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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
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Environmental and Climate Technologies
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.045
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1691-5208 - ISSN (Online) 2255-8837
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [371 journals]
  • Development of Massive Online Open Course ‘Energy Transition and
           Climate Change’

    • Abstract: This study focuses on designing a massive open online course (MOOC) to enhance students learning about the energy transition process and its connection to climate change in theory and complex dynamic systems. The course ‘Energy transition and climate change’ covers one of the United Nations’ ‘Sustainable development goals’ and is one of twelve MOOCs that will enable a comprehensive education in system thinking and its applications. It shows how system thinking methods and tools can be applied to tackle current and future energy and climate problems. The goal of the MOOC is to introduce users to the internal dynamics of modern energy systems and energy transition toward CO2-neutral energy systems. The target audience of the course is students who study Environmental Engineering, Energy, Systems, or similar program and anyone else interested in insights into the topic. The course builds on previous energy supply and demand models by updating and adapting them to the existing situation. MOOC is designed by the Competency-Based Education (CBE) approach, and a literature review is used in the study to cover theoretical parts of the course. Technology Readiness Level (TRL) methodology describes the main steps of the course model development progress, and testing of MOOCs pilot version on five students is included in the final stage of the study.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Optimization of Technology for the Use of Spinning Waste in Yarn
           Production

    • Abstract: The paper considers issues related to the development of technology for the use of spinning waste in the production of cotton yarn. The process of forming a column of cotton fibers with included waste in an improved feeder-hopper of a loosening-scutching unit designed for cleaning from foreign impurities and dust is theoretically analysed. The optimal design parameters of an improved hopper-feeder with perforated walls have been determined depending on the performance of the loosening-scutchingunit. The approximate distribution of the concentration of foreign impurities and dust is determined depending on the technological and design features of the improved hopper-feeder with perforated walls. The optimal technological parameters of the post-treatment of the formed fibrous layer of cotton after the hopper-feeder have been determined.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Algae Culture Conditions and Process Parameters for Phycoremediation and
           Biomaterials Production

    • Abstract: Climate change and increasing world population call for careful utilization of water and energy sources. Microalgae to treat wastewater in a coupled process to produce biofuels and other value-added products for human consumption are promising solutions. An analysis of culture parameters and cultivation processes is presented as essential to achieve economical sustainability from the algae. Results of the activity of microalgal strains in detoxification of wastewater are compared and discussed, particularly in remediation of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds, heavy metal, pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Phycoremediation mechanisms and culture conditions to obtain optimal microalgal growth are discussed. Finally, valuable products that can be produced by microalgae and ecological problems of untreated wastewater are presented.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Perceptions, Choices and Usage of Ecological Household Chemicals: Results
           from an Online Citizen Survey in Latvia

    • Abstract: Chemical products are widely used in our everyday activities. As the availability and accessibility of ecological chemical products increases, the usage of these products should be promoted and encouraged since it is better for the environmental and human health. However, there is a gap between individual perceptions on these products and actual usage, therefore the aim of this study was to compare the knowledge and perceptions on chemical products and their labelling in Latvian adult citizens and whether this knowledge impacts their choices and usage of chemical products. An online survey was used to gather data from 412 respondents (21.8 % (n = 90) men, 78.2 % (n = 322) women, average age 39.5 years, 77.2 % (n = 318) had obtained higher education). 62.2 % (n = 237) of respondents use household chemicals every day: 6.7 % (n = 25) more than five times a day, 25.9 % (n = 99) two to five times a day and 29.6 % (n = 113) at least once a day. Although 78.2 % (n = 257) of respondents indicated that it was important to them that the household chemicals are ‘ecofriendly’, only 7.4 % (n = 28) of them responded that they always purchase eco-labelled chemical products and 60.1 % (n = 229) do it sometimes. Almost a third of respondents (28.9 %, n = 110) have not payed attention whether the product has an eco-label. Survey data also shows that 91.9 % (n = 351) respondents’ choice regarding household chemicals is affected by their previous experience, including product effectiveness, product ‘ecofriendliness’ (62.1 %, n = 237) and product price (59.2 %, n = 226). Many respondents have correctly identified eco-labels, but at the same time, more than a third of respondents (17.9–39.8 %) mistake other labels to be eco-labels as well.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • A Multi-Objective Optimization Approach of Smart Autonomous Electrical
           Grid with Active Consumers and Hydrogen Storage System

    • Abstract: In this paper, a multi objective optimization approach is studied for optimal energy scheduling of the smart autonomous electrical grid with participation of active consumers (ACs) and hydrogen storage system (HSS). The objective functions consist of: 1) minimizing the costs and 2) maximizing reliability. The ACs participation are modelled through demand reduction approach based on offer price to peak demand management. The proposed optimization is solved by epsilon-constraint method and LINMAP decision making strategy. The 21-node test system is employed to analyse the efficiency of the proposed approach at two case studies. The obtained results shown the high effectiveness of smart autonomous electrical grid with participation of ACs and HSS to supply the demand.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Hydronic Road-Heating Systems: Environmental Performance and the Case of
           Ingolstadt Ramps

    • Abstract: Snowfall and ice formation on road surface significantly impact the safety of driving conditions. To resolve this, every year salt and de-icing chemicals are sprinkled on roads. However, use of salts and snow ploughing have environmental as well as economical disadvantages. To resolve these problems, hydronic road heating systems are valid alternatives. Heat transfer fluid, i.e. mixture of ethanol and water, is pumped into a tubular circulation system under the asphalt. By this technology, the road and pavements shall stay ice-free even in times of snowfall and temperatures below the freezing point. The system can also be used to cool the asphalt in case of extreme heat, which – besides the heating effect – could also prevent road from damages in extreme summers. This study aims to compare the environmental impact of use of salts and road-heating system in terms of GHG emissions. To assess the environmental impact, an operational road heating system for a ramp in Ingolstadt, Germany, is considered. A cradle-to-grave analysis technique is used to determine the environmental effects based on a life-cycle assessment (LCA) framework. The analysis includes nine components solemnly responsible for hydronic heating of asphalt surface such as local heating pipe, insulation, pumps, and heat meters. Comparison is performed in terms of relative and total impact over 50-year lifetime of three heated ramps having 1989 m2 surface area in total. The results show that the asphalt and heating-circuit causes the major fraction (65 %) of overall GHG emissions, with total life-time emissions of 28.10 kg CO2 eq./m2 of heated surface. During an operational life of 50 years, road heating systems emit 18 % less CO2 eq./m2 as compared to the use of salts.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Emissions and Efficiency Limits of Small-Scale Biomass Heating Systems:
           Regulations, Standards, and Ecolabels

    • Abstract: The household sector has a significant role in the consumption of energy resources and related emissions. The household sector is responsible for around 1/3 of the total energy resource consumption in Latvia. This study aims to determine the level of control measures regarding household boilers by summarising the existing information on legislation and quality labels regulating the efficiency and emissions of household boilers in the EU. The focus is on PM emissions and small-scale heating system regulations in Latvia. The study shows that small-scale biomass heating systems lack proper control measures to limit created emissions. The situation regarding PM emissions is the worst in Latvia, in comparison to the EU and 8 other studied countries.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Differences in Commercialization Policies of Innovations. Customer
           Perspective

    • Abstract: The last decade in particular has seen prosperity in global challenges. Traditional industry leaders have to compete with the challenges of the new generation in emerging markets. Although the European market is competitively mature, the prosperity in global challenges makes it necessary to defend the domestic market as well as to pursue growth opportunities in emerging markets. Analyzing the trends, a comparison of the US and Chinese innovation commercialization policies from a customer perspective with Europe was distinguished. The main difference is Europe's narrowly defined customer segment, companies do not adapt to customer micro-segments with non-matching product and service requirements, because individual attraction strategies must be implemented for each branch, which increase the difficulty to draw potential global clients. The aim of this work is to analyze the US and Chinese innovation commercialization process policies from a customer perspective to gain an insight into the improvement of European national policy models. A multi-criteria decision analysis was used to compare the US and European influencing factor criteria, which focuses on customer segmentation, to determine the most influential segment. Data were also collected in the analysis of the success of European commercialization. The focus on the US end-market approach is expected to increase the value of the proximity factor by improving the implementation of European innovation policy in practice.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Zoysia Soil-Less Green Roof’s Performance: A Life Cycle Assessment

    • Abstract: The use of green roofs is demonstrated to improve the energy performance of buildings, increase biodiversity, reduce environmental impacts of urban areas, and mitigate climate change phenomena. Their use on a large scale is desirable in the coming years. Still, the choice of the most suitable green roof design solution should also consider the impacts of their production. Within this study, the Life Cycle Assessment methodology was used to evaluate the environmental impact of a particular typology of soil-less green roofs ideated by an Italian company. In this lightweight green roof, the growing medium is replaced by recycled felt layers, filtration is guaranteed by geotextile, and a closed-loop sub-irrigation system fertilises the pre-growth lawn placed on the top. The extremely low weight of this system suggests an optimal use in building retrofitting scenarios, but its environmental implication was not known. The environmental impact of this product has been assessed with an attributional cradle-to-gate approach through four different methodologies (ReCiPe midpoint and endpoint H V1.1, Ecological footprint V1.01, and IPCC 2013 GWP 100y V1.0) using the ecoinvent v3, Agri-footprint 1.0, and ELCD database on the SimaPro 8.4.4.0 software. The IPCC method has shown a Global Warming Potential of 7.66 kg of CO2 eq. for 1 m2 of Pratotetto® green roof; however, the reuse of waste materials from the textile industry must be considered.
      PubDate: Sat, 05 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Impact Assessment of the Renewable Energy Policy Scenarios – a Case
           Study of Latvia

    • Abstract: Even though the development of renewable energy technologies has been one of the most discussed and research-rich fields of science, and there are many practical and convincing technologies in the field of renewable energy, the path taken by society to shift from the use of non-renewable energy sources to the use of renewable ones has often been slow and unclear. Renewable energy technologies have undergone many improvements. There are several successful and promising examples where installing renewable energy technologies has paid off financially and improved the environment and quality of life. Nevertheless, fossil fuel still dominates or makes up a large proportion of energy production. The research simulates existing, planned, and potential policies to assess the best way to integrate renewable and local energy resources into the energy system by 2030 and in the long term. Policy analysis is carried out for several possible combinations of support measures to assess if it is possible to achieve the set targets in the National and Climate plan by 2030 and reach Climate neutrality by 2050. Such an approach makes it possible to assess the impact of existing policies that create synergies or undesirable side effects and whether they maximize the return on investment from a socio-economic and environmental point of view. In addition, a risk analysis and impact assessment of the proposed policy scenarios are carried out using multi-criteria analysis.
      PubDate: Sat, 05 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Implications of the FMEA Method in Evaluating Amirkabir Dam’s
           Environmental Risk

    • Abstract: There are various environmental risks in both the construction and operation phases of huge civil projects such as dam construction. As a result, it is critical to implement appropriate risk control and risk mitigation measures before the initiation of the activities posed by these schemes. The goal of this research is to identify and categorize the environmental risks posed by the Amirkabir Dam during its construction and operation phases. After identifying the risks, the risk factors were prioritized using the FMEA method, with the risks being ranked according to their severity, probability of occurrence, and ability to detect. The study’s findings revealed that the highest risk in the dam construction stage is associated with road construction and vehicle exhaust gases (RPNs of 280 and 252, respectively), and the highest risk in the operation phase is associated with borrow area overuse (erosion and sediment downstream of the dam) (RPN of 280).
      PubDate: Sat, 05 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Biodiesel Production Using Calcined Phosphate Rock as a Precursor of
           Calcium Oxide Heterogeneous Catalyst

    • Abstract: In this paper, phosphate rock has been utilized beyond its traditional role as a raw material for fertilizer production to a new potential role as a heterogeneous base catalyst for biodiesel production. The rock was thermally modified through calcination at 900 °C for 8 hrs. One factor at a time experimental design was used to vary the operating conditions of time (30–150 min), temperature (40 °C–80 °C,) catalyst concentration (1–5 wt%), and methanol to oil ratio (10–50 wt%). It was established that the optimum production conditions for maximum biodiesel yield of 93 % using this novel catalyst was achieved at reaction time 90 min, reaction temperature 60 °C, catalyst concentration 3wt% and methanol to oil weight ratio of 30 wt%. The synthesized biodiesel was compared with the raw waste oil using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine the efficiency of conversion from this catalyst. The catalyst modification after calcination was also analysed using this spectroscopic technique to confirm any changes in the functional groups. Biodiesel’s chemical and physical properties were measured based on the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) international standards for biodiesel.
      PubDate: Sat, 05 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Transition to Climate Neutrality at University Campus. Case Study in
           Europe, Riga

    • Abstract: 100 cities in Europe have committed to being pioneers and achieving climate neutrality by 2030. It is crucial to start with the decarbonization of cities because, although they cover only 3 % of the Earth’s land, they produce 72 % of all greenhouse gas emissions. This paper contributes to the city decarbonization research but on a smaller scale. We study the decarbonization potential of a university campus. It is a unique part of a larger urban area. It represents a cross-section of the population of different socio-economic backgrounds and ages, generating irregular schedules and constant movements of people and goods throughout the day. Riga Technical University is one of the pioneer universities in Latvia that has decided to achieve climate neutrality by 2030. This study aims to provide a qualitative review of the potential for improvements and describe the preliminary CO2 simulation model that includes Scope 1, Scope 2, and Scope 3 emissions. A particular challenge is the Scope 3 emissions, which focus on changing user habits. A survey of Riga Technical University students and employees was developed and conducted to analyse the most effective solutions for this type of emission. Survey results and future work recommendations are presented together with the model outline.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Analysis of Shared Electric Scooter Use in Riga

    • Abstract: Shared electric micromobility has been becoming increasingly popular during last few years, especially in the context of Covid-19 and its impact on public transportation. Because of the electric propulsion, electric scooters are considered as potentially one of the ways how to decrease CO2 emissions in urban transportation sector. This article examines the electric scooter trip data obtained during 2021 scooter season in Riga city. The data analysis shows similarities between scooter trips in Riga and other cities, most notably the hourly trip distribution. There are differences however in many aspects, like average trip distance and duration; the largest difference being the slow average scooter trip speed in Riga, (5.4 km/h) which is comparable to fast walking. The observed significant variance between the trips indicates, that a systematic and holistic approach will be needed to use the scooter trip data making decisions about urban transportation and not relying on average trip data values. The findings from this article will add to understanding of urban transportation in North-Eastern Europe.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Development and Assessment of Carbon Farming Solutions

    • Abstract: In the light of the Green Deal and its ‘Farm to Fork’ and ‘Biodiversity’ strategies, the EU aims to find new ways to decrease GHG emissions through the EU Carbon Farming initiative stating that farming practices that remove CO2 from the atmosphere should be rewarded in line with the development of new EU business models. The Carbon farming initiative is a new approach and concludes that carbon farming can significantly contribute to climate change mitigation. As European Commission acknowledges that carbon farming is in its infancy and there is a lot to be addressed, in the years towards 2030, result-based carbon farming plots and schemes should be settled by the Member States and local governments; therefore, the existing solutions for reducing emissions through improved farming practices should be defined for each region. The research identifies carbon farming solutions in the agriculture sector – minimal/zero tillage, carbon sequestration in soils, biogas and biomethane production, perennial plant growing, and agroforestry and described.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Optimization of Yeast Cultivation Factors for Improved SCP Production

    • Abstract: Yeast Single-Cell Proteins (SCP) production using various agro-industrial byproducts and wastes have significant potential as an alternative to the soy meal, and fish meal protein used for livestock and aquaculture feeds. The use of organic wastes as a substrate in the fermentation processes can be accepted as one of the solutions to reduce the total price of the culture and an environmentally friendlier method of removing these residues. This review article focuses on the yeast biomass yield and protein content increase strategies, which is impossible without understanding metabolic pathways and switching mechanisms. The present work discusses optimization strategies for protein-enriched yeast biomass production, such as fermentation medium composition, including a selection of carbon and nitrogen sources and their ratio, supplemented trace elements, and cultivation conditions such as pH, temperature, time of cultivation, and inoculum size. This review summarizes the theoretical knowledge and experimental results of other researchers that provide an overview of the achievements of the last decades in the production of SCP.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Non-Incomes Risk Mitigation Mechanisms for Cultural Heritage: Role of
           Insurances Facing Covid-19 in the Italian Context

    • Abstract: The economic cultural heritages are exposed to several natural and nowadays biological hazards, which, in addition to causing potential structural damage, can lead to severe loss deriving from financial non-incomes. The paper aims to highlight the role of insurance in mitigating financial damages and losses, specifically explaining the key role of insurance in mitigating biological hazards like Covid-19. The paper is part of broader research by the authors and uses the assumptions and results already obtained previously in the context of the case study relating to the asset of Villa Adriana and Villa D’Este.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Production of Biodiesel Using Phosphate Rock as a Heterogeneous Catalyst.
           An Optimized Process Using Surface Response Methodology

    • Abstract: In the present study, calcined phosphate rock was used as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil (WCO). Response surface methodology was used to optimize and determine the significant process variables that affected the experiment. A 5-level-4 factor Central composite design consisting of 30 experiments was used to develop a quadratic polynomial model. The following parameters were optimized, namely, reaction temperature (40–90 °C), catalyst to oil weight ratio (1–5 %), reaction time (40–120 min), and methanol to oil ratio (10:1–18:1). Maximum biodiesel yield of 96.07 % was obtained through numerical optimization at reaction temperature 62.63 °C, catalyst to oil weight ratio of 3.32 %, reaction time 79.07 min, and alcohol to oil ratio 14.79:1. Fourier transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR) analysis was used to characterize the phosphate rock in its raw form, after calcination at 1000 °C and after the first and the fourth reuse cycle. According to the American society for testing and material (ASTM D6751), the fuel properties such as kinematic viscosity, pour point, cloud point, and density were measured and were found to be within the stipulated range.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Magnesia Composites Formation as a Result of Furniture Production Wood
           Waste Processing

    • Abstract: The article outlines the problem of accumulation of short-fibered waste generated during chipboard sawing. Intense impact on the material determines a high level of technological availability of wood waste. The research objective is to create magnesia composite materials for various purposes based on chipboard processing waste. Moulding sands containing caustic magnesite, fly ash, aluminosilicate ash microsphere, wood waste and magnesium chloride solution have been studied. Change in the ratio of moulding sands’ components provided production of finely dispersed composite material, and granules of cylindrical and spherical shapes. Composite materials of coarse-pored structure have been developed on the basis of magnesia granules and hybrid magnesia-ash binder. Combination of layers of finely dispersed and coarse-pored materials has been proposed to form composites of variotropic structure with density 780–840 kg/m3 and strength 9.7–11.9 MPa. Combined structures’ stability is achieved due to the high adhesive ability of magnesia binders and genetic commonality of various layers.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Life Cycle Inventory for Safflower Production in Southern Europe

    • Abstract: Safflower is currently primarily cultivated as an industrial crop for its oil, which is used for food and industrial purposes, while the by-products can be used for animal feeding. Traditionally cultivated in the Mediterranean area, it was abandoned in the past for other oil crops, such as sunflower. However, it is now returning to be interesting due to its adaptability to low-input cultivation practices, especially when sown in autumn. The main aim of this study is to present a Life Cycle Inventory of safflower grown in a Southern European country, i.e. Italy, based on primary data on agricultural practices used in this country. The study was carried out following ISO 14040 and ISO 14044. Data were collected from experimental fields of the University of Perugia, to ensure a specific and accurate data collection for the definition of the complete supply chain. The reference unit of this study was defined as 1 ha. The stages from raw materials production to seed harvesting were considered. The data presented will be useful to increase the existing knowledge of safflower production in other Mediterranean countries.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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