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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Climate Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Journal of Climate Change and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 145)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Nīvār     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Weather     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2225-1154
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 61: Modeling the Contribution of Aerosols to Fog
           Evolution through Their Influence on Solar Radiation

    • Authors: Lea Al Asmar, Luc Musson-Genon, Eric Dupont, Martin Ferrand, Karine Sartelet
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Aerosols and in particular their black carbon (BC) content influence the atmospheric heating rate and fog dissipation. Substantial improvements have been introduced to the solar scheme of the computational fluid dynamic model code_saturne to estimate fluxes and heating rates in the atmosphere. This solar scheme is applied to a well-documented case of a fog that evolves into a low stratus cloud. Different sensitivity tests are conducted. They show that aerosols have a major effect with an overestimation of the direct solar fluxes by 150 W m−2 when aerosols are not considered and a reduction of the heating of the layers. Aerosols lead to an increase of the heating rate by as much as 55% in the solar infrared (SIR) band and 100% in the Ultra-Violet visible (UV-vis) band. Taking into account the fraction of BC in cloud droplets also accentuates the heating in the layers at the top of the fog layer where water liquid content is maximum. When the BC fraction in cloud droplets is equal to 8.6 × 10−6, there is an increase of approximately 7.3 °C/day in the layers. Increasing the BC fraction leads to an increase of this heating in the layer, especially in the UV-vis band.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050061
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 62: Access to Early Warning for Climate
           Change-Related Hazards in Informal Settlements of Accra, Ghana

    • Authors: Ishmael Adams, Sumita Ghosh, Goran Runeson
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Climate change-related hazards will aggravate and impact differently on urban societies. Although early warning systems will be important for reducing the hazard risks in cities, the nature of early warning systems that are available to residents of informal settlements remains less understood. This paper aimed to assess the early warning systems through which informal dwellers reduce their hazard risks in an African city. Using Accra as the case, data were collected from 582 households using a structured questionnaire along with 25 institutional key informant interviews and 14 focus discussions with state and settlement actors in this study. Findings of the paper show that a mix of formal and informal early warning systems are utilized by residents of informal settlements, but the majority of them perceived state disaster management institutions as not performing optimally in their resident settlements. The nature of land ownership in the informal settlements influenced their political exclusion and state institutions’ decisions not to locate weather monitoring equipment in their settlements. Respondents without the security of land tenure perceived state disaster management institutions as not performing optimally, which negatively affects their capacity to respond to climate change-related hazards. The paper thus recommends the incorporation of informal early warning systems into city-wide hazard early warning systems through participatory planning in Accra and similar contexts. Future scholars may extend this discourse by examining the effect of the use of informal early warning systems on the uptake of formal hazard early warning sources in informal settlements.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050062
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 63: The North Atlantic Oscillations:
           Lead–Lag Relations for the NAO, the AMO, and the AMOC. A
           High-Resolution Lead–Lag Analysis

    • Authors: Knut Lehre Seip, Hui Wang
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Several studies examine cycle periods and the interactions between the three major climate modes over the North Atlantic, namely the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO), and the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO). Here, we use a relatively novel high-resolution lead–lag (LL) method to identify short time windows with persistent LL relations in the three series during the period from 1947 to 2020. We find that there are roughly 20-year time windows where LL relations change direction at both interannual, high-frequency and multidecadal, low-frequency timescales. However, with varying LL strength, the AMO leads AMOC for the full period at the interannual timescale. During the period from 1980 to 2000, we had the sequence NAO→AMO→AMOC→NAO at the interannual timescale. For the full period in the decadal time scale, we obtain NAO→AMO→AMOC. The Ekman variability closely follows the NAO variability. Both single time series and the LL relation between pairs of series show pseudo-oscillating patterns with cycle periods of about 20 years. We list possible mechanisms that contribute to the cyclic behavior, but no conclusive evidence has yet been found.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050063
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 64: Homogenization and Trends Analysis of Monthly
           Precipitation Series in the Fez-Meknes Region, Morocco

    • Authors: Ridouane Kessabi, Mohamed Hanchane, Jose A. Guijarro, Nir Y. Krakauer, Rachid Addou, Abderrazzak Sadiki, Mohamed Belmahi
      First page: 64
      Abstract: High quality and long-term precipitation data are required to study the variability and trends of rainfall and the impact of climate change. In developing countries like Morocco, the quality of climate data collected from various weather stations faces numerous obstacles. This paper presents methods for collecting, correcting, reconstructing, and homogenizing precipitation series of Morocco’s Fez-Meknes region from 1961 to 2019. Data collected from national specialized agencies based on 83 rain gauge stations was processed through an algorithm specially designed for the homogenization of climatic data (Climatol). We applied the Mann-Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimator to raw and homogenized data to calculate rainfall trend magnitudes and significance. The homogenization process allows for the detection of a larger number of stations with statistically significant negative trends with 95% and 90% confidence levels, particularly in the mountain ranges, that threatens the main sources of water in the largest watershed in the country. The regionalization of our rain gauge stations is highlighted and compared to previous studies. The monthly and annual means of raw and homogenized data show minor differences over the three main climate zones of the region.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050064
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 65: Climate Change Dynamics and Modeling: Future

    • Authors: Salvatore Magazù, Maria Teresa Caccamo
      First page: 65
      Abstract: This preface to the Special Issue titled “Climate Change Dynamics and Modeling: Future Perspectives” presents eight articles, largely focused on a range of interdisciplinary issues related to climatic changes [...]
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050065
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 66: Climate History of the Principality of
           Transylvania during the Maunder Minimum (MM) Years (1645–1715 CE)
           Reconstructed from German Language Sources

    • Authors: Martin Stangl, Ulrich Foelsche
      First page: 66
      Abstract: This paper deals with the climate in the former Grand Duchy of Transylvania, now one of the three major geographical provinces of Romania, within the so-called Maunder Minimum (MM) (1645–1715), an astrophysically defined part of the Little Ice Age (LIA), which was characterized by reduced solar activity. The historical data from Transylvania are compared with that from Germany, Austria and Switzerland. This comparison for the period 1645–1715 shows good agreement but also reveals geographic characteristics of the region. For the first time, we present here a comparison between the four geographic areas in text and tabular form. Quotes from mostly German-language sources are reproduced in English translation. The results clearly help to identify regional climatic differences during the MM. Furthermore, we examine for a longer period (1500–1950) the extent to which the climate of Transylvania might have been affected by long-term fluctuations in solar activity, as deduced from isotopic reconstructions from ice cores. This way we compared astrophysical conditions with climatological ones in order to see if any probable relations do indeed show up. This comparison suggests a certain solar influence but the agreement is not very pronounced. Future investigation in a pan-European context is needed to reach reliable statements. Some results are unexpected—such as an unusually small number of severe winters during the last decades of the MM, where extreme cold was restricted to a few years, like the extreme winters 1699/1700 and 1708/1709.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050066
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 67: Accessing Insurance Flood Losses Using a
           Catastrophe Model and Climate Change Scenarios

    • Authors: Ladislav Palán, Michal Matyáš, Monika Váľková, Vít Kovačka, Eva Pažourková, Petr Punčochář
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Impact Forecasting has developed a catastrophe flood model for Czechia to estimate insurance losses. The model is built on a dataset of 12,066 years of daily rainfall and temperature data for the European area, representing the current climate (LAERTES-EU). This dataset was used as input to the rainfall–runoff model, resulting in a series of daily river channel discharges. Using analyses of global and regional climate models dealing with the impacts of climate change, this dataset was adjusted for the individual RCP climate scenarios in Europe. The river channel discharges were then re-derived using the already calibrated rainfall–runoff models. Based on the changed discharges, alternative versions of the standard catastrophe flood model for the Czechia were created for the various climate scenarios. In outputs, differences in severity, intensity, and number of events might be observed, as well as the size of storms. The effect on the losses might be investigated by probable maximum losses (PML) curves and average annual loss (AAL) values. For return period 1 in 5 years for the worst-case scenario, the differences can be up to +125 percent increase in insurance losses, while for the return period 1 in 100 years it is a −40 percent decrease. There is no significant effect of adaptation measures for the return period 1 in 100 years, but there is a −20 percent decrease in the return period 1 in 5 years.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050067
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 68: Reconstitution of the Climate in the
           Municipality of Guimarães (Northern Portugal): A Regional Approach
           Based on Historical Information and the Record of Measured Data

    • Authors: Leonel J.R. Nunes
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Climate change is a global phenomenon that has become a focus of concern for society, mainly due to its impacts on daily lives. Despite being a global issue that affects the entire planet, these effects are not felt in the same way in all regions, so the analysis of processes from a regional or local perspective allows a better adaptation of populations to the new reality, as well as being used as a supporting tool for decision making when implementing mitigation measures. For the present analysis, a region in Northern Portugal was chosen, which is in the Mediterranean region, considered one of the hot spots for climate change. In this region of Entre Douro e Minho, more specifically in the municipality of Guimarães, the climate of the last centuries was reconstructed based on documentary information and recent data collected and modeled for the region under study. The results show a successive alternation of hot and dry periods with colder and wetter ones, where climate instability seems to be the dominant trend over the last thousand years. Currently, with the advent of a new period of climatic instability, which, unlike the periods verified previously, now have an anthropic origin, there is a tendency for a new period to occur, in which conditions will tend to be hotter and drier. Knowing this trend in advance allows informed decisions to be made to mitigate some problems that can be associated with these conditions, such as the increase in the risk of wildfires, the proliferation of invasive species, the decrease in agriculture and forests productivity, or even the occurrence of extreme weather events.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050068
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 69: Traditional Water Governance Practices for
           Flood Mitigation in Ancient Sri Lanka

    • Authors: Vindya Hewawasam, Kenichi Matsui
      First page: 69
      Abstract: The tank cascade system, which emerged as early as the fifth century BC in Sri Lanka’s dry zone, has been portrayed as one of the oldest water management practices in the world. However, its important function as flood management has not yet been thoroughly examined. In this paper, we argue that the main principle behind the tank cascade system is not only to recycle and reuse water resources by taking advantage of natural landscapes but also to control floods. This paper examines the evolution of traditional water management and flood mitigation techniques that flourished in pre-colonial Sri Lanka. This historical examination also sheds light on recent policies that exhibited renewed interests in revitalizing some aspects of the tank cascade system in Sri Lanka’s dry zone. This paper shows how ancient Sinhalese engineers and leaders incorporated traditional scientific and engineering knowledge into flood mitigation by engendering a series of innovations for land use planning, embankment designs, and water storage technologies. It also discusses how this system was governed by both kingdoms and local communities. Water management and flood control were among the highest priorities in urban planning and management. The paper thus discusses how, for centuries, local communities successfully sustained the tank cascade system through localized governance, which recent revitalized traditional water management projects often lack.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10050069
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 48: A High-Resolution Earth Observations and
           Machine Learning-Based Approach to Forecast Waterborne Disease Risk in
           Post-Disaster Settings

    • Authors: Farah Nusrat, Musad Haque, Derek Rollend, Gordon Christie, Ali S. Akanda
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Responding to infrastructural damage in the aftermath of natural disasters at a national, regional, and local level poses a significant challenge. Damage to road networks, clean water supply, and sanitation infrastructures, as well as social amenities like schools and hospitals, exacerbates the circumstances. As safe water sources are destroyed or mixed with contaminated water during a disaster, the risk of a waterborne disease outbreak is elevated in those disaster-affected locations. A country such as Haiti, where a large quantity of the population is deprived of safe water and basic sanitation facilities, would suffer more in post-disaster scenarios. Early warning of waterborne diseases like cholera would be of great help for humanitarian aid, and the management of disease outbreak perspectives. The challenging task in disease forecasting is to identify the suitable variables that would better predict a potential outbreak. In this study, we developed five (5) models including a machine learning approach, to identify and determine the impact of the environmental and social variables that play a significant role in post-disaster cholera outbreaks. We implemented the model setup with cholera outbreak data in Haiti after the landfall of Hurricane Matthew in October 2016. Our results demonstrate that adding high-resolution data in combination with appropriate social and environmental variables is helpful for better cholera forecasting in a post-disaster scenario. In addition, using a machine learning approach in combination with existing statistical or mechanistic models provides important insights into the selection of variables and identification of cholera risk hotspots, which can address the shortcomings of existing approaches.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040048
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 49: Estimating Future Residential Property Risk
           Associated with Wildfires in Louisiana, U.S.A.

    • Authors: Rubayet Bin Mostafiz, Carol J. Friedland, Robert V. Rohli, Nazla Bushra
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Wildfire is an important but understudied natural hazard in some areas. This research examined historical and future wildfire property risk at the census-block level in Louisiana, a U.S.A. state with relatively dense population and substantial vulnerability to loss from wildfire, despite its wet climate. Here wildfire risk is defined as the product of exposure and vulnerability to the hazard, where exposure is a function of the historical and anticipated future wildfire frequency/extent, and vulnerability is a function of population, structure and content property value, damage probability, and percent of properties damaged. The results revealed a historical (1992–2015) average annual statewide property loss due to wildfire of almost USD 5.6 million (in 2010 USD), with the greatest risk in southwestern inland, east-central, extreme northwestern, and coastal southwestern Louisiana. The geographic distribution of wildfire risk by 2050 will remain similar to that today, but the magnitude of losses was projected to increase statewide to over USD 11 million by 2050 (in 2010 USD), an increase of more than 100% over 2010 values. These estimates are conservative, as they did not include crop, forestry, or indirect losses (e.g., cost of evacuation and missed time at work). Overall, results suggested that increased efforts are needed to contain wildfires, to reduce the future risk of this increasing and underestimated hazard.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040049
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 50: Modeling the Impact of Future Climate Change
           Impacts on Rainfed Durum Wheat Production in Algeria

    • Authors: Tassadit Kourat, Dalila Smadhi, Azzeddine Madani
      First page: 50
      Abstract: The predicted climate change threatens food security in the coming years in Algeria. So, this study aims to assess the impact of future climate change on a key crop in Algeria which is rainfed durum wheat. We investigate the impact of climate change on rainfed durum wheat cultivar called Mexicali using AquaCrop crop model and the EURO-CORDEX climate projections downscaled with the ICHEC_KNMI model under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. A delta method was applied to correct the incertitudes present in the raw climate projections of two experimental sites located in Sétif and Bordj Bou Arreridj (BBA)’s Eastern High plains of Algeria (EHPs). AquaCrop was validated with a good precision (RMSE = 0.41 tha−1) to simulate Mexicali cultivar yields. In 2035–2064, it is expected at both sites: an average wheat grain yield enhances of +49% and +105% under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively, compared to the average yield of the baseline period (1981–2010), estimated at 29 qha−1. In both sites, in 2035–2064, under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, the CO2 concentrations elevation has a fertilizing effect on rainfed wheat yield. This effect compensates for the negative impacts induced by the temperatures increase and decline in precipitation and net solar radiation. An increase in wheat water productivity is predicted under both RCPs scenarios. That is due to the water loss drop induced by the shortening of the wheat-growing cycle length by the effect of temperatures increase. In 2035–2064, early sowing in mid-September and October will lead to wheat yields improvement, as it will allow the wheat plant to benefit from the precipitations increase through the fall season. Thus, this early sowing will ensure a well vegetative development and will allow the wheat’s flowering and grain filling before the spring warming period.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040050
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 51: Parameterization-Driven Uncertainties in
           Single-Forcing, Single-Model Wave Climate Projections from a CMIP6-Derived
           Dynamic Ensemble

    • Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Gil Lemos, Alvaro Semedo, Faisal Alsaaq
      First page: 51
      Abstract: This study is focused on the impact of different parameterizations in the state-of-the art wave model WAVEWATCH3 (WW3) in describing the present climate and future wave climate projections. We have used a Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6)-derived single-wind forcing (from EC-EARTH) to produce a dynamic wind-wave climate ensemble for its historic (1995–2014) and future (2081–2100) periods. We discuss the uncertainty due to the wave model (intra-model uncertainty) in simulating the present and future wave climate. The historical wave climate runs were compared against the ERA5 reanalysis and found to be in good agreement for the significant wave height. This gives a good degree of confidence to investigate the intra-model uncertainty in WW3 using the available physics packages such as ST2, ST3, ST4, and ST6. In general, for the historic period, ST3 and ST4 physics packages perform better in the tropics whereas ST6 performs better in the extratropics, based on M-Score performance assessment. The study also reveals that the extratropical South Indian Ocean and tropical eastern South Pacific areas exhibit a larger amount of uncertainty, mainly induced by the ST2 physics package. The results of this study shed new light on the impacts associated with the use of multiple physics parameterizations in wave climate ensembles, an issue that has not received the necessary attention in scientific literature.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040051
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 52: Identifying Forest Degradation and Restoration
           Opportunities in the Lancang-Mekong Region: A Tool to Determine Criteria
           and Indicators

    • Authors: Kalifi Ferretti-Gallon, James Douglas Langston, Guangyu Wang, Kebiao Huang, Chao Long, Hongbo Zhai
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Forest restoration is increasingly becoming a priority at international and national levels. Identifying forest degradation, however, is challenging because its drivers are underlying and site-specific. Existing frameworks and principles for identifying forest degradation are useful at larger scales, however, a framework that includes iterative input from local knowledge-holders would be useful at smaller scales. Here, we present a new mechanism; a framework for developing criteria and indicators that enables an approach for the identification of forest degradation and opportunities for restoration in landscapes that is free from failures that are often inherent to project cycles. The Degradation and Restoration Assessment Mechanism (DReAM) uses an iterative process that is based on local expertise and established regional knowledge to inform what is forest degradation and how to monitor restoration. We tested the mechanism’s utility at several sites in the Lancang-Mekong Region (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam). The application of this mechanism rendered a suite of appropriate criteria and indicators for use in identifying degraded forests which can help inform detailed guidelines to develop rehabilitation approaches. The mechanism is designed to be utilized by any individual or group that is interested in degradation identification and/or rehabilitation assessment.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040052
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 53: Brazil Wave Climate from a High-Resolution
           Wave Hindcast

    • Authors: Camila de Sa Cotrim, Alvaro Semedo, Gil Lemos
      First page: 53
      Abstract: A detailed climatology of ocean wind waves in the South Atlantic Ocean, based on ERA-5 reanalysis and in a higher-resolution wave hindcast (ERA-5H), both developed by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, is presented. The higher resolution of the wave fields in the ERA-5H (22 km) allowed for a better description of the wind sea and swell features compared to previous global and regional studies along the Brazilian coast. Overall, it is shown that swell waves are more prevalent and carry more energy in the offshore area of the study area, while wind sea waves dominate the nearshore regions, especially along the northern coast of Brazil. The influence of different climate indices on the significant wave heights patterns is also presented, with two behavioral groups showing opposite correlations to the North Atlantic Oscillation and Southern Annular Mode than to the Southern Oscillation Index. The analysis of the decadal trends of wind sea and swell heights during the ERA-5H period (1979–2020) shows that the long-term trends of the total significant wave height in the South Atlantic Ocean are mostly due to swell events and the wave propagation effect from Southern Ocean storms.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040053
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 54: Frequency of Winter Coupled North
           Pacific/North America Circulation Regimes

    • Authors: James E. Overland, Muyin Wang
      First page: 54
      Abstract: The jet stream over North America alternates between a more zonal direction and a wavy pattern (a more meridional flow) associated with persistent blocking patterns. To better understand these important patterns, we base our study on the frequency of winter (November–February) events during 1981–2020, based on four circulation regime types: blocking, the Alaskan Ridge, North American Ridge/Pacific Wave-Train; and zonal, the Pacific Trough and the central Pacific High/Arctic Low (Amini and Straus 2019). Increased information on within and between season variability is important, as the impacts of blocking include the California heatwave and mid-continent or east coast cold spells. Rather than extensive pattern duration or significant trends, temporal variability is the major feature. In some years the combination of the Alaskan Ridge and North American Ridge/Pacific Wave-Train patterns represent ~5 major events covering 35 days of the 120-day winter period, with individual events lasting 10 days. Within-season multiple occurrences and short durations dominate the winter meteorology of the continental United States. The characterization of the persistence of these blocking events is relevant for extended range forecasts.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040054
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 55: Climate Change Impact on Energy Poverty and
           Energy Efficiency in the Public Housing Building Stock of Bari, Italy

    • Authors: Giandomenico Vurro, Valentina Santamaria, Carla Chiarantoni, Francesco Fiorito
      First page: 55
      Abstract: The public housing stock across the European Union is generally constituted of old buildings (built prior to 1980) with high energy demand and indoor thermal comfort issues, which could be exacerbated by climate change. The aim of this paper was to quantify the impact of climate change on the energy demand of the public housing building stock. A neighbourhood located in Bari (south Italy) is considered as representative of a common construction typology of late 1970s in Italy. Energy models were created and calibrated with real-time data collected from utilities’ bills. The results showed a medium to strong correlation between age and energy consumption (r = 0.358), but no evident correlation between the number of tenants and energy consumption, although a significantly low energy consumption was found in apartments occupied by more than five tenants. An energy penalty of about 7 kWh/m2 of heating energy consumption for every 10 years of increase in the average age of tenants was calculated. Moreover, the impact of future weather scenarios on energy consumptions was analysed and an average annual energy penalty of 0.3 kWh/m2 was found.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040055
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 56: Multicriteria Spatial Modeling: Methodological
           Contribution to the Analysis of Atmospheric and Surface Heat Islands in
           Presidente Prudente, Brazil

    • Authors: Teixeira, Amorim
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Several studies demonstrate the potential of models for the representation of phenomena such as urban heat islands. This article aimed to analyze atmospheric heat islands (UHIucl) by integrating primary air temperature data with spatial information such as land use and relief from a multicriteria model based on multiple linear regression. Furthermore, we compared the measured and estimated air temperature at 11 p.m. with the surface temperature at 10:51 p.m. (local time). These temperatures were obtained through the thermal band of the Landsat 8 satellite considering extraction points of interest in Presidente Prudente city, Brazil. The multicriteria model showed reliability in UHIucl spatialization, reaching the confidence interval (p-value ≤ 0.05). The model proves that urban surface materials are the main energy sources modulating heat transfer to the atmosphere, while vegetation has a temperature-reducing effect. Precise mappings such as the one proposed here are relevant for the formulation of measures that support decision-making by public authorities. These mappings aim at urban planning that is resilient to the effects of urban climate and can be replicated in other realities.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040056
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 57: Climate Changes in Southeastern Poland and
           Food Security

    • Authors: Barbara Sawicka, Piotr Barbaś, Piotr Pszczółkowski, Dominika Skiba, Farhood Yeganehpoor, Barbara Krochmal-Marczak
      First page: 57
      Abstract: The conducted research is of particular importance for the country’s food security in the context of climate change in Southeastern Poland. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of climate on the variability of the appearance and the rate of spread of potato blights as the main factor limiting the potato yield in the conditions of Central and Eastern Europe. Combined statistical and simulation modeling methods were used. A mixed effect model was used to detect the effects of temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed on potato yield, and partial regression analysis models were used. The natural, agricultural and economic conditions in terms of suitability for potato cultivation were assessed, and factors influencing the fluctuation of the cultivated acreage, yield and harvesting of potatoes were identified. The forecast was based on empirical data from 2000 to 2019. It has been proven that potato cultivation in Southeastern Poland is more vulnerable to climate change than in the rest of the country. The results obtained from analyzing multi-annual results can help policymakers to develop strategies to increase the stability of future potato production and the safety of the crop. This will enable the better use of generated data and methodological approaches to analyze the role of climate, both on a regional and global scale.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040057
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 58: Adaptation Strategies and Approaches for
           Managing Fire in a Changing Climate

    • Authors: Martha Sample, Andrea E. Thode, Courtney Peterson, Michael R. Gallagher, William Flatley, Megan Friggens, Alexander Evans, Rachel Loehman, Shaula Hedwall, Leslie Brandt, Maria Janowiak, Christopher Swanston
      First page: 58
      Abstract: As the effects of climate change accumulate and intensify, resource managers juggle existing goals and new mandates to operationalize adaptation. Fire managers contend with the direct effects of climate change on resources in addition to climate-induced disruptions to fire regimes and subsequent ecosystem effects. In systems stressed by warming and drying, increased fire activity amplifies the pace of change and scale of severe disturbance events, heightening the urgency for management action. Fire managers are asked to integrate information on climate impacts with their professional expertise to determine how to achieve management objectives in a changing climate with altered fire regimes. This is a difficult task, and managers need support as they incorporate climate adaptation into planning and operations. We present a list of adaptation strategies and approaches specific to fire and climate based on co-produced knowledge from a science–management partnership and pilot-tested in a two-day workshop with natural resource managers and regional stakeholders. This “menu” is a flexible and useful tool for fire managers who need to connect the dots between fire ecology, climate science, adaptation intent, and management implementation. It was created and tested as part of an adaptation framework used widely across the United States and should be applicable and useful in many fire-prone forest ecosystems.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040058
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 59: Exploring AMOC Regime Change over the Past
           Four Decades through Ocean Reanalyses

    • Authors: Vincenzo de Toma, Vincenzo Artale, Chunxue Yang
      First page: 59
      Abstract: We examine North Atlantic climate variability using an ensemble of ocean reanalysis datasets to study the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) from 1979 to 2018. The dataset intercomparison shows good agreement for the latest period (1995–2018) for AMOC dynamics, characterized by a weaker overturning circulation after 1995 and a more intense one during 1979–1995, with varying intensity across the various datasets. The correlation between leading empirical orthogonal functions suggests that the AMOC weakening has connections with cooler (warmer) sea surface temperature (SST) and lower (higher) ocean heat content in the subpolar (subtropical) gyre in the North Atlantic. Barotropic stream function and Gulf Stream index reveal a shrinking subpolar gyre and an expanding subtropical gyre during the strong-AMOC period and vice versa, consistently with Labrador Sea deep convection reduction. We also observed an east–west salt redistribution between the two periods. Additional analyses show that the AMOC variability is related to the North Atlantic Oscillation phase change around 1995. One of the datasets included in the comparison shows an overestimation of AMOC variability, notwithstanding the model SST bias reduction via ERA-Interim flux adjustments: further studies with a set of numerical experiments will help explain this behavior.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040059
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 60: Quantifying Interactive Cooling Effects of
           Morphological Parameters and Vegetation-Related Landscape Features during
           an Extreme Heat Event

    • Authors: Ayda Kianmehr, Theodore C. Lim
      First page: 60
      Abstract: In this study, we apply the ENVI-met model to evaluate the effects of combinations of morphological and vegetation-related landscape features on urban temperatures and thermal comfort. We simulated the thermal conditions of 126 scenarios, varying the aspect ratios of street canyons, vegetation cover and density, surface materials, and orientations toward the prevalent winds under an extreme heat situation. Our results show how the effects of physical and vegetation parameters interact and moderate each other. We also demonstrate how sensitive thermal comfort indices such as temperature and relative humidity are to the built environment parameters during different hours of a day. This study’s findings highlight the necessity of prioritizing heat mitigation interventions based on the site’s physical characteristics and landscape features and avoiding generic strategies for all types of urban environments.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10040060
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 29: Fuzzy Logic Decision Support System to Predict
           Peaches Marketable Period at Highest Quality

    • Authors: Bianca Magalhães, Pedro Dinis Gaspar, Ana Corceiro, Luzolo João, César Bumba
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Food waste occurs from harvesting to consumption. Applying procedures and technologies, changing attitudes, and promoting awareness have positive social, economic, and environmental impacts that can contribute to reducing food waste. The paper presents a decision support system (DSS) to predict the quality evolution of fruits and vegetables, particularly of peaches, and estimate its commercialization period at the highest overall perceived quality by consumers, thus contributing to reducing food waste. The Fuzzy Logic DSS predicts the evolution of the physical-chemical parameters of peaches (hardness, soluble solids content, and acidity) depending on the cultivar (Royal Summer and Royal Time), storage time, and temperature. As the range of the values of these physical-chemical parameters of peaches that consumers perceive to be at their highest quality are known, the DSS predicts the marketable period in days. Case studies were developed to analyze the influence of each physical-chemical parameter on the commercialization days (number and time to start). It is concluded that temperature is the most important parameter for fruit conservation. A low value of conservation temperature allows for the significant extension of the time that peaches can be sold at the highest quality. Hardness is used to determine the harvest date since it is an index of fruit ripeness. The same conclusion is obtained for the influence of the soluble solids content. The influence of acidity on marketable days is less than the other physical-chemical parameters. This DSS helps retailers to sell their peaches at the highest quality with benefits for all parties. It also helps in the decision-making concerning the actions to take when fruits are reaching the end of their highest quality by predicting the range of the commercialization days. This formulation can be extended to other fruits and vegetables and in the last instance contribute to the reduction of food loss and waste, consequently promoting social, economic, and environmental aspects of our daily life.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030029
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 30: Observed Zonal Variations of the Relationship
           between ITCZ Position and Meridional Temperature Contrast

    • Authors: Eric Mischell, Jung-Eun Lee
      First page: 30
      Abstract: While the zonal-mean position of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is well explained using the zonal-mean energetic framework, the regional variations of the ITCZ have been more difficult to characterize. We show a simple metric, the interhemispheric tropical sea surface temperature (SST) contrast, is useful for estimating the local ITCZ position over seasonal and interannual timescales in modern observations. We demonstrate a linear correspondence between the SST contrast and ITCZ position across oceanic sectors. Though consistently linear, the sensitivity of the ITCZ position to the SST contrast varies from ~1°/K to ~7°/K depending on location. We also find that the location of the Western Pacific interannual ITCZ is negatively correlated with the temperature of the North Atlantic Ocean. This result may help put constraints on past and future regional migrations of the ITCZ.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030030
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 31: Recent Developments in Some Long-Term Drought

    • Authors: Alfred de Jager, Christina Corbane, Filip Szabo
      First page: 31
      Abstract: The droughts that hit North and North Western Europe in 2018 and 2019 served as a wake-up call that temperate regions are also affected by these kinds of slow progressing or creeping disasters. Long-term drivers, such as land-use changes, may have exacerbated the impacts of these meteorological droughts. These changes, which are spread over a long time span, may even be difficult to perceive for an individual, but make a big difference in how these rare weather events impact a region. In this paper, we introduce three long-term drivers: forest fires in Europe, global urbanisation, and global deforestation. We attempt to provide a first assessment of their trends, mainly using statistics derived from satellite imagery published in recent literature. Due to the complexity of drought impacts, and the scarcity of quantitative impact data, the relationship between drought impact and these three processes for land use change is difficult to quantify; however, hence we present a survey of the recent trends in these land use change processes and the possible mechanics by which they affect drought impacts. Based on this survey we can conclude that the extent and the number of wildfires have increased markedly in Europe since 2010. Deforestation is still occurring in the tropics, with a loss of 12% in the last 30 years but has halted in the northern regions. Urbanisation has more than doubled in the same time span in the tropics and subtropics, mostly at the expense of forests, while in Europe urbanisation took place mainly in the northern part of the continent. We can conclude that none of these implicit drought drivers followed a favourable trend in the last 30 years. With consistent and worldwide monitoring, for example, by using satellite imagery, we can regularly inform the scientific community on the trends in these drought impact affecting processes, thus helping decision makers to understand how far we have progressed in making the world resilient to drought impacts.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030031
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 32: Hydrology across Disciplines: Organization and
           Application Experiences of a Public Hydrological Service in Italy

    • Authors: Alessandro Allodi, Letizia Angelo, Fabio Bordini, Monica Branchi, Elisa Comune, Mauro Del Longo, Giuseppe Nicolosi, Mauro Noberini, Filippo Pizzera, Alessio Pugliese, Giuseppe Ricciardi, Fabrizio Tonelli, Franca Tugnoli, Enrica Zenoni
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Water is a fundamental resource for human life and nature; flood management, water supply systems and water protection policies are a few examples of equally important disciplines across the whole hydrological cycle. The present work focuses on the creation and sharing of hydrological knowledge within public activities, with regard to materials and methods adopted for developing and supplying hydrological information, suitable to different stakeholders needs, throughout different disciplines and sectors of environment, economy, society, as well as research and analysis. The aim of this work is to better understand the market in order to increase the value of hydrological data, products and services, and to reduce potential gaps and overlapping areas. The method we developed is based on the example of the Hydrological Service of Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy. Institutional, legal and territorial frameworks as well as agency organization, materials, methods, instruments, activities, products and results are briefly described, focusing on those supporting civil and environmental protection, water management, infrastructure design, climate change adaptation and mitigation measures. We discuss the role of a public Administration in interdisciplinary activities, the links between the general background (e.g., territory, society, rules), organizations, actors, resources, tools, processes and results, by highlighting, where possible, a potential starting point for future research studies. Finally, this paper adopts a novel linguistic style, based on an informal format, in order to explore the set-up and follow-up of the Hydrological Service’s initiatives, with the final aim of sparking curiosity and building awareness, from different sectors and disciplines, which, ultimately, may benefit from the presented approaches.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030032
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 33: Modelling of Extremely High Rainfall in
           Limpopo Province of South Africa

    • Authors: Thendo Sikhwari, Nthaduleni Nethengwe, Caston Sigauke, Hector Chikoore
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Extreme value theory is a powerful method that is known to provide statistical models for events rarely observed. This paper presents a modelling framework for the maximum rainfall data recorded in Limpopo province, South Africa, from 1960 to 2020. Daily and monthly rainfall data were obtained from the South Africa Weather Service. In this work, the r-largest order statistics modelling approach is used. Yearly blocks were used in fitting a 61 years’ data set. The parameters of the developed models were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. After the suitable model for data was chosen, i.e., GEVDr=8, the 50-year return level was estimated as 368 mm, which means a probability of 0.02 exceeding 368 mm in fifty years in the Thabazimbi area. This study helps decision-makers in government and non-profit organisations improve preparation strategies and build resilience in reducing disasters resulting from extreme weather events such as excessive rainfall.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030033
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 34: The Benefit of Continuous Hydrological
           Modelling for Drought Hazard Assessment in Small and Coastal Ungauged
           Basins: A Case Study in Southern Italy

    • Authors: Davide Luciano De Luca, Ciro Apollonio, Andrea Petroselli
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Rainfall-runoff modelling in small and ungauged basins represents one of the most common practices. However, it remains a challenging task for researchers and practitioners, in particular in a climate change context and in areas subject to drought risk. When discharge observations are not available, empirical or event-based approaches are commonly used. However, these schemes can be affected by several relevant assumptions. In the last years, continuous models have been developed in order to address the major drawbacks of event-based approaches. With this goal in mind, in this work we applied a synthetic rainfall generation model (STORAGE; stochastic rainfall generator), constituting the implementation of a modified version of Neymann-Scott rectangular pulse (NSRP) model, and a continuous rainfall-runoff framework (COSMO4SUB; continuous simulation modelling for small and ungauged basins) specifically designed for ungauged basins within a climate change context. The modeling approach allows one to investigate the drought hazard using specific indicators for rainfall and runoff in a small watershed located in southern Italy. Results show that the investigated area seems to tend to a mild/moderate drought in a future time period of approximately 30 years, with a decrease in seasonal water volumes availability in the range of 15–30%. Finally, our results confirm that the continuous modelling is suitable for rapid and effective design simulations supporting drought hazard assessment.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030034
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 35: Carbon Dynamics in Rewetted Tropical Peat
           Swamp Forests

    • Authors: Taryono Darusman, Daniel Murdiyarso, Impron Impron, Iswandi Anas Chaniago, Dwi Puji Lestari
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Degraded and drained peat swamp forests (PSFs) are major sources of carbon emissions in the forestry sector. Rewetting interventions aim to reduce carbon loss and to enhance the carbon stock. However, studies of rewetting interventions in tropical PSFs are still limited. This study examined the effect of rewetting interventions on carbon dynamics at a rewetted site and an undrained site. We measured aboveground carbon (AGC), belowground carbon (BGC), litterfall, heterotrophic components of soil respiration (Rh), methane emissions (CH4), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration at both sites. We found that the total carbon stock at the rewetted site was slightly lower than at the undrained site (1886.73 ± 87.69 and 2106.23 ± 214.33 Mg C ha−1, respectively). The soil organic carbon (SOC) was 1685 ± 61 Mg C ha−1 and 1912 ± 190 Mg C ha−1 at the rewetted and undrained sites, respectively, and the carbon from litterfall was 4.68 ± 0.30 and 3.92 ± 0.34 Mg C ha−1 year−1, respectively. The annual average Rh was 4.06 ± 0.02 Mg C ha−1 year−1 at the rewetted site and was 3.96 ± 0.16 Mg C ha−1 year−1 at the undrained site. In contrast, the annual average CH4 emissions were −0.0015 ± 0.00 Mg C ha−1 year−1 at the rewetted site and 0.056 ± 0.000 Mg C ha−1 year−1 at the undrained site. In the rewetted condition, carbon from litter may become stable over a longer period. Consequently, carbon loss and gain mainly depend on the magnitude of peat decomposition (Rh) and CH4 emissions.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030035
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 36: Forecasting of SPI and SRI Using
           Multiplicative ARIMA under Climate Variability in a Mediterranean Region:
           Wadi Ouahrane Basin, Algeria

    • Authors: Mohammed Achite, Ommolbanin Bazrafshan, Zahra Azhdari, Andrzej Wałęga, Nir Krakauer, Tommaso Caloiero
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Water resources have always been a major concern, particularly in arid and semiarid parts of the world. Low precipitation and its uneven distribution in Algeria, along with fast population and agriculture activity increase and, particularly, recent droughts, have made water availability one of the country’s most pressing issues. The objectives of the studies reported in this article are to investigate and forecast the meteorological and hydrological drought in Wadi Ouahrane basin (270 km2) using linear stochastic models known as Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and multiplicative Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA). In particular, data from 6 precipitation stations and 1 hydrometric station for the period 1972–2018 were used to evaluate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Runoff Index (SRI) for 12 months. Then, the multiplicative ARIMA model was applied to forecasting drought based on SPI and SRI. As a result, the ARIMA model (1,0,1) (0,0,1)12 for SPI and (1,0,1) (1,0,1)12 for SRI were shown to be the best models for drought forecast. In fact, both models exhibited high quality for SPI and SRI of 0.97 and 0.51 for 1-month and 12-month lead time, respectively, based on validation R2. In general, prediction skill decreases with increase in lead time. The models can be used with reasonable accuracy to forecast droughts with up to 12 months of lead time.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030036
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 37: Risks to the Health of Russian Population from
           Floods and Droughts in 2010‒2020: A Scoping Review

    • Authors: Elena A. Grigorieva, Alexandra S. Livenets
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Climate change and natural disasters caused by hydrological, meteorological, and climatic causes have a significant and increasing direct and indirect impact on human health, leading to increased mortality and morbidity. Russia is a country that suffers from frequent climatic and weather disasters. This is mainly due to its vast territory, complex geographical and ecological environment, and widely varying climatic conditions. This review provides information on climatological and hydrological extremes in Russia in 2010–2020, floods and droughts, and their impact on the health and well-being of the country’s population. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases Web of Science, Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, and e-Library, focusing on peer-reviewed journal articles published in English and in Russian from 2010 to 2021. Four conceptual categories were used: “floods”, “droughts”, “human health”, and “Russia”. It is concluded that while most hazardous weather events cannot be completely avoided, many health impacts can potentially be prevented. The recommended measures include early warning systems and public health preparedness and response measures, building climate resilient health systems and other management structures.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030037
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 38: Climate Emergencies in Australian Local
           Governments: From Symbolic Act to Disrupting the Status Quo'

    • Authors: Anthony Greenfield, Susie Moloney, Mikael Granberg
      First page: 38
      Abstract: This paper examines the emerging phenomenon of climate emergency declarations. We focus on the case of Victoria Australia and the 30 councils who have declared a climate emergency with a particular focus on three councils. We explore the drivers, meanings, and implications and to what extent the subsequent plans reflect a reframing of local government roles and actions. We find the emergency declaration movement is catalysing councils beyond symbolic declarations potentially opening up space for change and disruption. Of interest in this paper is also the principal and theoretical implications for citizens, local government, and for research that is connected with this emerging trend. We highlight conclusions, ideas, and perspectives that can be drawn from this study of the Australian practice of climate emergency declarations.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030038
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 39: Cloud-Based Decision Support System for Air
           Quality Management

    • Authors: Vasilis Evagelopoulos, Nikolaos D. Charisiou, Milton Logothetis, Georgios Evagelopoulos, Christopher Logothetis
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Air quality is important for the protection of human health, the environment and our cultural heritage and it is an issue that will acquire increased significance in the future due to the adverse effects of climate change. Thus, it is important to not simply monitor air quality, but to make information immediately available to those responsible for monitoring the networks, to policy/decision makers, but also to the general population. Moreover, the development of information technologies over the last couple of decades has allowed the proliferation of real-time pollution monitoring. The work presented herein concerns the development of an effective way of monitoring environmental parameters using dedicated software. It offers a complete suite of applications that support environmental data collection management and reporting for air quality and associated meteorology. It combines modern technologies for the proper monitoring of air quality networks, which can consist of one or more measuring stations. Innovatively, it also focuses on how to effectively present the relevant information, utilizing modern technologies, such as cloud and mobile applications, to network engineers, policy/decision managers, and to the general public at large. It also has the capability of notifying appropriate personnel in the event of failures, overruns or abnormal values. The system, in its current configuration, handles information from six networks that include over 55 air pollution monitoring stations that are located throughout Greece. This practical application has shown that the system can achieve high data availability rates, even higher than 99% during the year.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030039
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 40: Status of Food Security in East and Southeast
           Asia and Challenges of Climate Change

    • Authors: Hen-I Lin, Ya-Yin Yu, Fang-I Wen, Po-Ting Liu
      First page: 40
      Abstract: This review briefly summarizes the situation regarding food security in East and Southeast Asia. In accordance with the World Food Summit definition and 2009 Declaration of the World Summit on Food Security, the four pillars of food security—food availability, access to food, the stability of food supplies, and food utilization—are closely scrutinized along with the characteristics of food security at the sub-regional level. Historical trends for the agricultural economy and the food trade, such as food imports and exports, production and consumption, and the food price index in the sub-region, are presented and statistically analysed. Additionally, because agricultural industry in this region is vulnerable to climate change, issues about how climate change affects food security in food production systems, agricultural livelihoods, nutrition, and food policy making, which can be linked to the four pillars in different ways, are also discussed.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030040
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 41: Changing Air Quality and the Ozone Weekend
           Effect during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    • Authors: William A. Gough, Vidya Anderson
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Air pollutants, NO, NO2, and O3, were examined from April to June 2020 and compared to a 10-year (2010–2019) climatology of these pollutants for two monitoring sites in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, coinciding with local lockdown measures during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. NO and NO2 values were lower than any of the preceding 10 years at the two Toronto sites for both weekdays and weekends. Ozone concentrations did not have a corresponding decrease and in fact increased for weekdays, similar to other parts of the world. The well-documented ozone weekend effect was considerably muted during the morning rush hour throughout this pandemic period. A Fisher exact test on hourly averaged data revealed statistically significant record hourly minimums for NO and NO2, but this was not found for ozone, consistent with the aggregate ranking results. These findings are likely the result of considerably reduced vehicular traffic during this time and ozone chemistry in a NOx-saturated (VOC limited) environment. This has important implications for ozone abatement strategies.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030041
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 42: Impacts of Multiple Hurricanes and Tropical
           Storms on Watershed Hydrological Processes in the Florida Panhandle

    • Authors: Ying Ouyang, Johnny M. Grace, Prem B. Parajuli, Peter V. Caldwell
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Hurricanes and tropical storms (TS) are infrequent but disastrous events to human lives, social activities, and terrestrial ecosystems in coastal regions. Using the Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA)’s Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS) model, principal component analysis (PCA), and principal factor analysis (PFA), we estimated impacts of multiple hurricanes and TS on hydrological processes in agricultural and forested watersheds. Five hurricanes and four TS that passed near or through the Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint River basin (ACFRB) of the Florida panhandle from 1966 to 2018 were selected to estimate their impacts on rainfall, potential evapotranspiration (PET), evapotranspiration (ET), soil water percolation, surface runoff, stream discharge, groundwater recharge, and water yield (WYLD). Simulations showed that the category of hurricanes was not highly related to the amounts of rainfall, runoff, discharge, and WYLD. Based on PCA and PFA, PET and ET were highly and negatively, rainfall and discharge were highly and positively, and percolation, runoff, groundwater recharge and WYLD were moderately and positively affected by the hurricanes and TS at the ACFRB in the recent 50 years. This study provides water resource managers with critical insights into how multiple hurricanes and TS affected hydrological processes in agricultural and forested watersheds of the coastal region.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030042
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 43: Impact of Dietary Meat and Animal Products on
           GHG Footprints: The UK and the US

    • Authors: Rebecca J. Barthelmie
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Direct and indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the ~30+ billion animals consumed as food each year contribute ~14–16% of the global total. The aim of this research is to determine the contribution of meat and animal products to individual GHG footprints. Top-down estimates of GHG emissions from each livestock species are determined using livestock numbers, types, and region-specific emission factors. Comparing livestock emissions with those from individual countries, cattle rank as the third largest emitter after China and the United States (US). The largest uncertainty in these emissions calculations is in the range of emissions factors. Global top-down calculations indicate that the per capita GHG footprint from livestock emissions alone are approximately 1 tCO2eyr−1. For the United Kingdom (UK) and the US, the calculated GHG livestock-related footprints are 1.1 tCO2eyr−1 and 1.6 tCO2eyr−1 per person, respectively. Bottom-up calculations focused on the UK and the US from consumption figures indicated emissions related to meat consumption are approximately 1.3–1.5 tCO2eyr−1 per person. Comparing dietary changes with other ways of reducing GHG footprints indicates removing dietary meat is similar to avoiding one long-haul flight each year and a larger reduction than driving 100 miles less each week.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030043
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 44: Evaluation of Long-Term Trends of Rainfall in
           Perak, Malaysia

    • Authors: Muhammad Faisal Hanif, Muhammad Raza Ul Mustafa, Muhammad Usman Liaqat, Ahmad Mustafa Hashim, Khamaruzaman Wan Yusof
      First page: 44
      Abstract: This study aimed to examine the spatiotemporal seasonal and annual trends of rainfall indices in Perak, Malaysia, during the last 35 years, as any seasonal or spatial variability in rainfall may influence the regional hydrological cycle and water resources. Mann–Kendall and Sequential Mann–Kendall (SMK) tests were used to assess seasonal and annual trends. Precipitation concentration index was used to estimate variations in rainfall concentration, and Theil–Sen’s slope estimator was used to determine the spatial variability of rainfall. It was found that most of the rainfall indices are showing decreasing trends, and it was most prominent for the southwest monsoon season with a decreasing rate of 2.20 mm/year. The long-term trends for seasonal rainfall showed that rainfall declined by 0.29 mm/year during the southwest monsoon. In contrast, the northeast and the inter-monsoon seasons showed slight increases. Rainfall decreased gradually from 1994 to 2008, and the trend became more pronounced in 2008. On a spatial basis, rainfall trends have shifted from the western regions (i.e., −19 mm/year) to the southeastern regions (i.e., 10 mm/year). Overall, slightly decreasing trends in rainfall were observed in Perak Malaysia.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030044
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 45: Potential Sea Level Rise Impacts in Acapulco
           Diamante, Mexico

    • Authors: Ramiro Salvador Gómez-Villerías, Adalberto Tejeda-Martínez, Ana Cecilia Conde Álvarez, Maximino Reyes Umaña, José Luis Rosas-Acevedo, Manuel Ignacio Ruz Vargas, Erick Alfonso Galán Castro
      First page: 45
      Abstract: The potential impacts of sea level in the study region are presented using the Integrated Procedure for Estimate Sea Level Impacts (IPESLI), made up of Landsat images, official databases, and design software for geographic information systems. IPESLI is useful in areas with little georeferenced and validated information. The sea level projections are based on the climate projections, which incorporate the possible attenuation of the ice sheet near the upper end of Antarctica. Flood risk statistics were used to simulate the frequency of extreme flooding across the planet. The IPESLI was calibrated using seven field visits to compare the height values generated by the digital elevation model against the in situ data. The inundation maps generated in the study can be used to find the most vulnerable areas and initiate decision making for coastal adaptation. The IPESLI procedure has the potential to contribute to the formation of a communication bridge between climate change science and policy makers. The projection is profound for all scenarios, but it is particularly devastating for the Acapulco Diamante area if we start with the worst future climate scenario (SSP5-RCP8.5).
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030045
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 46: Climate Change, Voluntary Immobility, and
           Place-Belongingness: Insights from Togoru, Fiji

    • Authors: Merewalesi Yee, Annah E. Piggott-McKellar, Celia McMichael, Karen E. McNamara
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Many low-lying communities around the world are increasingly experiencing coastal hazard risks. As such, climate-related relocation has received significant global attention as an adaptation response. However, emerging cases of populations resisting relocation in preference for remaining in place are emerging. This paper provides an account of residents of Togoru, a low-lying coastal settlement on Viti Levu Island, Fiji. Despite facing significant coastal impacts in the form of coastal erosion, tidal inundation, and saltwater intrusion, Togoru residents are opposing plans for relocation; instead opting for in-situ adaptation. We conceptualize place-belongingness to a land and people—through personal, historic and ancestral, relational, cultural, economic, and legal connections—as critical to adaptation and mobility decision-making. We argue that for adaptation strategies to be successful and sustainable, they must acknowledge the values, perspectives, and preferences of local people and account for the tangible and intangible connections to a place.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030046
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 47: High-Resolution Estimation of Monthly Air
           Temperature from Joint Modeling of In Situ Measurements and Gridded
           Temperature Data

    • Authors: Bradley Wilson, Jeremy R. Porter, Edward J. Kearns, Jeremy S. Hoffman, Evelyn Shu, Kelvin Lai, Mark Bauer, Mariah Pope
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Surface air temperature is an important variable in quantifying extreme heat, but high-resolution temporal and spatial measurement is limited by sparse climate-data stations. As a result, hyperlocal models of extreme heat involve intensive physical data collection efforts or analyze satellite-derived land-surface temperature instead. We developed a geostatistical model that integrates in situ climate-quality temperature records, gridded temperature data, land-surface temperature estimates, and spatially consistent covariates to predict monthly averaged daily maximum surface-air temperatures at spatial resolutions up to 30 m. We trained and validated the model using data from North Carolina. The fitted model showed strong predictive performance with a mean absolute error of 1.61 ∘F across all summer months and a correlation coefficient of 0.75 against an independent hyperlocal temperature model for the city of Durham. We show that the proposed model framework is highly scalable and capable of producing realistic temperature fields across a variety of physiographic settings, even in areas where no climate-quality data stations are available.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10030047
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 10: Suitability Assessment of Weather Networks for
           Wind Data Measurements in the Athabasca Oil Sands Area

    • Authors: Dhananjay Deshmukh, M. Razu Ahmed, John Albino Dominic, Anil Gupta, Gopal Achari, Quazi K. Hassan
      First page: 10
      Abstract: The Athabasca Oil Sands Area (AOSA) in Alberta, Canada, is considered to have a high density of weather stations. Therefore, our objective was to determine an optimal network for the wind data measurement that could sufficiently represent the wind variability in the area. We used available historical data records of the weather stations in the three networks in AOSA, i.e., oil sands monitoring (OSM) water quantity program (WQP) and Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) edge sites (ES) and meteorological towers (MT) of the air program. Both graphical and quantitative methods were implemented to find the correlations and similarities in the measurements between weather stations in each network. The graphical method (wind rose diagram) was found as a functional tool to understand the patterns of wind directions, but it was not appropriate to quantify and compare between wind speed data of weather stations. Therefore, we applied the quantitative method of the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) and absolute average error (AAE) in finding a relationship between the wind data of station pairs and the percentage of similarity (PS) method in quantifying the closeness/similarity. In the correlation analyses, we found weak to strong correlations in the wind data of OSM WQP (r = 0.04–0.69) and WBEA ES (r = 0.32–0.77), and a strong correlation (r = 0.33–0.86) in most of the station pairs of the WBEA MT network. In the case of AAE, we did not find any acceptable value within the standard operating procedure (SOP) threshold when logically combining the values of the u and v components together. In the similarity analysis, minor similarities were identified between the stations in the three networks. Hence, we presumed that all weather stations would be required to measure wind data in the AOSA.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10020010
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 11: Peaches Detection Using a Deep Learning
           Technique—A Contribution to Yield Estimation, Resources Management,
           and Circular Economy

    • Authors: Eduardo T. Assunção, Pedro D. Gaspar, Ricardo J. M. Mesquita, Maria P. Simões, António Ramos, Hugo Proença, Pedro R. M. Inacio
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Fruit detection is crucial for yield estimation and fruit picking system performance. Many state-of-the-art methods for fruit detection use convolutional neural networks (CNNs). This paper presents the results for peach detection by applying a faster R-CNN framework in images captured from an outdoor orchard. Although this method has been used in other studies to detect fruits, there is no research on peaches. Since the fruit colors, sizes, shapes, tree branches, fruit bunches, and distributions in trees are particular, the development of a fruit detection procedure is specific. The results show great potential in using this method to detect this type of fruit. A detection accuracy of 0.90 using the metric average precision (AP) was achieved for fruit detection. Precision agriculture applications, such as deep neural networks (DNNs), as proposed in this paper, can help to mitigate climate change, due to horticultural activities by accurate product prediction, leading to improved resource management (e.g., irrigation water, nutrients, herbicides, pesticides), and helping to reduce food loss and waste via improved agricultural activity scheduling.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10020011
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 12: Unravelling Precipitation Trends in Greece
           since 1950s Using ERA5 Climate Reanalysis Data

    • Authors: George Varlas, Konstantinos Stefanidis, George Papaioannou, Yiannis Panagopoulos, Ioannis Pytharoulis, Petros Katsafados, Anastasios Papadopoulos, Elias Dimitriou
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Precipitation is one of the most variable climatic parameters, as it is determined by many physical processes. The spatiotemporal characteristics of precipitation have been significantly affected by climate change during the past decades. Analysis of precipitation trends is challenging, especially in regions such as Greece, which is characterized by complex topography and includes several ungauged areas. With this study, we aim to shed new light on the climatic characteristics and inter-annual trends of precipitation over Greece. For this purpose, we used ERA5 monthly precipitation data from 1950 to 2020 to estimate annual Theil–Sen trends and Mann–Kendall significance over Greece and surrounding areas. Additionally, in order to analyze and model the nonlinear relationships of monthly precipitation time series, we used generalized additive models (GAMs). The results indicated significant declining inter-annual trends of areal precipitation over the study area. Declining trends were more pronounced in winter over western and eastern Greece, but trends in spring, summer and autumn were mostly not significant. GAMs showcased that the trends were generally characterized by nonlinearity and precipitation over the study area presented high inter-decadal variability. Combining the results, we concluded that precipitation did not linearly change during the past 7 decades, but it first increased from the 1950s to the late 1960s, consequently decreased until the early 1990s and, afterwards, presented an increase until 2020 with a smaller rate than the 1950–1960s.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10020012
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 13: Using the Conservation Standards Framework to
           Address the Effects of Climate Change on Biodiversity and Ecosystem

    • Authors: Marcia B. Brown, John C. Morrison, Terri T. Schulz, Molly S. Cross, Nicole Püschel-Hoeneisen, Varsha Suresh, Antonieta Eguren
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Climate change has challenged biodiversity conservation practitioners and planners. In this paper, we provide scalable guidance on integrating climate change into conservation planning and adaptive management that results in the most appropriate conservation strategies. This integrated “Climate-Smart Conservation Practice” focuses on analyzing the potential impact of climate change on species, ecosystems, and ecosystem services, combined with “conventional” (non-climate) threats, and incorporating this knowledge into projects. The guidance is based on the already widely-used “Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation”, an application of systems thinking and adaptive management, which has been successfully applied to thousands of conservation projects. Our framework emphasizes a methodical analysis of climate change impacts for projects to support more productive goals and strategy development. We provide two case studies showing the applicability and flexibility of this framework. An initial key element is developing “situation models” that document both current and future threats affecting biodiversity while showing the interactions between climate and conventional threats. Guidance is also provided on how to design integrated, climate-smart goals and strategies, and detailed theories of change for selected strategies. The information and suggestions presented are intended to break down the steps to make the process more approachable, provide guidance to teams using climate change information within a systematic conservation planning process, and demonstrate how climate scientists can provide appropriate information to conservation planners.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10020013
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 14: The Potential Global Climate Suitability of
           Kiwifruit Bacterial Canker Disease (Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae
           (Psa)) Using Three Modelling Approaches: CLIMEX, Maxent and Multimodel

    • Authors: Hossein A. Narouei-Khandan, Susan P. Worner, Suvi L. H. Viljanen, Ariena H. C. van Bruggen, Giorgio M. Balestra, Eirian Jones
      First page: 14
      Abstract: In recent years, outbreaks of kiwifruit bacterial canker (Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Psa) have caused huge economic losses to two major global kiwifruit producers, Italy and New Zealand. To evaluate the potential global risk areas of Psa, three modelling methods (MaxEnt, CLIMEX and a multimodel framework, including support vector machines or SVM) were used. Current global occurrence data for Psa were collected from different sources. The long-term climate data were sourced from WorldClim and CliMond websites. The model results were combined into a consensus model to identify the hotspots. The consensus model highlighted the areas where two or three models agreed on climate suitability for Psa. All three models agreed with respect to the climate suitability of areas where Psa is currently present and identified novel areas where Psa has not established yet. The SVM model predicted large areas in Central Asia, Australia, and Europe as more highly suitable compared to MaxEnt and CLIMEX. Annual mean temperature and annual precipitation contributed most to the MaxEnt prediction. Both MaxEnt and CLIMEX showed the probability of Psa establishment increased above 5 °C and decreased above 20 °C. The annual precipitation response curve showed that excessive rain (>1200 mm/y) constrains Psa establishment. Our modelling results will provide useful information for Psa management by highlighting the climatically susceptible areas where Psa has not established, such as the USA, Iran, Denmark, Belgium and especially South Africa, where kiwifruit has been planted commercially in recent years.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10020014
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 15: Possibilities of Sustainable Development
           Including Improvement in Air Quality for the City of Murmansk-Examples of
           Best Practice from Scandinavia

    • Authors: Huber, Rusek, Menshakova, Zhigunova, Chmiel, Iakovleva
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The Russian city of Murmansk has about 300,000 inhabitants and is located inside the Arctic Circle in NE Scandinavia (Russia). It has one of the largest such concentrations of people in the Arctic. The city is a scientific, industrial, cultural, and transportation centre (an ice-free port in the so-called Northern Sea Route, connecting Europe with Asia). Currently, air pollution in the city is associated with outdated city heating technology, coal dust from the port and vehicular traffic, and so-called “small emissions”. The authors propose practical solutions based on known examples of Scandinavian cities with similar climatic conditions such as: the modernisation of heat energy acquisition; diversification of energy acquisition including renewable sources; thermal insulation of buildings; arrangement of urban greenery with dust-catching plants, and proposals for changing the habits within the population by promoting the use of public transport.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10020015
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 16: Assessing Changes in 21st Century Mean and
           Extreme Climate of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta in California

    • Authors: Minxue He
      First page: 16
      Abstract: This work aims to assess potential changes in the mean and extreme precipitation and temperature across the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta) in California in the 21st century. The study employs operative climate model projections from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Specifically, 64 individual downscaled daily projections (1/16 degree, approximately 6 by 6 km) on precipitation and temperature from 32 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) under two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) from 2020–2099 are utilized for the analysis. The results indicate increasing warming (in mean, minimum, and maximum temperature) further into the future under both emission scenarios. Warming also exhibits a strong seasonality, with winters expecting lower and summers expecting higher increases in temperature. In contrast, for mean annual total precipitation, there is no consistent wetter or drier signal. On average, the changes in annual total precipitation are minimal. However, dry season precipitation is projected to decline. The study also shows that the number of wet days is projected to decrease while the number of very wet (daily precipitation over 10 mm) and extremely wet (daily precipitation over 20 mm) days is projected to increase. Moreover, the study illustrates that only about half of the changes in total annual precipitation are projected to come from changes in the wettest 10% of wet days. In contrast, a majority of changes in variance of the annual precipitation comes from changes in variance of the wettest 10% of the wet days. This suggests that fluctuations in large storms are projected to dictate the variability of precipitation in the Delta. Additionally, a general upward trend in dry conditions measured by the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index is expected during the projection period. The trending signal is stronger at multi-year temporal scales (one to four years) and under the higher emission scenario. These change patterns are generally similar across three sub-regions of the Delta (i.e., North, South, and West), even though some changes in the South Delta are the most pronounced. This study further discusses challenges posed by these changes to the Delta’s water supply and ecosystems, along with the Delta’s resiliency and potential ways to address these challenges.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10020016
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 17: Water Profitability Analysis to Improve Food
           Security and Climate Resilience: A Case Study in the Egyptian Nile Delta

    • Authors: Adham Badawy, Amgad Elmahdi, Sayed Abd El-Hafez, Ali Ibrahim
      First page: 17
      Abstract: The food self-sufficiency policy has always featured as an unquestionable policy objective for Egypt. This is understandable when one considers both the high population growth and the social and political vulnerability associated with a dependence on food imports and world market food prices such as wheat. Intensive agriculture has led to a growing subsidy burden for the Egyptian government. In addition, the agricultural fields in Egypt are commonly distributed with relatively small sizes parcels that usually reduce the reliability of the agricultural sector, particularly in the delta region, to meet the national food policy. On top of that, climate change, through changing weather patterns and increased temperatures, is affecting agricultural yields and thus farmers’ livelihoods. A water profitability analysis was conducted for three governorates in the Nile Delta in Egypt to establish a baseline and assess the net return per unit of water of the main crops in each of these governorates; this can act as a reference of the water profitability of different crops before they are affected by climate change and other internal and external factors. The analysis was based on extensive in-person surveys in each governorate in addition to workshop discussions with farmers. The study has highlighted the impact of a lack of extension services, which limits farmers’ ability to increase their land and water productivity. Farmers with more access to subsidized production inputs managed to achieve higher levels of water profitability even on smaller lands. Finally, we drew from our findings key policy actions to improve water profitability and land productivity for farmers in the Nile Delta to achieve higher levels of food security. This will help build resilient food production systems that are reliable in the face of climate change and other drivers. In addition, an integrated nexus strategy and plan for the inter- and intra-country is recommended to address the challenges related to food and climate security.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10020017
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 18: Evaluation of the Urban Microclimate in
           Catania using Multispectral Remote Sensing and GIS Technology

    • Authors: Michele Mangiameli, Giuseppe Mussumeci, Antonio Gagliano
      First page: 18
      Abstract: This study focuses on the determination and examination of both the Land Surface Temperature (LST) and the atmospheric temperature in the city of Catania Sicily (Italy), through freely available satellite remote sensing images from the Sentinel-2 and MODIS missions. Satellite images were processed as raster data in free and open-source GIS environments. The GIS software allows the retrieval, processing of the satellite images for the estimation of the LST and the atmospheric temperature with a very coarse spatial resolution. In particular, the proposed procedure allows increasing the spatial resolution of satellite images, from 250 m (LRES) to 10 m (HRES) through the principle of "Disaggregation of thermal images". The analysis provided georeferenced maps which show the LST, as well as the atmospheric temperature within the investigated area with a very fine resolution, 10 m. Such spatial resolution reveals evident correlations between areas with different urban densities and their microclimate. An important result of this study is that significant LST differences can be observed during both day (15–17°C) and night (2–3°C) between green and built-up areas. The outcomes of this study highlight the effectiveness of the combined use of satellite remote sensing and GIS for analyzing the thermal response of urbanized areas with different built density.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10020018
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 19: Combined Effect of High-Resolution Land Cover
           and Grid Resolution on Surface NO2 Concentrations

    • Authors: Carlos Silveira, Joana Ferreira, Paolo Tuccella, Gabriele Curci, Ana I. Miranda
      First page: 19
      Abstract: High-resolution air quality simulations are often performed using different nested domains and resolutions. In this study, the variability of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations estimated from two nested domains focused on Portugal (D2 and D3), with 5 and 1 km horizontal grid resolutions, respectively, was investigated by applying the WRF-Chem model for the year 2015. The main goal and innovative aspect of this study is the simulation of a whole year with high resolutions to analyse the spatial variability under the simulation grids in conjunction with detailed land cover (LC) data specifically processed for these high-resolution domains. The model evaluation was focused on Portuguese air quality monitoring stations taking into consideration the station typology. As main results, it should be noted that (i) D3 urban LC categories enhanced pollution hotspots; (ii) generally, modelled NO2 was underestimated, except for rural stations; (iii) differences between D2 and D3 estimates were small; (iv) higher resolution did not impact model performance; and (v) hourly D2 estimates presented an acceptable quality level for policy support. These modelled values are based on a detailed LC classification (100 m horizontal resolution) and coarse spatial resolution (approximately 10 km) emission inventory, the latter suitable for portraying background air pollution problems. Thus, if the goal is to characterise urban/local-scale pollution patterns, the use of high grid resolution could be advantageous, as long as the input data are properly represented.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10020019
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 20: Implications of Flood Risk Reduction
           Interventions on Community Resilience: An Assessment of Community
           Perception in Bangladesh

    • Authors: Md. Sazzad Ansari, Jeroen Warner, Vibhas Sukhwani, Rajib Shaw
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Bangladesh, a flat densely populated country in a dynamic delta, is vulnerable to recurring flood disasters. Various types of structural and non-structural flood risk reduction interventions have been implemented over the years to safeguard the people and assets. In that context, the present study assesses the community perception about the implications of such diverse interventions on community resilience, in three reasonably proximate settlements, with varying characteristics: the Type 1 settlement has a flood protection embankment; the Type 2 settlement has no flood risk reduction intervention, and the Type 3 settlement has non-structural interventions. Through a mixed-method assessment in selected settlements, the study results reveal both positive and negative implications of these interventions on local communities. While the embankment has contributed towards enhancing infrastructural resilience in the Type 1 settlement, it still reportedly does not provide complete flood safety. On the other hand, the non-structural measures are reported to have increased community competencies in the Type 3 settlement, but the long-term sustainability of these traits is uncertain. Furthermore, the study results uncover “connectedness among local communities” as an inherent characteristic in all three locations, whereas flood risk reduction interventions are stated to be partly associated with social tension and the marginalization of certain socio-economic groups.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10020020
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 21: Study of Turbulence Associated with the Faraji

    • Authors: Giuseppe Ciardullo, Leonardo Primavera, Fabrizio Ferrucci, Vincenzo Carbone, Fabio Lepreti
      First page: 21
      Abstract: The formation of a cyclonic region in which nonlinear interactions generate turbulence in the form of small-scale vortices can be observed because of the different rotating air masses. Turbulence dynamics in cyclones (specifically hurricanes) has been under-researched; therefore, assessing the shear term is crucial to identify the onset of cyclonic formation within a region of the atmosphere. Earth observation techniques are able to provide relevant information on this physical process. In this article, we propose a new framework that is useful for connecting the study of the dynamics of a cyclonic system with the observations generated by geostationary satellite facilities. In particular, we applied the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), a technique widely used in turbulent analysis to decompose a generic scalar or vector field in empirical eigenfunction, to investigate a tropical cyclone, the Faraji hurricane, from a dynamic point of view, beginning from the temporal evolution of its temperature field. The latter was obtained by elaborating on data and images collected by the SEVIRI radiometer, installed on the Meteosat Second Generation-8 (IODC) satellite. Using the POD, the energy spectra of both the spatial and temporal components of the temperature field obtained through remote sensing techniques were studied separately. Important information was then extracted and used for an in-depth characterization of the properties of the turbulence in the non-linear evolution of this phenomenon.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10020021
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 22: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Climate in 2021

    • Authors: Climate Editorial Office Climate Editorial Office
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10020022
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 23: Modeling Soil Organic Carbon Changes under
           Alternative Climatic Scenarios and Soil Properties Using DNDC Model at a
           Semi-Arid Mediterranean Environment

    • Authors: Ibtissame Lembaid, Rachid Moussadek, Rachid Mrabet, Ahmed Bouhaouss
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the central issues in dealing with soil fertility as well as environmental and food safety. Due to the lack of relevant data sources and methodologies, analyzing SOC dynamics has been a challenge in Morocco. During the last two decades, process-based models have been adopted as alternative and powerful tools for modeling SOC dynamics; whereas, information and knowledge on the most sensitive model inputs under different climate, and soil conditions are still very limited. For this purpose, a sensitivity analysis was conducted in the present work, using the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model based on the data collected at a semi-arid region (Merchouch station, Morocco). The objective is to identify the most influential factors affecting the DNDC-modeled SOC dynamics in a semi-arid region across different climatic and soil conditions. The results of sensitivity analysis highlighted air temperature as the main determinant of SOC. A decrease in air temperature of 4 °C results in an almost 161 kg C ha−1 yr−1 increase in C sequestration rate. Initial SOC was also confirmed to be one of the most sensitive parameters for SOC. There was a 96 kg C ha−1 yr−1 increase in C sequestration rate under low initial SOC (0.005 kg C ha−1). In the DNDC, air temperature in climatic factors and initial SOC in variable soil properties had the largest impacts on SOC accumulation in Merchouch station. We can conclude that the sensitivity analysis conducted in this study within the DNDC can contribute to provide a scientific evidence of uncertainties of the selected inputs variables who can lead to uncertainties on the SOC in the study site. The information in this paper can be helpful for scientists and policy makers, who are dealing with regions of similar environmental conditions as Merchouch Station, by identifying alternative scenarios of soil carbon sequestration.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10020023
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 24: Bioaerosols as Evidence of Atmospheric
           Circulation Anomalies over the Okhotsk Sea and Shantar Islands in the Late

    • Authors: Razjigaeva, Ganzey, Grebennikova, Ponomarev, Mokhova, Chakov, Klimin
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Allochthonous biofossil distribution in the blanket peat bog of Bolshoy Shantar Island was used to analyze atmospheric circulation anomalies in the north-western Okhotsk Sea over the last 12.6 ka. The main aim of this study was to determine periods of intensification of deep cyclones and extreme storms. The composition of bioaerosols is significantly influenced by atmospheric zonal and meridional transport anomalies associated with anomalies of the monsoon system of Northeast Asia, atmospheric fronts and cyclone trajectories. Marine diatoms enter the peatland from the sea during extreme storms and record the passage of sea cyclones in the autumn-winter, whereas the distribution of allochthonous pollen indicates the intensity of continental cyclones. We used Pinus pumila pollen as an indicator of heavy snowfalls and winter cyclone activity. Fifteen phases of extreme storms were identified. Changes in ice coverage also played an important role in bioaerosol emission. During cold periods, emissions of bioaerosols mainly occurred in the open sea, whereas during warm periods, emissions occurred near the coast. The recurrence and intensity of cyclones during the cold seasons depends on displacement of the Siberian High and Aleutian Low. Periods of continental cyclones intensified in spring-summer and coincided with periods of active winter cyclogenesis 2212.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10020024
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 25: Ecology and Climate of the Earth—The
           Same Biogeophysical System

    • Authors: Roger A. Pielke, Debra Coffin Peters, Dev Niyogi
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Ecology and the climate provide two perspectives of the same biogeophysical system at all spatiotemporal scales More effectively embracing this congruence is an opportunity to improve scientific understanding and predictions as well as for a more effective policy that integrates both the bottom-up community, business-driven framework, and the popular, top-down impact assessment framework. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to more closely integrate the diverse spectrum of scientists, engineers and policymakers into finding optimal solutions to reduce the risk to environmental and social threats by considering the ecology and climate as an integrated system. Assessments such as performed towards the 2030 Plan for Sustainable Development, with its 17 Sustainable Development Goals and its Goal 13 in particular, can achieve more progress by accounting for the intimate connection of all aspects of the Earth’s biogeophysical system.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10020025
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 26: Air Pollution within Different Urban Forms in
           Manchester, UK

    • Authors: Mohammad Taleghani
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Air pollution causes millions of mortalities and morbidities in large cities. Different mitigation strategies are being investigated to alleviate the negative impacts of different pollutants on people. Designing proper urban forms is one of the least studied strategies. In this paper, we modelled air pollution (NO2 concentration) within four hypothetical neighbourhoods with different urban forms: single, courtyard, linear east-west, and linear north-south scenarios. We used weather and air pollution data of Manchester as one of the cities with high NO2 levels in the UK. Results show that the pollution level is highly dependent on the air temperature and wind speed. Annually, air pollution is higher in cold months (45% more) compared to summer. Likewise, the results show that during a winter day, the concentration of air pollution reduces during the warm hours. Within the four modelled scenarios, the air pollution level in the centre of the linear north-south model is the lowest. The linear building blocks in this scenario reduce the concentration of the polluted air and keep a large area within the domain cleaner than the other scenarios. Understanding the location of air pollution (sources) and the direction of prevailing wind is key to design/plan for a neighbourhood with cleaner air for pedestrians.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10020026
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 27: Expectations of Future Natural Hazards in

    • Authors: Riccardo Boero, Carl James Talsma, Julia Andre Oliveto, Katrina Eleanor Bennett
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Human adaptation to climate change is the outcome of long-term decisions continuously made and revised by local communities. Adaptation choices can be represented by economic investment models in which the often large upfront cost of adaptation is offset by the future benefits of avoiding losses due to future natural hazards. In this context, we investigate the role that expectations of future natural hazards have on adaptation in the Colorado River basin of the USA. We apply an innovative approach that quantifies the impacts of changes in concurrent climate extremes, with a focus on flooding events. By including the expectation of future natural hazards in adaptation models, we examine how public policies can focus on this component to support local community adaptation efforts. Findings indicate that considering the concurrent distribution of several variables makes quantification and prediction of extremes easier, more realistic, and consequently improves our capability to model human systems adaptation. Hazard expectation is a leading force in adaptation. Even without assuming increases in exposure, the Colorado River basin is expected to face harsh increases in damage from flooding events unless local communities are able to incorporate climate change and expected increases in extremes in their adaptation planning and decision making.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10020027
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 28: Sub-Hourly Precipitation Extremes in Mainland
           Portugal and Their Driving Mechanisms

    • Authors: João A. Santos, Margarida Belo-Pereira
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Sub-hourly heavy precipitation events (SHHPs) frequently underlie major meteorological hazards, but their comprehensive analysis is still lacking in Portugal. A 71-weather-station dataset for 2000–2020 is used in this article to (1) diagnose SHHPs corresponding to a 10-min precipitation event of at least 5.0 mm, (2) characterize their spatial-temporal distribution, and (3) identify their associated synoptic-scale conditions. Two synoptic types are associated with SHHPs: remote (RemL) and regional (RegL) low-pressure systems. RegL SHHPs display two marked maxima in spring and autumn, while RemL SHHPs show a single maximum in autumn. Most RegL events occur in the afternoon/evening, while RemL events show a slight bias toward midday occurrences. In the case of RemL, the wind is stronger for 2 to 3 h before and during SHHPs, veers from 180° to 210° near the event, the pressure decreases until 20 min before the event, and the wet-bulb temperature decreases around the time of the event and remains low, thus reflecting cold-front passages. For RegL, maximum winds coincide with precipitation peaks, and the wet-bulb temperature briefly decreases in association with downdrafts. A preliminary relationship between the SHHPs and mesoscale convective systems is established by detecting sudden surface-pressure surges, which are indicative of mesohighs caused by evaporatively cooled downdrafts. A calendar of mesohigh episodes linked to SHHPs is provided herein and their signatures are illustrated for the “Pedrógão-Grande” fires. Indicators of several downbursts, cold pools, and mesohighs were identified by the AROME forecast. This first, systematized analysis paves the way to identifying dynamic precursors, enabling their integration into early warning systems and climate projections.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10020028
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 2: Wave Analysis for Offshore Aquaculture
           Projects: A Case Study for the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    • Authors: Flora E. Karathanasi, Takvor H. Soukissian, Daniel R. Hayes
      First page: 2
      Abstract: The investigation of wave climate is of primary concern for the successful implementation of offshore aquaculture systems as waves can cause significant loads on them. Up until now, site selection and design (or selection) of offshore cage system structures on extended sea areas do not seem to follow any specific guidelines. This paper presents a novel methodology for the identification of favorable sites for offshore aquaculture development in an extended sea area based on two important technical factors: (i) the detailed characterization of the wave climate, and (ii) the water depth. Long-term statistics of the significant wave height, peak wave period, and wave steepness are estimated on an annual and monthly temporal scale, along with variability measures. Extreme value analysis is applied to estimate the design values and associated return periods of the significant wave height; structures should be designed based on this data, to avoid partial or total failure. The Eastern Mediterranean Sea is selected as a case study, and long-term time series of wave spectral parameters from the ERA5 dataset are utilized. Based on the obtained results, the most favorable areas for offshore aquaculture installations have been identified.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-01-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10010002
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 3: Impact of Urbanization on Urban Heat Island
           Intensity in Major Districts of Bangladesh Using Remote Sensing and
           Geo-Spatial Tools

    • Authors: Md. Naimur Rahman, Md. Rakib Hasan Rony, Farhana Akter Jannat, Subodh Chandra Pal, Md. Saiful Islam, Edris Alam, Abu Reza Md. Towfiqul Islam
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Urbanization is closely associated with land use land cover (LULC) changes that correspond to land surface temperature (LST) variation and urban heat island (UHI) intensity. Major districts of Bangladesh have a large population base and commonly lack the resources to manage fast urbanization effects, so any rise in urban temperature influences the population both directly and indirectly. However, little is known about the impact of rapid urbanization on UHI intensity variations during the winter dry period in the major districts of Bangladesh. To this end, we aim to quantify spatiotemporal associations of UHI intensity during the winter period between 2000 and 2019 using remote-sensing and geo-spatial tools. Landsat-8 and Landsat-5 imageries of these major districts during the dry winter period from 2000 to 2020 were used for this purpose, with overall precision varying from 81% to 93%. The results of LULC classification and LST estimation showed the existence of multiple UHIs in all major districts, which showed upward trends, except for the Rajshahi and Rangpur districts. A substantial increase in urban expansion was observed in Barisal > 32%, Mymensingh > 18%, Dhaka > 17%, Chattogram > 14%, and Rangpur > 13%, while a significant decrease in built-up areas was noticed in Sylhet < −1.45% and Rajshahi < −3.72%. We found that large districts have greater UHIs than small districts. High UHI intensities were observed in Mymensingh > 10 °C, Chattogram > 9 °C, and Barisal > 8 °C compared to other districts due to dense population and unplanned urbanization. We identified higher LST (hotspots) zones in all districts to be increased with the urban expansion and bare land. The suburbanized strategy should prioritize the restraint of the high intensity of UHIs. A heterogeneous increase in UHI intensity over all seven districts was found, which might have potential implications for regional climate change. Our study findings will enable policymakers to reduce UHI and the climate change effect in the concerned districts.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10010003
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 4: Historic Climate in Heritage Building and
           Standard 15757: Proposal for a Common Nomenclature

    • Authors: Kristian Fabbri
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Research on the relationship between microclimate and heritage buildings or historic buildings has increased dramatically in the last few decades. Research has focused on indoor climate or indoor microclimate or the environment or micro-environment, and the field of these studies regards several variables, physical—air temperature, air speed, relative humidity—or chemical, dust, CO2, pollution, etc., all of which can have an effect or damage buildings or artifacts inside buildings. Moreover, all these variables should be monitored in a monitoring campaign following the standard EN 15757; in spite of this, scientific literature contains mistakes with regard to the words and objects of study. In this short contribution, the author proposes a common nomenclature in the research field of climate and microclimate in heritage buildings and heritage artifacts. A new nomenclature should be useful for the community of heritage scientists working on preventive measures to distinguish between climate and environment, or the object of study, e.g., the room (wall, wood structure, fresco, etc.) where the artifacts are or the air around them (painting, canvas, statue, piece of furniture, documents, books, etc.).
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10010004
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 5: Diurnal Extrema Timing—A New
           Climatological Parameter'

    • Authors: Ana Žaknić-Ćatović, William A. Gough
      First page: 5
      Abstract: We address the following question: Are turning points of daily air temperature function a piece of relevant climatological information worth recording and analyzing' Diurnal Extrema Timing (DET) are daily occurrence times of air temperature minimum and maximum. Although unrecognized and unrecorded as a meteorological variable, the exact timing of daily temperature extrema plays a crucial role in the characterization of air temperature variability. In this study, we introduce the DET concept and assess the plausibility of this potential parameter in detecting temperature extrema timing changes. Conceptualization of the DET parameter has, for a primary goal, the supplementation of vital spatial information to the daily measurements of air temperature extrema. The elementary analysis of annual trends of daily DET examines the significance of this parameter in describing changes in the time domain of air temperature variability. The introduction of the new Climate Parameter Sensitivity Index (CPSI) for evaluating the susceptibility of climate parameters to climate change directs attention to the importance of the systematic acquisition of the timing of daily extrema in climate observations. The results of this study reveal the timing of daily air temperature maximum as the most vulnerable to climate change among temperature and timing extrema indices.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10010005
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 6: Climate Change Impacts on Groundwater Recharge
           in Cold and Humid Climates: Controlling Processes and Thresholds

    • Authors: Emmanuel Dubois, Marie Larocque, Sylvain Gagné, Marco Braun
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Long-term changes in precipitation and temperature indirectly impact aquifers through groundwater recharge (GWR). Although estimates of future GWR are needed for water resource management, they are uncertain in cold and humid climates due to the wide range in possible future climatic conditions. This work aims to (1) simulate the impacts of climate change on regional GWR for a cold and humid climate and (2) identify precipitation and temperature changes leading to significant long-term changes in GWR. Spatially distributed GWR is simulated in a case study for the southern Province of Quebec (Canada, 36,000 km2) using a water budget model. Climate scenarios from global climate models indicate warming temperatures and wetter conditions (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5; 1951–2100). The results show that annual precipitation increases of >+150 mm/yr or winter precipitation increases of >+25 mm will lead to significantly higher GWR. GWR is expected to decrease if the precipitation changes are lower than these thresholds. Significant GWR changes are produced only when the temperature change exceeds +2 °C. Temperature changes of >+4.5 °C limit the GWR increase to +30 mm/yr. This work provides useful insights into the regional assessment of future GWR in cold and humid climates, thus helping in planning decisions as climate change unfolds. The results are expected to be comparable to those in other regions with similar climates in post-glacial geological environments and future climate change conditions.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10010006
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 7: Perception of Climate Change Effects over Time
           and the Contribution of Different Areas of Knowledge to Its Understanding
           and Mitigation

    • Authors: Leonel J. R. Nunes, Marta Ferreira Dias
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Climate change is a current subject that is attracting more and more attention, whether from academics or the public. This public attention is mainly due to the frequently published news in the media, reporting consequences caused by extreme weather events. On the other hand, scientists are looking into the origins of the phenomenon, seeking answers that will somehow help to mitigate the effects of climate change. This article presents a review of some of the different possible approaches taken on climate change, to demonstrate the need to build a multidisciplinary perspective of the problem. It is understood that only the integration of different perspectives, presented by different areas of knowledge, such as natural sciences, social and economic sciences and human sciences, will make it possible to build modeling and predictive scenarios, which realistically may represent the development of the earth system under the influence of climate change. In this way, with the support of all areas of knowledge, the creation of forecast models where all possible changes to the different variables of the earth system may be simulated will allow for the mitigation measures presented to be analyzed in advance and, thus, prioritized. This review shows that a multi and interdisciplinary approach, based on the knowledge acquired from different knowledge and science fields, presents itself as the way to solve this global and complex problem caused by climate change.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10010007
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 8: How Do Young People Deal with Border Tensions
           When Making Climate-Friendly Food Choices' On the Importance of
           Critical Emotional Awareness for Learning for Social Change

    • Authors: Maria Ojala
      First page: 8
      Abstract: If we are going to be able to fight climate change in an effective way there is a need for a profound sustainability transformation of society. The question is how everyday pro-environmental behavior such as climate-friendly food choices should be looked upon in this context: as something that hides the need for structural change, or as a starting point for a profound transformation' The aim is to discuss how emotions related to conflicts encountered when trying to make everyday climate-friendly food choices in a society that is not always sustainable can be used to promote transformational learning. Interviews were performed with 15 adolescents. Emotions felt in relation to conflicts and how the youth cope were explored. The results show that the youth mainly felt individualized emotions of guilt, helplessness, and irritation and that they coped primarily by distancing themselves from emotions felt, but also sometimes in a problem-focused way and through positive reappraisal. Results are discussed in relation to theories about critical emotional awareness and prefigurative politics. It is argued that by taking account of emotional aspects related to everyday conflicts in a critical manner, issues such as justice could be brought to the surface and transformative learning could be enhanced.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10010008
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 9: Modeling Carbon Release of Brazilian Highest
           Economic Pole and Major Urban Emitter: Comparing Classical Methods and
           Artificial Neural Networks

    • Authors: Daniela Debone, Tiago Dias Martins, Simone Georges El Khouri Miraglia
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Despite the concern about climate change and the associated negative impacts, fossil fuels continue to prevail in the global energy consumption. This paper aimed to propose the first model that relates CO2 emissions of Sao Paulo, the main urban center emitter in Brazil, with gross national product and energy consumption. Thus, we investigated the accuracy of three different methods: multivariate linear regression, elastic-net regression, and multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks. Comparing the results, we clearly demonstrated the superiority of artificial neural networks when compared with the other models. They presented better results of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE = 0.76%) and the highest possible coefficient of determination (R2 = 1.00). This investigation provides an innovative integrated climate-economic approach for the accurate prediction of carbon emissions. Therefore, it can be considered as a potential valuable decision-support tool for policymakers to design and implement effective environmental policies.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2022-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10010009
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 167: Assessing Farmers’ Typologies of
           Perception for Adopting Sustainable Adaptation Strategies in Bangladesh

    • Authors: Abu Reza Md. Towfiqul Islam, Md. Hasanuzzaman, Mahmud Jaman, Edris Alam, Javed Mallick, G. M. Monirul Alam, Md. Abdus Sattar, Kuaanan Techato
      First page: 167
      Abstract: The implementation of sustainable adaptation strategies (SASs) is crucial to mitigate climate change impact as well as reduce the loss of natural disasters and increase agricultural crop production. However, current policies and programs based on agricultural incentives are mostly inadequate to increase SASs practices at the farm level. Hence, a deeper understanding of farmers’ ‘perceived typologies to the environmental issue and climate change’ is necessary for implementing SASs to enhance farmers’ ability to adapt at the farm level. This research intends to demarcate farmers in various categories, according to their perceptions on environmental and climate change issues in the northern part of Bangladesh. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were employed to analyze the survey data collected from 501 households in the study area. Farmers were clustered into three types, ‘Ecocentric’, ‘Worried’, and ‘Anthropocentric’, based on their perceived knowledge regarding environmental issues and climate change, which guides the adoption of SASs. The ‘Worried’ cluster showed a high sense of perceived risk of climate change and a significant positive association with the adoption of SASs. By contrast, ‘Ecocentric’ and ‘Anthropocentric’ groups showed a low sense of awareness of climate change and a significant negative association with the adoption of SASs. The findings can assist policymakers in promoting the adoption of SASs based on the farmers’ cluster and thus enhance their resilience.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9120167
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 168: Coastal Wave Extremes around the Pacific and
           Their Remote Seasonal Connection to Climate Modes

    • Authors: Julien Boucharel, Loane Santiago, Rafael Almar, Elodie Kestenare
      First page: 168
      Abstract: At first order, wind-generated ocean surface waves represent the dominant forcing of open-coast morpho-dynamics and associated vulnerability over a wide range of time scales. It is therefore paramount to improve our understanding of the regional coastal wave variability, particularly the occurrence of extremes, and to evaluate how they are connected to large-scale atmospheric regimes. Here, we propose a new “2-ways wave tracking algorithm” to evaluate and quantify the open-ocean origins and associated atmospheric forcing patterns of coastal wave extremes all around the Pacific basin for the 1979–2020 period. Interestingly, the results showed that while extreme coastal events tend to originate mostly from their closest wind-forcing regime, the combined influence from all other remote atmospheric drivers is similar (55% local vs. 45% remote) with, in particular, ~22% coming from waves generated remotely in the opposite hemisphere. We found a strong interconnection between the tropical and extratropical regions with around 30% of coastal extremes in the tropics originating at higher latitudes and vice-versa. This occurs mostly in the boreal summer through the increased seasonal activity of the southern jet-stream and the northern tropical cyclone basins. At interannual timescales, we evidenced alternatingly increased coastal wave extremes between the western and eastern Pacific that emerge from the distinct seasonal influence of ENSO in the Northern and SAM in the Southern Hemisphere on their respective paired wind-wave regimes. Together these results pave the way for a better understanding of the climate connection to wave extremes, which represents the preliminary step toward better regional projections and forecasts of coastal waves.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9120168
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 169: Site Selection for a Network of Weather
           Stations Using AHP and Near Analysis in a GIS Environment in Amazonas, NW

    • Authors: Nilton B. Rojas Briceño, Rolando Salas López, Jhonsy O. Silva López, Manuel Oliva-Cruz, Darwin Gómez Fernández, Renzo E. Terrones Murga, Daniel Iliquín Trigoso, Miguel Barrena Gurbillón, Elgar Barboza
      First page: 169
      Abstract: Meteorological observations play a major role in land management; thus, it is vital to properly plan the monitoring network of weather stations (WS). This study, therefore, selected ‘highly suitable’ sites with the objective of replanning the WS network in Amazonas, NW Peru. A set of 11 selection criteria for WS sites were identified and mapped in a Geographic Information System, as well as their importance weights were determined using Analytic Hierarchy Process and experts. A map of the suitability of the territory for WS sites was constructed by weighted superimposition of the criteria maps. On this map, the suitability status of the 20 existing WS sites was then assessed and, if necessary, relocated. New ‘highly suitable’ sites were determined by the Near Analysis method using existing WS (some relocated). The territory suitability map for WS showed that 0.3% (108.55 km2) of Amazonas has ‘highly suitable’ characteristics to establish WS. This ‘highly suitable’ territory corresponds to 26,683 polygons (of ≥30 × 30 m each), from which 100 polygons were selected in 11 possible distributions of new WS networks in Amazonas, with different number and distance of new WS in each distribution. The implementation of this methodology will be a useful support tool for WS network planning.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9120169
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 170: The Multi-Scale Dynamics Organizing a
           Favorable Environment for Convective Density Currents That Redirected the
           Yarnell Hill Fire

    • Authors: Michael L. Kaplan, Curtis N. James, Jan Ising, Mark R. Sinclair, Yuh-Lang Lin, Andrew Taylor, Justin Riley, Shak M. S. Karim, Jackson Wiles
      First page: 170
      Abstract: The deadly shift of the Yarnell Hill, Arizona wildfire was associated with an environment exhibiting gusty wind patterns in response to organized convectively driven circulations. The observed synoptic (>2500 km) through meso-β (approximately 100 km) scale precursor environment that organized a mid-upper tropospheric cross-mountain mesoscale jet streak circulation and upslope thermally direct flow was examined. Numerical simulations and observations indicated that both circulations played a key role in focusing the upper-level divergence, ascent, downdraft potential, vertical wind shear favoring mobile convective gust fronts, and a microburst. This sequence was initiated at the synoptic scale by a cyclonic Rossby Wave Break (RWB) 72 h prior, followed by an anticyclonic RWB. These RWBs combined to produce a mid-continent baroclinic trough with two short waves ushering in cooler air with the amplifying polar jet. Cool air advection with the second trough and surface heating across the Intermountain West (IW) combined to increase the mesoscale pressure gradient, forcing a mid-upper tropospheric subsynoptic jet around the periphery of the upstream ridge over Southern Utah and Northern New Mexico. Convection was triggered by an unbalanced secondary jetlet circulation within the subsynoptic jet in association with a low-level upslope flow accompanying a mountain plains solenoidal circulation above the Mogollon Rim (MR) and downstream mountains.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9120170
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 171: Physical Modeling of Snow Gliding: A Case
           Study in the NW Italian Alps

    • Authors: Giovanni Martino Bombelli, Gabriele Confortola, Margherita Maggioni, Michele Freppaz, Daniele Bocchiola
      First page: 171
      Abstract: Snow gliding, a slow movement downhill of snow cover, is complex to forecast and model and yet is extremely important, because it drives snowpack dynamics in the pre-avalanching phase. Despite recent interest in this process and the development of some studies therein, this phenomenon is poorly understood and represents a major point of uncertainty for avalanche forecasting. This study presents a data-driven, physically based, time-dependent 1D model, Poli-Glide, able to predict the slow movement of snowpacks along a flow line at the daily scale. The objective of the work was to create a useful snow gliding model, requiring few, relatively easily available input data, by (i) modeling snowpack evolution from measured precipitation and air temperature, (ii) evaluating the rate and extent of movement of the snowpack in the gliding phase, and (iii) assessing fracture (i.e., avalanching) timing. Such a model could be then used to provide hazard assessment in areas subject to gliding, thereby, and subsequent avalanching. To do so, some simplifying assumptions were introduced, namely that (i) negligible traction stress occurs within soil, (ii) water percolation into snow occurs at a fixed rate, and (iii) the micro topography of soil is schematized according to a sinusoidal function in the absence of soil erosion. The proposed model was then applied to the “Torrent des Marais-Mont de La Saxe” site in Aosta Valley, monitored during the winters of 2010 and 2011, featuring different weather conditions. The results showed an acceptable capacity of the model to reproduce snowpack deformation patterns and the final snowpack’s displacement. Correlation analysis based upon observed glide rates further confirmed dependence against the chosen variables, thus witnessing the goodness of the model. The results could be a valuable starting point for future research aimed at including more complex parameterizations of the different processes that affect gliding.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9120171
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 172: Do Invasive Mammal Eradications from Islands
           Support Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation'

    • Authors: Peter J. Kappes, Cassandra E. Benkwitt, Dena R. Spatz, Coral A. Wolf, David J. Will, Nick D. Holmes
      First page: 172
      Abstract: Climate change represents a planetary emergency that is exacerbating the loss of native biodiversity. In response, efforts promoting climate change adaptation strategies that improve ecosystem resilience and/or mitigate climate impacts are paramount. Invasive Alien Species are a key threat to islands globally, where strategies such as preventing establishment (biosecurity), and eradication, especially invasive mammals, have proven effective for reducing native biodiversity loss and can also advance ecosystem resilience and create refugia for native species at risk from climate change. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that successful eradications may also contribute to mitigating climate change. Given the cross-sector potential for eradications to reduce climate impacts alongside native biodiversity conservation, we sought to understand when conservation managers and funders explicitly sought to use or fund the eradication of invasive mammals from islands to achieve positive climate outcomes. To provide context, we first summarized available literature of the synergistic relationship between invasive species and climate change, including case studies where invasive mammal eradications served to meet climate adaptation or mitigation solutions. Second, we conducted a systematic review of the literature and eradication-related conference proceedings to identify when these synergistic effects of climate and invasive species were explicitly addressed through eradication practices. Third, we reviewed projects from four large funding entities known to support climate change solutions and/or native biodiversity conservation efforts and identified when eradications were funded in a climate change context. The combined results of our case study summary paired with systematic reviews found that, although eradicating invasive mammals from islands is an effective climate adaptation strategy, island eradications are poorly represented within the climate change adaptation and mitigation funding framework. We believe this is a lost opportunity and encourage eradication practitioners and funders of climate change adaptation to leverage this extremely effective nature-based tool into positive conservation and climate resilience solutions.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9120172
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 173: Sea State Decadal Variability in the North
           Atlantic: A Review

    • Authors: Antoine Hochet, Guillaume Dodet, Fabrice Ardhuin, Mark Hemer, Ian Young
      First page: 173
      Abstract: Long-term changes of wind-generated ocean waves have important consequences for marine engineering, coastal management, ship routing, and marine spatial planning. It is well-known that the multi-annual variability of wave parameters in the North Atlantic is tightly linked to natural fluctuations of the atmospheric circulation, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation. However, anthropogenic climate change is also expected to influence sea states over the long-term through the modification of atmospheric and ocean circulation and melting of sea ice. Due to the relatively short duration of historical sea state observations and the significant multi-decadal variability in the sea state signal, disentangling the anthropogenic signal from the natural variability is a challenging task. In this article, the literature on inter-annual to multi-decadal variability of sea states in the North Atlantic is reviewed using data from both observations and model reanalysis.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9120173
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 174: On the Use of Ensemble Predictions for
           Parametric Typhoon Insurance

    • Authors: Kelvin S. Ng, Gregor C. Leckebusch, Qian Ye, Wenwen Ying, Haoran Zhao
      First page: 174
      Abstract: Parametric typhoon insurances are an increasingly used financial tool to mitigate the enormous impact of tropical cyclones, as they can quickly distribute much-needed resources, e.g., for post-disaster recovery. In order to optimise the reliability and efficiency of parametric insurance, it is essential to have well-defined trigger points for any post-disaster payout. This requires a robust localised hazard assessment for a given region. However, due to the rarity of severe, landfalling tropical cyclones, it is difficult to obtain a robust hazard assessment based on historical observations. A recent approach makes use of unrealised, high impact tropical cyclones from state-of-the-art ensemble prediction systems to build a physically consistent event set, which would be equivalent to about 10,000 years of observations. In this study, we demonstrate that (1) alternative trigger points of parametric typhoon insurance can be constructed from a local perspective and the added value of such trigger points can be analysed by comparing with an experimental set-up informed by current practice; (2) the estimation of the occurrence of tropical cyclone-related losses on the provincial level can be improved. We further discuss the potential future development of a general tropical cyclone compound parametric insurance.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9120174
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 175: Opportunity for GNSS Reflectometry in Sensing
           the Regional Climate and Soil Moisture Instabilities in Myanmar

    • Authors: Aung Lwin, Dongkai Yang, Xuebao Hong, Bo Zhang, Baoyin Zhang, Cheraghi Shamsabadi Sara
      First page: 175
      Abstract: The climate crisis is happening globally, and the consequent process has revealed soil evolution and meteorological interactions. The GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) technique recently encompassed sea surface monitoring, land changes, and snow sensing in addition to position, navigation, and timing. After the launch of NASA’s eight CYGNSS satellites, spaceborne soil moisture retrieval has become more opportune in a global and regional investigation. The research carried out by the CYGNSS DDM SNR with SMAP data to correlate diurnal mean soil moisture sensing was analyzed in the regional study of Myanmar, which is prone to climatic and weather conditions. The results showed that spaceborne GNSS-R soil moisture sensitivity was very useful during seasonal changes in regional observation. The DDM SNR surface reflectivity was strongly correlated with soil moisture according to surface temperature variations prepared from SMAP passive reflectometry. Sentinel SAR-1 data included the validation and verification of flood-prone areas affected by tropical storm surges or weather depressions in the monsoon season. The availability of surface reflectivity primarily relied on the surface roughness, surface temperature, and vegetation opacity for soil moisture retrieval.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-12-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9120175
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 176: Overall Warming with Reduced Seasonality:
           Temperature Change in New England, USA, 1900–2020

    • Authors: Stephen S. Young, Joshua S. Young
      First page: 176
      Abstract: The ecology, economy, and cultural heritage of New England is grounded in its seasonal climate, and this seasonality is now changing as the world warms due to human activity. This research uses temperature data from the U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) to analyze annual and seasonal temperature changes in the New England region of the United States from 1900 to 2020 at the regional and state levels. Results show four broad trends: (1) New England and each of the states (annually and seasonally) have warmed considerably between 1900 and 2020; (2) all of the states and the region as a whole show three general periods of change (warming, cooling, and then warming again); (3) the winter season is experiencing the greatest warming; and (4) the minimum temperatures are generally warming more than the average and maximum temperatures, especially since the 1980s. The average annual temperature (analyzed at the 10-year and the five-year average levels) for every state, and New England as a whole, has increased greater than 1.5 °C from 1900 to 2020. This warming is diminishing the distinctive four-season climate of New England, resulting in changes to the region’s ecology and threatening the rural economies throughout the region.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-12-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9120176
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 177: Uncertainty, Complexity and Constraints: How
           Do We Robustly Assess Biological Responses under a Rapidly Changing

    • Authors: Imtiaz Rangwala, Wynne Moss, Jane Wolken, Renee Rondeau, Karen Newlon, John Guinotte, William Riebsame Travis
      First page: 177
      Abstract: How robust is our assessment of impacts to ecosystems and species from a rapidly changing climate during the 21st century' We examine the challenges of uncertainty, complexity and constraints associated with applying climate projections to understanding future biological responses. This includes an evaluation of how to incorporate the uncertainty associated with different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and climate models, and constraints of spatiotemporal scales and resolution of climate data into impact assessments. We describe the challenges of identifying relevant climate metrics for biological impact assessments and evaluate the usefulness and limitations of different methodologies of applying climate change to both quantitative and qualitative assessments. We discuss the importance of incorporating extreme climate events and their stochastic tendencies in assessing ecological impacts and transformation, and provide recommendations for better integration of complex climate–ecological interactions at relevant spatiotemporal scales. We further recognize the compounding nature of uncertainty when accounting for our limited understanding of the interactions between climate and biological processes. Given the inherent complexity in ecological processes and their interactions with climate, we recommend integrating quantitative modeling with expert elicitation from diverse disciplines and experiential understanding of recent climate-driven ecological processes to develop a more robust understanding of ecological responses under different scenarios of future climate change. Inherently complex interactions between climate and biological systems also provide an opportunity to develop wide-ranging strategies that resource managers can employ to prepare for the future.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-12-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9120177
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 178: Is Drought Increasing in Maine and Hurting
           Wild Blueberry Production'

    • Authors: Kallol Barai, Rafa Tasnim, Bruce Hall, Parinaz Rahimzadeh-Bajgiran, Yong-Jiang Zhang
      First page: 178
      Abstract: A few severe drought events occurred in the Northeast (NE) USA in recent decades and caused significant economic losses, but the temporal pattern of drought incidents and their impacts on agricultural systems have not been well assessed. Here, we analyzed historical changes and patterns of drought using a drought index (standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI)), and assessed drought impacts on remotely sensed vegetation indices (enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)) and production (yield) of the wild blueberry fields in Maine, USA. We also analyzed the impact of short- and long-term water conditions of the growing season on the wild blueberry vegetation condition and production. No significant changes in the SPEI were found in the past 71 years, despite a significant warming pattern. There was also a significant relationship between the relatively long-term SPEI and the vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI), but not the short-term SPEI (one year). This suggests that the crop vigor of wild blueberries is probably determined by water conditions over a relatively long term. There were also significant relationships between 1-year water conditions (SPEI) and yield for a non-irrigated field, and between 4-year-average SPEI and the yield of all fields in Maine. The vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI) are not good predictors of wild blueberry yield, possibly because wild blueberry yield does not only depend on crop vigor, but also on other important variables such as pollination. We also compared an irrigated and a non-irrigated wild blueberry field at the same location (Deblois, Maine) where we found that irrigation decoupled the relationship between the SPEI and NDVI or EVI.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-12-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9120178
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 179: Recent Climate Change in the Lake Kyoga Basin,
           Uganda: An Analysis Using Short-Term and Long-Term Data with Standardized
           Precipitation and Anomaly Indexes

    • Authors: John Peter Obubu, Seyoum Mengistou, Tadesse Fetahi, Tena Alamirew, Robinson Odong, Samuel Ekwacu
      First page: 179
      Abstract: Climate change (CC) is now a global challenge due to uncertainties on the drivers and the multifaceted nature of its impacts. It impacts many sectors such as agriculture, water supply, and global economies through temperature and precipitation, affecting many livelihoods. Although there are global, regional, and national studies on CC, their application to determine local CC occurence mitigation and adaptation measures is not ideal. Therefore, this study aimed to determine climate change trends in Lake Kyoga Basin using standardized precipitation and anomaly indexes. Short-term (39 years, 1981–2020) and long-term (59 years, 1961–2020) monthly data from eight strategic meteorological stations were acquired from the Uganda National Meteorological Authority and supplemented with satellite and model reanalysis climate datasets. Change in precipitation was determined by SPI-6, while SAI determined change in temperature. The Mann–Kendall test was used to determine the trend significance. Whereas two (Serere and Lira) long-term data stations showed significant changes in precipitation, all the short-term data stations showed a significant increasing trend. Decadal relative rainfall anomaly increased from 85.6–105 in 1981–1990 to 92.0–120.9 in 2011–2020, while mean temperature anomaly increased from 0.2–0.6 °C to 1.0–1.6 °C in the same period. The frequency of severe wet weather events was more than for dry weather events in many stations, indicating an increase in precipitation. Maximum, mean, and minimum temperatures increased, with resultant warmer nights. The findings showed that the Lake Kyoga basin is experiencing climate change, with both temperature and rainfall increasing spatially and temporarily. Climate change affects agriculture, which is the main economic activity, and causes the destruction of infrastructure from floods, landslides, and mudslides. The results of this study are helpful in pointing out climate change-affected areas, and hence for designing mitigation and adaption strategies for local communities by policy and decision-makers from relevant stakeholders.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-12-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9120179
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 180: Lorenz Atmospheric Energy Cycle in Climatic

    • Authors: Silas Michaelides
      First page: 180
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate whether different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), as they are determined in the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), lead to different regimes in the energetics components of the Lorenz energy cycle. The four energy forms on which this investigation is based are the zonal and eddy components of the available potential and kinetic energies. The corresponding transformations between these forms of energy are also studied. RCPs are time-dependent, consistent scenarios of concentrations of radiatively active gases and particles. In the present study, four RCPs are explored, namely, rcp26, rcp45, rcp60, rcp85; these represent projections (for the future period 2006–2100) that result in radiative forcing of approximately 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5 Wm−2 at year 2100, respectively, relative to pre-industrial conditions. The results are presented in terms of time projections of the energetics components from 2020 to 2100 and show that the different RCPs yield diverse energetics regimes, consequently impacting the Lorenz energy cycle. In this respect, projections under different RCPs of the Lorenz energy cycle are presented.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-12-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9120180
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 181: Verification and Bias Adjustment of ECMWF
           SEAS5 Seasonal Forecasts over Europe for Climate Service Applications

    • Authors: Alice Crespi, Marcello Petitta, Paola Marson, Christian Viel, Lucas Grigis
      First page: 181
      Abstract: This work discusses the ability of a bias-adjustment method using empirical quantile mapping to improve the skills of seasonal forecasts over Europe for three key climate variables, i.e., temperature, precipitation and wind speed. In particular, the suitability of the approach to be integrated in climate services and to provide tailored predictions for local applications was evaluated. The workflow was defined in order to allow a flexible implementation and applicability while providing accurate results. The scheme adjusted monthly quantities from the seasonal forecasting system SEAS5 of the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts (ECMWF) by using ERA5 reanalysis as reference. Raw and adjusted forecasts were verified through several metrics analyzing different aspects of forecast skills. The applied method reduced model biases for all variables and seasons even though more limited improvements were obtained for precipitation. In order to further assess the benefits and limitations of the procedure, the results were compared with those obtained by the ADAMONT method, which calibrates daily quantities by empirical quantile mapping conditioned by weather regimes. The comparable performances demonstrated the overall suitability of the proposed method to provide end users with calibrated predictions of monthly and seasonal quantities.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-12-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9120181
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 182: The Incredible and Sad Story of Boca de
           Cachón: How a Rural Community in the Hispaniola Is in a Prolonged,
           Heartless, and Predictable Climate Crisis

    • Authors: Victor Gomez-Valenzuela, Katerin Ramirez, Solhanlle Bonilla-Duarte
      First page: 182
      Abstract: This article aims to briefly review the socio-economic impact caused by the flooding of Lake Enriquillo on the inhabitants of Boca Cachón due to the complex local phenomenon related to climate variability. Between 2003 and 2014, Boca de Cachón and the communities surrounding Lake Enriquillo were deeply affected by flooding of the Lake’s rising waters. Lake Enriquillo is the largest wetland in the Caribbean and the first designated RAMSAR site. In turn, Boca de Cachón could be considered the first human settlement formally displaced because of climate variability in the Dominican Republic and probably one of the first in the Americas in the twenty-first century. Boca de Cachón is a rural Municipal District located to the northwest of the municipality of Jimaní, with a population of around 3000 inhabitants on the southwest border with the Republic of Haiti and located in the Biosphere Reserve Jaragua-Bahoruco-Enriquillo. Given the future climatic scenarios for the Dominican Republic and the possible climate change that could exacerbate by excess or, by default, the socio-environmental problems in the Lake’s belt, it is necessary to support the communities in their capacity-building processes. The lessons learned from Boca de Cachón can serve as a learning space for adaptation processes in rural environments in the Caribbean region.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9120182
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 183: The Solar Radiation Climate of Greece

    • Authors: Harry D. Kambezidis
      First page: 183
      Abstract: The solar radiation climate of Greece is investigated by using typical meteorological years (TMYs) at 43 locations in Greece based on a period of 10 years (2007–2016). These TMYs include hourly values of global, Hg, and diffuse, Hd, horizontal irradiances from which the direct, Hb, horizontal irradiance is estimated. Use of the diffuse fraction, kd, and the definition of the direct-beam fraction, kb, is made. Solar maps of annual mean Hg, Hd, kd, and kb are prepared over Greece under clear and all skies, which show interesting but explainable patterns. Additionally, the intra-annual and seasonal variabilities of these parameters are presented and regression equations are provided. It is found that Hb has a negative linear relationship with kd; the same applies to Hg with respect to kd or with respect to the latitude of the site. It is shown that kd (kb) can reflect the scattering (absorption) effects of the atmosphere on solar radiation, and, therefore, this parameter can be used as a scattering (absorption) index. An analysis shows that the influence of solar variability (sunspot cycle) on the Hg levels over Athens in the period 1953–2018 was less dominant than the anthropogenic (air-pollution) footprint that caused the global dimming effect.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9120183
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 153: The Impact of Climate Change on the
           Reliability of Water Resources

    • Authors: Vojtěch Sýs, Pavel Fošumpaur, Tomáš Kašpar
      First page: 153
      Abstract: Climate change impact assessment is crucial for strategic planning in many areas, including water management, agriculture and forestry. Water planning has a long tradition in the Czech Republic, who has implemented the requirements of the Water Framework Directive since 2000. Following the expected impacts of climate change on the hydrological regime, adaptation measures in the water sector are being prepared as part of strategic plans. This contribution studies the uncertainty propagation of climate scenarios in hydrological data, which are then used to assess the reliability of water resources and to design appropriate adaptation measures. The results are being discussed for a case study in the deficit area of Rakovnický stream and Blšanska river basins, which are among the driest areas in the Czech Republic. Research of the impact of climate change on the reliability of water resources has been prepared using ensembles of selected regional climate models. This approach has allowed a probabilistic assessment of the impact on the hydrology regime and the reliability of water supply from reservoirs for various time horizons of climate change. In view of the relatively large variance of potential impacts on water resources, options for further strategic planning in the water management area are being discussed.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-10-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9110153
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 154: Harnessing Chlorophyll Fluorescence for
           Phenotyping Analysis of Wild and Cultivated Tomato for High Photochemical
           Efficiency under Water Deficit for Climate Change Resilience

    • Authors: Ilektra Sperdouli, Ifigeneia Mellidou, Michael Moustakas
      First page: 154
      Abstract: Fluctuations of the weather conditions, due to global climate change, greatly influence plant growth and development, eventually affecting crop yield and quality, but also plant survival. Since water shortage is one of the key risks for the future of agriculture, exploring the capability of crop species to grow with limited water is therefore fundamental. By using chlorophyll fluorescence analysis, we evaluated the responses of wild tomato accession Solanum pennellii LA0716, Solanum lycopersicum cv. Μ82, the introgression line IL12-4 (from cv. M82 Χ LA0716), and the Greek tomato cultivars cv. Santorini and cv. Zakinthos, to moderate drought stress (MoDS) and severe drought stress (SDS), in order to identify the minimum irrigation level for efficient photosynthetic performance. Agronomic traits (plant height, number of leaves and root/shoot biomass), relative water content (RWC), and lipid peroxidation, were also measured. Under almost 50% deficit irrigation, S. pennellii exhibited an enhanced photosynthetic function by displaying a hormetic response of electron transport rate (ETR), due to an increased fraction of open reaction centers, it is suggested to be activated by the low increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A low increase of ROS is regarded to be beneficial by stimulating defense responses and also triggering a more oxidized redox state of quinone A (QA), corresponding in S. pennellii under 50% deficit irrigation, to the lowest stomatal opening, resulting in reduction of water loss. Solanum pennellii was the most tolerant to drought, as it was expected, and could manage to have an adequate photochemical function with almost 30% water regime of well-watered plants. With 50% deficit irrigation, cv. Μ82 and cv. Santorini did not show any difference in photochemical efficiency to control plants and are recommended to be cultivated under deficit irrigation as an effective strategy to enhance agricultural sustainability under a global climate change. We conclude that instead of the previously used Fv/Fm ratio, the redox state of QA, as it can be estimated by the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter 1 - qL, is a better indicator to evaluate photosynthetic efficiency and select drought tolerant cultivars under deficit irrigation.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-10-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9110154
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 155: The Multiscale Dynamics of the 29 June 2012
           Super Derecho

    • Authors: Kacie Nicole Shourd, Michael L. Kaplan
      First page: 155
      Abstract: The 29–30 June 2012 “super” derecho was, up until the 10 August 2020 “Iowa Derecho”, the most prolific derecho of modern times. While many of the synoptic-scale precursors to derecho events are understood, the multi-scale dynamics which likely distinguish derecho-producing events versus non-derecho events remain much more elusive. Using both observations and high-resolution WRF-ARW simulations, the sequence of adjustments that ultimately set up the pre-29 June derecho environment are examined. Planetary scale Rossby wave breaking occurred almost exactly two weeks before the super derecho on 15–16 June 2012 resulting in the development and intensification of a strong high-pressure system and mixed layer over the complex terrain of the western United States. A week after the initial Rossby wave break (~23 June), daily record-breaking temperatures began to dominate much of the central U.S. as the mixed layer/high pressure continued to strengthen. A second Rossby wave break on 26 June was crucial for detaching the mixed layer from the western U.S. elevated plateau, creating an elevated mixed layer that was rapidly deformed and propagated downstream to set up the derecho environment between 27–29 June. On 28 June, flow imbalance at the elevated mixed layer front resulted in highly ageostrophic circulations in the mid-levels, generating an along-stream mid-level jetlet which ultimately moved the elevated mixed layer and associated mesoscale front downstream across the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic. On the morning of 29 June, a well-defined corridor of both potential static instability and lowered inertial stability was set up across the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic states. This along with strong capping, a divergent polar jet entrance region to the north, and the highly imbalanced mid-level jetlet set the stage for this prolific severe convective event.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-10-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9110155
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 156: The Potential Role of Climate Indices to
           Explain Floods, Mass-Movement Events and Wildfires in Southern Italy

    • Authors: Roberto Coscarelli, Enric Aguilar, Olga Petrucci, Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano, Fabio Zimbo
      First page: 156
      Abstract: Climate variability can be the source of several multiple hazards and damaging phenomena, such as flash floods, debris flows, landslides, forest fires, etc. In this study the response in the frequency of landslides, floods and forest fires to a set of climate indices is studied, referring to a region of southern Italy (Calabria) located in the center of the Mediterranean basin, a hot-spot for climate change. For these comparisons, 5022 landslides and 1584 flood occurrences for a 29-year period (1990–2018) have been selected for the whole Calabria; the burnt areas have been analyzed for the same territory from 2008 to 2018. The climate indices have been calculated by means of daily rainfall and temperature data registered in 93 stations. The results showed that landslide occurrences are more linked with climate indices describing not very intense rainfall. Conversely, floods show best matches with climate indices representative of more extreme precipitation. Regarding the burnt areas, the results confirmed that very dry climate conditions, modifying the moisture content of the soil, can change the intensity and the extension of fires.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-10-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9110156
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 157: Ecosystem Services Provided by Urban Forests
           in the Southern Caucasus Region: A Modeling Study in Tbilisi, Georgia

    • Authors: Levan Alpaidze, Rocco Pace
      First page: 157
      Abstract: All cities globally are growing considerably as they are experiencing an intensive urbanization process that leads to high soil consumption and pollution of environmental components. For this reason, cities are required to adopt measures to reduce these impacts and tree planting has been suggested as a cost-effective strategy. In our study, we implemented for the first time in a Southern Caucasus city the i-Tree Eco model to quantify the main ecosystem services provided by urban forests. Trees in two parks in Tbilisi, EXPO Park (694 trees) and RED Park (1030 trees), have been measured, and a model simulation was performed for the year 2018. These green infrastructures store large amounts of carbon in their woody tissues (198.4 t for EXPO Park and 126.5 t for RED Park) and each year they sequester 4.6 and 4.7 t of CO2 for EXPO Park and RED Park. They also remove 119.6 and 90.3 kg of pollutants (CO, NO2, O3, PM2.5, SO2), and reduce water runoff of 269.5 and 200.5 m3, respectively. This analysis highlights the key role of urban forests in improving the environmental sustainability of the city of Tbilisi and provides important decision support for tree species selection in this geographic area.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-10-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9110157
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 158: Development of a Quality-Controlled and
           Homogenised Long-Term Daily Maximum and Minimum Air Temperature Network
           Dataset for Ireland

    • Authors: Carla Mateus, Aaron Potito
      First page: 158
      Abstract: Accurate long-term daily maximum and minimum air temperature series are needed to assess the frequency, intensity, distribution, and duration of extreme climatic events. However, quality control and homogenisation procedures are required to minimise errors and inhomogeneities in climate series before the commencement of climate data analysis. A semi-automatic quality control procedure consisting of climate consistency, internal consistency, day-to-day step-change, and persistency tests was applied for 12 long-term series registered in Ireland from 1831–1968, Armagh Observatory (Northern Ireland) from 1844–2018, and for 21 short-term series dating to the mid-19th century. There were 976,786 observations quality-controlled, and 27,854 (2.9%) values flagged. Of the flagged records, 98.5% (n = 27,446) were validated, 1.4% (n = 380) corrected and 0.1% (n = 28) deleted. The historical long-term quality-controlled series were merged with the modern series quality-controlled by Met Éireann and homogenised using the software MASHv3.03 in combination with station metadata for 1885–2018. The series presented better homogenisation outcomes when homogenised as part of smaller regional networks rather than as a national network. The homogenisation of daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual series improved for all stations, and the homogenised records showed stronger correlations with the Central England long-term temperature series.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-10-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9110158
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 159: Predicting the Geographic Range of an Invasive
           Livestock Disease across the Contiguous USA under Current and Future
           Climate Conditions

    • Authors: Dylan Burruss, Luis L. Rodriguez, Barbara Drolet, Kerrie Geil, Angela M. Pelzel-McCluskey, Lee W. Cohnstaedt, Justin D. Derner, Debra P. C. Peters
      First page: 159
      Abstract: Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is the most common vesicular livestock disease in North America. Transmitted by direct contact and by several biting insect species, this disease results in quarantines and animal movement restrictions in horses, cattle and swine. As changes in climate drive shifts in geographic distributions of vectors and the viruses they transmit, there is considerable need to improve understanding of relationships among environmental drivers and patterns of disease occurrence. Multidisciplinary approaches integrating pathology, ecology, climatology, and biogeophysics are increasingly relied upon to disentangle complex relationships governing disease. We used a big data model integration approach combined with machine learning to estimate the potential geographic range of VS across the continental United States (CONUS) under long-term mean climate conditions over the past 30 years. The current extent of VS is confined to the western portion of the US and is related to summer and winter precipitation, winter maximum temperature, elevation, fall vegetation biomass, horse density, and proximity to water. Comparison with a climate-only model illustrates the importance of current processes-based parameters and identifies regions where uncertainty is likely to be greatest if mechanistic processes change. We then forecast shifts in the range of VS using climate change projections selected from CMIP5 climate models that most realistically simulate seasonal temperature and precipitation. Climate change scenarios that altered climatic conditions resulted in greater changes to potential range of VS, generally had non-uniform impacts in core areas of the current potential range of VS and expanded the range north and east. We expect that the heterogeneous impacts of climate change across the CONUS will be exacerbated with additional changes in land use and land cover affecting biodiversity and hydrological cycles that are connected to the ecology of insect vectors involved in VS transmission.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-10-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9110159
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 160: Interannual Variability and Trends of Extreme
           Rainfall Indices over Benin

    • Authors: Ezéchiel Obada, Eric Adechina Alamou, Eliezer Iboukoun Biao, Esdras B. Josué Zandagba
      First page: 160
      Abstract: Observed rainfall data (1961–2016) were used to analyze variability, trends and changes of extreme precipitation indices over Benin. Nine indices out of the ones developed by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) were used. The results indicate a mix of downward and upward trends for maximum 1-day precipitation (RX1day) and maximum 5-days precipitation (RX5day). Decrease trends are observed for annual total precipitation of wet days (P), while significant increases are found for the simple daily intensity index (SDII). The number of wet days (RR1) and maximum consecutive dry days (CDD) show a mix of increase/decrease trends. However, the number of heavy (R10) and very heavy (R20) wet days and maximum consecutive wet days (CWD) show decreased trends. All wet indices increased over 1991–2010 in relation to 1971–1990. The increase in all wet indices over Benin could explain the intensification of hydrology, and the increase in the frequency and the intensity of floods. It caused damages such as soil erosion, crop destruction, livestock destruction, displacement of populations, proliferation of waterborne diseases and loss of human life. Some adaptive strategies are suggested to mitigate the impacts of changes in extreme rainfall.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-10-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9110160
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 161: Testing the CMIP6 GCM Simulations versus
           Surface Temperature Records from 1980–1990 to 2011–2021: High ECS Is
           Not Supported

    • Authors: Nicola Scafetta
      First page: 161
      Abstract: The last-generation CMIP6 global circulation models (GCMs) are currently used to interpret past and future climatic changes and to guide policymakers, but they are very different from each other; for example, their equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) varies from 1.83 to 5.67 °C (IPCC AR6, 2021). Even assuming that some of them are sufficiently reliable for scenario forecasts, such a large ECS uncertainty requires a pre-selection of the most reliable models. Herein the performance of 38 CMIP6 models are tested in reproducing the surface temperature changes observed from 1980–1990 to 2011–2021 in three temperature records: ERA5-T2m, ERA5-850mb, and UAH MSU v6.0 Tlt. Alternative temperature records are briefly discussed but found to be not appropriate for the present analysis because they miss data over large regions. Significant issues emerge: (1) most GCMs overestimate the warming observed during the last 40 years; (2) there is great variability among the models in reconstructing the climatic changes observed in the Arctic; (3) the ocean temperature is usually overestimated more than the land one; (4) in the latitude bands 40° N–70° N and 50° S–70° S (which lay at the intersection between the Ferrel and the polar atmospheric cells) the CMIP6 GCMs overestimate the warming; (5) similar discrepancies are present in the east-equatorial pacific region (which regulates the ENSO) and in other regions where cooling trends are observed. Finally, the percentage of the world surface where the (positive or negative) model-data discrepancy exceeds 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 °C is evaluated. The results indicate that the models with low ECS values (for example, 3 °C or less) perform significantly better than those with larger ECS. Therefore, the low ECS models should be preferred for climate change scenario forecasts while the other models should be dismissed and not used by policymakers. In any case, significant model-data discrepancies are still observed over extended world regions for all models: on average, the GCM predictions disagree from the data by more than 0.2 °C (on a total mean warming of about 0.5 °C from 1980–1990 to 2011–2021) over more than 50% of the global surface. This result suggests that climate change and its natural variability remain poorly modeled by the CMIP6 GCMs. Finally, the ECS uncertainty problem is discussed, and it is argued (also using semi-empirical climate models that implement natural oscillations not predicted by the GCMs) that the real ECS could be between 1 and 2 °C, which implies moderate warming for the next decades.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-10-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9110161
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 162: Climatically Driven Holocene Glacier Advances
           in the Russian Altai Based on Radiocarbon and OSL Dating and Tree Ring

    • Authors: Anna Agatova, Roman Nepop, Andrey Nazarov, Ivan Ovchinnikov, Piotr Moska
      First page: 162
      Abstract: Analysis of new chronological data, including 55 radiocarbon, 1 OSL, and 8 dendrochronological dates, obtained in the upper reaches of trough valleys within the Katun, North Chuya, South Chuya, and Chikhachev ranges, together with the 55 previously published ones, specifies climatically driven glacier dynamic in the Russian Altai. Available data refute the traditional concept of the Russian Altai Holocene glaciations as a consecutive retreat of the Late Pleistocene glaciation. Considerable and prolonged warming in the Early Holocene started no later than 11.3–11.4 cal kBP. It caused significant shrinking or even complete degradation of alpine glaciers and regeneration of forest vegetation 300–400 m above the modern upper timber limit. Stadial advances occurred in the middle of the Holocene (4.9–4.2 cal kBP), during the Historical (2.3–1.7 cal kBP), and the Aktru (LIA thirteenth–nineteenth century) stages. New radiocarbon ages of fossil soils limited glaciers expansion in the Middle Holocene by the size of the Historical moraine. Lesser glacial activity between 5 and 4 cal kBP is also supported by rapid reforestation in the heads of trough valleys. Glaciers advance within the Russian Altai, accompanied by accumulation of the Akkem moraine, could have occurred at the end of the Late Pleistocene.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9110162
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 163: Solar and Anthropogenic Influences on Climate:
           Regression Analysis and Tentative Predictions

    • Authors: Frank Stefani
      First page: 163
      Abstract: The paper aims to quantify solar and anthropogenic influences on climate change, and to make some tentative predictions for the next hundred years. By means of double regression, we evaluate linear combinations of the logarithm of the carbon dioxide concentration and the geomagnetic aa index as a proxy for solar activity. Thereby, we reproduce the sea surface temperature (HadSST) since the middle of the 19th century with an adjusted R2 value of around 87 percent for a climate sensitivity (of TCR type) in the range of 0.6 K until 1.6 K per doubling of CO2. The solution of the double regression is quite sensitive: when including data from the last decade, the simultaneous occurrence of a strong El Niño and of low aa values leads to a preponderance of solutions with relatively high climate sensitivities around 1.6 K. If these later data are excluded, the regression delivers a significantly higher weight of the aa index and, correspondingly, a lower climate sensitivity going down to 0.6 K. The plausibility of such low values is discussed in view of recent experimental and satellite-borne measurements. We argue that a further decade of data collection will be needed to allow for a reliable distinction between low and high sensitivity values. In the second part, which builds on recent ideas about a quasi-deterministic planetary synchronization of the solar dynamo, we make a first attempt to predict the aa index and the resulting temperature anomaly for various typical CO2 scenarios. Even for the highest climate sensitivities, and an unabated linear CO2 increase, we predict only a mild additional temperature rise of around 1 K until the end of the century, while for the lower values an imminent temperature drop in the near future, followed by a rather flat temperature curve, is prognosticated.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9110163
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 164: Environmental Impact Assessment of
           Agricultural Production Using LCA: A Review

    • Authors: Rahmah Alhashim, Raveendranpillai Deepa, Aavudai Anandhi
      First page: 164
      Abstract: Life cycle impact assessment (LCA) provides a better understanding of the energy, water, and material input and evaluates any production system’s output impacts. LCA has been carried out on various crops and products across the world. Some countries, however, have none or only a few studies. Here, we present the results of a literature review, following the PRISMA protocol, of what has been done in LCA to help stakeholders in these regions to understand the environmental impact at different stages of a product. The published literature was examined using the Google Scholar database to synthesize LCA research on agricultural activities, and 74 studies were analyzed. The evaluated papers are extensively studied in order to comprehend the various impact categories involved in LCA. The study reveals that tomatoes and wheat were the major crops considered in LCA. The major environmental impacts, namely, human toxicity potential and terrestrial ecotoxicity potential, were the major focus. Furthermore, the most used impact methods were CML, ISO, and IPCC. It was also found that studies were most often conducted in the European sector since most models and databases are suited for European agri-food products. The literature review did not focus on a specific region or a crop. Consequently, many studies appeared while searching using the keywords. Notwithstanding such limitations, this review provides a valuable reference point for those practicing LCA.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-11-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9110164
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 165: Evaluation of Climate Change on Streamflow,
           Sediment, and Nutrient Load at Watershed Scale

    • Authors: Prem B. Parajuli, Avay Risal
      First page: 165
      Abstract: This study evaluated changes in climatic variable impacts on hydrology and water quality in Big Sunflower River Watershed (BSRW), Mississippi. Site-specific future time-series precipitation, temperature, and solar radiation data were generated using a stochastic weather generator LARS-WG model. For the generation of climate scenarios, Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), 4.5 and 8.5 of Global Circulation Models (GCMs): Hadley Center Global Environmental Model (HadGEM) and EC-EARTH, for three (2021–2040, 2041–2060 and 2061–2080) future climate periods. Analysis of future climate data based on six ground weather stations located within BSRW showed that the minimum temperature ranged from 11.9 °C to 15.9 °C and the maximum temperature ranged from 23.2 °C to 28.3 °C. Similarly, the average daily rainfall ranged from 3.6 mm to 4.3 mm. Analysis of changes in monthly average maximum/minimum temperature showed that January had the maximum increment and July/August had a minimum increment in monthly average temperature. Similarly, maximum increase in monthly average rainfall was observed during May and maximum decrease was observed during September. The average monthly streamflow, sediment, TN, and TP loads under different climate scenarios varied significantly. The change in average TN and TP loads due to climate change were observed to be very high compared to the change in streamflow and sediment load. The monthly average nutrient load under two different RCP scenarios varied greatly from as low as 63% to as high as 184%, compared to the current monthly nutrient load. The change in hydrology and water quality was mainly attributed to changes in surface temperature, precipitation, and stream flow. This study can be useful in the development and implementation of climate change smart management of agricultural watersheds.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9110165
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 9, Pages 166: Community-Level Impacts of Climate-Smart
           Agriculture Interventions on Food Security and Dietary Diversity in
           Climate-SMART VILLAGES in Myanmar

    • Authors: Andrew Hanley, Galina Brychkova, Wilson John Barbon, Su Myat Noe, Chan Myae, Phyu Sin Thant, Peter C. McKeown, Julian Gonsalves, Charles Spillane
      First page: 166
      Abstract: Diversification of production to strengthen resilience is a key tenet of climate-smart agriculture (CSA), which can help to address the complex vulnerabilities of agriculture-dependent rural communities. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the promotion of different CSA practices across four climate-smart villages (CSVs) in Myanmar. To determine the impact of the CSA practices on livelihoods and health, survey data were collected from agricultural households (n = 527) over three years. Within the time period studied, the results indicate that some the CSA practices and technologies adopted were significantly associated with changes in household dietary diversity scores (HDDS), but, in the short-term, these were not associated with improvements in the households’ food insecurity scores (HFIAS). Based on the survey responses, we examined how pathways of CSA practice adoption tailored to different contexts of Myanmar’s four agroecologies could contribute to the observed changes, including possible resulting trade-offs. We highlight that understanding the impacts of CSA adoption on household food security in CSVs will require longer-term monitoring, as most CSA options are medium- to long-cycle interventions. Our further analysis of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) amongst the households indicated a poor understanding of the household knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to nutrition, food choices, food preparation, sanitation and hygiene. Our KAP findings indicate that current nutrition education interventions in the Myanmar CSVs are inadequate and will need further improvement for health and nutrition outcomes from the portfolio of CSA interventions.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli9110166
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2021)
  • Climate, Vol. 10, Pages 1: Ambient Air Quality Synergies with a 2050
           Carbon Neutrality Pathway in South Korea

    • Authors: Dafydd Phillips
      First page: 1
      Abstract: South Korea is a signatory of the Paris Agreement and has announced its aim to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050. However, South Korea’s current policy trajectory is not compatible with maintaining a global temperature rise below 2 °C. Climate change has not been a dominant electoral issue in South Korea, with national concerns being prioritized. A Paris-Agreement-compatible development pathway could synergistically improve ambient air quality in South Korea. This research examines the gains of a climate action pathway that would achieve 2050 carbon neutrality, compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, in South Korea. The work aims to add further evidence to the potential national gains from strong climate action across all sectors in South Korea. The paper argues that by focusing on and estimating national gains, the momentum for enhanced climate policy action can be intensified by framing robust climate action as an opportunity rather than a cost. Through a climate action pathway, South Korea could avoid 835 years of life lost (YLL) in 2030, 2237 YLL in 2040 and 3389 YLL in 2050. Through this pathway, South Korea could also cumulatively abate 5539 million tons of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) in greenhouse gas emissions over the 2022–2050 period.
      Citation: Climate
      PubDate: 2021-12-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cli10010001
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
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