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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 65)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Climate Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 72)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Climate Change and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 207)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Nīvār     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Oxford Open Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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Climate
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2225-1154
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 89: Climate Change and Human Health in the Arctic:
           A Review

    • Authors: Elena A. Grigorieva
      First page: 89
      Abstract: Over recent decades, the Arctic has begun facing a range of climate-related challenges, from rising temperatures to melting ice caps and permafrost thaw, with significant implications for ecosystems and human well-being. Addressing the health impacts of these issues requires a comprehensive approach, integrating scientific research, community engagement, and policy interventions. This study conducts a literature review to assess the effects of climate change on human health in northern latitudes and to compile adaptation strategies from the Arctic countries. A literature search was performed between January and April 2024 for papers published after 2000, using the electronic databases Web of Science, Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, and eLibrary.RU, with specific questions formulated to direct the search: (i) What are the climate changes' (ii) How does climate change affect human health' (iii) What adaptation measures and policies are required' The key phrases “climate change”, “human health”, “adaptation practices”, and “Arctic” were employed for searching. Ultimately, 56 relevant studies were identified, reviewing health risks such as infectious diseases, mental health issues, and diseases connected with extreme weather events; wildfires and their associated pollution; permafrost degradation; pure water; and food quality. The paper also examines mitigation and adaptation strategies at all levels of governance, emphasizing the need for international cooperation and policy action to combat negative health outcomes, investments in healthcare infrastructure, emergency preparedness, and public health education. Incorporating diverse perspectives, including Indigenous knowledge, Community-Based Adaptation, EcoHealth and One Health approaches, is crucial for effectively addressing the health risks associated with climate change. In conclusion, the paper proposes adaptation strategies to mitigate the health impacts of climate change in the Arctic.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12070089
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 90: On the Unforced or Forced Nature of the
           Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation: A Linear and Nonlinear Causality
           Analysis

    • Authors: Umberto Triacca, Antonello Pasini
      First page: 90
      Abstract: In recent years, there has been intense debate in the literature as to whether the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is a genuine representation of natural climate variability or is substantially driven by external factors. Here, we perform an analysis of the influence of external (natural and anthropogenic) forcings on the AMO behaviour by means of a linear Granger causality analysis and by a nonlinear extension of this method. Our results show that natural forcings do not have any causal role on AMO in both linear and nonlinear analyses. Instead, a certain influence of anthropogenic forcing is found in a linear framework.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12070090
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 91: Assessment of Modeled Mean Radiant Temperature
           in Hot and Dry Environments: A Case Study in Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Ali Alzahrani, Mohamed Gadi
      First page: 91
      Abstract: Envi-met is the most-used simulation tool to assess outdoor thermal comfort in urban microclimates. Considering reported disparities between modeled and observed mean radiant temperature (MRT), failing to accurately predict the MRT may have a negative impact on the conclusions drawn by urban designers and policy makers. Therefore, this study aims to validate the Envi-met model’s efficiency for predicting MRT in the hot arid climate of Mecca city. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the settings and inputs of Envi-met, including two- and six-directional methods for calculating MRT, shortwave radiation projection factors, Indexed View Sphere (IVS), Advanced Canopy Radiation Transfer (ACRT), and the localization of materials and vegetation. Two statistical metrics (RMSE and MAE) were employed to assess Envi-met’s performance for the two evaluation points. Envi-met produced the best results with the 6-directional, ƒp-RayM (in winter) and ƒp-City (in summer), IVS on and ACRT on mode, and localized soil condition, materials, and vegetation inputs. An analysis of the modeled MRT results illustrated that error magnitudes were decreased significantly as a result of sufficient settings and inputs; for example, RMSE was improved by 2.31 and 8.48 K in the winter and summer open site results, respectively, and by 7.30 K in the summer under-tree site. Overall, the results of winter and summer analyses demonstrate average RMSE of 4.99 K and MAE of 4.02 K. The findings illustrate that substantial enhancement of model performance can be achieved through the use of proper settings and inputs.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12070091
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 92: Quantifying Drought Impacts Based on the
           Reliability–Resiliency–Vulnerability Framework over East
           Africa

    • Authors: Hassen Babaousmail, Brian Odhiambo Ayugi, Zulfiqar Hammad, Donnata Alupot, Kokou Romaric Posset, Richard Mumo, Adharsh Rajasekar
      First page: 92
      Abstract: Drought poses a significant threat to water resources in East Africa, necessitating a comprehensive assessment of its impacts for effective mitigation strategies. This study utilizes two global gridded SPEI datasets to analyze drought characteristics (i.e., frequency, duration, and severity) in East Africa from 1981 to 2021. To estimate the sustainability of water resources over the region, the study employed the Reliability–Resiliency–Vulnerability framework (RRV) that aggregates the drought characteristics (i.e., frequency, duration, and severity). Drought is deemed to have occurred when the SPEI value falls below −1, so the threshold for water demand (RRV) is also computed at a threshold level of −1. The findings indicate pronounced changes in drought patterns across East Africa, with evidence of varying degrees of recovery and resilience in different regions. Employing the RRV framework over the East Africa region to determine how the region can cope with the effects of drought revealed a median range of RRV of 0.61 to 0.80, indicating a sustainable situation during the study period. This indicates that despite the recorded drought incidences, the water catchments of lakes, rivers, and major water towers are not threatened and, thus, less vulnerable. Although certain regions exhibit declining resilience and vulnerability to drought impacts, there is a need for targeted mitigation measures and policy interventions to safeguard water resources.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12070092
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 93: Geospatial Analysis of Flood Susceptibility in
           Nigeria’s Vulnerable Coastal States: A Detailed Assessment and
           Mitigation Strategy Proposal

    • Authors: Bello, Singh, Singh, Pandey, Kumar, Meraj, Kanga, Sajan
      First page: 93
      Abstract: This study employs advanced geospatial analytical techniques to evaluate the vulnerability of Nigeria’s coastal states and their constituent local government areas to flood hazards, which represent a critical and escalating risk within the coastal hazard paradigm intensified by climate change phenomena. The study’s objective is to utilize geospatial data to delineate and quantify the intensity and distribution of flood susceptibility, thus establishing a foundational framework for developing comprehensive disaster management strategies in response to the challenges posed by climate variability. The research uses satellite imagery and geographic information system (GIS)-based hydrological modeling to delineate regions susceptible to flooding, synthesizing topographical and hydrological data to stratify areas into discrete flood susceptibility categories. The findings indicate that the Delta coastal State of Nigeria contains extensive medium to high-risk flood zones spanning 8304.57 km2. While the Bayelsa coastal State of Nigeria presents critical areas at high to very high flood risk, encompassing 5506.61 km2 at high risk and 1826.88 km2 at very high risk, this highlights the urgent necessity for immediate and strategic mitigation measures. This research highlights the critical importance of geospatial technology in shaping disaster management and enhancing community resilience against increasing flood frequencies. As Nigeria’s coastal regions face escalating flood susceptibility, advanced geospatial methods are vital for assessing and mitigating these climate-induced threats, contributing to climate-resilient planning and aligning with Sustainable Development Goal 13: Climate Action. The study’s geospatial approach delivers precise flood risk evaluations and guides targeted mitigation efforts, marking significant progress in managing coastal hazards in a changing climate.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12070093
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 94: Historic Changes and Future Projections in
           Köppen–Geiger Climate Classifications in Major Wine Regions
           Worldwide

    • Authors: Andrade, Fonseca, Santos, Bois, Jones
      First page: 94
      Abstract: A valuable tool for comprehending and characterizing climate patterns on a global scale is the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system. When it comes to wine production, the climate of a region plays an essential role in determining whether specific grape varieties can be cultivated, largely determining the style of wine that can be made, and influencing the consistency of overall wine quality. In this study, the application of the Köppen–Geiger classification system to the latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) experiments has been explored. To establish a baseline for the historical period (1970–2000), the WorldClim dataset was used alongside a selection of an ensemble of 14 Global Climate Models. The evaluation of climate variability across winemaking regions is conducted by considering future climate projections from 2041 to 2060, which are based on different anthropogenic radiative forcing scenarios (Shared Socioeconomic Pathways, SSP2–4.5, and SSP5–8.5). The results are the most comprehensive documentation of both the historical climate classifications for most wine regions worldwide and the potential changes in these classifications in the future. General changes in climate types are projected to occur largely in a significant shift from a warm summer climate to a hot summer climate in temperate and dry zones worldwide (climate types C and B, respectively). This shift poses challenges for grape cultivation and wine production. The grape development process can be significantly affected by high temperatures, which could result in early ripening and changes in the grape berry’s aromatic compounds. As regions transition and experience different climates, wine producers are required to adapt their vineyard management strategies by implementing suitable measures that can effectively counter the detrimental impacts of abiotic stresses on grape quality and vineyard health. These adaptation measures may include changes in canopy and soil management, using different variety-clone-rootstock combinations, adopting irrigation methods, or shifting into other microclimatic zones, among other effective techniques. To ensure long-term sustainability, wine producers must consider the climatic change projections that are specific to their region, allowing them to make more informed decisions about vineyard management practices, reducing risks, and ultimately making the wine industry more resilient and adaptive to the ongoing effects of climate change.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12070094
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 95: Small Municipalities in the Amazon under the
           Risk of Future Climate Change

    • Authors: Everaldo B. de Souza, Brenda C. S. Silva, Emilene M. F. Serra, Melgris J. Becerra Ruiz, Alan C. Cunha, Paulo J. P. O. Souza, Luciano P. Pezzi, Edson J. P. da Rocha, Adriano M. L. Sousa, João de Athaydes Silva, Alexandre M. C. do Carmo, Douglas B. S. Ferreira, Aline M. M. Lima, Flavio A. A dos Santos, Bergson C. Moraes, Maria de L. P. Ruivo, Peter M. Toledo, Tercio Ambrizzi
      First page: 95
      Abstract: The focus of this work is on small municipalities (population below 50 thousand inhabitants) that cover around 87% of the territory of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA). Based on a comprehensive integrated analysis approach using the three components hazard (climate extremes from CMIP6 future scenarios), exposure (directly affected population), and vulnerability (subdimensions of susceptibility and coping/adaptive capacity by using multidimensional indicators), the latter two using current datasets provided by the official Census IBGE 2022, we document a quantitative assessment of the risk R of natural disasters in the BLA region. We evidenced a worrying and imminent intensification of the curve of R in most Amazonian municipalities over the next two 25-year periods. The overall results of the highest proportions of R (total municipalities affected) pointed out the Amazonas, Roraima, Pará, and Maranhão as the main states, presenting projected categories of R high in the near future (2015 to 2039) and very high in the far future (2040 to 2064). The detailed assessment of the susceptibility and coping/adaptive capacity allowed us to elucidate the principal indicators that aggravate the degree of vulnerability: economy, the precariousness of urban infrastructure, medical services, communication, and urban mobility, whose combined factors, unfortunately, reveal a widespread poverty profile along the small Amazonian municipalities. Our scientific findings can assist decision makers in targeted strategies planning and public policies to minimize and mitigate ongoing and future climate change.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12070095
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 96: Global Warming Impacts on Southeast Australian
           Coastally Trapped Southerly Wind Changes

    • Authors: Lance M. Leslie, Milton Speer, Shuang Wang
      First page: 96
      Abstract: Coastally trapped southerly wind changes are prominent during southeast Australia’s warm season (spring and summer). These abrupt, often gale force, wind changes are known locally as Southerly Busters (SBs) when their wind speeds reach 15 m/s. They move northwards along the coast, often producing very large temperature drops. SBs exceeding 21 m/s are severe SBs (SSBs). SBs have both positive and negative impacts. They bring relief from oppressively hot days but can cause destructive wind damage, worsen existing bushfires, and endanger aviation and marine activities. This study assesses the impacts of global warming (GW) and associated climate change on SBs and SSBs, using observational data from 1970 to 2022. Statistical analyses determine significant trends in annual frequency counts of SBs and SSBs, particularly during the accelerated GW period from the early–mid-1990s. It was found that the annual combined count of SBs and SSBs had increased, with SSBs dominating from 1970 to 1995, but SB frequencies exceeded SSBs from 1996 to 2023. The ascendency of SB frequencies over SSBs since 1996 is explained by the impact of GW on changes in global and local circulation patterns. Case studies exemplify how these circulation changes have increased annual frequencies of SBs, SSBs, and their combined total.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12070096
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 97: Shifts in Climatic Influences on Radial Growth
           of Scots Pine in the Central Scandinavian Mountains with an Evident
           Transition in the 1970s

    • Authors: Ulrika Gomm, Emilia Bromfält, Selma Kling, Qiong Zhang
      First page: 97
      Abstract: Radial growth of trees, as reflected by tree ring width, serves as a vital proxy for past climate conditions, offering insights into climate dynamics over centennial and millennial time scales. Traditionally, in the high altitudes and latitudes of the central Scandinavian Mountains, summer temperatures, particularly in July, have significantly influenced the radial growth of Scots pine. This research aims to reassess the climatic determinants of Scots pine radial growth in Jämtland, central Scandinavian Mountains, by incorporating a refined analysis that considers temperature, precipitation, and snow depth, and their correlations with tree growth over time. Using a dynamic moving window heatmap correlation analysis, this study revisits a Scots pine chronology to explore the evolving climatic influences on radial growth. This approach allows for the identification of temporal shifts in growth-limiting factors. We observe a notable transition in the 1970s, marking a shift where water availability, rather than temperature, emerges as a critical limiting factor for radial growth at both the beginning and the end of the growing season. This shift is reflective of the broader global trend of decreasing tree growth response to increasing temperatures in the latter half of the 20th century, underscoring the significant impact of ongoing climate change on forest ecosystems. The results highlight the necessity for adaptive forest management strategies that consider the changing dynamics of climatic influences on tree growth. Furthermore, our study contributes to the broader understanding of forest growth patterns in the face of climate change, with substantial implications for ecological research and forest management.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12070097
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 98: Navigating the Uncertain Terrain:
           Venezuela’s Future Using the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways
           Framework—A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Isaias Lescher Soto, Alicia Villamizar, Barlin O. Olivares, María Eugenia Gutiérrez, Gustavo J. Nagy
      First page: 98
      Abstract: We investigate Venezuela’s potential “futures” under Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) through a systematic literature review, including systematic mapping and thematic analysis of 50 scientific articles. We categorised the SSP scenarios into two generational categories and classified the outcomes into positive, negative, and neutral futures. Under first-generation SSP scenarios, increasing poverty could be reversed, and the country’s economic growth could be stimulated by adopting unambitious climate measures. However, second-generation SSP scenarios paint a more challenging picture. They suggest that Venezuela could face heat waves, droughts, an increase in diseases, loss of biodiversity, and an increase in invasive species and pests during the remainder of the 21st century as a direct consequence of climate change. Venezuela’s geographic and topographic diversity could exacerbate these impacts of climate change. For instance, coastal areas could be at risk of sea-level rise and increased storm surges, while mountainous regions could experience more frequent and intense rainfall, leading to landslides and flash floods. The urgency of conducting additional research on the factors that could influence the severity of climate change’s impact, considering Venezuela’s geographic and topographic diversity, cannot be overstated. We also identified the critical need to explore alternative paths to move away from the current extractive development model. The potential actions in this regard could be instrumental in aligning the country with global adaptation and mitigation commitments.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12070098
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 99: Simulating Climatic Patterns and Their Impacts
           on the Food Security Stability System in Jammu, Kashmir and Adjoining
           Regions, India

    • Authors: Aaqib Ashraf Bhat, Saurabh Kumar Gupta, Suraj Kumar Singh, Gowhar Meraj, Pankaj Kumar, Shruti Kanga, Saurabh Singh, Bhartendu Sajan
      First page: 99
      Abstract: This study investigated the historical climate data and future projections under the SSP5-8.5 scenario for Jammu, Kashmir (J&K), and its adjoining regions in India. Agriculture is a critical economic pillar of this region, making it highly vulnerable to climate change. This study focused on temperature and precipitation trends. Statistical analysis and modeling methods, including cloud computing, were employed to predict changes and assess their impact on agricultural productivity and water resources. The results indicated that by 2100, the mean maximum and minimum temperatures are projected to increase by approximately 2.90 °C and 2.86 °C, respectively. Precipitation variability is expected to rise, with a mean increase of 2.64 × 10−6 mm per day. These changes have significant consequences for crop yield, water stress, and ecosystem dynamics. An analysis of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) as a proxy for agricultural productivity using linear regression revealed a concerning trend. Although the total GPP of the study area remained stable over time, it declined by −570 g yr−1 in 2010, coinciding with a 1 °C temperature rise. Projections based on the expected 3 °C temperature increase by 2100 suggest a total GPP loss of −2500 g yr−1. These findings highlight the urgent need for proactive adaptation measures, including sustainable agricultural practices, improved water management, and enhanced socioeconomic infrastructure, to mitigate the impact of climate change and ensure long-term resilience and food security in the region.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12070099
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 100: Taking Stock of Recent Progress in Livelihood
           Vulnerability Assessments to Climate Change in the Developing World

    • Authors: Atoofa Zainab, Kalim U. Shah
      First page: 100
      Abstract: Over the past few decades, the use of vulnerability assessments has grown substantially to support rural communities in developing countries. These studies aim to help these communities achieve their livelihood goals, such as sustainable resource use and adaptation to global changes, by evaluating their susceptibility to climate change impacts. This systematic review critically examines the extensive body of literature on Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) assessments related to climate change impacts in developing countries. By synthesizing findings from various studies, this review highlights patterns and methodologies used to understand the effects of climate change on vulnerable populations. Key focus areas include geographical distribution, methodological approaches, and the frameworks utilized in vulnerability assessments. The review identifies prominent frameworks, such as the LVI and LVI-IPCC, which integrate indicators of sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity to evaluate climate risks. Findings reveal a concentration of studies in Asia and Africa, with a strong emphasis on agricultural and coastal ecosystems. Methodologically, there is a notable reliance on stratified random sampling to accurately capture community and household-level vulnerabilities. A detailed comparative analysis of the LVI, LVI-IPCC, and Sustainable Livelihood Framework (SLF) is also presented, highlighting their characteristics, benefits, and limitations. The review underscores the need for methodological refinements to better address temporal and regional variations in vulnerability. It concludes with recommendations for future research, integrating broader climate scenarios, exploring sectoral interdependencies, and adopting dynamic approaches to enhance the accuracy and applicability of vulnerability assessments.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12070100
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 101: An Analysis of Romania’s Energy
           Strategy: Perspectives and Developments since 2020

    • Authors: Alexandru-Mihai Bulmez, Alin-Ionuț Brezeanu, George Dragomir, Ovidiu-Mircea Talabă, Gabriel Năstase
      First page: 101
      Abstract: Earth’s climate cannot be ignored any longer. Policies are vital in order to mitigate the negative effects of climate change. The energy crisis created by the Russo-Ukrainian war in Europe and COVID-19 pandemic affected the EU and its member states. The focus is more than ever on its energy policies and independence. The EU revised the energy strategy in response to the regional conflict, and it sped up all the processes for energetic independence from other countries outside of the EU. This benefited the climate change policies the most, as all the measures involved reducing energy consumption and increasing renewables, thus contributing to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. As a member state of the EU, Romania is committed to complying with EU regulations. With a high degree of energy independence compared with the other EU members, Romania plans to become a regional energy provider and modernize the energy infrastructure internally as a response to the regional conflict. The measures that the EU and Romania implemented after the conflict started in 2022 have come to fruition, and the effects are becoming visible a year later. This study aims to study the energy strategy of Romania in correlation with the EU strategy in the turbulent period of pandemics and conflict between 2019 and 2023, with the latest available data.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12070101
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 102: Auto-Machine-Learning Models for Standardized
           Precipitation Index Prediction in North–Central Mexico

    • Authors: Rafael Magallanes-Quintanar, Carlos E. Galván-Tejada, Jorge Isaac Galván-Tejada, Hamurabi Gamboa-Rosales, Santiago de Jesús Méndez-Gallegos, Antonio García-Domínguez
      First page: 102
      Abstract: Certain impacts of climate change could potentially be linked to alterations in rainfall patterns, including shifts in rainfall intensity or drought occurrences. Hence, predicting droughts can provide valuable assistance in mitigating the detrimental consequences associated with water scarcity, particularly in agricultural areas or densely populated urban regions. Employing predictive models to calculate drought indices can be a useful method for the effective characterization of drought conditions. This study applied an Auto-Machine-Learning approach to deploy Artificial Neural Network models, aiming to predict the Standardized Precipitation Index in four regions of Zacatecas, Mexico. Climatological time-series data spanning from 1979 to 2020 were utilized as predictive variables. The best models were found using performance metrics that yielded a Mean Squared Error, Mean Absolute Error, and Coefficient of Determination ranging from 0.0296 to 0.0388, 0.1214 to 0.1355, and 0.9342 to 0.9584, respectively, for the regions under study. As a result, the Auto-Machine-Learning approach successfully developed and tested Artificial Neural Network models that exhibited notable predictive capabilities when estimating the monthly Standardized Precipitation Index within the study region.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12070102
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 77: Precipitation Extremes and Trends over the
           Uruguay River Basin in Southern South America

    • Authors: Vanessa Ferreira, Osmar Toledo Bonfim, Rafael Maroneze, Luca Mortarini, Roilan Hernandez Valdes, Felipe Denardin Costa
      First page: 77
      Abstract: This study analyzes the spatial distribution and trends in five extreme daily rainfall indices in the Uruguay River Basin (URB) from 1993 to 2022 using the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) dataset. The main findings reveal a predominantly positive trend in heavy precipitation (R95p) and extreme precipitation (R99p) events over the mid URB, while a negative trend is observed in the upper and low URB. Significant trends in the frequency of heavy and extreme rainfall were observed during autumn (MAM), with positive trends across most of the mid and upper URB and negative trends in the low URB. In the upper URB, negative trends in the frequency of extremes were also found during spring (SON) and summer (DJF). Overall, there was a reduction in the number of consecutive wet days (CWD), particularly significant in the upper URB and the northern half of the mid URB. Additionally, the upper URB experienced an overall increase in the duration of consecutive dry days (CDD).
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12060077
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 78: Applying Machine Learning in Numerical Weather
           and Climate Modeling Systems

    • Authors: Vladimir Krasnopolsky
      First page: 78
      Abstract: In this paper major machine learning (ML) tools and the most important applications developed elsewhere for numerical weather and climate modeling systems (NWCMS) are reviewed. NWCMSs are briefly introduced. The most important papers published in this field in recent years are reviewed. The advantages and limitations of the ML approach in applications to NWCMS are briefly discussed. Currently, this field is experiencing explosive growth. Several important papers are published every week. Thus, this paper should be considered as a simple introduction to the problem.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12060078
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 79: Numerical Modeling of Atmospheric Temperature
           and Stratospheric Ozone Sensitivity to Sea Surface Temperature Variability
           

    • Authors: Sergei P. Smyshlyaev, Andrew R. Jakovlev, Vener Ya Galin
      First page: 79
      Abstract: The results of numerical experiments with a chemistry–climate model of the lower and middle atmosphere are presented to study the sensitivity of the polar stratosphere of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres to sea surface temperature (SST) variability, both as a result of interannual variability associated with the Southern Oscillation, and because of long-term increases in SST under global warming. An analysis of the results of model experiments showed that for both scenarios of SST changes, the response of the polar stratosphere for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres is very different. In the Arctic, during the El Niño phase, conditions are created for the polar vortex to become less stable, and in the Antarctic, on the contrary, for it to become more stable, which is expressed in a weakening of the zonal wind in the winter in the Arctic and its increase in the Antarctic, followed by a spring decrease in temperature and concentration of ozone in the Antarctic and their increase in the Arctic. Global warming creates a tendency for the polar vortex to weaken in winter in the Arctic and strengthen it in the Antarctic. As a result, in the Antarctic, the concentration of ozone in the polar stratosphere decreases both in winter (June–August) and, especially, in spring (September–November). Global warming may hinder ozone recovery which is expected as a result of the reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances. The model results demonstrate the dominant influence of Brewer–Dobson circulation variability on temperature and ozone in the polar stratosphere compared with changes in wave activity, both with changes in SST in the Southern Oscillation and with increases in SST due to global warming.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12060079
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 80: Assessment of Rural Flood Risk and Factors
           Influencing Household Flood Risk Perception in the Haut-Bassins Region of
           Burkina Faso, West Africa

    • Authors: Madou Sougué, Bruno Merz, Amadé Nacanabo, Gnibga Issoufou Yangouliba, Ibrahima Pouye, Jean Mianikpo Sogbedji, François Zougmoré
      First page: 80
      Abstract: In the past two decades, several floods have affected people and their properties in Burkina Faso, with unprecedented flooding occurring in Ouagadougou in September 2009. So far, most studies have focused on Ouagadougou and surrounding localities and have paid little attention to other flood-prone regions in Burkina Faso. Consequently, there is a data and knowledge gap regarding flood risk in the Haut-Bassins region, which in turn hinders the development of mitigation strategies and risk reduction measures in affected communities. This study demonstrates how data collected at the household level can be used to understand flood risk and its components at the village level in this data-scarce region. Using an indicator-based method, we analyzed both flood risk and flood risk perception at the village level. Moreover, we determined the factors influencing flood risk perception at the household level using an ordered logit model. We found that 12 out of the 14 villages in our sample group had experienced high levels of flood risk. The management of runoff from the nearest urban areas as well as poorly designed civil engineering infrastructures, such as roads, were highlighted by households as significant factors that increased their vulnerability. Additionally, we found that the perceived flood risk consistently exceeds the estimated flood risk, with an insignificant positive correlation between both risk indices. Regression results indicate that flood risk perception is mainly influenced by informational and behavioral factors of households. The findings of this study can provide valuable information to municipal and regional authorities involved in disaster risk management within the study area. Moreover, our/this method is transferable to other data-scarce regions.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12060080
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 81: Beyond the First Tipping Points of Southern
           Hemisphere Climate

    • Authors: Terence J. O’Kane, Jorgen S. Frederiksen, Carsten S. Frederiksen, Illia Horenko
      First page: 81
      Abstract: Analysis of observations, reanalysis, and model simulations, including those using machine learning methods specifically designed for regime identification, has revealed changes in aspects of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) circulation and Australian climate and extremes over the last half-century that indicate transitions to new states. In particular, our analysis shows a dramatic shift in the metastability of the SH climate that occurred in the late 1970s, associated with a large-scale regime transition in the SH atmospheric circulation, with systematic changes in the subtropical jet, blocking, zonal winds, and storm tracks. Analysis via nonstationary clustering reveals a regime shift coincident with a sharp transition to warmer oceanic sea surface temperatures and increased baroclinicity in the large scales of the Antarctic Circumpolar Circulation (ACC), extending across the whole hemisphere. At the same time, the background state of the tropical Pacific thermocline shoaled, leading to an increased likelihood of El Niño events. The SH climate shift in the late 1970s is the first hemispheric regime shift that can be directly attributed to anthropogenic climate change. These changes in dynamics are associated with additional regional tipping points, including reductions in mean and extreme rainfall in south-west Western Australia (SWWA) and streamflow into Perth dams, and also with increases in mean and extreme rainfall over northern Australia since the late 1970s. The drying of south-eastern Australia (SEA) occurred against a background of accelerating increases in average and extreme temperatures across the whole continent since the 1990s, implying further inflection points may have occurred. Analysis of climate model simulations capturing the essence of these observed shifts indicates that these systematic changes will continue into the late 21st century under high greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Here, we review two decades of work, revealing for the first time that tipping points characteristic of regime transitions are inferred to have already occurred in the SH climate system.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12060081
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 82: Assessment of the Vulnerability of Households
           Led by Men and Women to the Impacts of Climate-Related Natural Disasters
           in the Coastal Areas of Myanmar and Vietnam

    • Authors: Aung Tun Oo, Ame Cho, Dao Duy Minh
      First page: 82
      Abstract: Farm households along the coastlines of Myanmar and Vietnam are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding, saltwater intrusion, and rising sea levels. There is little information available on the relative vulnerability of men- and women-headed households, and the governments of Myanmar and Vietnam have not identified or implemented any adaptive measures aimed specifically at vulnerable peoples. This study aims to fill these gaps and assess the relative climate change vulnerability of men- and women-headed farm households. This study considers 599 farm households from two regions of Myanmar and 300 households from Thua Thien Hue province of Vietnam for the period 2021–2022. We offer a livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) analysis of men- and women-headed farm households using 46 indicators arranged into seven major components. The aggregate LVI scores indicate that farm households in Myanmar are more vulnerable (scores of 0.459 for men and 0.476 for women) to climate-related natural disasters than farm households in Vietnam (scores of 0.288 for men and 0.292 for women), regardless of the gender of the head of household. Total vulnerability indexing scores indicate that women-headed households are more vulnerable than men-headed households in both countries. Poor adaptive capacity and highly sensitive LVI dimensional scores explain the greater vulnerability of women-headed farm households. The findings also highlight the importance of the adaptive capacity components reflected in the LVI analysis in reducing farm households’ vulnerability.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12060082
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 83: The Added Value of Statistical Seasonal
           Forecasts

    • Authors: Folmer Krikken, Gertie Geertsema, Kristian Nielsen, Alberto Troccoli
      First page: 83
      Abstract: Seasonal climate predictions can assist with timely preparations for extreme episodes, such as dry or wet periods that have associated additional risks of droughts, fires and challenges for water management. Timely warnings for extreme warm summers or cold winters can aid in preparing for increased energy demand. We analyse seasonal forecasts produced by three different methods: (1) a multi-linear statistical forecasting system based on observations only; (2) a non-linear random forest model based on observations only; and (3) process-based dynamical forecast models. The statistical model is an empirical system based on multiple linear regression that is extended to include the trend over the previous 3 months in the predictors, and overfitting is further reduced by using an intermediate multiple linear regression model. This results in a significantly improved El Niño forecast skill, specifically in spring. Also, the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) index forecast skill shows improvements, specifically in the summer and autumn months. A hybrid multi-model ensemble is constructed by combining the three forecasting methods. The different methods are used to produce seasonal forecasts (three-month means) for near-surface air temperature and monthly accumulated precipitation seasonal forecast with a lead time of one month. We find numerous regions with added value compared with multi-model ensembles based on dynamical models only. For instance, for June, July and August temperatures, added value is observed in extensive parts of both Northern and Southern America, as well as Europe.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12060083
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 84: Atmospheric Blocking Events over the Southeast
           Pacific and Southwest Atlantic Oceans in the CMIP6 Present-Day Climate

    • Authors: Vanessa Ferreira, Osmar Toledo Bonfim, Luca Mortarini, Roilan Hernandez Valdes, Felipe Denardin Costa, Rafael Maroneze
      First page: 84
      Abstract: This study examines the representation of blocking events in the Southeast Pacific and Southwest Atlantic regions using a set of 13 global climate models from phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). Historical runs were employed to analyze blocking conditions in the recent past climate, spanning from 1985 to 2014, with ERA5 data utilized to represent observed blocking events. The majority of CMIP6 models underestimate the total number of blocking events in the Southeast Pacific. The MPI–ESM1–2–HR and MPI–ESM1–2–LR models come closest to replicating the number of blocking events observed in ERA5, with underestimations of approximately −10% and −9%, respectively. Nonetheless, these models successfully capture the seasonality and overall duration of blocking events, as well as accurately represent the position of blocking heights over the Southeast Pacific. Conversely, CMIP6 models perform poorly in representing blocking climatology in the Southwest Atlantic. These models both overestimate and underestimate the total number of blocking events by more than 25% compared to ERA5. Furthermore, they struggle to reproduce the seasonal distribution of blockings and face challenges in accurately representing the duration of blocking events observed in ERA5.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12060084
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 85: Decarbonising the EU Buildings Model-Based
           Insights from European Countries

    • Authors: Theofano Fotiou, Panagiotis Fragkos, Eleftheria Zisarou
      First page: 85
      Abstract: The European Union faces the pressing challenge of decarbonising the buildings sector to meet its climate neutrality goal by 2050. Buildings are significant contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, primarily through energy consumption for heating and cooling. This study uses the advanced PRIMES-BuiMo model to develop state-of-the-art innovative pathways and strategies to decarbonise the EU buildings sector, providing insights into energy consumption patterns, renovation rates and equipment replacement dynamics in the EU and in two representative Member States, Sweden and Greece. The model-based analysis shows that the EU’s transition towards climate neutrality requires significant investment in energy efficiency of buildings combined with decarbonisation of the fuel mix, mostly through the uptake of electric heat pumps replacing the use of fossil fuels. The Use Case also demonstrates that targeted policy interventions considering the national context and specificities are required to ensure an efficient and sustainable transition to zero-emission buildings. The analysis of transformational strategies in Greece and Sweden provides an improved understanding of the role of country-specific characteristics on policy effectiveness so as to inform more targeted and contextually appropriate approaches to decarbonise the buildings sector across the EU.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12060085
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 86: Homogenization of the Long Instrumental
           Daily-Temperature Series in Padua, Italy (1725–2023)

    • Authors: Claudio Stefanini, Francesca Becherini, Antonio della Valle, Dario Camuffo
      First page: 86
      Abstract: The Padua temperature series is one of the longest in the world, as daily observations started in 1725 and have continued almost unbroken to the present. Previous works recovered readings from the original logs, and digitalized and corrected observations from errors due to instruments, calibrations, sampling times and exposure. However, the series underwent some changes (location, elevation, observing protocols, and different averaging methods) that affected the homogeneity between sub-series. The aim of this work is to produce a homogenized temperature series for Padua, starting from the results of previous works, and connecting all the periods available. The homogenization of the observations has been carried out with respect to the modern era. A newly released paleo-reanalysis dataset, ModE-RA, is exploited to connect the most ancient data to the recent ones. In particular, the following has been carried out: the 1774–2023 daily mean temperature has been homogenized to the modern data; for the first time, the daily values of 1765–1773 have been merged and homogenized; and the daily observations of the 1725–1764 period have been connected and homogenized to the rest of the series. Snowfall observations, extracted from the same logs from which the temperatures were retrieved, help to verify the robustness of the homogenization procedure by looking at the temperature frequency distribution on snowy days, before and after the correction. The possibility of adding new measurements with no need to apply transformations or homogenization procedures makes it very easy to update the time series and make it immediately available for climate change analysis.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12060086
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 87: Analysing the Transformative Changes of
           Nationally Determined Contributions and Long-Term Targets

    • Authors: Panagiotis Fragkos, Dirk-Jan van de Ven, Russell Horowitz, Eleftheria Zisarou
      First page: 87
      Abstract: As the imperative to address climate change intensifies, understanding the effectiveness of policy interventions becomes paramount. In the context of addressing these urgent challenges and given the inadequacy of current policies to address this issue, this study examines the extent to which Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and Long-Term Targets (LTTs) can contribute to achieving ambitious climate goals. Recognizing the critical need for effective climate action, we employ the advanced modelling tools PROMETHEUS and GCAM to assess the implications of different scenarios–Current Policies (CP), Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC), and combination of NDCs with Long-Term Targets (NDC_LTT)–on the future development of energy system and emission. This study, by employing these well-known models, seeks to provide an improved understanding of the impacts of NDCs on global emission trajectories and whether the integration of NDCs and LTTs can help close the gap towards Paris-compatible pathways. The study analyzes various sectors including buildings, transportation, electricity generation, and industry to provide insights into the limitations of existing policies and the potential of enhanced commitments to drive transformative changes in a global scale. The effectiveness of these policies varies across different sectors, highlighting the challenges that need to be addressed for achieving the required emission reduction targets in the medium- and long-term. Key findings indicate significant shifts in energy consumption, fuel mix, technology adoption, and emission trajectories, particularly under the synergistic action represented by the NDC_LTT scenario.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12060087
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 88: Long-Term Energy System Modelling for a Clean
           Energy Transition and Improved Energy Security in Botswana’s Energy
           Sector Using the Open-Source Energy Modelling System

    • Authors: Ranea Saad, Fernando Plazas-Niño, Carla Cannone, Rudolf Yeganyan, Mark Howells, Hannah Luscombe
      First page: 88
      Abstract: This research examines Botswana’s significant reliance on coal and imported fossil fuels for electricity generation, contributing to high carbon emissions and energy insecurity influenced by volatile fuel prices and supply challenges. The study utilizes the Open-Source Energy Modelling System (OSeMOSYS) to explore cost-effective renewable energy strategies to meet Botswana’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and enhance energy security by 2050, analysing six scenarios: Least Cost (LC), Business-As-Usual (BAU), Net Zero by 2050 (NZ), Coal Phase Out by 2045 (CPO), Fossil Fuel Phase Out by 2045 (FFPO), and Import Phase Out by 2045 (IMPPO). Our key findings highlight the critical role of solar technologies—photovoltaic (PV), storage, and concentrated solar power (CSP)—in transitioning to a sustainable energy future, especially under the Net Zero and Import Phase Out scenarios. This research demonstrates the economic and environmental benefits of transitioning away from fossil fuels, with the Fossil Fuel Phase Out scenario yielding a USD 31 million saving over the Business-As-Usual approach and reducing investment costs by USD 2 billion, albeit with a slight increase in light fuel oil imports. The study underscores the need for substantial capital investments, particularly in the Net Zero and Import Phase Out scenarios, necessitating private sector financing. Policy recommendations include adopting detailed strategies for solar PV and storage expansion, updating renewable energy targets, phasing out coal and natural gas, and bolstering the regulatory framework. These strategies are crucial for Botswana to achieve decarbonization and energy independence, aligning with global climate goals and national energy security objectives.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12060088
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 57: Climate Change in Rural Australia: Natural
           Hazard Preparedness and Recovery Needs of a Rural Community

    • Authors: Caitlin E. Pike, Amy D. Lykins, Warren Bartik, Phillip J. Tully, Suzanne M. Cosh
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Climate change has resulted in a worldwide increase in intensity and frequency of extreme weather events including bushfires. Previous research has shown that communities often do not engage in disaster preparedness, even when sufficient education and resources are provided. With the projected increase in natural disasters, preparedness is paramount, and more research is needed to gain an understanding into what impacts community preparedness in the face of climate change. This study investigated one rural Australian community’s preparedness for the 2019–2020 bushfires. Thirteen Australian adults who resided within a small rural community in New South Wales during the 2019–2020 bushfires participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Participants reported being unprepared for the 2019–2020 bushfires and that the community has started to prepare for future bushfires. However, they also described a belief in ‘climate cycles’ rather than climate change, limiting engagement in preparedness for future hazards. Participants also reported that they did not talk about the 2019–2020 bushfires, although described experiencing residual anxiety. Recommendations included support needed for rural communities to help with future preparedness efforts and mental health symptoms.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12050057
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 58: Adapting to Climate Change in Vulnerable
           Areas: Farmers’ Perceptions in the Punjab, Pakistan

    • Authors: Faisal Nadeem, Brent Jacobs, Dana Cordell
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Climate variability and change pose a substantial threat to agricultural practices and livelihoods in the Punjab province of Pakistan, a region of agricultural significance in South Asia. In particular, farmers residing in vulnerable parts of Punjab will be affected by a combination of high exposure to the impacts of climate events, the innate sensitivity of agricultural systems, and constraints on farmers’ adaptive capacity. The situation requires closer engagement with vulnerable farming communities of Punjab to assess their vulnerability and build their capacity for adaptation actions. Through qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with farmers from four highly vulnerable districts of Punjab (Rajanpur, Muzaffargarh, Chakwal, Dera Ghazi Khan), we explored farmers’ perceptions of climate change, their adaptation strategies, and enablers and limitations on adaptation options imposed by the enabling environment. We found issues around water governance, knowledge exchange, and market arrangements for crops as key limitations to farmers’ local adaptation action in highly resource-constrained settings. Moreover, the results indicated the need to address equity issues for small-scale compared to large-scale farmers. Farmers valued their experience-based local knowledge and peer-to-peer sharing networks as pivotal resources in pursuit of their practice-based learning. The research findings highlighted the necessity of directed institutional assistance to empower adaptation by vulnerable small-scale farmers. This study emphasizes the critical significance of the enabling environment that facilitates vulnerable farmers to implement adaptation strategies, thereby promoting the adoption of Vulnerable-Smart Agriculture.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12050058
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 59: The Effectiveness of Climate Adaptation
           Finance and Readiness on Vulnerability in African Economies

    • Authors: Purity Maina, Anett Parádi-Dolgos
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Addressing climate vulnerability remains a priority for economies globally. This study used the panel-corrected standard error (PCSE) methodology to investigate the impact of adaptation financing on climate vulnerability. This analysis examined 52 African countries from 2012 to 2021 while considering their climate adaptation readiness. The impact was also assessed based on the Human Development Index (HDI) categories to reflect different levels of development. The findings showed that adaptation finance considerably influenced climate vulnerability reduction in Africa, particularly in nations with a moderate HDI. However, most countries still need higher levels of adaptation financing, resulting in a small impact on vulnerability reduction. Furthermore, the impact of readiness measures differed by HDI category. Economic and social climate readiness strongly impacted climate vulnerability in high-HDI nations, but governance preparedness was more critical in low-HDI countries. Based on the empirical facts, two policy proposals emerge. First, it is critical to reconsider the distribution of adaptation financing to reduce disparities and effectively alleviate climate vulnerability. Moreover, African economies should consider implementing innovative localized financing mechanisms to mobilize extra adaptation finance. Second, African governments should customize climate readiness interventions based on their HDI levels to improve the achievement of a positive impact on climate vulnerability.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12050059
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 60: Conceptualising the Link between Citizen
           Science and Climate Governance: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Gloria Freschi, Marialuisa Menegatto, Adriano Zamperini
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Multilevel and decentralised governance approaches involving different social actors are increasingly relevant to collectively tackling climate-induced vulnerabilities. Among emergent governance experimentations, citizen science (CS) is a transversal scientific practice characterised by the involvement of citizens in various phases of the scientific process. We performed a PRISMA systematic review of the scientific literature in order to conceptualise the interface between CS and climate governance. The included 44 studies were coded following the thematic analysis method. Information about temporal and geographical distribution, main research designs and methods, climate governance domains and levels of analysis was extracted. Among the most significant results, we stress the existence of a two-way link between CS and climate governance: CS beyond data gathering can facilitate climate change adaptation—namely, counteracting disaster risk, food insecurity and mental health distress due to changing climate, promoting health and wellbeing, and environmental conservation—until systemic changes are made. Conversely, inclusive governance structures and processes may provide support to initiate CS projects. We also discuss the role of psychosocial and justice issues—as well as digital CS—throughout the selected literature, and the implications for future lines of research and policy.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12050060
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 61: A Critical Analysis of Morocco’s Green
           Hydrogen Roadmap: A Modelling Approach to Assess Country Readiness from
           the Energy Trilemma Perspective

    • Authors: Amandine Caillard, Rudolf Yeganyan, Carla Cannone, Fernando Plazas-Niño, Mark Howells
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Morocco, despite its heavy reliance on imported fossil fuels, which made up 68% of electricity generation in 2020, has recognised its significant renewable energy potential. The Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) commitment is to reduce emissions by 45.5% from baseline levels with international assistance and abstain from constructing new coal plants. Moreover, the Green Hydrogen Roadmap aims to export 10 TWh of green hydrogen by 2030, as well as use it for local electricity storage. This paper critically analyses this Roadmap and Morocco’s readiness to reach its ambitious targets, focusing specifically on an energy trilemma perspective and using OSeMOSYS (Open-Source energy Modelling System) for energy modelling. The results reveal that the NDC scenario is only marginally more expensive than the least-cost scenario, at around 1.3% (approximately USD 375 million), and facilitates a 23.32% emission reduction by 2050. An important note is the continued reliance on existing coal power plants across all scenarios, which challenges both energy security and emissions. The assessment of the Green Hydrogen Scenarios highlights that it could be too costly for the Moroccan government to fund the Green Hydrogen Roadmap at this scale, which leads to increased imports of polluting fossil fuels for cost reduction. In fact, the emission levels are 39% higher in the green hydrogen exports scenario than in the least-cost scenario. Given these findings, it is recommended that the Green Hydrogen Roadmap be re-evaluated, with a suggestion for a postponement and reduction in scope.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12050061
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 62: Perception and Reality: How the Depths of the
           High Waters in Venice Apparently Change with the Reference System

    • Authors: Dario Camuffo
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Over the centuries, the depths of the most severe storm surges that have flooded Venice have been measured using different reference frames, i.e., related to the algae belt (CM), mean sea level (MSL), local land (ZMPS), large-scale leveling (IGM), and satellite altimetry (SA). Some reference frames, i.e., IGM and SA, are absolute, while the others are relative and represent two different physical points of view, i.e., CM and MSL refer to the sea that is rising and ZMPS refers to the land that is subsiding. The perceptions derived from the different systems are contradictory. This paper discusses and compares surges from 1821 to 2021 measured with these frames, also including the commemorative plaques that report the flood depths on walls in Venice. The paper explains the consequences of a change in frame and zero reference, and it transforms the flooding depths from the original systems to make them homogeneous. The severity of flooding changes in terms of rating with the choice of frame. In the 19th century, five storm surges exceeded the famous level of 1966 and, if they were to recur today or in the future, the sea level rise and the local land subsidence that have occurred in the meantime would greatly exacerbate the situation.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12050062
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 63: Investigating Road Ice Formation Mechanisms
           Using Road Weather Information System (RWIS) Observations

    • Authors: Menglin Jin, Douglas G. McBroom
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Ice formation on roads leads to a higher incidence of accidents and increases winter de-icing/anti-icing costs. This study analyzed 3 years (2019–2021) of Road Weather Information System (RWIS) sub-hourly measurements collected by the Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) to understand the first-order factors of road ice formation and its mechanisms. First, road ice is formed only when the road pavement surface temperature is equal to or below the freezing point (i.e., 32 °F (i.e., 0 °C)), while the corresponding 2 m air temperature could be above 32 °F. Nevertheless, when the road pavement was below 32 °F ice often did not form on the roads. Therefore, one challenge is to know under what conditions road ice forms. Second, the pavement surface temperature is critical for road ice formation. The clear road (i.e., with no ice or snow) surface pavement temperature is generally warmer than the air temperature during both day and night. This feature is different from a natural land surface, where the land skin temperature is lower than the air temperature on cloud-free nights due to radiative cooling. Third, subsurface temperature, measured using a RWIS subsurface sensor below a road surface, did not vary as much as the pavement temperature and, thus, may not be a good index for road ice formation. Fourth, urban heat island effects lead to black ice formation more frequently than roads located in other regions. Fifth, evaporative cooling from the water surface near a road segment further reduces the outlying air temperature, a mechanism that increases heat loss for bridges or lake-side roads in addition to radiative cooling. Additionally, mechanical lifting via mountains and hills is also an efficient mechanism that makes the air condense and, consequently, form ice on the roads. Forecasting road ice formation is in high demand for road safety. These observed features may help to develop a road ice physical model consisting of functions of hyper-local weather conditions, local domain knowledge, the road texture, and geographical environment.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12050063
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 64: Evapotranspiration Analysis in Central Italy:
           A Combined Trend and Clustering Approach

    • Authors: Fabio Di Nunno, Nazzareno Diodato, Gianni Bellocchi, Carla Tricarico, Giovanni de Marinis, Francesco Granata
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Climate change is increasingly influencing the water cycle, hindering the effective management of water resources in various sectors. Lazio, central Italy, exhibits a wide range of climatic conditions, stretching from the Tyrrhenian coast to the Apennines. This study assessed a crucial aspect of climate change, focusing specifically on reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and its associated hydrological variables. The seasonal Mann–Kendall (MK) test was used to assess trends in gridded data. The K-means algorithm was then applied to divide Lazio into four homogeneous regions (clusters), each characterized by distinct trends in hydrological variables. The analysis revealed statistically significant increasing trends (p ≤ 0.01) in temperature, solar radiation, and ETo, with more marked effects observed in the coastal and hilly clusters. In contrast, statistically significant decreasing trends (p ≤ 0.01) were observed for relative humidity, while no statistically significant trends (p > 0.01) were observed for precipitation. This study’s methodology, combining trend analysis and clustering, provides a comprehensive view of ETo dynamics in Lazio, aiding in pattern recognition and identifying regions with similar trends.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12050064
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 65: A Survey of African Weather and Climate
           Extremes

    • Authors: Mark R. Jury
      First page: 65
      Abstract: A survey of African weather and climate extremes in the period 1970–2023 reveals spatial and temporal patterns of intense dry and wet spells, associated with meteorological conditions and consequences. Seasonal wind storms occur along coasts facing the Mozambique Channel, the Gulf of Guinea, the Mediterranean, and the Southern Ocean. Desiccating evaporation is found along the edge of the Sahara and Kalahari Deserts, as well as in lowland subtropical river valleys. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and net outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) reflect precipitation–evaporation balance and guide regional evaluation. Temporal fluctuations are dominated by inter-decadal oscillations and drying/moistening trends over Southeast/West Africa, respectively. Localized floods and droughts are frequent, but widespread impacts are rare, suggesting that the transfer of resources from surplus to deficit regions is possible. Various case studies focus on (i) tropical cyclone impacts, (ii) monsoon moisture flux, and (iii) coastal upwelling. African communities have become resilient in the face of extreme weather and have shown that adaptation is possible, but further mitigating efforts are needed so that macro-economic progress does not come with harmful secondary consequences.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12050065
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 66: Developing a Drought Resilience Matrix to
           Evaluate Water Supply Alternatives

    • Authors: Krystal Okpa, Zeinab Farahmandfar, Masoud Negahban-Azar
      First page: 66
      Abstract: Cities around the world are facing increased sensitivity to drought effects. Climate-change-induced drought affects not only the natural hydrology of the broad macroclimate but also those in the urban microclimates. The increasing frequency and duration of droughts are creating challenges for urban water utilities to convey water through distribution systems to customers reliably and consistently. This has led many urban areas like San Francisco, California, to search for unique alternative water supply projects to help bolster the drought resilience of the coupled human and natural water system. This paper focuses on applying the features of resilience (i.e., plan, adapt, absorb, and recover) through a drought resilience matrix to water supply alternatives to analyze how the addition of these projects would increase the overall water system’s drought resilience. San Francisco, California, was used as the case study to test the use of this matrix. Three portfolios (modifying existing supply, recycling, and desalination, as well as local approaches) were created and tested in the matrix. Each portfolio is composed of various alternative water supply projects that the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) is considering for implementation. Results concluded that the local approaches portfolio provided the most drought resilience, with the recycling and desalination portfolio providing the least resilience. The study approach and the presented findings will provide guidance to water utility professionals in supply planning to enhance drought resilience.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12050066
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 67: Two Decades of Integrated Flood Management:
           Status, Barriers, and Strategies

    • Authors: Neil S. Grigg
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Losses from flood disasters are increasing globally due to climate-driven forces and human factors such as migration and land use changes. The risks of such floods involve multiple factors and stakeholders, and frameworks for integrated approaches have attracted a global community of experts. The paper reviews the knowledge base for integrated flood risk management frameworks, including more than twenty bibliometric reviews of their elements. The knowledge base illustrates how integrated strategies for the reduction of flood risk are required at different scales and involve responses ranging from climate and weather studies to the construction of infrastructure, as well as collective action for community resilience. The Integrated Flood Management framework of the Associated Programme on Flood Management of the World Meteorological Organization was developed more than twenty years ago and is explained in some detail, including how it fits within the Integrated Water Resources Management concept that is managed by the Global Water Partnership. The paper reviews the alignment of the two approaches and how they can be used in tandem to reduce flood losses. Success of both integrated management approaches depends on governance and institutional capacity as well as technological advances. The knowledge base for flood risk management indicates how technologies are advancing, while more attention must be paid to social and environmental concerns, as well as government measures to increase participation, awareness, and preparedness. Ultimately, integrated flood management will involve solutions tailored for individual situations, and implementation may be slow, such that perseverance and political commitment will be needed.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12050067
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 68: Climate Risks and Stock Market Volatility over
           a Century in an Emerging Market Economy: The Case of South Africa

    • Authors: Kejin Wu, Sayar Karmakar, Rangan Gupta, Christian Pierdzioch
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Because climate change broadcasts a large aggregate risk to the overall macroeconomy and the global financial system, we investigate how a temperature anomaly and/or its volatility affect the accuracy of forecasts of stock return volatility. To this end, we do not apply only the classical GARCH and GARCHX models, but rather we apply newly proposed model-free prediction methods, and use GARCH-NoVaS and GARCHX-NoVaS models to compute volatility predictions. These two models are based on a normalizing and variance-stabilizing transformation (NoVaS transformation) and are guided by a so-called model-free prediction principle. Applying the new models to data for South Africa, we find that climate-related information is helpful in forecasting stock return volatility. Moreover, the novel model-free prediction method can incorporate such exogenous information better than the classical GARCH approach, as revealed by the the squared prediction errors. More importantly, the forecast comparison test reveals that the advantage of applying exogenous information related to climate risks in prediction of the South African stock return volatility is significant over a century of monthly data (February 1910–February 2023). Our findings have important implications for academics, investors, and policymakers.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12050068
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 69: Were the 2022 Summer Heatwaves a Strong Cause
           of Europe’s Excess Deaths'

    • Authors: Jarle Aarstad
      First page: 69
      Abstract: During the 2022 summer, Europe experienced heatwaves with record temperatures, and a study has argued that they caused about 62,000 deaths between 30 May and 4 September. The total number of excess deaths during the same period was about 137,000, indicating that the heatwaves were a substantial contributor. Not ruling out that explanation entirely, this paper argues that it was unlikely a strong cause. First, if the heatwaves were a strong cause of numerous deaths, one would assume that the older and deprived were relatively likely to die. However, during the 2022 summer heatwaves in England, which were claimed to have caused about 2900 deaths, the oldest age cohort did not have a higher excess death rate than the middle age cohort, and the excess death rate actually decreased with deprivation status. Moreover, Iceland had among Europe’s highest excess death rates during the summer, which cannot be attributed to heatwaves. During June, July, and August 2022, comparable southern hemisphere countries furthermore had high excess death rates, which cannot be attributed to heatwaves either, as it was during their winter. Also, Europe’s excess death rate was higher during the 2022–2023 winter than during the 2022 summer, and intuitively not attributed to heatwaves, but neither to cold weather, as that winter was abnormally mild. Finally, the paper discusses the puzzling issue that about 56% more women than men, relative to the population, presumably died from the heatwaves.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12050069
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 70: Classification of Rainfall Intensity and Cloud
           Type from Dash Cam Images Using Feature Removal by Masking

    • Authors: Kodai Suemitsu, Satoshi Endo, Shunsuke Sato
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Weather Report is an initiative from Weathernews Inc. to obtain sky images and current weather conditions from the users of its weather app. This approach can provide supplementary weather information to radar observations and can potentially improve the accuracy of forecasts However, since the time and location of the contributed images are limited, gathering data from different sources is also necessary. This study proposes a system that automatically submits weather reports using a dash cam with communication capabilities and image recognition technology. This system aims to provide detailed weather information by classifying rainfall intensities and cloud formations from images captured via dash cams. In models for fine-grained image classification tasks, there are very subtle differences between some classes and only a few samples per class. Therefore, they tend to include irrelevant details, such as the background, during training, leading to bias. One solution is to remove useless features from images by masking them using semantic segmentation, and then train each masked dataset using EfficientNet, evaluating the resulting accuracy. In the classification of rainfall intensity, the model utilizing the features of the entire image achieved up to 92.61% accuracy, which is 2.84% higher compared to the model trained specifically on road features. This outcome suggests the significance of considering information from the whole image to determine rainfall intensity. Furthermore, analysis using the Grad-CAM visualization technique revealed that classifiers trained on masked dash cam images particularly focused on car headlights when classifying the rainfall intensity. For cloud type classification, the model focusing solely on the sky region attained an accuracy of 68.61%, which is 3.16% higher than that of the model trained on the entire image. This indicates that concentrating on the features of clouds and the sky enables more accurate classification and that eliminating irrelevant areas reduces misclassifications.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12050070
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 71: Quantifying Downstream Climate Impacts of Sea
           Surface Temperature Patterns in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Using
           Clustering

    • Authors: Jason Finley, Boniface Fosu, Chris Fuhrmann, Andrew Mercer, Johna Rudzin
      First page: 71
      Abstract: El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases and flavors, as well as off-equatorial climate modes, strongly influence sea surface temperature (SST) patterns in the eastern tropical Pacific and downstream climate. Prior studies rely on EOFs (which characterize fractional SST variance) to diagnose climate-scale SST structures, limiting the ability to link individual ENSO flavors with downstream phenomena. Hierarchical and k-means clustering methods are used to construct Eastern Pacific patterns from the ERSST dataset spanning 1950 to 2021. Cluster analysis allows for the direct linkage of individual SST years/seasons to ENSO phase, providing insight into ENSO flavors and associated downstream impacts. In this study, four clusters are revealed, each depicting unique SST patterns influenced by ENSO and Pacific Meridional Mode (PMM) phases. A case study demonstrating the utility of the clusters was also carried out using accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific basins. Results showed that Eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño suppresses Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity, while Central Pacific (CP) La Niña enhances it. Further, EP El Niño, coupled with positive PMM, amplifies ACE. Ultimately, the methods used herein offer a cleaner analysis tool for identifying dominant SSTA patterns and employing those patterns to diagnose downstream climatic effects.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12050071
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 72: Lake Kinneret and Hula Valley Ecosystems under
           Climate Change and Anthropogenic Involvement

    • Authors: Moshe Gophen
      First page: 72
      Abstract: The long-term record of ecological, limnological and climatological parameters that were documented in the Kinneret drainage basin was statistically evaluated. The dependent relations between environmental parameters and a change in climate conditions open a consequence dispute between three optional definitions: long-term instability, climate change impact and ecosystem resiliency. The Kinneret drainage basin during the Anthropocene era is marked by intensive anthropogenic involvement: Increase in population size, drainage of the wetlands and old lake Hula, agricultural development, enhancement of lake Kinneret utilization for water supply, hydrological management, fishery and recreation. Therefore, the impact of a combination of natural and anthropogenic environmental factors confounded each other, and the uniqueness of climate change is unclear.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12050072
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 73: People’s Perception of Climate Change
           Impacts on Subtropical Climatic Region: A Case Study of Upper Indus,
           Pakistan

    • Authors: Bashir Ahmad, Muhammad Umar Nadeem, Saddam Hussain, Abid Hussain, Zeeshan Tahir Virik, Khalid Jamil, Nelufar Raza, Ali Kamran, Salar Saeed Dogar
      First page: 73
      Abstract: In developing countries like Pakistan, the preservation of the environment, as well as people’s economies, agriculture, and way of life, are believed to be hampered by climate change. Understanding how people perceive climate change and its signs is essential for creating a variety of adaptation solutions. In this study, we aim to bridge the gap in current research within this area, which predominantly relies on satellite data, by integrating qualitative assessments of people’s perceptions of climate change, thereby providing valuable ground-based observations of climate variability and its impacts on local communities. Field-based data were collected at different altitudes (upstream (US), midstream (MS), and downstream (DS)) of the Upper Indus Basin using both quantitative and qualitative assessments in 2017. The result shows that these altitudes are highly variable in many contexts: socioeconomic indicators of education, agriculture, income, women empowerment, health, access to basic resources, and livelihood diversifications are highly variable in the Indus Basin. The inhabitants of the Indus Basin perceive the climate changing around them and report impacts of this change as increase in overall temperatures (US 96.9%, MS 97%, DS 93.6%) and erratic rainfall patterns (US 44.1%, MS 73.3%, DS 51.0%) resulting in increased water availability for crops (US 38.6%, MS 39.7%, DS 54.8%) but also increasing number of dry days (US 56.7%, MS 85.5%, DS 67.1%). Communities at these altitudes said that agriculture was their primary source of income, making them particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change and the dangers that go along with it. The insights are useful for determining what information and actions are required to support local climate-related hazard management in subtropical climate regions. Moreover, it is vital to launch a campaign to raise awareness of potential hazards, as well as to provide training and an early warning system.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12050073
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 74: Adaptation through Climate-Smart Agriculture:
           Examining the Socioeconomic Factors Influencing the Willingness to Adopt
           Climate-Smart Agriculture among Smallholder Maize Farmers in the Limpopo
           Province, South Africa

    • Authors: Koketso Cathrine Machete, Mmapatla Precious Senyolo, Lungile Sivuyile Gidi
      First page: 74
      Abstract: Agriculture contributes to the South African economy, but this sector is highly vulnerable to climate change risks. Smallholder maize farmers are specifically susceptible to climate change impacts. The maize crop plays a crucial role in the country’s food security as is considered a staple food and feed. The study aimed at examining the socioeconomic factors influencing smallholder maize farmers’ willingness to adopt climate-smart agriculture in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. It was conducted in three different areas due to their specific agro-ecological zones. A multipurpose research design was used to gather data, and multistage random sampling was used to choose the study areas. Subsequently, 209 purposefully selected farmers were interviewed face-to-face using structured questionnaires and focus discussion groups. Descriptive results revealed that 81%, 67%, and 63% farmers in Ga-Makanye, Gabaza, and Giyani were willing to adopt CSA. Using the double-hurdle model, the t-test was significant at 1%, Prob > chi2 = 0. 0000, indicating a good model. At a 5% confidence level, education, crop diversification, and information about climate-smart agriculture (CSA) positively influenced adoption, while household size and agricultural experience negatively influenced it. It is recommended that the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform, and Rural Development provide CSA workshops and educational programs to farmers to enhance their knowledge and decision-making processes regarding adaptation strategies.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12050074
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 75: The Machine Learning Attribution of
           Quasi-Decadal Precipitation and Temperature Extremes in Southeastern
           Australia during the 1971–2022 Period

    • Authors: Milton Speer, Joshua Hartigan, Lance Leslie
      First page: 75
      Abstract: Much of eastern and southeastern Australia (SEAUS) suffered from historic flooding, heat waves, and drought during the quasi-decadal 2010–2022 period, similar to that experienced globally. During the double La Niña of the 2010–2012 period, SEAUS experienced record rainfall totals. Then, severe drought, heat waves, and associated bushfires from 2013 to 2019 affected most of SEAUS, briefly punctuated by record rainfall over parts of inland SEAUS in the late winter/spring of 2016, which was linked to a strong negative Indian Ocean Dipole. Finally, from 2020 to 2022 a rare triple La Niña generated widespread extreme rainfall and flooding in SEAUS, resulting in massive property and environmental damage. To identify the key drivers of the 2010–2022 period’s precipitation and temperature extremes due to accelerated global warming (GW), since the early 1990s, machine learning attribution has been applied to data at eight sites that are representative of SEAUS. Machine learning attribution detection was applied to the 52-year period of 1971–2022 and to the successive 26-year sub-periods of 1971–1996 and 1997–2022. The attributes for the 1997–2022 period, which includes the quasi-decadal period of 2010–2022, revealed key contributors to the extremes of the 2010–2022 period. Finally, some drivers of extreme precipitation and temperature events are linked to significant changes in both global and local tropospheric circulation.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12050075
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 76: Reliability and Exploratory Factor Analysis of
           a Measure of the Psychological Distance from Climate Change

    • Authors: Alan E. Stewart
      First page: 76
      Abstract: Psychological distance from climate change has emerged as an important construct in understanding sustainable behavior and attempts to mitigate and/or adapt to climate change. Yet, few measures exist to assess this construct and little is known about the properties of the existing measures. In this article, the author conducted two studies of a psychological distance measure developed by Wang and her colleagues. In Study 1, the author assessed the test–retest reliability of the measure over a two-week interval and found the scores to be acceptably stable over time. In Study 2, the author conducted two exploratory factor analyses, using different approaches to the correlation and factor extraction. Similar results were observed for each factor analysis: one factor was related to items that specified greater psychological distance from climate change; a second factor involved items that specified closeness to climate change; and a third involved the geographic/spatial distance from climate change. The author discussed the results and provided recommendations on ways that the measure may be used to research the construct of psychological distance from climate change.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12050076
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 47: Adaptation Attitudes Are Guided by
           “Lived Experience” Rather than Electoral Interests: Evidence
           from a Survey Experiment in Bangladesh

    • Authors: Todd A. Eisenstadt, Sk Tawfique M. Haque, Michael A. Toman, Matthew Wright
      First page: 47
      Abstract: After decades of presuming that climate adaptation is a private good benefitting only those receiving resources to reduce individual climate risks, respondents in a survey experiment among the climate-vulnerable in Bangladesh chose less-particularistic adaptation projects than “electoral connection” disaster relief theories predict and more “short-sighted” projects than international diplomats anticipate. This article reports on the experiment, which asked a representative national sample of Bangladeshis whether they favor spending funds on short-term particularistic solutions (disaster relief stockpiles), medium-term inclusionary and non-excludable solutions (ocean embankments), or long-term, public goods solutions (the development of flood-resistant rice seeds). More respondents chose “middle ground” embankment spending, and a statistically significant change in respondent propensities was tied to their lived experience with climate vulnerability rather than electoral incentives. The logic of their choices contradicts existing explanations, implying that a reconsideration of vulnerable community preferences, and how to address them, may be needed.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12040047
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 48: Spatiotemporal Assessment of Surface Solar
           Dimming in India: Impacts of Multi-Level Clouds and Atmospheric Aerosols

    • Authors: Ashwin Vijay Jadhav, P. R. C. Rahul, Vinay Kumar, Umesh Chandra Dumka, Rohini L. Bhawar
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Surface solar radiation (SSR) is a fundamental energy source for an equitable and sustainable future. Meteorology-induced variability increases uncertainty in SSR, thereby limiting its reliability due to its intermittent nature. This variability depends on several meteorological factors, including clouds, atmospheric gases, and aerosol concentrations. This research investigates the detailed impact of different levels of clouds and aerosols on SSR across India. Utilizing satellite data with reanalysis retrievals, the research covers a span of three decades (30 years), from 1993 to 2022. Aerosols contributed to an average attenuation of ~13.33% on SSR, while high, mid, and low cloud conditions showed much stronger impacts, with an attenuation of ~30.80%, ~40.10%, and ~44.30%, respectively. This study reveals an alarming pattern of increasing cloud impact (Cimpact) on SSR in the recent decade, with a significant increasing rate of ~0.22% year−1 for high cloud (HCimpact) and ~0.13% year−1 for mid cloud (MCimpact) impact, while low cloud impact (LCimpact) showed minimal change. The trend of aerosol impact (Aimpact) also showed an average increase of ~0.14% year−1 across all regions. The findings underscore the imperative of considering climatic variables while studying the growing solar dimming. Our findings also will assist policymakers and planners in better evaluating the solar energy resources across India.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12040048
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 49: Machine Learning Identification of Attributes
           and Predictors for a Flash Drought in Eastern Australia

    • Authors: Milton Speer, Joshua Hartigan, Lance M. Leslie
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Flash droughts (FDs) are natural disasters that strike suddenly and intensify quickly. They occur almost anywhere, anytime of the year, and can have severe socio-economic, health and environmental impacts. This study focuses on a recent FD that began in the cool season of the Upper Hunter region of Eastern Australia, an important energy and agricultural local and global exporter that is both flood- and drought-prone. Here, the authors investigate the FD that started abruptly in May 2023 and extended to October 2023. The FD followed floods in November 2021 and much above-average May–October 2022 rainfall. Eight machine learning (ML) regression techniques were applied to the 60 May–October periods from 1963–2022, using a rolling windows attribution search from 45 possible climate drivers, both individually and in combination. The six most prominent climate drivers, and likely predictors, provide an understanding of the major contributors to the FD. Next, the 1963–2022 data were divided into two shorter timespans, 1963–1992 and 1993–2022, generally accepted as representing the early and accelerated global warming periods, respectively. The key attributes were markedly different for the two timespans. These differences are readily explained by the impacts of global warming on hemispheric and synoptic-scale atmospheric circulations.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12040049
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 50: Meta-Analysis and Ranking of the Most
           Effective Methane Reduction Strategies for Australia’s Beef and
           Dairy Sector

    • Authors: Kelliher, Bogueva, Marinova
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Although Australia remains committed to the Paris Agreement and to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions, it was late in joining the 2021 Global Methane Pledge. Finding suitable methane (CH4) mitigation solutions for Australia’s livestock industry should be part of this journey. Based on a 2020–2023 systematic literature review and multicriteria decision approach, this study analyses the available strategies for the Australian beef and dairy sector under three scenarios: baseline, where all assessment criteria are equally weighted; climate emergency, with a significant emphasis on CH4 reduction for cattle in pasture and feedlot systems; and conservative, where priority is given to reducing costs. In total, 46 strategies from 27 academic publications were identified and classified as ‘Avoid’, ‘Shift’, or ‘Improve’ with respect to their impact on current CH4 emissions. The findings indicate that ‘Avoid’ strategies of conversion of agricultural land to wetlands, salt marshes, and tidal forest are most efficient in the climate emergency scenario, while the ‘Improve’ strategy of including CH4 production in the cattle breeding goals is the best for the conservative and baseline scenarios. A policy mix that encourages a wide range of strategies is required to ensure CH4 emission reductions and make Australia’s livestock industry more sustainable.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12040050
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 51: Unlocking Weather Observations at the End of
           the World: Late-XIX and Early-XX Century Monthly Mean Temperature
           Climatology for Southern Patagonia

    • Authors: Pablo O. Canziani, S. Gabriela Lakkis, Adrián E. Yuchechen, Oscar Bonfilli
      First page: 51
      Abstract: A climate analysis of the monthly mean temperatures of Southern Patagonia during the late-XIXth and early-XXth centuries was carried out as part of the international data rescue Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth (ACRE) program partnership in Argentina, together with other data sources with regional and global records. The data from these diverse sources were combined to carry out a study in the coastal region of Patagonia, including Tierra del Fuego, between 42° S and 55° S for 11 locations. Furthermore, HadSST monthly/seasonal fields during the period 1880–1920 were also used. Both mean monthly and seasonal temperature values and timeseries variability were considered. Their analysis shows consistent behavior within the study region and compared to Southern Hemisphere mean results, which are characterized by a warm late-XIX century and a cooler early-XX century. This is also in agreement with SST variability along the coasts of Patagonia and hemispheric records. A comparison with present-day observations, where available, also yields consistent behavior. Low-frequency variability, i.e., in periods longer than 3 years, during the study period is consistent with present variability. Trend estimates at Trelew and Rio Gallegos for the period 1901–2020 yield significant trends, consistent with hemispheric warming at their latitudes.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12040051
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 52: Unlocking Weather Observations at Puerto
           Madryn-Patagonia, Argentina, 1902–1915

    • Authors: Susan Gabriela Lakkis, Pablo O. Canziani, Adrián E. Yuchechen
      First page: 52
      Abstract: The recovery of early records of maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures; pressure; and relative humidity measurements in Puerto Madryn for the period 1902–1915 is presented. A careful evaluation of the quality of the data was performed using internal coherence, tolerance, and temporal consistency tests. The monthly mean series of all the variables, constructed from daily raw data, were subject to several homogeneity tests, and only discontinuities in pressure and relative humidity were found. The homogenized monthly mean series were compared with the Twentieth Century Reanalysis series in annual and seasonal time steps. In addition, the trends of each variable were assessed using the Mann–Kendall procedure, and correlations between relative humidity and the other variables were examined. The results show a remarkably good agreement between the temperature measurements and reanalysis values with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.94. The raw data for minimum and maximum temperatures represent a very good upper and lower bound for the mean temperature values of both observational and reanalysis data. Agreement was found to be lower for relative humidity and pressure with the correlation coefficients being close to 0.6 in both cases. No trends were found for the variables. The correlation analysis of the humidity measurements with the other variables shows an inverse dependence of the temperatures and no relatedness with the pressure values.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12040052
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 53: Key Innovations in Financing Nature-Based
           Solutions for Coastal Adaptation

    • Authors: Fausto Favero, Jochen Hinkel
      First page: 53
      Abstract: The implementation of nature-based solutions (NBSs) for coastal adaptation to climate change is limited by a well-documented lack of finance. Scholars agree that financial innovation represents a solution to this problem, particularly due to its potential for mobilising private investments. It remains unclear however how exactly innovative solutions address the specific barriers found in NBS implementation and, given the distinctive local characteristics of NBSs, to what extent successful innovations can be replicated in other locations. This study addresses this issue by reviewing the literature and case studies of innovative financial solutions currently implemented in NBS projects, highlighting which financial barriers these arrangements address and which contextual conditions affect their applicability. We find that there is no “low-hanging fruit” in upscaling finance in NBSs through financial innovation. Innovative solutions are nevertheless expected to become more accessible with the increase in NBS project sizes, the increased availability of data on NBS performance, and the establishment of supportive policy frameworks. The flow of finance into NBS projects can be further enhanced through the external support of both public (de-risking and regulation) and private actors (financial expertise).
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12040053
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 54: Using Calibrated Rainfall Forecasts and
           Observed Rainfall to Produce Probabilistic Meteorological Drought
           Forecasts

    • Authors: Zhi-Weng Chua, Yuriy Kuleshov, Jessica Bhardwaj
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Most existing drought forecast systems rely only on observed or forecast rainfall, losing valuable context gained from considering both. The lack of a direct link between observed and forecast rainfall reduces the physical consistency of a system, motivating the development of a methodology that can directly link the two. The methodology developed in this study allows the comparison of the calibrated ensemble forecasts of rainfall totals from a dynamical climate model to observed rainfall deficiencies from a gridded rainfall analysis. The methodology is used to create a probabilistic product that forecasts the chance of entering meteorological drought, with lead times of one month (monthly forecast) and three months (seasonal forecast). Existing deficiency areas are included to facilitate analysis of how these areas are forecast to change. The performance of the developed methodology was verified using Percent Correct (PC), Brier Score (BS), and Relative Operating Characteristic (ROC) statistics. Analysis of the forecast plots was also completed visually. Forecast performance for areas with existing deficiencies as well as for non-deficiency areas was promising (PC rates of >79% and >97%, respectively). Although PC rates for observed deficiencies were low across most months, the mean forecast probability for these areas was 36%, indicating the system had value and outperformed climatology. A calibrated, coupled product like the one scoped in this study has not been explored and we note that it could be an invaluable tool for quantifying meteorological drought onset and persistence in Australia.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12040054
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 55: Visualising the Complexity of Drought: A
           Network Analysis Based on the Water Resilience Assessment Framework and
           the Actor-Relational Approach

    • Authors: Joachim Vercruysse, Greet Deruyter, Renaat De Sutter, Luuk Boelens
      First page: 55
      Abstract: This paper discusses the increasing severity of droughts due to climate change. It emphasises the complexity of defining drought and the diverse perspectives among stakeholders. Lots of stakeholders with unclear responsibilities are involved, which can lead to uncertainty and indecisiveness in addressing the issue. To tackle this, the present paper proposes a methodology to dissect drought systems and reveal the intricate relationships between their components. This approach combines a comprehensive definition of drought with the “Water Resilience Assessment Framework” and an “Actor-Relational Approach”, visualised through network analysis. The methodology was applied to a case study situated in the Leie Basin of Flanders, Belgium. By employing this strategy, policymakers and mediators can gain a deeper understanding of drought, identify its root causes, and prioritise necessary changes for more effective drought and water management.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12040055
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 56: Characteristics of Foehn Wind in Urumqi,
           China, and Their Relationship with EI Niño and Extreme Heat Events
           in the Last 15 Years

    • Authors: Maoling Ayitikan, Xia Li, Yusufu Musha, Qing He, Shuting Li, Yuting Zhong, Kai Cheng
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Dry and hot Foehn wind weather often occurs in Urumqi, China, due to its canyon terrain. This directly impacts the lives and health of local people. Using surface meteorological variables (including the hourly wind, temperature, humidity, and pressure) measured in situ at the Urumqi Meteorological Station and ERA5 reanalysis from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts in the past 15 years (2008–2022), the characteristics of Foehn wind and their relationship with EI Niño and extreme high-temperature events in Urumqi are analyzed. The results show that the annual distributions of Foehn wind present a fluctuating pattern, and the highest frequency occurred in 2015. Compared to the summer (July) and winter (February) seasons, Foehn wind occurs most frequently in spring (March, April, May) and autumn (September, October, and November). Daily variations in Foehn wind occur most frequently from 9:00 a.m. to 14:00 p.m. In particular, high levels are found at 10:00 a.m. and 11:00 a.m. in April and May. In 2011, 2012, and 2014, the average wind speed of FW exceeded 6 m/s, and the lowest average wind speed was 3.8 m/s in 2021. The temperature and relative humidity changes (ΔT and ΔRH) caused by Foehn wind are the most significant in winter and when Foehn wind begins to occur. The high-temperature hours related to Foehn wind weather in Urumqi represented 25% of the total in the past 15 years. During the EI Niño period, the amount of Foehn wind in Urumqi significantly increased; The correlation coefficient beteewn slide anomaly of Foehn days and the Oceanic Niño Index is as high as 0.71. Specifically, Foehn wind activity aggravates extreme high-temperature events. This study provides indications for Foehn wind weather forecasting in Urumqi.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12040056
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 28: Atmospheric Patterns in Porto Velho,
           Rondônia, Southwestern Amazon, in a Rhythmic Context between 2017
           and 2018

    • Authors: Graziela T. Tejas, Dorisvalder D. Nunes, Reginaldo M. S. Souza, Carlos A. S. Querino, Marlon R. Faria, Daiana C. B. Floresta, Emerson Galvani, Michel Watanabe, João P. A. Gobo
      First page: 28
      Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the weather conditions in Porto Velho (Rondonia, Brazil, Western Amazon) and the influence of air masses on the climatic elements between 2017 and 2018, using rhythmic analysis. Climatic data were obtained through the official weather station, tabulated and statistically organized, and processed in R Studio programming language. The monitoring of air masses occurred through the synoptic charts of the Navy Hydrography Center. The results were analyzed by dry–rainy transition season, rainy season, wet–dry transition season, and dry season. Thus, the results point out that the Tropical Continental mass (mTc) acted up to 62.9%, responsible for the low precipitation index in October 2017. Although the mass has characteristics of warm and unstable weather, it is even lower than the action of the mEc. In January 2018, there was an 85.5% prevalence of the Continental Equatorial Mass (mEc), added to the action of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (ZCAS), which contributed to an accumulated rainfall of 443 mm/month. In April 2018, the mEC acted with 56.7%, reaching 35.5% in August. Another highlight was the performance of the Tropical Atlantic mass (mTa) (27.4%) and mTc (19.4%), both of which had a crucial role in the dry season, followed by the Polar Atlantic mass (mPa) (17.7%), that contributed to the phenomenon of “coldness” in the region. Therefore, the mEc is extremely important in the control of the relative humidity of the air and the precipitations, while the mTc is a dissipator of winds that, at times, inhibits the performance of the mEc.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12030028
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 29: Explosive Cyclone Impact on the Power
           Distribution Grid in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    • Authors: Marcely Sondermann, Sin Chan Chou, Renata Genova Martins, Lucas Costa Amaro, Rafael de Oliveira Gomes
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Southern Brazil is a region strongly influenced by the occurrence of extratropical cyclones. Some of them go through a rapid and intense deepening and are known as explosive cyclones. These cyclones are associated with severe weather conditions such as heavy rainfall, strong winds, and lightning, leading to various natural disasters and causing socioeconomic losses. This study investigated the interaction between atmospheric and oceanic conditions that contributed to the rapid intensification of the cyclone that occurred near the coast of South Brazil from 29 June to 3 July 2020, causing significant havoc. Hourly atmospheric and oceanic data from the ERA5 reanalysis were employed in this analysis. The results showed that warm air and moisture transportation were key contributors to these phenomena. In addition, the interaction between the jet stream and the cyclone’s movement played a crucial role in cyclone formation and intensification. Positive sea surface temperature anomalies also fueled the cyclone’s intensification. These anomalies increased the surface heat fluxes, making the atmosphere more unstable and promoting a strong upward motion. Due to the strong winds and the heavy rainfall, the explosive cyclone caused substantial impacts on the power services, resulting in widespread power outages, damaged infrastructure, and interruptions in energy distribution. This work describes in detail the cyclone development and intensification and aims at the understanding of these storms, which is crucial for minimizing their aftermaths, especially on energy distribution.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12030029
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 30: A Systematic Review on Human Thermal Comfort
           and Methodologies for Evaluating Urban Morphology in Outdoor Spaces

    • Authors: Iago Turba Costa, Cassio Arthur Wollmann, Luana Writzl, Amanda Comassetto Iensse, Aline Nunes da Silva, Otavio de Freitas Baumhardt, João Paulo Assis Gobo, Salman Shooshtarian, Andreas Matzarakis
      First page: 30
      Abstract: The exponential growth of urban populations and city infrastructure globally presents distinct patterns, impacting climate change forecasts and urban climates. This study conducts a systematic review of the literature focusing on human thermal comfort (HTC) in outdoor urban environments. The findings indicate a significant surge in studies exploring HTC in open urban spaces in recent decades. While historically centered on Northern Hemisphere cities, there is a recent shift, with discussions extending to various metropolitan contexts in the Southern Hemisphere. Commonly employed urban categorization systems include Sky View Factor (SVF), Height × Width (H/W) ratio, and the emerging Local Climate Zones (LCZs), facilitating the characterization of urban areas and their usage. Various thermal indices, like Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), Predicted Mean Vote (PMV), Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), and Standard Effective Temperature (SET), are frequently utilized in evaluating external HTC in metropolitan areas. These indices have undergone validation in the literature, establishing their reliability and applicability.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12030030
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 31: Tackling Complexity: Integrating Responses to
           Internal Displacements, Extreme Climate Events, and Pandemics

    • Authors: Roberto Ariel Abeldaño Zuñiga, Gabriela Narcizo de Lima, José Carlos Suarez-Herrera
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Background: During 2020 and 2021, over 50.2 million individuals were forced to leave their homes to escape the impacts of climate-related disasters, unable to practice social isolation or self-quarantine. A considerable proportion of them reside in densely populated areas with a lack of basic services such as water and sanitation and limited access to essential healthcare. This study aimed to estimate the internal displacements during 2020 and 2021 due to climate-related events, and review the evidence for proposing policy recommendations. Methods: Data from the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre were used for assessing internal displacement by disasters during 2020 and 2021. In addition, the authors conducted a bibliographic review to analyse the responses to internal displacements in climate-related disasters. Results: There were 883 severe storms and 1567 flood events resulting in 50.2 million internal displacements globally. Through the documents reviewed, the legal framework, the vulnerabilities and current challenges of internally displaced persons, and the response policy recommendations were analysed. Conclusions: The increased awareness of displacement and migration, particularly driven by climate-related factors, aligns with international agreements emphasising coordinated action. This recognition becomes even more critical in the context of the convergence of climate-related displacements and the potential for future pandemics.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12030031
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 32: Historical Climate Trends and Extreme Weather
           Events in the Tri-State Area: A Detailed Analysis of Urban and Suburban
           Differences

    • Authors: Sameeha Malikah, Stephanie Avila, Gabriella Garcia, Tarendra Lakhankar
      First page: 32
      Abstract: This study analyzes daily temperature and precipitation data collected from 44 weather stations throughout New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut to assess and quantify the historical climatic changes within these states. The study conducts a detailed examination of spatial and temporal trends, focusing on specific stations that best represent the climatic diversity of each area. A critical analysis aspect involves comparing temperature trends in urban and suburban areas, mainly focusing on New York City. The findings reveal a significant upward increasing trend in average temperatures across all seasons, with urban areas, especially NYC, exhibiting the most marked increases. This trend is notably sharp in the spring, reflecting climate change’s escalating influence. The study also observes an increase in the annual average temperatures and a concurrent decrease in the variability of temperature ranges, suggesting a stabilization of temperature fluctuations over time. Also, we identified a notable increase in heat wave frequency, more so in urban locales than in their suburban counterparts. Analysis of precipitation patterns, particularly in NYC, reveals a decline in snowfall days, consistent with the general warming trend. The results demonstrate significant trends in seasonal average temperatures, a decrease in the variability of temperatures, and a rise in heat wave occurrences, with urban areas typically experiencing warmer conditions. This comprehensive study highlights the need for a more in-depth analysis of spatial precipitation trends. It underscores the importance of continued research in understanding the multifaceted impacts of climate change, particularly in differentiating urban and rural experiences.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12030032
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 33: A Systematic Review of Agroecology Strategies
           for Adapting to Climate Change Impacts on Smallholder Crop Farmers’
           Livelihoods in South Africa

    • Authors: Mashford Zenda, Michael Rudolph
      First page: 33
      Abstract: This systematic review identified the prevalence, effectiveness, and potential benefits of agroecology strategies in promoting sustainable agriculture practices implemented by smallholder crop farmers in South Africa. The review carried out a comprehensive literature search across various academic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of science. The relevant studies were screened and selected based on predetermined inclusion criteria where a total of 262 articles were extracted and reduced to 30 articles for this systematic review. Data were extracted and synthesised to classify patterns and trends in the adoption of agroecology elements. The results obtained from the review of this study highlights the identification of specific strategies such as indigenous crop varieties, conservation agriculture, intercropping, agroforestry, drought-tolerant crop varieties, and water management strategies. These outcomes demonstrated insights into the prevalence of different strategies applied by smallholder crop farmers in South Africa. Furthermore, the review determined the reported benefits, such as increased crop resilience, improved soil fertility, and enhanced water use efficiency. These benefits were assessed on the available evidence from the selected studies. This review contributes to a better understanding of agroecology practices in South African. The results can inform policymakers, researchers, and farmers in developing appropriate strategies to enhance sustainable agricultural practices.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12030033
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 34: Statistical Analysis and Modeling of the CO2
           Series Emitted by Thirty European Countries

    • Authors: Alina Bărbulescu
      First page: 34
      Abstract: In recent decades, an increase in the earth’s atmospheric temperature has been noticed due to the augmentation of the volume of gases with the greenhouse effect (GHG) released into the atmosphere. To reduce this effect, the European Union’s directives indicate the action directions for reducing these emissions, among which carbon dioxide (CO2) recorded the highest amount. In this context, the article analyzes the CO2 series reported in 1990–2021 by 30 European countries. The Kruskal-Wallis test rejected the hypothesis that the series comes from the same underlying distribution. The Anderson-Darling test rejected the normality hypothesis for seven series out of thirty, and Sen’s procedure found a decreasing trend slope only for 17 series. ARIMA models have been built for all individual series. Grouping the series (by the k-means and hierarchical clustering) provided the base for building the Regional series (RegS), which describes the CO2 pollution evolution over Europe. The advantage of this approach is to provide the synthetic image of the regional evolution of the CO2 emission volume (mt), incorporating information from 30 series (one for each country) in only one—RegS. It is also shown that selecting the number of clusters involved in building RegS and assessing their stability is essential for the model’s goodness of fit.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12030034
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 35: Global Solar Radiation and Its Interactions
           with Atmospheric Substances and Their Effects on Air Temperature Change in
           Ankara Province

    • Authors: Jianhui Bai, Xiaowei Wan, Erhan Arslan, Xuemei Zong
      First page: 35
      Abstract: On the analysis of solar radiation and meteorological variables measured in Ankara province in Türkiye from 2017 to 2018, an empirical model of global solar radiation was developed. The global solar radiation at the ground and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) was calculated and in good agreement with the observations. This model was applied to compute the losses of global solar radiation in the atmosphere and the contributions by atmospheric absorbing and scattering substances. The loss of global solar radiation in the atmosphere was dominated by the absorbing substances. The sensitivity test showed that global solar radiation was more sensitive to changes in scattering (described by a scattering factor S/G, S and G are diffuse and global solar radiation, respectively) than to changes in absorption. This empirical model was applied to calculate the albedos at the TOA and the surface. In 2017, 2018, and 2019, the computed albedos were 28.8%, 27.8%, and 28.2% at the TOA and 21.6%, 22.1%, and 21.9% at the surface, which were in reasonable agreement with satellite retrievals. The empirical model is a useful tool for studying global solar radiation and the multiple interactions between solar energy and atmospheric substances. The comparisons of global solar radiation and its loss in the atmosphere, as well as meteorological parameters, were made at some representative sites on the Earth. Some internal relationships (between G and the absorbing and scattering substances, air temperature and atmospheric substances, air temperature increase and latitude, etc.) were found. Thus, it is suggested to thoroughly study solar radiation, atmospheric substances, and climate change as a whole system and reduce the direct emissions of all atmospheric substances and, subsequently, secondary products (e.g., CO2 and non-CO2) in the atmosphere for the achievement of slowing down climate warming.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12030035
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 36: Predictors of Knowledge, Attitudes and
           Practice Regarding Heat Waves: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study in
           Greece

    • Authors: Ioannis Moisoglou, Aglaia Katsiroumpa, Antigoni Kolisiati, Evangelia Meimeti, Ioanna Prasini, Maria Tsiachri, Olympia Konstantakopoulou, Parisis Gallos, Petros Galanis
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Heat waves are a significant consequence of climate change, threatening public health by increasing morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate individuals’ knowledge, attitudes and practice related to heat waves. We conducted an exploratory cross-sectional study in Greece during September 2023. We employed a convenience sample of 1055 participants. We used the heat wave knowledge, awareness, practice and behavior scale (HWKAPBS) to measure our outcome. We measured several socio-demographic variables, such as gender, age and educational level, as potential determinants. Mean scores for the knowledge, awareness, practice and behavior factors were 12.5, 22.7, 22.2 and 12.1, respectively. Females had higher scores for the four factors compared with males. We found a positive relationship between self-perceived health status and awareness, practice and behavior concerning heat waves. Similarly, we identified a positive relationship between self-perceived financial status, and awareness and behavior concerning heat waves. Increased age was associated with an increased practice score, while increased educational level was associated with an increased knowledge score. Additionally, the behavior score was higher among participants in urban areas than those in rural areas. We found statistically significant positive correlations between the four factors. Levels of knowledge, awareness, practice and behavior concerning heat waves were high in our sample. Several socio-demographic variables affect participants’ knowledge, awareness, practice and behavior concerning heat waves.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12030036
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 37: Reducing Fossil Fuel Dependence and Exploring
           Just Energy Transition Pathways in Indonesia Using OSeMOSYS (Open-Source
           Energy Modelling System)

    • Authors: Laksmita Dwi Hersaputri, Rudolf Yeganyan, Carla Cannone, Fernando Plazas-Niño, Simone Osei-Owusu, Yiannis Kountouris, Mark Howells
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Indonesia’s commitment to the Paris Agreement and its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) is not adequately reflected in the significant CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel-intensive energy sectors, despite the enormous potential of renewable energy sources in the country. The ongoing coal regime has led to electricity oversupply and air pollution problems. Despite the huge challenges for Indonesia, a just energy transition away from fossil fuel is crucial. This study aims to explore the ideal energy mix and key emission reduction pathway in Indonesia in achieving a just energy transition using the least-cost optimisation energy modelling tool OSeMOSYS. Six scenarios are modelled over the period 2015–2050 including coal phase-out, NDC, the Just Energy Transition Partnership (JETP), and carbon tax implementation. The results highlight that solar power, geothermal power, and hydropower are the alternatives for coal decommissioning. Despite the large-scale investment in renewable energy under the NDC and JETP scenarios, emissions could be reduced by 55% and 52%, respectively, by 2050. Moreover, Indonesia’s current carbon tax rate will not lead to a significant emission reduction. Three recommended policies include (1) accelerating CFPP retirement; (2) imposing an aggressive carbon tax rate; (3) prioritising investment in solar technologies.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12030037
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 38: Climate Change Paradox: The Least Responsible
           for It Encounters the Most of Its Implications

    • Authors: Hadi Allafta, Christian Opp
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are a major cause of climate change. However, CO2 emissions data for 178 countries from 1960 to 2018 revealed inequality in global CO2 emissions. For example, we found that 50% of the world’s population (ca. 3.75 billion people) was responsible for just 8.9% of the global cumulative carbon emissions. These people are concentrated in low- and middle-income countries. Conversely, 10% of the world’s population (ca. 757 million people), concentrated in high-income countries, were responsible for 46.8% of the global emissions. Furthermore, the literature review disclosed evolution of CO2 emission inequalities within countries. A significant (p < 0.001) negative (r2 = −0.52) correlation was detected between carbon emissions and climate change impacts on national incomes. Such correlation indicated that countries most likely to experience the greatest effects of climate change are also those who make the smallest contributions to its underlying causes. Similar disparities were observed within countries where low-income groups who make the smallest contributions to climate change are subjected to its worst implications. Evaluations of the data from the literature showed that migration could be the result of climate change, though such migration does not happen in isolation. In other words, this kind of migration is frequently linked to other issues such as the fragility and lack of adaptability of the communities. Furthermore, reviews showed that climate change catalyzes instability and conflict. On the other hand, conflict damages the environment and climate in multiple ways. Therefore, it is necessary to collaborate to resolve these two issues concurrently.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12030038
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 39: The Importance and Scientific Value of Long
           Weather and Climate Records; Examples of Historical Marine Data Efforts
           across the Globe

    • Authors: Jürg Luterbacher, Rob Allan, Clive Wilkinson, Ed Hawkins, Praveen Teleti, Andrew Lorrey, Stefan Brönnimann, Peer Hechler, Kondylia Velikou, Elena Xoplaki
      First page: 39
      Abstract: The rescue, digitization, quality control, preservation, and utilization of long and high quality meteorological and climate records, particularly related to historical marine data, are crucial for advancing our understanding of the Earth’s climate system. In combination with land and air measurements, historical marine records serve as foundational pillars in linking present and past weather and climate information, offering essential insights into natural climate variability, extreme events in marine areas, baseline data for assessing current changes, and inputs for enhancing predictive climate models and reanalyses. This paper provides an overview of rescue activities covering marine weather data over the past centuries and presents and highlights several ongoing projects across the world and how the data are used in an integrative and international framework. Current and future continuous efforts in data rescue, digitization, quality control, and the development of temporally high-resolution meteorological and climatological observations from oceans, will greatly help to further complete our understanding and knowledge of the Earth’s climate system, including extremes, as well as improve the quality of reanalysis.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12030039
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 40: Multifaceted Linkages among Eco-Climatic
           Factors, Plankton Abundance, and Gonadal Maturation of Hilda Shad, Tenuous
           Ilesha, Populations in Bangladesh

    • Authors: Mobin Hossain Shohan, Mohammad Abu Baker Siddique, Balaram Mahalder, Mohammad Mahfujul Haque, Chayon Goswami, Md. Borhan Uddin Ahmed, Mohammad Ashraful Alam, Md. Abul Bashar, Yahia Mahmud, Mahamudul Alam Chowdhury, Md. Mahmudul Hasan, A. K. Shakur Ahammad
      First page: 40
      Abstract: An integrated multivariate approach was applied to gain a deeper understanding of the feeding biology of hilsa shad, Tenualosa ilisha, collected from six different aquatic habitats across Bangladesh. This approach involved linking climatic factors, ecological factors, plankton abundance in water, reproductive traits, and plankton ingestion data. Climatic data were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Climate Data Online (CDO) databases on a monthly basis. Water quality parameters were observed on-site at various sampling sites. Plankton data from water bodies and hilsa guts were collected monthly from the study areas and analyzed in the laboratory. The results obtained were averaged for each month. The correlation tests, multivariate approaches, cluster analyses, and regression analyses revealed that the gonadosomatic index was primarily influenced by climatic factors, the abundance of ingested gut plankton, and heir compositions. The analysis of selectivity indices confirmed that plankton preferentially ingested selective taxa. Thirteen plankton groups were identified in the water column of six different hilsa habitats. The dominant phytoplankton groups were Bacillariophyceae (34–53%), Chlorophyceae (31–50%), Cyanophyceae (4–8%), and Euglenophyceae (1–3%). Additionally, Copepoda, Rotifera, and Cladocera were the most numerous zooplankton groups. Hilsa shad primarily consumed Bacillariophyceae (38–57%), Chlorophyceae (35–53%), and Cyanophyceae (4–6%). However, they also exhibited selective ingestion of higher quantities of Bacillariophyceae and Chlorophyceae to fulfill specific and unique metabolic needs. Cluster analysis revealed the variability of phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance in water and gut in relation to diverse locations. Combining all the datasets, a principal component analysis (PCA) was applied. The first two principal components explained more than 54% of the variability. The first component explained the association between the gonadosomatic index and eco-climatic factors, while the second component extracted the cluster of ingested gut plankton in relation to salinity and pH. Pearson’s correlations and linear regression analyses showed that the number of gut plankton had a positive influence on the gonadosomatic index (GSI). Finally, the outcomes from these extensive datasets have provided a better understanding of the selective feeding behavior and the influence of feeding biology on the gonadal maturation of T. ilisha. This understanding is likely to be useful for maintaining and improving the growth and productivity of the existing production systems for this transboundary species.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12030040
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 41: What Cities Want to Measure: Bottom-Up
           Selection of Indicators for Systemic Change toward Climate Neutrality
           Aligned with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 40 European Cities

    • Authors: Rohit Mondal, Sabrina Bresciani, Francesca Rizzo
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Cities are taking action to respond to climate change by designing and implementing sustainable solutions which provide benefits and challenges to citizens. Measuring the progress and effects of such actions at the urban level, beyond mere greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions quantification, is still an emerging research area. Based on data from the 40 European cities belonging to 20 pilot city programmes within the EU-funded NetZeroCities (NZC) project, cities’ selections and preferences for indicators for assessing their climate actions are analysed in relation to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This study provides bottom-up evidence of cities’ selection of non-GHG indicators through different levers of change, including participatory governance and social innovation, for assessing progress and the co-benefits of actions toward climate neutrality taken at the urban level. The resulting list of indicators, classified according to the SDGs, provides evidence of cities’ priorities and can be utilised by cities’ climate transition teams and also by researchers, as it highlights gaps and opportunities compared to extant literature.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12030041
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 42: Impacts of Climate Change Scenarios on the
           Corn and Soybean Double-Cropping System in Brazil

    • Authors: Tiago Bigolin, Edson Talamini
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Brazil is one of the main producing and exporting countries of corn and soybean and a continental country with climatic diversity that allows the cultivation of these crops in various agricultural systems. Double cropping is a widely adopted system throughout the national territory, where it is possible to cultivate soybeans at the beginning of the growing season, followed by corn in succession, in the same growing season. The present study aims to systematize the scientific knowledge about the impacts of future climate change scenarios on yield and on the double-cropping system of soybean + corn in Brazil. Systematic review procedures were adopted. The soybean yield is projected to increase in all regions of Brazil under all climate scenarios. Corn yields under future climate scenarios are projected to decline, with the subtropical climate region being less affected than the northern regions. The double-cropping systems of soybean + corn tend to present increasing climate risks in tropical climate regions. Climate change scenarios point to a delay in the start of the rainy season that will delay the sowing of soybeans, consequently delaying the sowing of corn in succession, resulting in fewer rainy days to complete its cycle.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12030042
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 43: Space–Time Characterization of Extreme
           Precipitation Indices for the Semiarid Region of Brazil

    • Authors: Ana Letícia Melo dos Santos, Weber Andrade Gonçalves, Lara de Melo Barbosa Andrade, Daniele Tôrres Rodrigues, Flávia Ferreira Batista, Gizelly Cardoso Lima, Cláudio Moisés Santos e Silva
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Various indices of climate variability and extremes are extensively employed to characterize potential effects of climate change. Particularly, the semiarid region of Brazil is influenced by adverse effects of these changes, especially in terms of precipitation. In this context, the main objective of the present study was to characterize the regional trends of extreme precipitation indices in the semiarid region of Brazil (SAB), using daily precipitation data from the IMERG V06 product, spanning the period from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2020. Twelve extreme precipitation indices were considered, which were estimated annually, and their spatial and temporal trends were subsequently analyzed using the nonparametric Mann–Kendall test and Sen’s slope. The analysis revealed that the peripheral areas of the SAB, especially in the northwest and extreme south regions, exhibited higher intensity and frequency of extreme precipitation events compared to the central portion of the area. However, a negative trend in event intensity was noted in the north, while positive trends were identified in the south. The frequency of extreme events showed a predominance of negative trends across most of the region, with an increase in consecutive dry days particularly throughout the western SAB. The average total precipitation index was above 1000 mm in the north of the SAB, whereas in the central region, the precipitation averages were predominantly below 600 mm, with rainfall intensity values ranging between 6 and 10 mm/day. Over the span of 20 years, the region underwent an average of 40 consecutive dry days in certain localities. A negative trend was observed in most of the indices, indicating a reduction in precipitation intensity in future decades, with variations in some indices. The dry years observed towards the end of the analyzed period likely contributed to the observed negative trends in the majority of extreme precipitation indices. Such trends directly impact the intensity and frequency of extreme weather events in the SAB. The study is important for highlighting and considering the impacts of changes in precipitation extremes in the semiarid region of Brazil. Based on the obtained results, we advocate the implementation of public policies to address future challenges, such as incorporating adaptations in water resource management, sustainable agricultural practices, and planning for urban and rural areas.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12030043
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 44: Safe Sowing Windows for Smallholder Farmers in
           West Africa in the Context of Climate Variability

    • Authors: Sehouevi Mawuton David Agoungbome, Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis, Nick van de Giesen
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Climate variability poses great challenges to food security in West Africa, a region heavily dependent on rainfall for farming. Identifying sowing strategies that minimize yield losses for farmers in the region is crucial to securing their livelihood. In this paper, we investigate three sowing strategies to assess their ability to identify safe sowing windows for smallholder farmers in the Sudanian region of West Africa (WA) in the context of a changing climate. The GIS version of the FAO crop model, AquaCrop-GIS, is used to simulate the yield response of maize (Zea mays L.) to varying sowing dates throughout the rainy season across WA. Based on an average of 38 years of data per grid cell, we identify safe sowing windows across the Sudanian region that secure at least 90% of maximal yield. We find that current sowing strategies, based on minimum thresholds for rainfall accumulated over a period that are widely applied in the region, carry a higher risk of yield failure, especially at the beginning of the rainy season. This analysis shows that delaying sowing for a month to mid-June in the central region (east of Lon 8.5°W), and to early August in the semi-arid areas is a safer strategy that ensures optimal yields. A comparison between the periods 1982–1991 and 1992–2019 shows a negative shift for LO10 mm and LO20 mm, suggesting a wetter regime compared to the dry periods of the 1970s and 1980s. On the contrary, we observe a positive shift in the safe window strategy, highlighting the need for precautions due to erratic rainfall at the beginning of the season. The precipitation-based strategies hold a high risk, while the safe sowing window strategy, easily accessible to smallholder farmers, is more fitting, given the current climate.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12030044
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 45: Temporal and Spatial Analyses of Forest Burnt
           Area in the Middle Volga Region Based on Satellite Imagery and Climatic
           Factors

    • Authors: Eldar Kurbanov, Oleg Vorobev, Sergei Lezhnin, Denis Dergunov, Jinliang Wang, Jinming Sha, Aleksandr Gubaev, Ludmila Tarasova, Yibo Wang
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Wildfires are important natural drivers of forest stands dynamics, strongly affecting their natural regeneration and providing important ecosystem services. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of spatiotemporal burnt area (BA) patterns in the Middle Volga region of the Russian Federation from 2000 to 2022, using remote sensing time series data and considering the influence of climatic factors on forest fires. To assess the temporal trends, the Mann–Kendall nonparametric statistical test and Theil–Sen’s slope estimator were applied using the LandTrendr algorithm on the Google Earth Platform (GEE). The accuracy assessment revealed a high overall accuracy (>84%) and F-score value (>82%) for forest burnt area detection, evaluated against 581 reference test sites. The results indicate that fire occurrences in the region were predominantly irregular, with the highest frequency recorded as 7.3 over the 22-year period. The total forest BA was estimated to be around 280 thousand hectares, accounting for 1.7% of the land surface area or 4.0% of the total forested area in the Middle Volga region. Coniferous forest stands were found to be the most fire-prone ecosystems, contributing to 59.0% of the total BA, while deciduous stands accounted for 25.1%. Insignificant fire occurrences were observed in young forests and shrub lands. On a seasonal scale, temperature was found to have a greater impact on BA compared with precipitation and wind speed.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12030045
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 46: A Move Towards Developing Usable Climate
           Change Adaptation and Mitigation Services for the Agricultural Sector

    • Authors: Mokhele E. Moeletsi, Mitsuru Tsubo
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Dryland farming is at the center of increasing pressure to produce more food for the growing population in an environment that is highly variable and with high expectations for the standard of their production systems. While there is mounting pressure for increased productivity, the responsibility to protect the environment and diminish the agricultural sector’s carbon footprint is receiving growing emphasis. Achieving these two goals calls for a consolidated effort to ensure that the scientific community and service providers partner with farmers to create a sustainable food production system that does not harm the environment. In this paper, we studied the nature of the services present in the market and identified ways that could be used to improve the climate services available to the agricultural sector. Important factors that could increase the usability of climate services include coproduction, context-specific information, innovation, demand-driven services, timeliness of services, highly applicable information, provision of services in the correct format, services that increase user experience, specificity of services to a locale, and services that are easily accessible.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12030046
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 13: Relationship between El Niño-Southern
           Oscillation and Atmospheric Aerosols in the Legal Amazon

    • Authors: Augusto G. C. Pereira, Rafael Palácios, Paula C. R. Santos, Raimundo Vitor S. Pereira, Glauber Cirino, Breno Imbiriba
      First page: 13
      Abstract: The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) stands out as the most significant tropical phenomenon in terms of climatic magnitude resulting from ocean–atmosphere interaction. Due to its atmospheric teleconnection mechanism, ENSO influences various environmental variables across distinct atmospheric scales, potentially impacting the spatiotemporal distribution of atmospheric aerosols. Within this context, this study aims to evaluate the relationship between ENSO and atmospheric aerosols across the entire Legal Amazon during the period from 2006 to 2011. Over this five-year span, four ENSO events were identified. Concurrently, an analysis of the spatiotemporal variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Black Carbon radiation extinction (EAOD-BC) was conducted alongside these ENSO events, utilizing data derived from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), MERRA-2 model, and ERSSTV5. Employing the Windowed Cross-Correlation (WCC) approach, statistically significant phase lags of up to 4 to 6 months between ENSO indicators and atmospheric aerosols were observed. There was an approximate 100% increase in AOD immediately after El Niño periods, particularly during intervals encompassing the La Niña phase. The analysis of specific humidity anomaly (QA) revealed that, contrary to expectations, positive values were observed throughout most of the El Niño period. This result suggests that while there is a suppression of precipitation events during El Niño due to the subsidence of drier air masses in the Amazon, the region still exhibits positive specific humidity (Q) conditions. The interaction between aerosols and humidity is intricate. However, Q can exert influence over the microphysical and optical properties of aerosols, in addition to affecting their chemical composition and aerosol load. This influence primarily occurs through water absorption, leading to substantial alterations in radiation scattering characteristics, and thus affecting the extinction of solar radiation.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12020013
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 14: Impacts of Climate Change in Baja California
           Winegrape Yield

    • Authors: Marilina Hernandez Garcia, María Cristina Garza-Lagler, Tereza Cavazos, Ileana Espejel
      First page: 14
      Abstract: We analyzed climate change scenarios and their possible impacts on winegrape yield in Baja California, the leading wine producer in Mexico. Linear regression models were used to predict the current yield based on climate and economic variables. Using future projections of the climate variables from two regional climate models (RegCM and RCA4), we evaluated the possible changes in yield for the Near Future (NF: 2021−2040) and Intermediate Future (IF: 2041−2060) periods under low (RCP2.6) and high (RCP8.5) greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. One regression model includes maximum and minimum temperatures (Tx and Tn) of the winegrape growing season and accumulated winter precipitation (Pre), and the other model also includes the real minimum wage and winegrape price to evaluate the operating cost paid by producers. The results show that the linear regression model with the climatic and economic variables explains 28% of the winegrape yield, and Tx and Tn had the greatest influence. The climate change scenarios show that during the winegrape growing season, these variables could increase more than 1 °C in the NF and more than 2 °C in the IF under the RCP8.5 scenario. These latter temperature changes could reduce the yield between 18% and 35% relative to the reference observed climate dataset (Livneh). However, winegrape yield is sensitive to economic factors, as the yield reduction increases at least 3% in all cases. Thus, adaptation strategies need to be implemented in the viticulture sector to reduce future impacts.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12020014
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 15: Net Zero Dairy Farming—Advancing Climate
           Goals with Big Data and Artificial Intelligence

    • Authors: Suresh Neethirajan
      First page: 15
      Abstract: This paper explores the transformative potential of Big Data and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in propelling the dairy industry toward net zero emissions, a critical objective in the global fight against climate change. Employing the Canadian dairy sector as a case study, the study extrapolates its findings to demonstrate the global applicability of these technologies in enhancing environmental sustainability across the agricultural spectrum. We begin by delineating the environmental challenges confronting the dairy industry worldwide, with an emphasis on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including methane from enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide from manure management. The pressing need for innovative approaches in light of the accelerating climate crisis forms the crux of our argument. Our analysis delves into the role of Big Data and AI in revolutionizing emission management in dairy farming. This includes applications in optimizing feed efficiency, refining manure management, and improving energy utilization. Technological solutions such as predictive analytics for feed optimization, AI in herd health management, and sensor networks for real-time monitoring are thoroughly examined. Crucially, the paper addresses the wider implications of integrating these technologies in dairy farming. We discuss the development of benchmarking standards for emissions, the importance of data privacy, and the essential role of policy in promoting sustainable practices. These aspects are vital in supporting the adoption of technology, ensuring ethical use, and aligning with international climate commitments. Concluding, our comprehensive study not only suggests a pathway for the dairy industry towards environmental sustainability but also provides insights into the role of digital technologies in broader agricultural practices, aligning with global environmental sustainability efforts.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12020015
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 16: Land-Use Optimization and Allocation for
           Saltwater Intrusion Regions: A Case Study in Soc Trang Province, Vietnam

    • Authors: Quang Chi Truong, Thao Hong Nguyen, Vu Thanh Pham, Trung Hieu Nguyen
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Land-use planning plays an important role in agricultural development. However, the tools used to support planners in proposing land-use planning solutions are lacking, especially when considering saltwater intrusion conditions in coastal regions. In this study, optimization is applied by analyzing land use in developing solutions for agricultural land-use planning, wherein a multi-objective optimization model is developed to optimize land-use area, including land-use allocation, and taking into account socioeconomic and environmental factors. The model was applied to three districts of Soc Trang province, Vietnam (Long Phu, My Xuyen, and Tran De), representing three ecological regions of salt water, brackish water, and fresh water in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The results are shown for the implementation of two multi-objective optimization scenarios (in terms of profit, labor, environment benefits, and risk reduction) as follows: (i) multi-objective optimization of agricultural land use until 2030 under normal conditions; (ii) optimizing agricultural land use until 2030 under climate change conditions similar to the 2016 drought and saltwater intrusion phenomenon in the Mekong Delta. The results demonstrate that the second scenario is the preferred option for implementing land-use planning thanks to the balance between good profits and minimizing economic and environmental risk. Land allocation was carried out by taking into account the factors of household economics, the influence of adjacent production types, local traffic, and canal systems to allocate areas toward ensuring optimal land use. This process, involving a combination of land-use optimization and spatial allocation, can help planners to improve the quality of agricultural land-use planning.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12020016
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 17: Secondary School Students’ Perceptions
           and Concerns on Sustainability and Climate Change

    • Authors: Raquel de Rivas, Amparo Vilches, Olga Mayoral
      First page: 17
      Abstract: This research is framed in Education for Sustainability, aimed at promoting the inclusion of the principles and values of Sustainability in education from a holistic perspective. The study focuses on finding out the concerns and knowledge of secondary school students from Valencia (Spain), who were surveyed during the academic years 2019–2020, 2020–2021 and 2021–2022 about Sustainability and Climate Change. Examining their conceptions, initial ideas, possible shortcomings, and conceptual errors is necessary to build a teaching itinerary with the purpose of adapting and reorienting educational practice to changing situations and different social contexts. The analysis, which is part of a broader research project, focuses on studying what secondary school students know (or rather, what they do not know or are unaware of) about Sustainability and Climate Change, examining their interests and concerns. Our experimental design is based on a wide-ranging questionnaire addressed to students that also promotes initial reflections. The results show that the participating students are concerned about socio-environmental problems, particularly about Climate Change. Nevertheless, they show a limited knowledge of Sustainability. This situation must encourage the involvement of the whole educational community to achieve a greater understanding of the planetary crisis through Education for Sustainability with the final goal of ensuring an effective involvement of the younger generations who are beginning to make their own decisions.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12020017
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 18: A Pathway towards Climate Services for the
           Agricultural Sector

    • Authors: Ioannis Charalampopoulos, Fotoula Droulia
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Climate change is already having a negative impact on many areas of human activity, affecting life globally. It is more urgent than ever to increase our adaptive capacity to respond to current and future climate change risks. Climate services refer to a specialized sector that encompasses both research and operational activities. This sector is primarily focused on interpreting and communicating knowledge and information about climate risks in a manner that is tailored to meet the specific needs of diverse user communities. Climate services offer a range of specialized outputs, including forecasts, assessments, and advisories, which enable users to make decisions that are based on an understanding of the potential impacts of climate change. The outputs of climate services are designed to help diverse user communities effectively manage risks and capitalize on opportunities arising from climate variability and change. An attempt is made to outline the fundamental elements of climate services and point out their contribution to various aspects of human activity, focusing on their essential role in the adaptability of the priority for action agricultural sector, which appears as considerably vulnerable to the change of considerably susceptible to climate conditions. This article is structured to answer basic questions about climate services in general and to show the specificities of climate services in the agricultural sector.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12020018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 19: Evaluation of Bias-Corrected GCM CMIP6
           Simulation of Sea Surface Temperature over the Gulf of Guinea

    • Authors: Oye Ideki, Anthony R. Lupo
      First page: 19
      Abstract: This study used an ERA5 reanalysis SST dataset re-gridded to a common grid with a 0.25° × 0.25° spatial resolution (latitude × longitude) for the historical (1940–2014) and projected (2015–2100) periods. The SST simulation under the SSP5-8.5 scenario was carried out with outputs from eight General Circulation Models (GCMs). The bias-corrected dataset was developed using Empirical Quantile Mapping (EQM) for the historical (1940–2015) and future (2030–2100) periods while the CMIP6 model simulation was evaluated against the ERA5 monthly observed reanalysis data for temperatures over the Gulf of Guinea. Overall, the CMIP6 models’ future simulations in 2030–20100 based on the SSP5-8.5 scenario indicate that SSTs are projected, for the Gulf of Guinea, to increase by 4.61 °C, from 31 °C in the coast in 2030 to 35 °C in 2100, and 2.6 °C in the Western GOG (Sahel). The Linux-based Ncview, Ferret, and the CDO (Climate Data Operator) software packages were used to perform further data re-gridding and assess statistical functions concerning the data. In addition, ArcGIS was used to develop output maps for visualizing the spatial trends of the historical and future outputs of the GCM. The correlation coefficient (r) was used to evaluate the performance of the CMIP6 models, and the analysis showed ACCESS 0.1, CAMS CSM 0.2, CAN ESM 0.3, CMCC 0.3, and MCM 0.4, indicating that all models performed well in capturing the climatological patterns of the SSTs. The CMIP6 bias-corrected model simulations showed that increased SST warming over the GOG will be higher in the far period than the near-term climate scenario. This study affirms that the CMIP6 projections can be used for multiple assessments related to climate and hydrological impact studies and for the development of mitigation measures under a warming climate.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12020019
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 20: Extremely Cold Climate and Social
           Vulnerability in Alaska: Problems and Prospects

    • Authors: Elena A. Grigorieva, John E. Walsh, Vladimir A. Alexeev
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Cold exposure remains a significant public health concern, particularly in the Arctic regions prone to extremely cold weather. While the physical health impacts of cold exposure are well documented, understanding the social vulnerability aspects is crucial for effective mitigation and policy development. This study investigates the multifaceted dimensions of social vulnerability in the face of cold temperatures across various communities in Alaska. Alaska, renowned for its extreme cold temperatures and harsh environmental conditions, poses unique challenges to its residents, particularly in the context of social vulnerability. Drawing on a combination of quantitative data analysis and qualitative insights, we examine the factors contributing to social vulnerability, including demographic, economic, geographic, and infrastructural elements, in terms of the Extremely Cold Social Vulnerability Index, for seven Public Health Regions in Alaska. The Universal Thermal Climate Index in two very cold categories (<−27 °C) was used to identify cold exposure. Factors such as income, housing quality, health status, and resilience of the population play crucial roles in determining an individual or community’s sensitivity to, and ability to cope with, cold temperatures. Our analysis reveals that social vulnerability in Alaska is not uniform but varies significantly among regions. The research findings highlight the importance of considering factors of both sensitivity and adaptivity in understanding and addressing social vulnerability, thereby informing the development of targeted strategies and policies to enhance the resilience of Alaskan communities. As cold temperatures are projected to continue to challenge the region, addressing social vulnerability is essential for ensuring the well-being and safety of Alaska’s diverse populations.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12020020
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 21: Reassessing and Extending the Composite
           Rainfall Record of Manchester, Northwest England: 1786–Present

    • Authors: Neil Macdonald, Robert Dietz
      First page: 21
      Abstract: A monthly composite rainfall record for the period 1786–present representative of Manchester, northwest England is presented. The 235-year record ranks as the second-longest instrumental rainfall record available for northern England, and the fifth-longest for the UK, and contributes to a growing network of long homogenous rainfall series. A composite record is constructed, extended, and homogenised, and the record is analysed in terms of annual and seasonal variability, with a focus on extreme wet/dry events. Three primary meteorological stations in Manchester, located within 2 km of one another, form the basis of the reconstruction, with other records identified for infilling and extension based on their longevity, continuity, and proximity to the primary stations. A linear regression analysis is applied to produce a continuous record, and adjustment factors are applied to ensure homogeneity. Record homogeneity is assessed via cross-comparison with long-term records from the region (Carlisle, Chatsworth House and HadNWEP), and the methods are applied to assess relative homogeneity include the double-mass curve and Standard Normal Homogeneity tests. The Manchester record is deemed to be homogenous overall but includes two periods of increased uncertainty: 1786–1819, comprising the earliest observations and greatest number of different stations, and 1883–1911, which encompasses multi-year and multi-decadal drought events of (1883–1885 and 1890–1910) as identified by other long-term meteorological studies. The analysis of the entire record reflects long-term rainfall variability with an increasing, although not significant, trend in annual rainfall observed. Seasonally, a significant increase in winter rainfall is exhibited, in keeping with patterns observed in other regional studies. Seasonal rainfall totals are found to be highly variable at the decadal timescale. Several well-documented extreme wet (e.g., autumn 2000) and dry (e.g., summer 1976) seasons are identified, including historic events (e.g., the floods of summer 1872 and drought of summer 1887) from the less-well documented eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12020021
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 22: Precipitation Anomalies and Trends Estimated
           via Satellite Rainfall Products in the Cananeia–Iguape Coastal
           System, Southeast Region of Brazil

    • Authors: Jakeline Baratto, Paulo Miguel de Bodas Terassi, Nádia Gilma de Beserra de Lima, Emerson Galvani
      First page: 22
      Abstract: The objective of this research is to select the best orbital sensor for rainfall estimates (monthly and annual scales) and to analyze the frequency and magnitude of extreme rainfall events and their trends and disruptions based on the use of satellite rainfall product data for the Cananeia–Iguape Coastal System (CICS). Data from four satellite rainfall products were used to identify the correspondence with seven points on the surface of the study area. Statistical metrics were used to identify the best satellite rainfall product. After identifying the sensor with the best performance in estimating orbital precipitation, extreme events were identified by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) on a one-month (SPI-1), three-month (SPI-3), and twelve-month (SPI-12) scale. Trend and rupture detection in the time series were performed using different statistical techniques (Mann–Kendall, Pettitt, Standard Normal Homogeneity Test, or Buishand test). Among the satellite rainfall products, CHIRPS had the best measurements for the analyzed points on the surface. The year 1983 was characterized as very rainy, also marked by the occurrence of El Niño, and was marked by the rupture of the rains at all points (IDs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7) analyzed in the month of June. The decrease in monthly rainfall was more significant in the months of February (at points IDs 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7) and April (IDs 1, 3, 5, and 7). Decreased rainfall may cause CICS mangrove shrinkage. These results showed the importance of studying rainfall in an area with mangroves in order to understand the dynamics of vegetation in the face of climate change.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12020022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 23: Quantifying the Climate Co-Benefits of Hybrid
           Renewable Power Generation in Indonesia: A Multi-Regional and
           Technological Assessment

    • Authors: Mohamed Saad Suliman, Hooman Farzaneh, Eric Zusman, Alphonce Ngila Mulumba, Puji Lestari, Didin Agustian Permadi, Nandakumar Janardhanan
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Quantifying the co-benefits of renewable energy investments can aid policymakers in identifying technologies capable of generating significant social, economic, and environmental benefits to effectively offset mitigation costs. Although there has been a growing body of work evaluating co-benefits, few studies have compared the potential co-benefits of several technologies across different regions in key countries. This study fills this gap by formulating a new modeling structure to assess the environmental–health–economic co-benefits of hybrid renewable energy systems (HRESs) in different parts of Indonesia. The proposed model is unique in that it incorporates various techno-economic activities to assess air quality, health, and economic benefits and then presents results as part of a cost–benefit analysis. From the intervention scenario, the modeling results show that installing 0.5 GW grid-connected solar PV, 100 MW of wind turbines, and a 100 MW biomass generator to cover a total of 1.64 million residential load units in the Bali province can avoid GHGs, PM2.5, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and provide health savings of 1.73 Mt/y, 289.02 t/y, 1648, and 6.16 million USD/y, respectively. In addition, it shows that the payback period is enhanced by one year, while the net present value is increased by 14.6%. In Jakarta, a 3 GW solar PV plant and a 100 MW biomass generator that supply 5.8 million residential load units can deliver 32,490 averted DALYs and 652.81 million USD/y of health care savings. Nationally, the contribution of renewable energy to the electricity supply mix could grow from the 2020 baseline of 18.85% to 26.93%, reducing dependence on oil and coal contribution by 5.32%.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12020023
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 24: Addressing the Climate Change Adaptation Gap:
           Key Themes and Future Directions

    • Authors: Ishfaq Hussain Malik, James D. Ford
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Climate change adaptation is a critical response to the challenges posed by climate change and is important for building resilience. Progress in adaptation efforts has been made globally, nationally, and locally through international agreements, national plans, and community-based initiatives. However, significant gaps exist in knowledge, capacity, and finance. The Adaptation Gap Report 2023, published by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), examines the status of climate change adaptation efforts globally. The report highlights the widening adaptation finance gap and the deepening climate crisis. We analyse the key themes of the report and incorporate an analysis of the wider literature and insights from COP28 to substantiate key points and identify gaps where more work is needed to develop an understanding of climate change adaptation. This paper focuses on the underfinanced and underprepared state of global climate change adaptation efforts, the widening adaptation finance gap, slow progress in adaptation, gender equality and social inclusion issues, and challenges in addressing loss and damage. We provide a way forward for climate change adaptation and offer recommendations for future actions.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12020024
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 25: Influence of Climatic Factors on the
           Occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Food Poisoning in the Republic of
           Korea

    • Authors: Jong-Gyu Kim
      First page: 25
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the outbreaks and characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus food poisoning in the Republic of Korea and the impact of climatic factors on the food poisoning occurrence. All data were obtained from the official statistics of the Republic of Korea (2002 to 2017). A trend analysis, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between the outbreaks of V. parahaemolyticus food poisoning and climatic factors. During the study period, the number of outbreaks of V. parahaemolyticus food poisoning ranked third among bacterial food poisoning. The food poisoning incidences of V. parahaemolyticus occurred mostly from July to September. The average temperature, maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation, number of days with rainfall, and humidity showed a significant positive correlation with the number of outbreaks of V. parahaemolyticus food poisoning (p < 0.001), but daytime hours showed a negative correlation (p < 0.01). The data further indicated that minimum temperature was the most influential variable on the outbreaks of food poisoning (p < 0.01). These results indicate that the outbreaks of V. parahaemolyticus food poisoning in the Republic of Korea are associated with climatic factors, suggesting that these incidences may have been impacted by climate change, especially due to warming around the Korean peninsula.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12020025
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 26: Annual Solar Geoengineering: Mitigating Yearly
           Global Warming Increases

    • Authors: Feinberg
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Solar geoengineering (SG) solutions have many advantages compared to the difficulty of carbon dioxide removal (CDR): SG produces fast results, is shown here to have much higher efficiency than CDR, is not related to fossil fuel legislation, reduces the GHG effect including water vapor, and is something we all can participate in by brightening the Earth with cool roofs and roads. SG requirements detailed previously to mitigate global warming (GW) have been concerning primarily because of overwhelming goals and climate circulation issues. In this paper, annual solar geoengineering (ASG) equations and estimated requirements for yearly solar radiation modification (SRM) of areas are provided along with the advantages of annual solar geoengineering (ASG) to mitigate yearly global warming temperature increases. The ASG albedo area modification requirements found here are generally 50 to potentially more than 150 times less compared to the challenge of full SG GW albedo mitigation, reducing circulation concerns and increasing feasibility. These reductions are applied to L1 space sunshading, Earth brightening, and stratosphere aerosol injection (SAI) SRM annual area requirements. However, SAI coverage compared to other methods will have higher yearly increasing maintenance costs in the annual approach. Results also show that because ASG Earth albedo brightening area requirements are much smaller than those needed for full mitigation, there are concerns that worldwide negative SG would interfere with making positive advances for several reasons. That is, negative SG currently dominates yearly practices with the application of dark asphalt roads, roofs, and building sides. This issue is discussed.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12020026
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 27: Downscaling Climatic Variables at a River
           Basin Scale: Statistical Validation and Ensemble Projection under Climate
           Change Scenarios

    • Authors: Renalda El-Samra, Abeer Haddad, Ibrahim Alameddine, Elie Bou-Zeid, Mutasem El-Fadel
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Climatic statistical downscaling in arid and topographically complex river basins remains relatively lacking. To address this gap, climatic variables derived from a global climate model (GCM) ensemble were downscaled from a grid resolution of 2.5° × 2.5° down to the station level. For this purpose, a combination of multiple linear and logistic regressions was developed, calibrated and validated with regard to their predictions of monthly precipitation and daily temperature in the Jordan River Basin. Seasonal standardized predictors were selected using a backward stepwise regression. The validated models were used to examine future scenarios based on GCM simulations under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) for the period 2006–2050. The results showed a cumulative near-surface air temperature increase of 1.54 °C and 2.11 °C and a cumulative precipitation decrease of 100 mm and 135 mm under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively, by 2050. This pattern will inevitably add stress to water resources, increasing management challenges in the semi-arid to arid regions of the basin. Moreover, the current application highlights the potential of adopting regression-based models to downscale GCM predictions and inform future water resources management in poorly monitored arid regions at the river basin scale.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12020027
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 6: Microclimate Analysis of Outdoor Showcases in
           Tropical Climate—Two Case Studies in Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab
           Emirates

    • Authors: Dario Camuffo, Antonio della Valle, Roberta Giorio, Francesco Rizzi, Patrizia Barucco, Marivita Suma, Jalal Ahmed, Amel Chabbi, Ola Shaker, Peter Sheehan
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Al Ain, near Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, is characterized by hot desert climate with high temperatures, aridity, and almost no rain. Several truncated earthen walls were discovered at the historic house of Sheikh Mohammed Bin Khalifa, a component of the World Heritage Cultural Sites. These remains are preserved in situ, outdoors, protected in glass showcases for public display. As this situation is not documented in the literature, the local Authority has requested to study the showcase environment to optimize conservation. The solar radiation and the projected shades have been modeled over one year; the temperature and humidity inside and outside the showcases, as well as the moisture content, have been measured to assess the potential preservation risks. The paper presents the results, i.e., the direct solar radiation generates extreme conditions of greenhouse effect with extremely high temperatures and forces evaporation from the remains. During the night, the excess moisture condenses on the inner surface of the glass panes, forming large drops that affect viewing and are dangerous for conservation. The repetition of evaporation–condensation cycles accumulates soluble salts on the remains. The paper discusses mitigation strategies (e.g., shading, ventilation, and cooling, to reduce the greenhouse effect) to improve conservation and fruition.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12010006
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 7: Mapping and Assessing Riparian Vegetation
           Response to Drought along the Buffalo River Catchment in the Eastern Cape
           Province, South Africa

    • Authors: Zolisanani Mpanyaro, Ahmed Mukalazi Kalumba, Leocadia Zhou, Gbenga Abayomi Afuye
      First page: 7
      Abstract: The increasing drought frequency poses a significant threat to global and regional river systems and ecosystem functioning, especially in the complex topographical Buffalo River catchment area of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. This study explored the impact of drought on riparian vegetation dynamics using the Normalize Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Transformed Difference Vegetation Index (TDVI) and Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) from satellite-derived Landsat data from 1990 to 2020. The least-squares linear regression and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used to evaluate the long-term drought in riparian vegetation cover and the role of precipitation and streamflow. The correlation results revealed a moderate positive correlation (r = 0.77) between precipitation and streamflow with a significant p-value of 0.04 suggesting consequences on riparian vegetation health. Concurrent with the precipitation, the vegetation trends showed that precipitation increased insignificantly with less of an influence while the reverse was the case with the streamflow in the long term. The results show that the NDVI and TDVI were significant indices for detecting water-stressed vegetation in river catchment dynamics. Much of these changes were reflected for MNDWI in dry areas with a higher accuracy (87.47%) and dense vegetation in the upper catchment areas. The standardized precipitation index (SPI) revealed the inter-annual and inter-seasonal variations in drought-stressed years between 1991–1996, 2000–2004, 2009–2010, 2015, and 2018–2019, while 2020 exhibited slight sensitivity to drought. The findings of this study underscore the need for heightened efforts on catchment-scale drought awareness for policy development, programs, and practices towards ecosystem-based adaptation.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12010007
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 8: Climatology of Synoptic Non-Gaussian
           Meteorological Anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere during 1979–2018
           

    • Authors: Sergey Loginov, Evgeniia Moraru, Elena Kharyutkina, Ivan Sudakow
      First page: 8
      Abstract: The analysis of spatial and temporal variability in the number of non-Gaussian extreme anomalies of climatic parameters was carried out for both the initial time series and synoptic variability in the troposphere of the Northern Hemisphere over the period 1979–2018, based on ERA-Interim reanalysis data. There are predominantly three types of empirical distribution densities at 850 hPa, each characterizing the processes of advective and convective heat transfer. At the beginning of the 21st century, compared to the end of the 20th century, there was an increase in the number of anomalies in vertical wind speed and specific humidity for the Northern Hemisphere. Additionally, there is an increase in the number of zonal wind speed anomalies in the low and middle latitudes. Regions with the maximum number of anomalies are primarily located over the continents, while for vertical wind speed anomalies, they are predominantly over the oceans. The application of R/S analysis and multifractal analysis has established that the identified tendencies (which are persistent processes) will continue in the identified regions. The time series of non-Gaussian anomalies (both initial and synoptic scales) exhibit a long-term memory of approximately four years, and synoptic extreme anomalies were found to be more predictable.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12010008
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 9: Assessing Future Precipitation Patterns,
           Extremes and Variability in Major Nile Basin Cities: An Ensemble Approach
           with CORDEX CORE Regional Climate Models

    • Authors: Gamil Gamal, Pavol Nejedlik, Ahmed M. El Kenawy
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Understanding long-term variations in precipitation is crucial for identifying the effects of climate change and addressing hydrological and water management issues. This study examined the trends of the mean and four extreme precipitation indices, which are the max 1-day precipitation amount, the max 5-day precipitation amount, the consecutive wet days, and the consecutive dry days, for historical observations (1971–2000) and two future periods (2041–2060/2081–2100) under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios over the Nile River Basin (NRB) at 11 major stations. Firstly, the empirical quantile mapping procedure significantly improved the performance of all RCMs, particularly those with lower performance, decreasing inter-model variability and enhanced seasonal precipitation variability. The Mann–Kendall test was used to detect the trends in climate extreme indices. This study reveals that precipitation changes vary across stations, scenarios, and time periods. Addis Ababa and Kigali anticipated a significant increase in precipitation across all periods and scenarios, ranging between 8–15% and 13–27%, respectively, while Cairo and Kinshasa exhibited a significant decrease in precipitation at around 90% and 38%, respectively. Wet (dry) spells were expected to significantly decrease (increase) over most parts of the NRB, especially during the second period (2081–2100). Thereby, the increase (decrease) in dry (wet) spells could have a direct impact on water resource availability in the NRB. This study also highlights that increased greenhouse gas emissions have a greater impact on precipitation patterns. This study’s findings might be useful to decision makers as they create NRB-wide mitigation and adaptation strategies to deal with the effects of climate change.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12010009
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 10: Local Context Capacity Building Needs for
           Climate Change Adaptation among Smallholder Farmers in Uganda: Policy and
           Practice Implications

    • Authors: David Mfitumukiza, Gordon Y. Mwesigwa, Ellen J. Kayendeke, Vincent B. Muwanika
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Climate change impacts threaten sustainable development efforts. The magnitude of the impacts, however, varies with the socio-ecological characteristics of locations. This is the reason there is consensus on the necessity for climate change adaptive capacity building that is country driven, and based on, and responsive to, local needs. However, information on context specific capacity building needs in developing countries is not readily available. The objective of this study was to establish location specific awareness, training, educational research and technology capacity building needs for climate change adaptation among smallholder farmers in Uganda. Semi-structured questionnaires were used with 465 households from five agro-ecological zones, selected based on the level of vulnerability of agricultural systems to the main climate variation and change hazards. Results reveal substantial capacity building needs in all the zones. The majority of the farmers needed capacity building for interventions on soil-water conservation practices for adapting to drought and unpredictable rainfall. For all zones, education, research, and technology were perceived as key needs. However, the needs varied among zones. These results demonstrate the importance of context specificity in adaptation efforts. The study provides agro-ecological and social system specific information for climate change adaptation planning and policy interventions for effective capacity building.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12010010
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 11: Assessment of Changes in Agroclimatic
           Resources of the Republic of Bashkortostan (Russia) under the Context of
           Global Warming

    • Authors: Rita Kamalova, Ekaterina Bogdan, Larisa Belan, Iren Tuktarova, Alexey Firstov, Ildar Vildanov, Irik Saifullin
      First page: 11
      Abstract: The process of climate warming significantly affects agroclimatic resources and agricultural production. We study the agroclimatic resources and their variability on the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan (Russia). The Bashkortostan has a high agricultural potential and holds a leading position in the country in the production of grain crops, potatoes, milk, and honey. Currently, no detailed studies have been conducted for this area to assess the effects of global climate change on agro-climatic resources. World experience shows such research becomes strategically important for regions with powerful agricultural production. We used the sums of average daily air temperatures above 0 and 10 °C, the G.T. Selyaninov hydrothermal coefficient, and the Ped aridity (humidification) index as agroclimatic indicators. We used data of long-term meteorological observations of 30 meteorological stations for the period of 1961–2020. We revealed the long-term dynamics of the agroclimatic indicators and the spatial and temporal regularities in their distribution on the territory of Bashkortostan. There is a steady increase in the sums of average daily air temperatures above 0 and 10 °C. Against this background, aridity increases, which is especially manifested in the southern parts of the Republic of Bashkortostan. We assessed the impact of agroclimatic indicators on the main types of agricultural crops in the republic. We revealed that the greatest positive impact on the yield of oilseeds, cereals, and industrial crops is made by precipitation at the beginning (r = 0.50, r = 0.44, and r = 0.52, respectively) and in the middle of the growing season (r = 0.55, r = 0.76, and r = 0.51, respectively). Temperature and precipitation during the growing season have a complex effect on cereals. This is proven by correlations with HCS and the Ped index (r = 0.45 and r = −0.56, respectively). Aridity at the beginning of the growing season affects the yield of oilseeds and potatoes. This is confirmed by correlations with the Ped index (r = −0.49 and r = −0.52, respectively). In general, the aridity of the growing season has a significant impact on the yield of cereals (r = −0.57). Negative relationships have been found between the air temperature growing season and the yield of potatoes (r = −0.50) and cereals (r = −0.53). The results of the study were compared with data from the Copernicus Climate Change Service database. We identified climate trends under RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0, and RCP 8.5 scenarios. These scenarios should be taken into account when developing plans for the adaptation of agriculture in the Republic of Bashkortostan to changes in the regional climate. Maximum decrease in precipitation is established for the RCP 6.0 scenario. This can have an extremely negative impact on crop yields. This problem is especially relevant for the southern part of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The information presented in the study will allow for a more effective adaptation of the agricultural sector to current and future climate changes.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12010011
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Climate, Vol. 12, Pages 12: Development of Inherent Vulnerability Index
           within Jammu Municipal Limits, India

    • Authors: Simran Bharti, Adyan Ul Haq, L. T. Sasang Guite, Shruti Kanga, Fayma Mushtaq, Majid Farooq, Suraj Kumar Singh, Pankaj Kumar, Gowhar Meraj
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Evaluating inherent vulnerability, an intrinsic characteristic becomes imperative for the formulation of adaptation strategies, particularly in highly complex and vulnerable regions of Himalayas. Jammu City, situated in the north-western Himalayas within a transitional zone between the Himalayan range and the plains, is not only susceptible to intense seismic activities but also faces multiple hazards, including floods, earthquakes, avalanches, and landslides. In recent years, the region has experienced growth in population with rapid progress in infrastructure development, encompassing the construction of highways, dams, and tunnels as integral components of urban development initiatives. Therefore, this study has been conducted to assess the inherent vulnerability index (VI) in Jammu City at ward level as a function of sensitivity, adaptive capacity, and exposure, using ecological and social indicators in GIS environment. The primary objective was to identify the most vulnerable area and ascertain the corresponding municipal ward, aiming to formulate a comprehensive ranking. The 22 indicators analysed were from four major components, namely social, infrastructure, technological, and ecological. The ecological indicators like Land Surface Temperature (LST), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Land use/Land cover were derived from Landsat 8 OLI satellite data. The results show that the majority of the area of the city falls into the moderate (20%), high (25.49%), and very high (25.17%) vulnerability categories, respectively, clustered in north-western and south-western transects with densely populated residential areas. The results can assist policymakers in identification of components of inherent vulnerability for focused resource management and formulating adaptation strategies to address the current stressors in the region.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2024-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cli12010012
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2024)
       
 
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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 65)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Climate Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 72)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Climate Change and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 207)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Nīvār     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Oxford Open Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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