fill the scientific gap by analyzing this wine region for the first time, via performing an ex-ante lock-in analysis of available and widely used adaptation interventions in the viticulture sector.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020025
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 26: Projected Changes in Water Year Types and

    • Authors: Minxue He, Jamie Anderson, Elissa Lynn, Wyatt Arnold
      First page: 26
      Abstract: The study explores the potential changes in water year types and hydrological droughts as well as runoff, based on which the former two metrics are calculated in the Central Valley of California, United States, in the 21st century. The latest operative projections from four representative climate models under two greenhouse-gas emission scenarios are employed for this purpose. The study shows that the temporal distribution of annual runoff is expected to change in terms of shifting more volume to the wet season (October–March) from the snowmelt season (April–July). Increases in wet season runoff volume are more noticeable under the higher (versus lower) emission scenario, while decreases in snowmelt season runoff are generally more significant under the lower (versus higher) emission scenario. In comparison, changes in the water year types are more influenced by climate models rather than emission scenarios. When comparing two regions in the Central Valley, the rain-dominated Sacramento River region is projected to experience more wet years and less critical years than the snow-dominated San Joaquin River region due to their hydroclimatic and geographic differences. Hydrological droughts in the snowmelt season and wet season mostly exhibit upward and downward trends, respectively. However, the uncertainty in the direction of the trend on annual and multi-year scales tends to be climate-model dependent. Overall, this study highlights non-stationarity and long-term uncertainty in these study metrics. They need to be considered when developing adaptive water resources management strategies, some of which are discussed in the study.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020026
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 27: Different Countries, Common Support for Climate
           Change Mitigation: The Case of Germany and Poland

    • Authors: Zbigniew Bohdanowicz
      First page: 27
      Abstract: There are numerous studies assessing the influence of individual sociological, political, and demographic factors on attitudes towards climate change. However, there is still a need for a deeper understanding of the reasons behind these attitudes and for research based on results from more than one country. This study empirically examines a range of psychosocial and demographic determinants of support for climate policy (renewable energy, energy efficiency and carbon tax) in Germany and Poland (n = 1969). The results show that the societies of both countries, despite significant differences in income, culture and political stance on climate change, similarly support implementation of climate policies. For both countries valid predictors of support are: awareness, emotional response to climate crisis, sense of control, and belief in effectiveness of solutions; the study also shows predictors relevant in only one country. Factor analysis identified similar dimensions of attitudes toward climate change in both countries. The main findings show that support for climate policy is high in both countries and that the public is ready to accept more ambitious climate goals. Despite the differences between the countries, a coherent climate policy seems justified. The study also shows differences between the countries and provides recommendations for policymakers.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020027
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 28: Prediction of Multi-Scalar Standardized
           Precipitation Index by Using Artificial Intelligence and Regression Models

    • Authors: Anurag Malik, Anil Kumar, Priya Rai, Alban Kuriqi
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Accurate monitoring and forecasting of drought are crucial. They play a vital role in the optimal functioning of irrigation systems, risk management, drought readiness, and alleviation. In this work, Artificial Intelligence (AI) models, comprising Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN) and Co-Active Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (CANFIS), and regression, model including Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), were investigated for multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) prediction in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand State, India. The SPI was computed on six different scales, i.e., 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, and 24-month, by deploying monthly rainfall information of available years. The significant lags as inputs for the MLPNN, CANFIS, and MLR models were obtained by utilizing Partial Autocorrelation Function (PACF) with a significant level equal to 5% for SPI-1, SPI-3, SPI-6, SPI-9, SPI-12, and SPI-24. The predicted multi-scalar SPI values utilizing the MLPNN, CANFIS, and MLR models were compared with calculated SPI of multi-time scales through different performance evaluation indicators and visual interpretation. The appraisals of results indicated that CANFIS performance was more reliable for drought prediction at Dehradun (3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month scales), Chamoli and Tehri Garhwal (1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month scales), Haridwar and Pauri Garhwal (1-, 3-, 6-, and 9-month scales), Rudraprayag (1-, 3-, and 6-month scales), and Uttarkashi (3-month scale) stations. The MLPNN model was best at Dehradun (1- and 24- month scales), Tehri Garhwal and Chamoli (24-month scale), Haridwar (12- and 24-month scales), Pauri Garhwal (12-month scale), Rudraprayag (9-, 12-, and 24-month), and Uttarkashi (1- and 6-month scales) stations, while the MLR model was found to be optimal at Pauri Garhwal (24-month scale) and Uttarkashi (9-, 12-, and 24-month scales) stations. Furthermore, the modeling approach can foster a straightforward and trustworthy expert intelligent mechanism for projecting multi-scalar SPI and decision making for remedial arrangements to tackle meteorological drought at the stations under study.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020028
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 29: Impact of the Strong Downwelling (Upwelling) on
           Small Pelagic Fish Production during the 2016 (2019) Negative (Positive)
           Indian Ocean Dipole Events in the Eastern Indian Ocean off Java

    • Authors: Jonson Lumban-Gaol, Eko Siswanto, Kedarnath Mahapatra, Nyoman Metta Nyanakumara Natih, I Wayan Nurjaya, Mochamad Tri Hartanto, Erwin Maulana, Luky Adrianto, Herlambang Aulia Rachman, Takahiro Osawa, Berri Miraz Kholipah Rahman, Arik Permana
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Although researchers have investigated the impact of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) phases on human lives, only a few have examined such impacts on fisheries. In this study, we analyzed the influence of negative (positive) IOD phases on chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentrations as an indicator of phytoplankton biomass and small pelagic fish production in the eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) off Java. We also conducted field surveys in the EIO off Palabuhanratu Bay at the peak (October) and the end (December) of the 2019 positive IOD phase. Our findings show that the Chl-a concentration had a strong and robust association with the 2016 (2019) negative (positive) IOD phases. The negative (positive) anomalous Chl-a concentration in the EIO off Java associated with the negative (positive) IOD phase induced strong downwelling (upwelling), leading to the preponderant decrease (increase) in small pelagic fish production in the EIO off Java.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020029
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 30: Flood Impacts on Dairy Farms in the Bay of
           Plenty Region, New Zealand

    • Authors: Ryan Paulik, Kate Crowley, Nicholas A. Cradock-Henry, Thomas M. Wilson, Ame McSporran
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Flood damage assessments provide critical information for flood hazard mitigation under changing climate conditions. Recent efforts to improve and systemise damage assessments have focused primarily on urban environments with few examples for primary industries such as dairy. This paper explores the adverse consequences of flooding on dairy farms in the Bay of Plenty region, New Zealand. Ex-tropical Cyclone Debbie in April 2017 caused prolonged riverine and surface water flooding on over 3500 hectares of dairy farmland. The event provided an opportunity to develop and apply a participatory approach for collecting information about on-farm flood damage, and both response and recovery actions implemented by dairy farmers. Semi-structured interviews and transect walks with farmers revealed a range of direct and indirect damages to production and capital assets, influenced by duration of inundation, silt deposition and seasonality. Results highlight the need to identify on-farm and off-farm asset interdependencies of dairy farm systems to estimate long-term socio-economic consequences at farm-level. Enhancing dairy farm flood resilience in a changing climate will rely on farm-level response and recovery plans, proactively supported by emergency management agencies, farm service suppliers and support agencies.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020030
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 31: Long-Term Changes of Aquatic Invasive Plants
           and Implications for Future Distribution: A Case Study Using a Tank
           Cascade System in Sri Lanka

    • Authors: Champika S. Kariyawasam, Lalit Kumar, Benjamin Kipkemboi Kogo, Sujith S. Ratnayake
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Climate variability can influence the dynamics of aquatic invasive alien plants (AIAPs) that exert tremendous pressure on aquatic systems, leading to loss of biodiversity, agricultural wealth, and ecosystem services. However, the magnitude of these impacts remains poorly known. The current study aims to analyse the long-term changes in the spatio-temporal distribution of AIAPs under the influence of climate variability in a heavily infested tank cascade system (TCS) in Sri Lanka. The changes in coverage of various features in the TCS were analysed using the supervised maximum likelihood classification of ten Landsat images over a 27-year period, from 1992 to 2019 using ENVI remote sensing software. The non-parametric Mann–Kendall trend test and Sen’s slope estimate were used to analyse the trend of annual rainfall and temperature. We observed a positive trend of temperature that was statistically significant (p value < 0.05) and a positive trend of rainfall that was not statistically significant (p values > 0.05) over the time period. Our results showed fluctuations in the distribution of AIAPs in the short term; however, the coverage of AIAPs showed an increasing trend in the study area over the longer term. Thus, this study suggests that the AIAPs are likely to increase under climate variability in the study area.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020031
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 32: Improving the Indoor Air Quality of Residential
           Buildings During Bushfire Smoke Events

    • Authors: Priyadarsini Rajagopalan, Nigel Goodman
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Exposure to bushfire smoke is associated with acute and chronic health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Residential buildings are important places of refuge from bushfire smoke, however the air quality within these locations can become heavily polluted by smoke infiltration. Consequently, some residential buildings may offer limited protection from exposure to poor air quality, especially during extended smoke events. This paper evaluates the impact of bushfire smoke on indoor air quality within residential buildings and proposes strategies and guidance to reduce indoor levels of particulates and other pollutants. The paper explores the different monitoring techniques used to measure air pollutant and assesses the influence of the building envelope, filtration technologies, and portable air cleaners used to improve indoor air quality. The evaluation found that bushfire smoke can substantially increase the levels of pollutants within residential buildings. Notably, some studies reported indoor levels of PM2.5 of approximately 500µg/m3 during bushfire smoke events. Many Australian homes are very leaky (i.e., >15 ACH) compared to those in countries such as the USA. Strategies such as improving the building envelope will help reduce smoke infiltration, however even in airtight homes pollutant levels will eventually increase over time. Therefore, the appropriate design, selection, and operation of household ventilation systems that include particle filtration will be critical to reduce indoor exposures during prolonged smoke events. Future studies of bushfire smoke intrusion in residences could also focus on filtration technologies that can remove gaseous pollutants.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020032
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 33: The Significance of Scope 3 GHG Emissions in
           Construction Projects in Korea: Using EIA and LCA

    • Authors: Kyeong-tae Kim, Ik Kim
      First page: 33
      Abstract: In Korea, a greenhouse gas (GHG) environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been conducting since 2012, which sets the evaluation procedures and methods for GHG items during the EIA. However, the current EIA on GHG emissions can support wrong decision-making because the evaluation does not consider Scope 3 GHG emissions. Accordingly, this study proposed the life cycle EIA (LCEIA) method to identify changes in GHG emissions that need to be managed by considering Scope 3 GHG emissions in construction projects. The LCEIA method incorporates life cycle CO2 (LCCO2) including Scope 1, Scope, and Scope 3 GHG emissions using the concept of life cycle assessment (LCA) into the scoping step of the EIA process. The case study was conducted using existing EIA on GHG emission and LCEIA methodology for a development project in Gwangyang City. Scenario 1 is defined as an approach that calculates GHG emissions using the existing EIA method, and scenario 2 is also defined as a process using the LCEIA method. Results reveal that Scenario 2, including Scope 3 GHG emissions, had 46.4−51.2% more GHG emissions than Scenario 1. Sensitivity analysis for electricity and liquefied natural gas (LNG) density was also performed. Although the change in the carbon emission factor of electricity had a slightly sensitive effect on the research results, the LNG density was found to be less sensitive. This study believes the importance of switching to an EIA reflecting life cycle carbon dioxide (LCCO2) to calculate the exact amount of GHG emissions for construction work.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020033
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 34: Sharing Lisboa: A Digital Social Market to
           Promote Sustainable and Energy Efficient Behaviours

    • Authors: Catarina C. Rolim, Patrícia Baptista
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Several solutions and city planning policies have emerged to promote climate change and sustainable cities. The Sharing Cities program has the ambition of contributing to climate change mitigation by improving urban mobility, energy efficiency in buildings and reducing carbon emissions by successfully engaging citizens and fostering local-level innovation. A Digital Social Market (DSM), named Sharing Lisboa, was developed in Lisbon, Portugal, supported by an application (APP), enabling the exchange of goods and services bringing citizens together to support a common cause: three schools competing during one academic year (2018/2019) to win a final prize with the engagement of school community and surrounding community. Sharing Lisboa aimed to promote behaviour change and the adoption of energy-saving behaviours such as cycling and walking with the support of local businesses. Participants earned points that reverted to the cause (school) they supported. A total of 1260 users was registered in the APP, collecting more than 850,000 points through approximately 17,000 transactions. This paper explores how the DSM has the potential to become a new city service promoting its sustainable development. Furthermore, it is crucial for this concept to reach economic viability through a business model that is both profitable and useful for the city, businesses and citizens, since investment will be required for infrastructure and management of such a market.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020034
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 35: Interannual Variability of Air Temperature over
           Myanmar: The Influence of ENSO and IOD

    • Authors: Zin Mie Mie Sein, Irfan Ullah, Sidra Syed, Xiefei Zhi, Kamran Azam, Ghulam Rasool
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Myanmar is located in a tropical region where temperature rises very fast and hence is highly vulnerable to climate change. The high variability of the air temperature poses potential risks to the local community. Thus, the current study uses 42 synoptic meteorological stations to assess the spatiotemporal changes in air temperature over Myanmar during 1971–2013. The nonparametric sequential Mann-Kendall (SqMK), linear regression, empirical orthogonal function (EOF), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and composite analysis were used to assess the long-term trends in maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperature series and their possible mechanism over the study region. The results indicate that the trend of Tmax has significantly increased at the rates of 90% in summer season, while the Tmin revealed a substantial positive trend in winter season time series with the magnitude of 30%, respectively. Moreover, during a rapid change of climate (1995‒2013) we observed an air temperature increase of 0.7 °C. The spatial distributions of EOF revealed relatively warmer temperatures over the whole region except the south in the summer; however, a similar pattern can be seen for the rainy season and winter, implying warming in the central part and cooling in the northern and southern parts. Furthermore, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) influence on air temperature over Myanmar is more prevalent than that of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The result implies that the positive phase of the IOD and negative phase of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI; El Niño) events led to the higher temperature, resulting in intense climatic extremes (i.e., droughts and heatwaves) over the target region. Therefore, this study’s findings can help policymakers and decision-makers improve economic growth, agricultural production, ecology, water resource management, and preserving the natural habitat in the target region.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020035
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 36: Does Local Adaptation Impact on the
           Distribution of Competing Aedes Disease Vectors'

    • Authors: Kelly L. Bennett, William Owen McMillan, Jose R. Loaiza
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Ae. (Stegomyia) aegypti L. and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus Skuse mosquitoes are major arboviral disease vectors in human populations. Interspecific competition between these species shapes their distribution and hence the incidence of disease. While Ae. albopictus is considered a superior competitor for ecological resources and displaces its contender Ae. aegypti from most environments, the latter is able to persist with Ae. albopictus under particular environmental conditions, suggesting species occurrence cannot be explained by resource competition alone. The environment is an important determinant of species displacement or coexistence, although the factors underpinning its role remain little understood. In addition, it has been found that Ae. aegypti can be adapted to the environment across a local scale. Based on data from the Neotropical country of Panama, we present the hypothesis that local adaptation to the environment is critical in determining the persistence of Ae. aegypti in the face of its direct competitor Ae. albopictus. We show that although Ae. albopictus has displaced Ae. aegypti in some areas of Panama, both species coexist across many areas, including regions where Ae. aegypti appear to be locally adapted to dry climate conditions and less vegetated environments. Based on these findings, we describe a reciprocal transplant experiment to test our hypothesis, with findings expected to provide fundamental insights into the role of environmental variation in shaping the landscape of emerging arboviral disease.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020036
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 37: A Comparative Analysis of Different Future
           Weather Data for Building Energy Performance Simulation

    • Authors: Mamak P.Tootkaboni, Ilaria Ballarini, Michele Zinzi, Vincenzo Corrado
      First page: 37
      Abstract: The building energy performance pattern is predicted to be shifted in the future due to climate change. To analyze this phenomenon, there is an urgent need for reliable and robust future weather datasets. Several ways for estimating future climate projection and creating weather files exist. This paper attempts to comparatively analyze three tools for generating future weather datasets based on statistical downscaling (WeatherShift, Meteonorm, and CCWorldWeatherGen) with one based on dynamical downscaling (a future-typical meteorological year, created using a high-quality reginal climate model). Four weather datasets for the city of Rome are generated and applied to the energy simulation of a mono family house and an apartment block as representative building types of Italian residential building stock. The results show that morphed weather files have a relatively similar operation in predicting the future comfort and energy performance of the buildings. In addition, discrepancy between them and the dynamical downscaled weather file is revealed. The analysis shows that this comes not only from using different approaches for creating future weather datasets but also by the building type. Therefore, for finding climate resilient solutions for buildings, care should be taken in using different methods for developing future weather datasets, and regional and localized analysis becomes vital.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020037
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 38: Sensitivity of Simulations of Zambian Heavy
           Rainfall Events to the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Schemes

    • Authors: Mary-Jane M. Bopape, David Waitolo, Robert S. Plant, Elelwani Phaduli, Edson Nkonde, Henry Simfukwe, Stein Mkandawire, Edward Rakate, Robert Maisha
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Weather forecasting relies on the use of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, whose resolution is informed by the available computational resources. The models resolve large scale processes, while subgrid processes are parametrized. One of the processes that is parametrized is turbulence which is represented in planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes. In this study, we evaluate the sensitivity of heavy rainfall events over Zambia to four different PBL schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model using a parent domain with a 9 km grid length and a 3 km grid spacing child domain. The four PBL schemes are the Yonsei University (YSU), nonlocal first-order medium-range forecasting (MRF), University of Washington (UW) and Mellor–Yamada–Nakanishi–Niino (MYNN) schemes. Simulations were done for three case studies of extreme rainfall on 17 December 2016, 21 January 2017 and 17 April 2019. The use of YSU produced the highest rainfall peaks across all three cases; however, it produced performance statistics similar to UW that are higher than those of the two other schemes. These statistics are not maintained when adjusted for random hits, indicating that the extra events are mainly random rather than being skillfully placed. UW simulated the lowest PBL height, while MRF produced the highest PBL height, but this was not matched by the temperature simulation. The YSU and MYNN PBL heights were intermediate at the time of the peak; however, MYNN is associated with a slower decay and higher PBL heights at night. WRF underestimated the maximum temperature during all cases and for all PBL schemes, with a larger bias in the MYNN scheme. We support further use of the YSU scheme, which is the scheme selected for the tropical suite in WRF. The different simulations were in some respects more similar to one another than to the available observations. Satellite rainfall estimates and the ERA5 reanalysis showed different rainfall distributions, which indicates a need for more ground observations to assist with studies like this one.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9020038
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 7: Sociological Perspectives on Climate Change and
           Society: A Review

    • Authors: Md Saidul Islam, Edson Kieu
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Society is at an important intersection in dealing with the challenges of climate change, and this paper is presented at a critical juncture in light of growing recognition that the natural sciences are insufficient to deal with these challenges. Critical aspects of sociological perspectives related to climate change research are brought together in this review in the hope of fostering greater interdisciplinary collaboration between the natural and social sciences. We fervently argue for the need to inculcate interdisciplinary approaches that can provide innovative perspectives and solutions to the challenges we face from the impacts of climate change. As such, some critical sociological perspectives are addressed, with two objectives: (a) to provide a foundational opening for readers seeking an introductory perspective and potential core contributions of sociological insights on climate change; and (b) to explore opportunities and obstacles that may occur with increased interdisciplinary cooperation and collaboration. We lay out fundamental ideas by assembling a loosely connected body of sociological research, hoping to develop and advance the collaborative research agenda between sociology and other disciplines for the near future.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010007
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 8: Future Hydrology of the Cryospheric Driven Lake
           Como Catchment in Italy under Climate Change Scenarios

    • Authors: Flavia Fuso, Francesca Casale, Federico Giudici, Daniele Bocchiola
      First page: 8
      Abstract: We present an assessment of climate change impact on the hydrology of the Lago di Como lake catchment of Italy. On one side, the lake provides water for irrigation of the Po valley during summer, and on the other side its regulation is crucial to prevent flood risk, especially in fall and winter. The dynamics of lake Como are linked to the complex cryospheric hydrology of its Alpine contributing catchment, which is in turn expected to change radically under prospective global warming. The Poli-Hydro model is used here to simulate the cryospheric processes affecting the hydrology of this high-altitude catchment. We demonstrated the model’s accuracy against historical hydrological observations, available during 2002–2018. We then used four Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios, provided by three Global Circulation Models under the AR6 of IPCC, to project potential climate change until 2100. We thereby derived daily series of rainfall and temperature, to be used as inputs for hydrological simulations. The climate projections here highlight a substantial increase in temperature at the end of the century, between +0.61° and +5.96°, which would lead to a decrease in the total ice volume in the catchment, by −50% to −77%. Moreover, there would be a decrease in the contribution of snow melt to the annual lake inflow, and an increase in ice melt under the worst-case scenarios. Overall, the annual Lake inflows would increase during autumn and winter and would decrease in summer. Our study may provide a tool to help policy makers to henceforth evaluate adaptation strategies in the area.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010008
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 9: Impacts of Global Warming of 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0
           °C on Hydrologic Regimes in the Northeastern U.S.

    • Authors: Ridwan Siddique, Alfonso Mejia, Naoki Mizukami, Richard N. Palmer
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Regional climate change impacts show a wide range of variations under different levels of global warming. Watersheds in the northeastern region of the United States (NEUS) are projected to undergo the most severe impacts from climate change in the forms of extreme precipitation events, floods and drought, sea level rise, etc. As such, there is high possibility that hydrologic regimes in the NEUS may be altered in the future, which can be absolutely devastating for managing water resources and ecological balance across different watersheds. In this study, we present a comprehensive impact analysis using different hydrologic indicators across selected watersheds in the NEUS under different thresholds of global temperature increases (1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 °C). Precipitation and temperature projections from fourteen downscaled Global Circulation Models (GCMs) under the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5 greenhouse gas concentration pathway are used as inputs into a distributed hydrological model to obtain future streamflow conditions. Overall, the results indicate that the majority of the selected watersheds will enter a wetter regime, particularly during the months of winter, while flow conditions during late summer and fall indicate a dry future under all three thresholds of temperature increase. The estimation of time of emergence of new hydrological regimes show large uncertainties under 1.5 and 2.0 °C global temperature increases; however, most of the GCM projections show a strong consensus that new hydrological regimes may appear in the NEUS watersheds under 3.0 °C temperature increase.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010009
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 10: Climate Change and Thermal Comfort in Greece

    • Authors: Harry D. Kambezidis
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Global warming is an environmental issue keeping all nations alert. Under this consideration, the present work investigates the future thermal sensation of the Greek population. Three periods are selected (2021–2050, 2046–2075, 2071–2100) and two Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. Use of Thom’s discomfort index (TDI) is made, which is calculated from air temperature and relative humidity included in typical meteorological years (TMYs) derived for 1985–2014 and future periods (both IPCC scenarios) for 33 locations in Greece. TDI is discriminated into 6 classes. The analysis shows that there is no significant shift from past to future annual mean TDIs in terms of its classification. The same is found for the summer TDI values. Nevertheless, a distribution of the various TDI classes is provided within the TMYs. Maps of annual TDI values are prepared for Greece by using the kriging method; higher values are found in the southern part of Greece and lower values in the northern. Best-fit regression equations derived show the intra-annual TDI variation in all periods. Also, scatter plots of annual TDIs in the future epochs in comparison with the historical period show a linear relationship.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010010
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 11: Increasing Trend on Storm Wave Intensity in the
           Western Mediterranean

    • Authors: Khalid Amarouche, Adem Akpınar
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Annual trends in storm wave intensity over the past 41 years were evaluated during the present study. Storm wave intensity is evaluated in terms of total storm wave energy (TSWE) and storm power index (SPI) of Dolan and Davis (1992). Using an accurate long-term wave hindcast developed using a calibrated SWAN model, all storm wave events occurring over the past 41 years were characterized in terms of significant wave height (Hs) and total storm duration. Thus, both SPI and TSWE was computed for each storm wave event. The Theil–Sen slope estimator was used to estimate the annual slopes of the SPI and TSWE and the Mann–Kendall test was used to test the trend significance with different confidence levels. The present study is spatially performed for the western Mediterranean Sea basin considering 2308 grid points in a regular grid of 0.198° resolution in both directions. Results allow as to define five hotspots covering a large area, experienced a significant increasing slope in both SPI and TSWE (annual maxima and average). The confidence level in this area exceed 95%, with a steep slope between 100 kWh·m−1·year−1 and 240 kWh·m−1·year−1 for annual max TSWE and between 28 m²·h·year−1 and 49 m²·h·year−1 for annual max SPI. Consideration of the present findings is strongly recommended for risk assessment and for sustainable development in coastal and offshore area and to identify areas sensitive to global climate change in the western Mediterranean Sea.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010011
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 12: Flood Vulnerability Analysis in Urban Context:
           A Socioeconomic Sub-Indicators Overview

    • Authors: Velia Bigi, Elena Comino, Magda Fontana, Alessandro Pezzoli, Maurizio Rosso
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Despite indicators-based assessment models for flood vulnerability being a well-established methodology, a specific set of indicators that are universally or widely accepted has not been recognized yet. This work aims to review previous studies in the field of vulnerability analysis in order to overcome this knowledge gap identifying the most accepted sub-indicators of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Moreover, this review aims to clarify the use of the terms of vulnerability and risk in vulnerability assessment. Throughout a three-phase process, a matrix containing all the sub-indicators encountered during the review process was constructed. Then, based on an adaptation of the Pareto diagram, a set of the most relevant sub-indicators was identified. According to the citation count of each sub-indicator, indeed, 33 sub-indicators were chosen to represent the most universally or widely accepted sub-indicators.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010012
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 13: The Influence of Socioeconomic Factors on
           Households’ Vulnerability to Climate Change in Semiarid Towns of Mopani,
           South Africa

    • Authors: Musa Yusuf Jimoh, Peter Bikam, Hector Chikoore
      First page: 13
      Abstract: The changing climate and its current rate, frequency, as well as its life-threatening impacts are undoubtedly abnormal and globally worrisome. Its effects are expected to be severely different across segments of the society. It is disposed to leaving no facet of human endeavor immune, particularly in vulnerable cities of developing countries where there is dearth of empirical studies. For the context-specific nature of climate change impacts and place-based character of vulnerability, this study explores the influence of socioeconomic attributes on household vulnerability in Mopani District northeast of South Africa to provide basis for targeting, formulating, evaluating, and monitoring adaptation policies, programs, and projects. The study adopted a multistage random sampling to draw 500 households from six towns in Mopani District, Limpopo Province. Mixed methods approach was used for data collection, while Household Vulnerability Index (HVI) was estimated using principal component analysis and regressed with socioeconomic attributes. The study reveals that climate is changing with high HVI across selected towns. It further depicted that age and marital status have positive and significant relationships with HVI, while gender and educational levels have inverse and significant relationship with HVI in some towns. The study recommends the need for municipalities to partner with private sector to empower household and mainstream micro level coping strategies in urban planning across the district.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010013
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 14: Excess Mortality in England during the 2019
           Summer Heatwaves

    • Authors: Natasha Rustemeyer, Mark Howells
      First page: 14
      Abstract: There is increasing evidence that rising temperatures and heatwaves in the United Kingdom are associated with an increase in heat-related mortality. However, the Public Health England (PHE) Heatwave mortality monitoring reports, which use provisional death registrations to estimate heat-related mortality in England during heatwaves, have not yet been evaluated. This study aims to retrospectively quantify the impact of heatwaves on mortality during the 2019 summer period using daily death occurrences. Second, using the same method, it quantifies the heat-related mortality for the 2018 and 2017 heatwave periods. Last, it compares the results to the estimated excess deaths for the same period in the PHE Heatwave mortality monitoring reports. The number of cumulative excess deaths during the summer 2019 heatwaves were minimal (161) and were substantially lower than during the summer 2018 heatwaves (1700 deaths) and summer 2017 heatwaves (1489 deaths). All findings were at variance with the PHE Heatwave mortality monitoring reports which estimated cumulative excess deaths to be 892, 863 and 778 during the heatwave periods of 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Issues are identified in the use of provisional death registrations for mortality monitoring and the reduced reliability of the Office for National Statistics (ONS) daily death occurrences database before 2019. These findings may identify more reliable ways to monitor heat mortality during heatwaves in the future.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010014
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 15: Promoting Low-Carbon Tourism through Adaptive
           Regional Certification

    • Authors: Alex Baumber, John Merson, Chris Lockhart Smith
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Climate change is a key issue in sustainable tourism, both in terms of the greenhouse gas emissions generated by the tourism sector and the potential impacts of climate change on tourism-dependent regions. Low-carbon tourism is an emerging paradigm based around emissions reduction by tourism businesses, as well as broader values of adaptation, transition and behavioral change. This article presents the results of a low-carbon tourism case study in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia, where the Low-Carbon Living Program has successfully designed and implemented a low-carbon rating and certification scheme. This scheme covers emissions related to energy, waste and water and is based on regionally-specific data. The program has also succeeded in its aim of using the tourism industry as a catalyst for broader community action, having been expanded to schools and retailers in the case study region. A transferable regional model has been developed that is being adapted for use in new regions under a modular and decentralised program structure. However, questions remain around the impact of the program on participants’ carbon footprints and customer levels over time, as well as the suitability of a common scorecard system to diverse participant types.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010015
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 16: Predicted Future Benefits for an Endemic Rodent
           in the Irano-Turanian Region

    • Authors: Suzanna Meeussen, Anouschka Hof
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Climate change is expected to have an impact on the geographical distribution ranges of species. Endemic species and those with a restricted geographic range may be especially vulnerable. The Persian jird (Meriones persicus) is an endemic rodent inhabiting the mountainous areas of the Irano-Turanian region, where future desertification may form a threat to the species. In this study, the species distribution modelling algorithm MaxEnt was used to assess the impact of future climate change on the geographic distribution range of the Persian jird. Predictions were made under two Representative Concentration Pathways and five different climate models for the years 2050 and 2070. It was found that both bioclimatic variables and land use variables were important in determining potential suitability of the region for the species to occur. In most cases, the future predictions showed an expansion of the geographic range of the Persian jird which indicates that the species is not under immediate threat. There are however uncertainties with regards to its current range. Predictions may therefore be an over or underestimation of the total suitable area. Further research is thus needed to confirm the current geographic range of the Persian jird to be able to improve assessments of the impact of future climate change.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010016
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 17: Impact on Renewable Design Requirements of
           Net-Zero Carbon Buildings under Potential Future Climate Scenarios

    • Authors: Dongsu Kim, Heejin Cho, Pedro J. Mago, Jongho Yoon, Hyomun Lee
      First page: 17
      Abstract: This paper presents an analysis to foresee renewable design requirement changes of net- zero carbon buildings (NZCBs) under different scenarios of potential future climate scenarios in the U.S. Northeast and Midwest regions. A climate change model is developed in this study using the Gaussian random distribution method with monthly temperature changes over the whole Northeast and Midwest regions, which are predicted based on a high greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenario (i.e., the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 8.5). To reflect the adoption of NZCBs potential in future, this study also considers two representative future climate scenarios in the 2050s and 2080s of climate change years in the U.S. Northeast and Midwest regions. An office prototype building model integrates with an on-site photovoltaics (PV) power generation system to evaluate NZCB performance under the climate change scenarios with an assumption of a net-metering electricity purchase agreement. Appropriate capacities of the on-site PV system needed to reach NZCB balances are determined based on the building energy consumption impacted by the simulated climate scenarios. Results from this study demonstrated the emission by electricity consumption increases as moving toward the future scenarios of up to about 25 tons of CO2-eq (i.e., about 14% of the total CO2-eq produced by the electricity energy source) and the PV installation capacity to offset the emission account for the electricity consumption increases significantly up to about 40 kWp (i.e., up to more than 10% of total PV installation capacities) as the different climate scenarios are applied. It is concluded that the cooling energy consumption of office building models would significantly impact GHG emission as future climate scenarios are considered. Consequently, designers of NZCBs should consider high performance cooling energy systems in their designs to reduce the renewable energy generation system capacity to achieve net-zero carbon emission goals.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010017
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 1: Long-Term Changes and Variability of
           Ecologically-Based Climate Indices along an Altitudinal Gradient on the
           Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    • Authors: Tong Guo
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Extreme climate events are typically defined based on the statistical distributions of climatic variables; their ecological significance is often ignored. In this study, precipitation and temperature data from 78 weather stations spanning from 1960 to 2015 on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were examined. Specifically, long-term and altitudinal variability in ecologically relevant climate indices and their seasonal differences was assessed. The results show that indices of daily temperatures greater than 10 °C and 25 °C show positive annual change trends during the growing season (May to September). Indices of daily rainfall greater than 2 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm positively alternate with years both in and around the growing season (May–September, April and October). In contrast, the index of daily snowfall greater than 2 mm shows opposite annual variability. Additionally, a higher altitude significantly leads to fewer days with temperature deviations above 20 °C, except for in October. The three abovementioned rainfall indices present significantly positive variability with increasing altitude during the growing season. In contrast, the snow index shows similar altitudinal changes in the months surrounding the growing season. This study allows us to better cope with the threats of climate change to vulnerable ecosystems.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010001
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 2: Kelvin/Rossby Wave Partition of Madden-Julian
           Oscillation Circulations

    • Authors: Patrick Haertel
      First page: 2
      Abstract: The Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a large-scale convective and circulation system that propagates slowly eastward over the equatorial Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Multiple, conflicting theories describe its growth and propagation, most involving equatorial Kelvin and/or Rossby waves. This study partitions MJO circulations into Kelvin and Rossby wave components for three sets of data: (1) a modeled linear response to an MJO-like heating; (2) a composite MJO based on atmospheric sounding data; and (3) a composite MJO based on data from a Lagrangian atmospheric model. The first dataset has a simple dynamical interpretation, the second provides a realistic view of MJO circulations, and the third occurs in a laboratory supporting controlled experiments. In all three of the datasets, the propagation of Kelvin waves is similar, suggesting that the dynamics of Kelvin wave circulations in the MJO can be captured by a system of equations linearized about a basic state of rest. In contrast, the Rossby wave component of the observed MJO’s circulation differs substantially from that in our linear model, with Rossby gyres moving eastward along with the heating and migrating poleward relative to their linear counterparts. These results support the use of a system of equations linearized about a basic state of rest for the Kelvin wave component of MJO circulation, but they question its use for the Rossby wave component.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010002
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 3: Forest Resource Management and Its
           Climate-Change Mitigation Policies in Taiwan

    • Authors: Wen-Tien Tsai
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Based on high carbon emissions in recent years (i.e., about 11 metric tons in 2018) per capita in terms of carbon dioxide equivalents, Taiwan has actively development greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction action plans. One of the action plans has been to promote afforestation and reforestation in non-forested lands for carbon sequestration. Thus, this paper aims to address the forest resources in Taiwan by using the latest national survey, reporting on an interactive analysis of forest carbon sequestration, GHG emissions, and climate-change mitigation policies. In this regard, the methodology is based on the official websites of forest resources, GHG emissions, and carbon sequestration from the yearbooks, national statistics, and regulations relevant to the mitigation policies in the forestry sector. It is found that Taiwan’s forest area is estimated to be 2.197 million hectares, which corresponds to a total forest stock volume of about 502.0 million cubic meters. During the period of 1990–2018, the change in total carbon sequestration did not vary much (with the exception of 2009), decreasing from 23.4 million metric tons in 1990 to 21.4 million metric tons in 2018. Compared to the total carbon dioxide emissions (i.e., 102.4 million metric tons in 1990 and 282.8 million metric tons in 2018), the contribution to GHG mitigation in the forestry sector shows a declining trend. However, biomass (i.e., wood) carbon sequestration indicates a slight increase from 20.4 million metric tons in 2010 to 20.7 million metric tons in 2018 due to the afforestation policy. Obviously, regulatory policies, based on the Forestry Act and the Greenhouse Gas Reduction & Management Act in 2015, play a vital role in mitigating GHG emissions in Taiwan. The discussion on the regulations is further addressed to highlight climate-change mitigation policies in Taiwan’s forestry sector.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010003
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 4: Determinants of Household-Level Coping
           Strategies and Recoveries from Riverine Flood Disasters: Empirical
           Evidence from the Right Bank of Teesta River, Bangladesh

    • Authors: Md. Sanaul Haque Mondal, Takehiko Murayama, Shigeo Nishikizawa
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Although recurrent floods cause detrimental impact for the people living in riverine floodplains, households are taking up various risks management strategies to deal with them. This paper examined household’s post-disaster coping strategies to respond and recover from riverine floods in 2017. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey from 377 households from the right bank of Teesta River in Bangladesh. Households employed different coping strategies including borrowing money, assets disposal, consumption reduction, temporary migration, and grants from external sources, to cope with flood. Results from logistic regression models suggested that increasing severity of flood reduced households’ consumption. Exposed households were more likely to borrow money. Consumption reduction and temporary migration were mostly adopted by agricultural landless households. Income from nonfarm sources was found to be an important factor influencing household’s decisions on coping. Furthermore, households that recovered from the last flood disaster seek insurance through their own savings and available physical assets, highlighting the role of disaster preparedness in resilient recovery. This study calls for the policy intervention at the household-level to enhance the adaptive capacity of riverine households so that people at risk can cope better and recover from flood disaster using their resources.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010004
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 5: The Agro-Meteorological Caused Famines as an
           Evolutionary Factor in the Formation of Civilisation and History:
           Representative Cases in Europe

    • Authors: Ioannis Charalampopoulos, Fotoula Droulia
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Throughout history, food adequacy has been one of the most critical parameters for the survival of human societies. The prevailing atmospheric conditions have always been recognised as the primary and most uncontrolled factors that determine crop production, both quantitatively and qualitatively. However, this is only a part of the effects chain. In order to assess the magnitude of the potential cultural impacts of weather changes in a region, it is crucial to comprehend the underlying mechanism of successive consequences that relate the proximate causes, which in our case are the adverse Agro-Meteorological Conditions (AMC), to their effects on society. The present study focuses on the analysis of the impacts’ mechanism on human societies. Moreover, several characteristic agro-meteorological events that have led to significant changes in European civilisation are presented as case studies. The results highlight the linkage between weather and its impact on history evolution based on Agro-Meteorological Famine (AMF). The proposed concept and its analysis by the schematic presentation are in corroboration with the documented historical events of European history. Moreover, the presented connections between weather, agricultural production, and society revealed the significant contribution of the short-term adverse weather conditions on the mechanism of the human civilisation evolution.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010005
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 6: Impact of Climate Change on Crop Production and
           Potential Adaptive Measures in the Olifants Catchment, South Africa

    • Authors: Mary Funke Olabanji, Thando Ndarana, Nerhene Davis
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Climate change is expected to substantially reduce future crop yields in South Africa, thus affecting food security and livelihood. Adaptation strategies need to be implemented to mitigate the effect of climate change-induced yield losses. In this paper, we used the WEAP-MABIA model, driven by six CORDEX climate change data for representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5, to quantify the effect of climate change on several key crops, namely maize, soya beans, dry beans, and sunflower, in the Olifants catchment. The study further investigated climate change adaptation such as the effects of changing planting dates with the application of full irrigation, rainwater harvesting, deficit irrigation method, and the application of efficient irrigation devices on reducing the impact of climate change on crop production. The results show that average monthly temperature is expected to increase by 1 °C to 5 °C while a reduction in precipitation ranging between 2.5% to 58.7% is projected for both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 relative to the baseline climate for 1976–2005, respectively. The results also reveal that increased temperature and decreased precipitation during planting seasons are expected to increase crop water requirements. A steady decline in crop yield ranging between 19–65%, 11–38%, 16–42%, and 5–30% for maize, soya beans, dry beans, and sunflower, respectively, is also projected under both RCPs climate change scenarios. The study concludes that adaptation measures such as the integration of changing planting dates with full irrigation application and the use of rainwater harvest will help improve current and future crop production under the impact of climate change.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9010006
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 138: The Effect of Statistical Downscaling on the
           Weighting of Multi-Model Ensembles of Precipitation

    • Authors: Adrienne M. Wootten, Elias C. Massoud, Agniv Sengupta, Duane E. Waliser, Huikyo Lee
      First page: 138
      Abstract: Recently, assessments of global climate model (GCM) ensembles have transitioned from using unweighted means to weighted means designed to account for skill and interdependence among models. Although ensemble-weighting schemes are typically derived using a GCM ensemble, statistically downscaled projections are used in climate change assessments. This study applies four ensemble-weighting schemes for model averaging to precipitation projections in the south-central United States. The weighting schemes are applied to (1) a 26-member GCM ensemble and (2) those 26 members downscaled using Localized Canonical Analogs (LOCA). This study is distinct from prior research because it compares the interactions of ensemble-weighting schemes with GCMs and statistical downscaling to produce summarized climate projection products. The analysis indicates that statistical downscaling improves the ensemble accuracy (LOCA average root mean square error is 100 mm less than the CMIP5 average root mean square error) and reduces the uncertainty of the projected ensemble-mean change. Furthermore, averaging the LOCA ensemble using Bayesian Model Averaging reduces the uncertainty beyond any other combination of weighting schemes and ensemble (standard deviation of the mean projected change in the domain is reduced by 40–50 mm). The results also indicate that it is inappropriate to assume that a weighting scheme derived from a GCM ensemble matches the same weights derived using a downscaled ensemble.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120138
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 139: Modeling the Impacts of Climate Change on Crop
           Yield and Irrigation in the Monocacy River Watershed, USA

    • Authors: Manashi Paul, Sijal Dangol, Vitaly Kholodovsky, Amy R. Sapkota, Masoud Negahban-Azar, Stephanie Lansing
      First page: 139
      Abstract: Crop yield depends on multiple factors, including climate conditions, soil characteristics, and available water. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of projected temperature and precipitation changes on crop yields in the Monocacy River Watershed in the Mid-Atlantic United States based on climate change scenarios. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to simulate watershed hydrology and crop yield. To evaluate the effect of future climate projections, four global climate models (GCMs) and three representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5, 6, and 8.5) were used in the SWAT model. According to all GCMs and RCPs, a warmer climate with a wetter Autumn and Spring and a drier late Summer season is anticipated by mid and late century in this region. To evaluate future management strategies, water budget and crop yields were assessed for two scenarios: current rainfed and adaptive irrigated conditions. Irrigation would improve corn yields during mid-century across all scenarios. However, prolonged irrigation would have a negative impact due to nutrients runoff on both corn and soybean yields compared to rainfed condition. Decision tree analysis indicated that corn and soybean yields are most influenced by soil moisture, temperature, and precipitation as well as the water management practice used (i.e., rainfed or irrigated). The computed values from the SWAT modeling can be used as guidelines for water resource managers in this watershed to plan for projected water shortages and manage crop yields based on projected climate change conditions.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120139
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 140: Climate Change Risk Assessment for Kurunegala,
           Sri Lanka: Water and Heat Waves

    • Authors: Hanna Cho
      First page: 140
      Abstract: Sri Lanka is experiencing various social and environmental challenges, including drought, storms, floods, and landslides, due to climate change. One of Sri Lanka’s biggest cities, Kurunegala, is a densely populated city that is gradually turning into an economic revitalization area. This fast-growing city needs to establish an integrated urban plan that takes into account the risks of climate change. Thus, a climate change risk assessment was conducted for both the water and heat wave risks via discussions with key stakeholders. The risk assessment was conducted as a survey based on expert assessment of local conditions, with awareness surveys taken by residents, especially women. The assessment determined that the lack of drinking water was the biggest issue, a problem that has become more serious due to recent droughts caused by climate change and insufficient water management. In addition, the outbreak of diseases caused by heat waves was identified as a serious concern. Risk assessment is integral to developing an action plan for minimizing the damage from climate change. It is necessary to support education and awareness in developing countries so that they can perform risk assessment well and develop both problem-solving and policy-making abilities to adapt to a changing climate.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120140
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 141: Gains or Losses in Forest Productivity under
           Climate Change' The Uncertainty of CO2 Fertilization and Climate

    • Authors: Dominik Sperlich, Daniel Nadal-Sala, Carlos Gracia, Jürgen Kreuzwieser, Marc Hanewinkel, Rasoul Yousefpour
      First page: 141
      Abstract: Global warming poses great challenges for forest managers regarding adaptation strategies and species choices. More frequent drought events and heat spells are expected to reduce growth and increase mortality. Extended growing seasons, warming and elevated CO2 (eCO2) can also positively affect forest productivity. We studied the growth, productivity and mortality of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and fir (Abies alba Mill.) in the Black Forest (Germany) under three climate change scenarios (representative concentration pathways (RCP): RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP8.5) using the detailed biogeochemical forest growth model GOTILWA+. Averaged over the entire simulation period, both species showed productivity losses in RCP2.6 (16–20%) and in RCP4.5 (6%), but productivity gains in RCP8.5 (11–17%). However, all three scenarios had a tipping point (between 2035–2060) when initial gains in net primary productivity (NPP) (6–29%) eventually turned into losses (1–26%). With eCO2 switched off, the losses in NPP were 26–51% in RCP2.6, 36–45% in RCP4.5 and 33–71% in RCP8.5. Improved water-use efficiency dampened drought effects on NPP between 4 and 5%. Tree mortality increased, but without notably affecting forest productivity. Concluding, cultivation of beech and fir may still be possible in the study region, although severe productivity losses can be expected in the coming decades, which will strongly depend on the dampening CO2 fertilization effect.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120141
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 142: Long-Term Trend Analysis in Annual and
           Seasonal Precipitation, Maximum and Minimum Temperatures in the Southwest
           United States

    • Authors: Koffi Djaman, Komlan Koudahe, Ansoumana Bodian, Lamine Diop, Papa Malick Ndiaye
      First page: 142
      Abstract: The objective of this study is to perform trend analysis in the historic data sets of annual and crop season [May–September] precipitation and daily maximum and minimum temperatures across the southwest United States. Eighteen ground-based weather stations were considered across the southwest United States for a total period from 1902 to 2017. The non-parametric Mann–Kendall test method was used for the significance of the trend analysis and the Sen’s slope estimator was used to derive the long-term average rates of change in the parameters. The results showed a decreasing trend in annual precipitation at 44.4% of the stations with the Sen’s slopes varying from −1.35 to −0.02 mm/year while the other stations showed an increasing trend. Crop season total precipitation showed non-significant variation at most of the stations except two stations in Arizona. Seventy-five percent of the stations showed increasing trend in annual maximum temperature at the rates that varied from 0.6 to 3.1 °C per century. Air cooling varied from 0.2 to 1.0 °C per century with dominant warming phenomenon at the regional scale of the southwest United States. Average annual minimum temperature had increased at 69% of the stations at the rates that varied from 0.1 to 8 °C over the last century, while the annual temperature amplitude showed a decreasing trend at 63% of stations. Crop season maximum temperature had significant increasing trend at 68.8% of the stations at the rates varying from 0.7 to 3.5 °C per century, while the season minimum temperature had increased at 75% of the stations.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120142
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 143: Intraseasonal Precipitation Variability over
           West Africa under 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C Global Warming Scenarios: Results
           from CORDEX RCMs

    • Authors: Obed M. Ogega, Benjamin A. Gyampoh, Malcolm N. Mistry
      First page: 143
      Abstract: This study assessed the performance of 24 simulations, from five regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX), in representing spatiotemporal characteristics of precipitation over West Africa, compared to observations. The top five performing RCM simulations were used to assess future precipitation changes over West Africa, under 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C global warming levels (GWLs), following the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5. The performance evaluation and future change assessment were done using a set of seven ‘descriptors’ of West African precipitation namely the simple precipitation intensity index (SDII), the consecutive wet days (CWD), the number of wet days index (R1MM), the number of wet days with moderate and heavy intensity precipitation (R10MM and R30MM, respectively), and annual and June to September daily mean precipitation (ANN and JJAS, respectively). The performance assessment and future change outlook were done for the CORDEX–Africa subdomains of north West Africa (WA-N), south West Africa (WA-S), and a combination of the two subdomains. While the performance of RCM runs was descriptor- and subregion- specific, five model runs emerged as top performers in representing precipitation characteristics over both WA-N and WA-S. The five model runs are CCLM4 forced by ICHEC-EC-EARTH (r12i1p1), RCA4 forced by CCCma-CanESM2 (r1i1p1), RACMO22T forced by MOHC-HadGEM2-ES (r1i1p1), and the ensemble means of simulations made by CCLM4 and RACMO22T. All precipitation descriptors recorded a reduction under the two warming levels, except the SDII which recorded an increase. Unlike the WA-N that showed less frequency and more intense precipitation, the WA-S showed increased frequency and intensity. Given the potential impact that these projected changes may have on West Africa’s socioeconomic activities, adjustments in investment may be required to take advantage of (and enhance system resilience against damage that may result from) the potential changes in precipitation.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120143
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 144: Vulnerability and Risk Factors due to Tropical
           Cyclones in Coastal Cities of Baja California Sur, Mexico

    • Authors: Elvia Aida Marín-Monroy, Víctor Hernández-Trejo, Eleonora Romero-Vadillo, Antonina Ivanova-Boncheva
      First page: 144
      Abstract: Coastal cities have seen an unprecedented growth with regional settlements due to development activities; that is why measures are needed to mitigate risk of adverse events such as tropical cyclones. Baja California Sur, a state known as a relevant ecological and tourist region, includes destinations such as Cabo San Lucas and La Paz, impacted yearly by tropical cyclones, so it is important to design contingency plans and provide available information to the residents. Los Cabos municipality has the highest population growth rate and its inhabitants are more susceptible to adverse events; despite this, there were no indicators of social and ecological vulnerability to risk effects of tropical cyclones. The objective of this research is to calculate the socio-environmental vulnerability of households through an index to identify risk factors. We have obtained a classification according to levels of vulnerability, and the results have shown that 74% of the households are high on the vulnerability scale, 21% of households are moderately vulnerable and only the remaining 5% of households are less vulnerable. In conclusion, the devastating effects of hydrometeorological events were mainly due to a lack of knowledge regarding such events among inhabitants.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120144
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 145: The Spatiotemporal Patterns of Climate
           Asymmetric Warming and Vegetation Activities in an Arid and Semiarid

    • Authors: Tong Heng, Gary Feng, Ouyang Ying, Xinlin He
      First page: 145
      Abstract: Asymmetric warming was bound to have a major impact on terrestrial ecosystems in arid regions during global warming. Further study was necessary to reveal the spatiotemporal patterns of asymmetric warming in Xinjiang; this study analyzed the climate and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data (2000–2020). The change trends of the day and nighttime warming (DNW), seasonal warming, and the diurnal temperature range in northern Xinjiang (S1) and southern Xinjiang (S2) were determined. The findings indicated that the DNW rate showed a significant (p < 0.05) upward trend, especially in winter. The nighttime warming rate (0.65 °C (decade)−1) was faster than the daytime warming rate (0.4 °C (decade)−1), and the diurnal temperature range between daytime and nighttime exhibited a decreasing trend. The diurnal temperature range was the highest in spring and the lowest in winter. Extreme values of the diurnal temperature range appeared in autumn (48.6 °C) and winter (12.3 °C) and both in S1. The Tmin in S1 had an abruption trend in 2006–2017, the Tmax in S2 had an abruption trend in 2005–2011, and the probability of spatial abruption in S1 was higher than that in S2. The partial correlation between the NDVI and Tmin was significantly higher than that between the NDVI and Tmax in the area where the significance test passed; therefore, asymmetric nighttime warming had a greater impact on the NDVI than the asymmetric daytime warming.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120145
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 146: Long-Term Rainfall Trends and Their
           Variability in Mainland Portugal in the Last 106 Years

    • Authors: Maria Manuela Portela, Luis Angel Espinosa, Martina Zelenakova
      First page: 146
      Abstract: This study addresses the long-term rainfall trends, their temporal variability and uncertainty over mainland Portugal, a small country on the most western European coast. The study was based on monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall series spanning for a period of 106 years, between October 1913 and September 2019 (herein after referred to as global period), at 532 rain gauges evenly distributed over the country (c.a. 6 rain gauges per 1000 km2). To understand the rainfall behavior over time, an initial sub-period with 55 years and a final sub-period with 51 years were also analyzed along with the global period. The trends identification and the assessment of their magnitude were derived using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall (MK) test coupled with the Sen’s slope estimator method. The results showed that after the initial sub-period with prevailing increasing rainfall, the trends were almost exclusively decreasing. They were also so pronounced that they counterbalanced the initial rainfall increase and resulted in equally decreasing trends for the global period. The study also shows that approximately from the late 1960s on, the rainy season pattern has changed, with the last months prior to the dry season showing a sustained decrease of their relative contributions to the annual rainfalls. Overall, the results support the hypothesis of less uncertainty on the pronounced decrease of rainfall over mainland Portugal in recent years, which is expected to continue. They also show that the asymmetry between a less wet North, yet still wet, and an arid South is becoming much more marked.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120146
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 147: Impacts of Agroclimatic Variability on Maize
           Production in the Setsoto municipality in the Free State Province, South

    • Authors: Abubakar Hadisu Bello, Mary Scholes, Solomon W. Newete
      First page: 147
      Abstract: The majority of people in South Africa eat maize, which is grown as a rain-fed crop in the summer rainfall areas of the country, as their staple food. The country is usually food secure except in drought years, which are expected to increase in severity and frequency. This study investigated the impacts of rainfall and minimum and maximum temperatures on maize yield in the Setsoto municipality of the Free State province of South Africa from 1985 to 2016. The variation of the agroclimatic variables, including the Palmer stress diversity index (PSDI), was investigated over the growing period (Oct–Apr) which varied across the four target stations (Clocolan, Senekal, Marquard and Ficksburg). The highest coefficients of variance (CV) recorded for the minimum and maximum temperatures and rainfall were 16.2%, 6.2% and 29% during the growing period. Non-parametric Mann Kendal and Sen’s slope estimator were used for the trend analysis. The result showed significant positive trends in minimum temperature across the stations except for Clocolan where a negative trend of 0.2 to 0.12 °C year−1 was observed. The maximum temperature increased significantly across all the stations by 0.04–0.05 °C year−1 during the growing period. The temperature effects were most noticeable in the months of November and February when leaf initiation and kernel filling occur, respectively. The changes in rainfall were significant only in Ficksburg in the month of January with a value of 2.34 mm year−1. Nevertheless, the rainfall showed a strong positive correlation with yield (r 0.46, p = < 0.05). The overall variation in maize production is explained by the contribution of the agroclimatic parameters; the minimum temperature (R2 0.13–0.152), maximum temperature (R2 0.214–0.432) and rainfall (R2 0.17–0.473) for the growing period across the stations during the study period. The PSDI showed dry years and wet years but with most of the years recording close to normal rainfall. An increase in both the minimum and maximum temperatures over time will have a negative impact on crop yield.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120147
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 148: Evaluation of Daily Precipitation from the
           ERA5 Global Reanalysis against GHCN Observations in the Northeastern
           United States

    • Authors: Caitlin C. Crossett, Alan K. Betts, Lesley-Ann L. Dupigny-Giroux, Arne Bomblies
      First page: 148
      Abstract: Precipitation is a primary input for hydrologic, agricultural, and engineering models, so making accurate estimates of it across the landscape is critically important. While the distribution of in-situ measurements of precipitation can lead to challenges in spatial interpolation, gridded precipitation information is designed to produce a full coverage product. In this study, we compare daily precipitation accumulations from the ERA5 Global Reanalysis (hereafter ERA5) and the US Global Historical Climate Network (hereafter GHCN) across the northeastern United States. We find that both the distance from the Atlantic Coast and elevation difference between ERA5 estimates and GHCN observations affect precipitation relationships between the two datasets. ERA5 has less precipitation along the coast than GHCN observations but more precipitation inland. Elevation differences between ERA5 and GHCN observations are positively correlated with precipitation differences. Isolated GHCN stations on mountain peaks, with elevations well above the ERA5 model grid elevation, have much higher precipitation. Summer months (June, July, and August) have slightly less precipitation in ERA5 than GHCN observations, perhaps due to the ERA5 convective parameterization scheme. The heavy precipitation accumulation above the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentile thresholds are very similar for ERA5 and the GHCN. We find that daily precipitation in the ERA5 dataset is comparable to GHCN observations in the northeastern United States and its gridded spatial continuity has advantages over in-situ point precipitation measurements for regional modeling applications.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120148
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 149: Local Institutions and Climate Change
           Adaptation: Appraising Dysfunctional and Functional Roles of Local
           Institutions from the Bilate Basin Agropastoral Livelihood Zone of Sidama,
           Southern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Firew Bekele, Degefa Tolossa, Teshale Woldeamanuel
      First page: 149
      Abstract: This study aimed to appraise the role of local institutions in adaptation to changing climate at the local level in the Bilate Basin Agropastoral Livelihood Zone of Ethiopia. Thirty-one years of climate data were analyzed by employing the Mann–Kendall trend and Sen’s slope test techniques. The survey was conducted on 400 households that were systematically randomized from 7066 households, while community-level data were collected through the participatory rural appraisal (PRA) technique. The entire analysis was framed by a tetragonal model. The results of the analysis indicated that temperature exhibited a significantly increasing trend, while rainfall, which is statistically related to temperature, showed a decreasing trend, resulting in lingering droughts and human and animal diseases. Major livestock declined by 69%. As a response, while Sidama indigenous institutions were well-functioning and nurtured through local knowledge, and the governmental and civic ones were entrenched with various limitations. Contextual fitness and compatibility, interplay, inclusiveness, and sustainability of their operations in temporal and spatial scales were some of their limitations. Therefore, federal and local governments should focus on monitoring, evaluating, and learning aspects of their grand strategies, review general education, farmers’ credit, and civic institutions’ governance policies and strengthen the synergy of civic, government, and indigenous institutions.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120149
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 150: Modeling the Soil Response to Rainstorms after
           Wildfire and Prescribed Fire in Mediterranean Forests

    • Authors: Manuel Esteban Lucas-Borja, Giuseppe Bombino, Bruno Gianmarco Carrà, Daniela D’Agostino, Pietro Denisi, Antonino Labate, Pedro Antonio Plaza-Alvarez, Demetrio Antonio Zema
      First page: 150
      Abstract: The use of the Soil Conservation Service-curve number (SCS-CN) model for runoff predictions after rainstorms in fire-affected forests in the Mediterranean climate is quite scarce and limited to the watershed scale. To validate the applicability of this model in this environment, this study has evaluated the runoff prediction capacity of the SCS-CN model after storms at the plot scale in two pine forests of Central-Eastern Spain, affected by wildfire (with or without straw mulching) or prescribed fire and in unburned soils. The model performance has been compared to the predictions of linear regression equations between rainfall depth and runoff volume. The runoff volume was simulated with reliability by the linear regression only for the unburned soil (coefficient of Nash and Sutcliffe E = 0.73–0.89). Conversely, the SCS-CN model was more accurate for burned soils (E = 0.81–0.97), also when mulching was applied (E = 0.96). The performance of this model was very satisfactory in predicting the maximum runoff. Very low values of CNs and initial abstraction were required to predict the particular hydrology of the experimental areas. Moreover, the post-fire hydrological “window-of-disturbance” could be reproduced only by increasing the CN for the storms immediately after the wildfire. This study indicates that, in Mediterranean forests subject to the fire risk, the simple linear equations are feasible to predict runoff after low-intensity storms, while the SCS-CN model is advisable when runoff predictions are needed to control the flooding risk.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-12-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8120150
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 127: Modelling Maize Yield and Water Requirements
           under Different Climate Change Scenarios

    • Authors: Oludare Sunday Durodola, Khaldoon A. Mourad
      First page: 127
      Abstract: African countries such as Nigeria are anticipated to be more susceptible to the impacts of climate change due to large dependence on rainfed agriculture and to several uncertainties in the responses of crop production to climate change. The impacts of climate change on crop water requirements (CWR), irrigation water requirements (IWR), yields and crop water productivity (CWP) of rainfed maize in Ogun-Osun River Basin, Nigeria were evaluated for a baseline period (1986–2015) and future projection period (2021–2099) under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. For the baseline period, there is no significant trend within the variables studied. However, IWR is projected to increase significantly by up to 140% in the future period, while yield might likely decline under both scenarios up to −12%. This study shows that in the future periods, supplemental irrigation has little impact in improving yields, but an increase in soil fertility can improve yields and CWP by up to 80% in 2099. This paper offers useful information on suitable adaptation measures which could be implemented by stakeholders and policymakers to counterbalance the effects of climate change on crop production.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110127
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 128: Global-Scale Synchronization in the
           Meteorological Data: A Vectorial Analysis That Includes Higher-Order

    • Authors: Hayata
      First page: 128
      Abstract: To examine the evidence of global warming, in recent years, there has been a growing interest in the statistical analysis of time-dependent meteorological data. In this paper, for 116 observational stations in the world, sequential variations of the monthly distributions of meteorological data are analyzed vectorially. For specific monthly data, temperatures and precipitations are chosen, both of which are averaged over three decades. Climate change can be revealed through the intersecting angle between two 33-dimensional vectors being composed with monthly mean values. Subsequently, the angle data for the entire stations are analyzed statistically and compared between the former (1931–1980) and the latter (1951–2010) periods. Irrespective of the period and the hemisphere, the variation of the angles is found to show the exponential growth as a function of their latitudes. Furthermore, consistent with other studies, this trend is shown to become stronger in the latter period, indicating that the so-called snow/ice-albedo feedback occurs. In contrast to the temperatures, for the precipitations, no significant correlation is found between the angle and the latitude. To examine the albedo effect in more detail, a regional analysis for 75 stations in Japan is carried out as well. Numerical results show that the effect is significant even for the relatively narrow latitudinal range (19%) of the hemisphere. Finally, a synchronization of the monthly patterns of temperatures is given between the northern district of Japan and both North America and Eastern Europe.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110128
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 129: Forecasting Intense Cut-Off Lows in South
           Africa Using the 4.4 km Unified Model

    • Authors: Tshimbiluni Percy Muofhe, Hector Chikoore, Mary-Jane Morongwa Bopape, Nthaduleni Samuel Nethengwe, Thando Ndarana, Gift Tshifhiwa Rambuwani
      First page: 129
      Abstract: Mid-tropospheric cut-off low (COL) pressure systems are linked to severe weather, heavy rainfall and extreme cold conditions over South Africa. They occur during all the above and often result in floods and snowfalls during the winter months, disrupting economic activities and causing extensive damage to infrastructure. This paper examines the evolution and circulation patterns associated with cases of severe COLs over South Africa. We evaluate the performance of the 4.4 km Unified Model (UM) which is currently used operationally by the South African Weather Service (SAWS) to simulate daily rainfall. Circulation variables and precipitation simulated by the UM were compared against European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast’s (ECMWF’s) ERA Interim re-analyses and GPM precipitation at 24-hour timesteps. We present five recent severe COLs, which occurred between 2016 and 2019, that had high impact and found a higher model skill when simulating heavy precipitation during the initial stages than the dissipating stages of the systems. A key finding was that the UM simulated the precipitation differently during the different stages of development and location of the systems. This is mainly due to inaccurate placing of COL centers. Understanding the performance and limitations of the UM model in simulating COL characteristics can benefit severe weather forecasting and contribute to disaster risk reduction in South Africa.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110129
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 130: Antarctic Winds: Pacemaker of Global Warming,
           Global Cooling, and the Collapse of Civilizations

    • Authors: W. Jackson Davis, W. Barton Davis
      First page: 130
      Abstract: We report a natural wind cycle, the Antarctic Centennial Wind Oscillation (ACWO), whose properties explain milestones of climate and human civilization, including contemporary global warming. We explored the wind/temperature relationship in Antarctica over the past 226 millennia using dust flux in ice cores from the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) Dome C (EDC) drill site as a wind proxy and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in ice cores from EDC and ten additional Antarctic drill sites as temperature proxies. The ACWO wind cycle is coupled 1:1 with the temperature cycle of the Antarctic Centennial Oscillation (ACO), the paleoclimate precursor of the contemporary Antarctic Oscillation (AAO), at all eleven drill sites over all time periods evaluated. Such tight coupling suggests that ACWO wind cycles force ACO/AAO temperature cycles. The ACWO is modulated in phase with the millennial-scale Antarctic Isotope Maximum (AIM) temperature cycle. Each AIM cycle encompasses several ACWOs that increase in frequency and amplitude to a Wind Terminus, the last and largest ACWO of every AIM cycle. This historic wind pattern, and the heat and gas exchange it forces with the Southern Ocean (SO), explains climate milestones including the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age. Contemporary global warming is explained by venting of heat and carbon dioxide from the SO forced by the maximal winds of the current positive phase of the ACO/AAO cycle. The largest 20 human civilizations of the past four millennia collapsed during or near the Little Ice Age or its earlier recurrent homologs. The Eddy Cycle of sunspot activity oscillates in phase with the AIM temperature cycle and therefore may force the internal climate cycles documented here. Climate forecasts based on the historic ACWO wind pattern project imminent global cooling and in ~4 centuries a recurrent homolog of the Little Ice Age. Our study provides a theoretically-unified explanation of contemporary global warming and other climate milestones based on natural climate cycles driven by the Sun, confirms a dominant role for climate in shaping human history, invites reconsideration of climate policy, and offers a method to project future climate.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110130
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 131: Urban Morphological Controls on Surface
           Thermal Dynamics: A Comparative Assessment of Major European Cities with a
           Focus on Athens, Greece

    • Authors: Ilias Agathangelidis, Constantinos Cartalis, Mat Santamouris
      First page: 131
      Abstract: Variations in urban form lead to the development of distinctive intra-urban surface thermal patterns. Previous assessment of the relation between urban structure and satellite-based Land Surface Temperature (LST) has generally been limited to single-city cases. Here, examining 25 European cities (June–August 2017), we estimated the statistical association between surface parameters—the impervious fraction (λimp), the building fraction (λb), and the building height (H)—and the neighborhood scale (1000 × 1000 m) LST variations, as captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Correlation analysis, multiple linear regression, and spatial regression were used. As expected, λimp had a consistent positive influence on LSTs. In contrast, the relation of LST with λb and H was generally weaker or negative in the daytime, whereas at night it shifted to a robust positive effect. In particular, daytime LSTs of densely built, high-rise European districts tended to have lower values. This was especially the case for the city of Athens, Greece, where a more focused analysis was conducted, using further surface parameters and the Local Climate Zone (LCZ) scheme. For the urban core of the city, the canyon aspect ratio H/W had a statistically significant (p <0.01) negative relationship with LST by day (Spearman’s rho = −0.68) and positive during nighttime (rho = 0.45). The prevailing intra-urban surface thermal variability in Athens was well reproduced by a 5-day numerical experiment using the meteorological Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) model and a modified urban parameterization scheme. Although the simulation resulted in some systematic errors, the overall accuracy of the model was adequate, regarding the surface temperature (RMSE = 2.4 K) and the near-surface air temperature (RMSE = 1.7 K) estimations.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110131
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 132: The Role of Mitigation Options for Achieving a
           Low-Carbon Economy in the Netherlands in 2050 Using a System Dynamics
           Modelling Approach

    • Authors: Linderhof, Dekkers, Polman
      First page: 132
      Abstract: To reach a low-carbon economy in the Netherlands, the level of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions has to be reduced by 80–95% CO2 emissions compared to 1990 (223.1 MtCO2-equivalents). This study aims to address how investment subsidies combined with carbon levies could be deployed to support technological mitigation options to achieve a low-carbon economy in the Netherlands in 2050. A system dynamic model has been built including demographic-economic, energy and environmental sub-systems of the Netherlands. The model has been validated with earlier projections of the EU for the energy and climate policy in 2050. Next to the business-as-usual scenario, there are four policy scenarios simulated from 2010 to 2050. In all policy scenarios a carbon levy was imposed on non-renewable energy to finance subsidies on mitigation options. Results show that imposing subsidies on the mitigation option renewable energy is most effective in combination with the carbon levy.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110132
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 133: Using AnnAGNPS to Simulate Runoff, Nutrient,
           and Sediment Loads in an Agricultural Catchment with an On-Farm Water
           Storage System

    • Authors: Juan D. Pérez-Gutiérrez, Joel O. Paz, Mary Love M. Tagert, Lindsey M. W. Yasarer, Ronald L. Bingner
      First page: 133
      Abstract: On-farm water storage (OFWS) systems are best management practices that consist of a tailwater recovery (TWR) ditch used with a storage pond to provide irrigation water and improve downstream water quality. These systems have been increasingly implemented in the southeastern US, but the individual and cumulative effects of these systems on a watershed scale are unknown. In this study, the runoff, nutrient, and sediment loads entering a TWR ditch in an agricultural catchment were quantified, and contributing sources were identified using the annualized agricultural non-point source (AnnAGNPS) model. Fields with larger areas and soils with a high runoff potential produced more runoff. The volume of runoff exceeded the TWR ditch storage volume approximately 110 times, mostly during the winter and spring seasons. During years when corn and winter wheat were planted, NO3–N loads increased because these crops need nitrogen fertilization to grow. Planting winter wheat in priority subwatersheds reduced the total phosphorous (TP) and sediment loads by about 19% and 13%, respectively, at the TWR ditch inlet. Planting winter wheat can reduce runoff, TP, and sediment loads but also result in higher NO3–N loads. AnnAGNPS simulations quantified the benefits of an OFWS system to advance the understanding of their impact on water availability and quality at a watershed scale.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110133
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 134: Adaptation to Climate Change Effects on Water
           Resources: Understanding Institutional Barriers in Nigeria

    • Authors: Ojo Sola, Henry Mensah, Eike Albrecht, Bachar Ibrahim
      First page: 134
      Abstract: Climate Change (CC) and variability are global issues that the world has been facing for a long time. Given the recent catastrophic events, such as flooding, erosion, and drought in Nigeria, many have questioned institutions’ capacity in managing CC impacts in Nigeria. This study explores emerging institutional barriers of adaptation to CC effects on water resources in Nigeria. The study data were obtained from in-depth interviews with institutional heads from water resources management and emergency management and a review of secondary literature from databases such as Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science. The results show that inadequate hydrological data management, low awareness on how to adapt among the public and decision-makers, financial constraints, no political will to pass important bills into law, and inadequate institutional and legal framework are the main institutional barriers of adaptation to climate change in Nigeria. The study concludes that it is essential to strengthen the institutional and legal system, information management mechanism, public awareness, and participatory water resources management. The implications for further research are presented in the study.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110134
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 135: Exploring Associations between Attitudes
           Towards Climate Change and Motivational Human Values

    • Authors: Narcisa Maria Oliveira Carvalho Dias, Diogo Guedes Vidal, Hélder Fernando Pedrosa e Sousa, Maria Alzira Pimenta Dinis, Ângela Leite
      First page: 135
      Abstract: Climate change (CC) represents a global challenge for humanity. It is known that the impacts of anthropogenic actions are an unequivocal contribution to environmental issues aggravation. Human values are recognized as psychological constructs that guide people in their attitudes and actions in different areas of life, and the promotion of pro-environmental behaviors in the context of CC must be considered a priority. The present work aimed to understand the contribution of attitudes towards CC and selected sociodemographic variables to explain Schwartz’s motivational human values. The sample consists of 1270 Portuguese answering the European social survey (ESS) Round 8. Benevolence and self-transcendence are the most prevalent human values among respondents. The majority believe in CC and less than half in its entirely anthropogenic nature. It was found that the concern with CC and education contributes to explain 11.8% of the conservation variance; gender and concern about CC explain 10.1% of the variance of self-transcendence; and age, gender and concern about CC contribute to explain 13% of the variance of openness to change. This study underlines the main human values’ drivers of attitudes towards CC, central components in designing an effective societal response to CC impacts, which must be oriented towards what matters to individuals and communities, at the risk of being ineffective.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110135
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 136: Climatic Trends in Different Bioclimatic Zones
           in the Chitwan Annapurna Landscape, Nepal

    • Authors: Dol Raj Luitel, Pramod K. Jha, Mohan Siwakoti, Madan Lall Shrestha, Rangaswamy Munniappan
      First page: 136
      Abstract: The Chitwan Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) is the central part of the Himalayas and covers all bioclimatic zones with major endemism of flora, unique agro-biodiversity, environmental, cultural and socio-economic importance. Not much is known about temperature and precipitation trends along the different bioclimatic zones nor how changes in these parameters might impact the whole natural process, including biodiversity and ecosystems, in the CHAL. Analysis of daily temperature and precipitation time series data (1970–2019) was carried out in seven bioclimatic zones extending from lowland Terai to the higher Himalayas. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was applied to determine the trends, which were quantified by Sen’s slope. Annual and decade interval average temperature, precipitation trends, and lapse rate were analyzed in each bioclimatic zone. In the seven bioclimatic zones, precipitation showed a mixed pattern of decreasing and increasing trends (four bioclimatic zones showed a decreasing and three bioclimatic zones an increasing trend). Precipitation did not show any particular trend at decade intervals but the pattern of rainfall decreases after 2000AD. The average annual temperature at different bioclimatic zones clearly indicates that temperature at higher elevations is increasing significantly more than at lower elevations. In lower tropical bioclimatic zone (LTBZ), upper tropical bioclimatic zone (UTBZ), lower subtropical bioclimatic zone (LSBZ), upper subtropical bioclimatic zone (USBZ), and temperate bioclimatic zone (TBZ), the average temperature increased by 0.022, 0.030, 0.036, 0.042 and 0.051 °C/year, respectively. The decade level temperature scenario revealed that the hottest decade was from 1999–2009 and average decade level increases of temperature at different bioclimatic zones ranges from 0.2 to 0.27 °C /decade. The average temperature and precipitation was found clearly different from one bioclimatic zone to other. This is the first time that bioclimatic zone level precipitation and temperature trends have been analyzed for the CHAL. The rate of additional temperature rise at higher altitudes compared to lower elevations meets the requirements to mitigate climate change in different bioclimatic zones in a different ways. This information would be fundamental to safeguarding vulnerable communities, ecosystem and relevant climate-sensitive sectors from the impact of climate change through formulation of sector-wise climate change adaptation strategies and improving the livelihood of rural communities.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110136
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
  • Climate, Vol. 8, Pages 137: Climate Change and Its Possible Impact in
           Groundwater Resource of the Kankai River Basin, East Nepal Himalaya

    • Authors: Champak Babu Silwal, Dinesh Pathak, Drona Adhikari, Tirtha Raj Adhikari
      First page: 137
      Abstract: Increasing evidence of changing climate patterns is being observed, and the impact of this change on groundwater has a direct impact on the livelihood and economy of the region. The research focuses on the impacts of global temperature increase and changing precipitation on the groundwater resources of part of the Himalayan river system. The spatial and temporal variations of the hydro-meteorological data of the Kankai River Basin in East Nepal were analyzed using non-parametric Mann–Kendall tests and Sen’s Slope methods, whereas CanESM2 was used to predict the future precipitation scenarios, and an attempt has been made to evaluate the possible impacts on groundwater systems in the region. The temperature shows a significant warming trend (0.14–0.64 °C/decade); however, the precipitation trends suggest remarkable variation mostly at higher elevation. The average annual precipitation suggests a decrease of 1.82 mm/year and a similar decrement has been projected for the future. The groundwater in the region has been influenced by the changing climate and the condition may further be exaggerated by reduced recharge and increased evapotranspiration. This understanding of the impacts and climate scenarios will help the planners with better adaptation strategies, plans, and programs for a better society.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2020-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli8110137
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 11 (2020)
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