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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted by number of followers
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 148)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Climate Change and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nīvār     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Climatic Change
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.035
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 69  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0165-0009 - ISSN (Online) 1573-1480
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Severe tropical cyclones over southwest Pacific Islands: economic impacts
           and implications for disaster risk management

    • Abstract: Abstract Tropical cyclones (TCs) are amongst the costliest natural hazards for southwest Pacific (SWP) Island nations. Extreme winds coupled with heavy rainfall and related coastal hazards, such as large waves and high seas, can have devastating consequences for life and property. Effects of anthropogenic climate change are likely to make TCs even more destructive in the SWP (as that observed particularly over Fiji) and elsewhere around the globe, yet TCs may occur less often. However, the underpinning science of quantifying future TC projections amid multiple uncertainties can be complex. The challenge for scientists is how to turn such technical knowledge framed around uncertainties into tangible products to inform decision-making in the disaster risk management (DRM) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) sector. Drawing on experiences from past TC events as analogies to what may happen in a warming climate can be useful. The role of science-based climate services tailored to the needs of the DRM and DRR sector is critical in this context. In the first part of this paper, we examine cases of historically severe TCs in the SWP and quantify their socio-economic impacts. The second part of this paper discusses a decision-support framework developed in collaboration with a number of agencies in the SWP, featuring science-based climate services that inform different stages of planning in national-level risk management strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
       
  • Evapotranspiration in hydrological models under rising CO2: a jump into
           the unknown

    • Abstract: Abstract Many hydrological models use the concept of potential evapotranspiration (PE) to simulate actual evapotranspiration (AE). PE formulations often neglect the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2), which challenges their relevance in a context of climate change and rapid changes in CO2 atmospheric concentrations. In this work, we implement three options from the literature to take into account the effect of CO2 on stomatal resistance in the well-known Penman–Monteith PE formulation. We assess their impact on future runoff using the Budyko framework over France. On the basis of an ensemble of Euro-Cordex climate projections using the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios, we show that taking into account CO2 in PE formulations largely reduces PE values but also limits projections of runoff decrease, especially under an emissive scenario, namely, the RCP 8.5, whereas the classic Penman–Monteith formulation yields decreasing runoff projections over most of France, taking into account CO2 yields more contrasting results. Runoff increase becomes likely in the north of France, which is an energy-limited area, with different levels of runoff response produced by the three tested formulations. The results highlight the sensitivity of hydrological projections to the processes represented in the PE formulation.
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
       
  • Correction to: Modelling the effects of climate change on the
           profitability of Australian farms

    • PubDate: 2022-06-08
       
  • Correction to: The role of human-induced climate change in heavy rainfall
           events such as the one associated with Typhoon Hagibis

    • PubDate: 2022-06-03
       
  • Future droughts in northern Italy: high-resolution projections using
           EURO-CORDEX and MED-CORDEX ensembles

    • Abstract: Abstract We analyse the expected characteristics of drought events in northern Italy for baseline (1971–2000), near (2021–2050), and far (2071–2100) future conditions, estimating the drought spatial extent and duration, the percentage of affected area, and the frequency of drought episodes. To this end, daily ensembles of precipitation and temperature records from Global Climate Models (GCMs) and Regional Climate Models (RCMs) pairs, extracted from EURO-CORDEX and MED-CORDEX for the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios, are collected at spatial resolution of 0.11 degrees. Before the analysis, model outputs are validated on daily weather station time series, and scaling factors for possible use in bias correction are identified. Annual temperature and precipitation anomalies for near and far future conditions are investigated; drought events are identified by the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index and standardized precipitation index at the 12-, 24-, and 36-month timescales. This study highlights the importance of using multiple drought indicators in the detection of drought events, since the comparison reveals that evapotranspiration anomaly is the main triggering factor. For both scenarios, the results indicate an intensification of droughts in northern Italy for the period 2071–2100, with the Alpine chain being especially affected by an increase of drought severity. A North-to-South spatial gradient of drought duration is also observed.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Towards more effective visualisations in climate services: good practices
           and recommendations

    • Abstract: Abstract Visualisations are often the entry point to information that supports stakeholders’ decision- and policy-making processes. Visual displays can employ either static, dynamic or interactive formats as well as various types of representations and visual encodings, which differently affect the attention, recognition and working memory of users. Despite being well-suited for expert audiences, current climate data visualisations need to be further improved to make communication of climate information more inclusive for broader audiences, including people with disabilities. However, the lack of evidence-based guidelines and tools makes the creation of accessible visualisations challenging, potentially leading to misunderstanding and misuse of climate information by users. Taking stock of visualisation challenges identified in a workshop by climate service providers, we review good practices commonly applied by other visualisation-related disciplines strongly based on users’ needs that could be applied to the climate services context. We show how lessons learned in the fields of user experience, data visualisation, graphic design and psychology make useful recommendations for the development of more effective climate service visualisations. This includes applying a user-centred design approach, using interaction in a suitable way in visualisations, paying attention to information architecture or selecting the right type of representation and visual encoding. The recommendations proposed here can help climate service providers reduce users’ cognitive load and improve their overall experience when using a service. These recommendations can be useful for the development of the next generation of climate services, increasing their usability while ensuring that their visual components are inclusive and do not leave anyone behind.
      PubDate: 2022-05-28
       
  • Political leaders with professional background in business and climate
           outcomes

    • Abstract: Abstract The literature on how the ideology of political parties in power correlates with climate policy outcomes is abundant, but there is no similar literature for the individual characteristics of government leaders. This assessment is the first study of its kind, building on a dataset of government leaders of OECD countries for the period 1992–2017. We find that national presidents or prime ministers with a professional background in business are strongly correlated with bad climate mitigation outcomes. In particular, higher emissions and lower renewable energy deployment are more likely to occur during the tenure of former business people. Our results suggest that voters and pressure groups should pay attention to candidates’ professional backgrounds, in addition to their party’s ideology.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
       
  • Modelling the effects of climate change on the profitability of Australian
           farms

    • Abstract: Abstract Recent shifts in the Australian climate including both higher temperatures and lower winter rainfall have had significant effects on the agriculture sector. Despite these recent trends, there remains uncertainty over the future climate and its potential impacts on Australian farm businesses. In this study, a statistical model of Australian cropping and livestock farms is combined with downscaled temperature and rainfall projections for 2050, to simulate the effects of climate change on farm profits. These future projections are compared against both a historical reference climate (1950 to 2000) and recent conditions (2001 to 2020). The results provide an indication of ‘adaptation pressure’: showing which regions, sectors and farm types may be under greater pressure to adapt or adjust to climate change. Future scenarios produce a wide range of outcomes, with simulated change in average farm profits (without any long-run adaptation or technological advance) ranging from −2 to -32% under RCP4.5 and −11 to −50% under RCP8.5, compared with a decline of 22.3% under observed post-2000 conditions (all relative to 1950 to 2000 climate). In contrast with the recent observed changes, projections show relatively moderate effects in south-eastern Australia, but relatively stronger effects for livestock farms in northern Australia.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
       
  • The role of human-induced climate change in heavy rainfall events such as
           the one associated with Typhoon Hagibis

    • Abstract: Abstract Around October 12, 2019, torrential rainfall from Typhoon Hagibis caused large-scale flooding in a large area around the metropole region of Tokyo leading to large-scale destruction including losses of lives, livelihoods, and economic losses of well over $10 bn US dollars. In this paper we use a multi-method probabilistic event attribution framework to assess the role of human-induced climate change in the heavy rainfall event responsible for a large proportion of the damages. Combining different observational datasets and various climate model simulations, we find an increase in the likelihood of such an event to occur of 15–150%. We use this assessment and the calculated fraction of attributable risk (FAR) to further estimate the economic costs attributable to anthropogenic climate change based on the insured economic losses. Our conservative estimate is that ~$4bn of the damages due to the extreme heavy rainfall associated with Typhoon Hagibis are due to human-induced climate change.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
       
  • Exploring the landscape of seasonal forecast provision by Global Producing
           Centres

    • Abstract: Abstract Despite the growing demand for seasonal climate forecasts, there is limited understanding of the landscape of organisations providing this critically important climate information. This study attempts to fill this gap by presenting results from an in-depth dialogue with the organisations entrusted with the provision of seasonal forecasts by the World Meteorological Organisation, known as the Global Producing Centres for Long-Range Forecasts (GPCs-LRF). The results provide an overview and detailed description of the organisational setup, mandate, target audience of GPCs-LRF and their interactions with other centres. Looking beyond the GPCs-LRF to other centres providing seasonal forecasts, some of which have been rapidly taking prominent places in this landscape, revealed a heterogeneous and still maturing community of practice, with an increasing number of players and emerging efforts to produce multi-model ensemble forecasts. The dialogues pointed at the need to not only improve climate models and produce more skilful climate forecasts, but also to improve the transformation of the forecasts into useful and usable products. Finally, using the lenses of credibility, salience and legitimacy, we explore ways to bridge the fragmentation of the information offered across the organisations considered and the people involved in the delivery and use of seasonal forecasts. The paper concludes by suggesting ways to address the boundary crossing between science, policy and society in the context of seasonal climate prediction.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
       
  • Influences of atmospheric blocking on North American summer heatwaves in a
           changing climate: a comparison of two Canadian Earth system model large
           ensembles

    • Abstract: Abstract As summer heatwaves have severe adverse impacts on human society and ecosystems, there is need to better understand their meteorological drivers and future projections under climate change. This study investigates the linkage between atmospheric blocking and summer (June–August) heatwaves over North America using two reanalysis datasets (ERA-Interim and NCEP-DOE-R2) and two large-ensembles of Canadian Earth System Models (CanESM2 and CanESM5) for the 1981–2010 baseline period as well as projected changes under high-emission scenarios out to 2071–2100. Compared to NCEP-DOE-R2, both ensembles underestimate summer blocking frequency in the north Pacific, Alaska, and western Canada (by − 37%), while CanESM2 ensemble also underestimates blocking frequency in central and eastern Canada (by − 36%). CanESM5 generally shows better performance than CanESM2 in its reproduction of blocking frequency over central and eastern Canada, which is consistent with its overall improvements in simulating large-scale climate patterns. The two ensembles, however, agree with the reanalyses in their blocking-heatwave linkages. Above-normal heatwave frequency occurs in the blocking core and its surroundings due to positive heat flux anomalies, while below-normal frequency occurs at remote locations on the eastern and/or southern flanks of the blocking core due to cold air temperature advection anomalies. Future projections in central Canada differ between the models, largely due to the significant under-representation of blocking frequency by CanESM2. However, the two ensembles generally project similar behavior between the baseline and future period for spatial distributions of blocking-heatwave linkages, indicating blocking will continue to play an important role in the development of summer heatwaves in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
       
  • Alignment of values and political orientations amplifies climate change
           attitudes and behaviors

    • Abstract: Abstract Anthropogenic climate change presents an immediate threat, necessitating a rapid shift in climate change relevant behaviors and public policies. A robust literature has identified a number of individual-level determinants of climate change attitudes and behaviors. In particular, political orientations and self-transcendent values are amongst the most consistent and substantive predictors. But, political orientations and individual values do not operate in isolation of each other, and rather are deeply related constructs. Accordingly, this analysis focuses on identifying the direct and interactive effects of political orientations and human values on climate change attitudes and behaviors. Adopting cross-national data from 16 Western European states (2016 ESS), we find that when in alignment, the effect of human values on climate change concern and policy support is amplified by political orientations. The moderating effect of political orientations is most substantive for self-transcendence (positive) and conservation (negative) values.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
  • Global biomass supply modeling for long-run management of the climate
           system

    • Abstract: Abstract Bioenergy is projected to have a prominent, valuable, and maybe essential, role in climate management. However, there is significant variation in projected bioenergy deployment results, as well as concerns about the potential environmental and social implications of supplying biomass. Bioenergy deployment projections are market equilibrium solutions from integrated modeling, yet little is known about the underlying modeling of the supply of biomass as a feedstock for energy use in these modeling frameworks. We undertake a novel diagnostic analysis with ten global models to elucidate, compare, and assess how biomass is supplied within the models used to inform long-run climate management. With experiments that isolate and reveal biomass supply modeling behavior and characteristics (costs, emissions, land use, market effects), we learn about biomass supply tendencies and differences. The insights provide a new level of modeling transparency and understanding of estimated global biomass supplies that informs evaluation of the potential for bioenergy in managing the climate and interpretation of integrated modeling. For each model, we characterize the potential distributions of global biomass supply across regions and feedstock types for increasing levels of quantity supplied, as well as some of the potential societal externalities of supplying biomass. We also evaluate the biomass supply implications of managing these externalities. Finally, we interpret biomass market results from integrated modeling in terms of our new understanding of biomass supply. Overall, we find little consensus between models on where biomass could be cost-effectively produced and the implications. We also reveal model specific biomass supply narratives, with results providing new insights into integrated modeling bioenergy outcomes and differences. The analysis finds that many integrated models are considering and managing emissions and land use externalities of supplying biomass and estimating that environmental and societal trade-offs in the form of land emissions, land conversion, and higher agricultural prices are cost-effective, and to some degree a reality of using biomass, to address climate change.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
       
  • Integrating attribution with adaptation for unprecedented future heatwaves

    • Abstract: Abstract Citizens in many countries are now experiencing record-smashing heatwaves that were intensified due to anthropogenic climate change. Whether today’s most impactful heatwaves could have occurred in a pre-industrial climate, traditionally a central focus of attribution research, is fast becoming an obsolete question. The next frontier for attribution science is to inform adaptation decision-making in the face of unprecedented future heat.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
       
  • Paris Agreement requires substantial, broad, and sustained policy efforts
           beyond COVID-19 public stimulus packages

    • Abstract: Abstract It has been claimed that COVID-19 public stimulus packages could be sufficient to meet the short-term energy investment needs to leverage a shift toward a pathway consistent with the 1.5 °C target of the Paris Agreement. Here, we provide complementary perspectives to reiterate that substantial, broad, and sustained policy efforts beyond stimulus packages will be needed for achieving the Paris Agreement long-term targets. Low-carbon investments will need to scale up and persist over the next several decades following short-term stimulus packages. The required total energy investments in the real world can be larger than the currently available estimates from integrated assessment models (IAMs). Existing databases from IAMs are not sufficient for analyzing the effect of public spending on emission reduction. To inform what role COVID-19 stimulus packages and public investments may play for reaching the Paris Agreement targets, explicit modelling of such policies is required.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
       
  • Projected climate change and its impacts on glaciers and water resources
           in the headwaters of the Tarim River, NW China/Kyrgyzstan

    • Abstract: Abstract Glacierised river catchments are highly sensitive to climate change, while large populations may depend on their water resources. The irrigation agriculture and the communities along the Tarim River, NW China, strongly depend on the discharge from the glacierised catchments surrounding the Taklamakan Desert. While recent increasing discharge has been beneficial for the agricultural sector, future runoff under climate change is uncertain. We assess three climate change scenarios by forcing two glacio-hydrological models with output of eight general circulation models. The models have different glaciological modelling approaches but were both calibrated to discharge and glacier mass balance observations. Projected changes in climate, glacier cover and river discharge are examined over the twenty-first century and generally point to warmer and wetter conditions. The model ensemble projects median temperature and precipitation increases of + 1.9–5.3 °C and + 9–24%, respectively, until the end of the century compared to the 1971–2000 reference period. Glacier area is projected to shrink by 15–73% (model medians, range over scenarios), depending on the catchment. River discharge is projected to first increase by about 20% in the Aksu River catchments with subsequent decreases of up to 20%. In contrast, discharge in the drier Hotan and Yarkant catchments is projected to increase by 15–60% towards the end of the century. The large uncertainties mainly relate to the climate model ensemble and the limited observations to constrain the glacio-hydrological models. Sustainable water resource management will be key to avert the risks associated with the projected changes and their uncertainties.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
       
  • Correction to: Assessing the impacts of climate change on climatic
           extremes in the Congo River Basin

    • PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10584-022-03351-w
       
  • Top-down or bottom-up' Norwegian climate mitigation policy as a
           contested hybrid of policy approaches

    • Abstract: Abstract It is widely accepted that the Paris Agreement implies a shift in global climate mitigation policy from a top-down approach focused on global distribution of emission cuts and international cost-effectiveness to a bottom-up approach based on national efforts. Less is known about how this shift at the global level trickles down and manifests in national climate mitigation policy. Norway is in this respect an interesting example, since it has long been portrayed as an important driver of an international top-down approach. In this paper, we demonstrate that Norwegian policy cannot be characterised as a ‘pure’ top-down regime; policy instruments and measures directed at specific technology investments and deployment to complement cost-effective (international) policy instruments have been an explicit government ambition for a long time. Second, by using the case of biofuels, we analyse how the two approaches have been combined in practice over the past decade. Using the notion of ‘hybrid management’, we demonstrate that the top-down approach has left a lasting imprint on Norwegian mitigation policy, but also that this approach has increasingly been challenged by bottom-up thinking, leaving Norwegian climate mitigation policy as a contested hybrid of policy approaches. We conclude that inadequate institutional arrangements for productively managing the tensions between the two approaches have hampered progress in Norwegian policy in curbing domestic emissions. We expect that Norwegian climate mitigation will become increasingly hybridised in the coming decades, and suggest that cultivating hybridisation can be a productive approach for policy progress.
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10584-022-03309-y
       
  • A two-step carbon pricing scheme enabling a net-zero and net-negative CO
           $$_2$$ 2 -emissions world

    • Abstract: Abstract This contribution introduces a novel carbon pricing system and illustrates its benefits. The system is based on two related but distinct ideas. First, we group the global pools of carbon into three aggregate pools, and we tax or credit human-caused carbon fluxes across the boundaries of the pools. Second, we base the tax or credit solely on physical movements of carbon between pools; hence, the system uses a physical baseline instead of a behavioral baseline based on the hypothetical emissions levels that would have arisen absent the carbon price. The proposed system goes beyond the limitations of current carbon pricing schemes for a number of reasons: it is designed to capture all positive and negative emissions based purely on their climate impact, allowing a broader scope and more appropriate incentives than current systems; it avoids creating bad incentives, particularly those caused by additionality requirements found in carbon offset systems; it captures the complexity of carbon movements through human and natural systems; it reduces measurement errors; and it provides transparent and easily observed price signals. Though this manuscript is conceptual in nature and refrains from discussing the technicalities related to the implementation of the proposed carbon pricing system, we trust that it may contribute to the development of policies enabling a net-zero and net-negative CO \(_{2}\) -emissions world.
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10584-022-03340-z
       
  • Phenotypic responses in fish behaviour narrow as climate ramps up

    • Abstract: Abstract Natural selection alters the distribution of phenotypes as animals adjust their behaviour and physiology to environmental change. We have little understanding of the magnitude and direction of environmental filtering of phenotypes, and therefore how species might adapt to future climate, as trait selection under future conditions is challenging to study. Here, we test whether climate stressors drive shifts in the frequency distribution of behavioural and physiological phenotypic traits (17 fish species) at natural analogues of climate change (CO2 vents and warming hotspots) and controlled laboratory analogues (mesocosms and aquaria). We discovered that fish from natural populations (4 out of 6 species) narrowed their phenotypic distribution towards behaviourally bolder individuals as oceans acidify, representing loss of shyer phenotypes. In contrast, ocean warming drove both a loss (2/11 species) and gain (2/11 species) of bolder phenotypes in natural and laboratory conditions. The phenotypic variance within populations was reduced at CO2 vents and warming hotspots compared to control conditions, but this pattern was absent from laboratory systems. Fishes that experienced bolder behaviour generally showed increased densities in the wild. Yet, phenotypic alterations did not affect body condition, as all 17 species generally maintained their physiological homeostasis (measured across 5 different traits). Boldness is a highly heritable trait that is related to both loss (increased mortality risk) and gain (increased growth, reproduction) of fitness. Hence, climate conditions that mediate the relative occurrence of shy and bold phenotypes may reshape the strength of species interactions and consequently alter fish population and community dynamics in a future ocean.
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10584-022-03341-y
       
 
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