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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
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Environmental and Climate Technologies
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.045
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1691-5208 - ISSN (Online) 2255-8837
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • Bibliometric Review of State-of-the-art Research on Microbial Oils’
           Use for Biobased Epoxy

    • Abstract: Epoxy resins are widely used polymers from which a variety of products are derived and applied in many industries. Most epoxy resins are still obtained from mainly fossil feedstocks, such as epichlorohydrin and bisphenol A, which are also highly toxic. Additionally, fossil derived epoxy resin products are forming non-biodegradable waste at their end of life. Recently the number of studies aiming to find solutions and other raw materials for the replacement of fossil derived epoxy resins has increased, showing that bio-based epoxy resins are a promising alternative. An interesting alternative raw material for bio-based epoxy resins is epoxides derived from microorganisms, such as epoxidized microbial oil. This review article explores and compares the latest solutions for the use of microbial oils in the production of bio-based epoxides, outlines the prospects for their future use and points out the shortcomings of these solutions.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Decision-making Algorithm for Waste Recovery Options. Review on Textile
           Waste Derived Products

    • Abstract: As the volume of textile waste steadily increases, mechanical, chemical and biological technologies for textile waste recovery are evolving. Also, the legal framework of the European Union has stated the commitments for promoting the recycling of textile waste in the Member States. So far, however, no decision-making algorithms have been developed for the selection of products recovered from textile waste. Within the present study, a hybrid multi-criteria decision-making algorithm for evaluating textile waste recovered products has been developed applying seven circular economic criteria – ‘Circular economy approach of the technology’, ‘Added-value potential of final product’, ‘Share of textile waste in total waste feedstock’, ‘Diversity of textile mix suitable for specific technology’, ‘Pre-treatment of waste feedstock’, ‘Recovery potential’ and ‘Maturity of a recovery technology’. The weighting of the criteria was determined by eight waste management experts. The results of the expert-based criteria evaluation show that the most important criteria are ‘Added-value potential of final product’ and ‘Circular economy approach of the technology’. The developed decision-making methodology has been adapted to nine textile waste recovered products – compost, refuse-derived fuel, ethanol, glucose, building insulation material from cement and textile waste mix, building insulation material from denim textile waste, terephthalic acid, recovered cotton and recovered polyester. The multi-criteria, decision-making ranking of the products textile shows that the highest potential for products recovered from textile waste is for glucose and terephthalic acid, while the lowest – for ethanol, compost and refuse-derived fuel.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Life Cycle Assessment of an Innovative Microalgae Cultivation System in
           the Baltic Region: Results from SMORP Project

    • Abstract: Microalgae cultivation at biogas plants creates joint benefits for using liquid digestate and exhaust gas from the CHP unit as nutrient and carbon sources for microalgae growing. This circular approach increases biogas production’s sustainability towards a bioeconomy and zero-waste perspective. This study aims to evaluate the potential environmental impacts in connection to a novel microalgae growing technology named Stacked Modular Open Raceway Pond (SMORP) as a side-stream process coupled with centrate and exhaust gases from a biogas plant. A comparative LCA according to ISO 14044 is performed between the innovative SMORP concept at the pilot level and a hypothetical scaled-up system. Primary data for the inventory are directly gathered from the microalgae growing test performed at the biosystems laboratory of the Institute of Energy Systems and Environment of the Riga Technical University. Secondary data are collected from literature mostly in terms of mass and energy balances considering the SMORP pilot project design. The results of the LCA include the main findings both at mid and endpoint categories according to the IMPACT 2002+ method. In addition, a sensitivity analysis for several different parameters has been investigated. Results show the feasibility of the coupled system and the possibility of having benefits once the system is scaled up. Nevertheless, the results show a critical dependency of the environmental performance on the local conditions, potentially affecting too high cultivation costs.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Contribution of Pyrolysis of Water Hyacinth to South Africa‚Äôs
           Low-carbon and Climate Resilient Economy Transition: A Mini Review

    • Abstract: South Africa is a carbon-intensive country, with coal dominating the indigenous energy resource base; however, targets have been set to reduce the national carbon emissions. The transition from coal to cleaner sources of energy generation can be encouraged by the administration of new technologies. Hence, the study aims to review research progress on the pyrolysis of water hyacinth as a tool for the smooth transition to low carbon and climate-resilient economy. Water hyacinth is suitable for energy recovery due to its high carbon content and heating value. The outcome shows that pyrolytic products such as liquid, char and non-condensable gas fractions are beneficial. This paper contributes to policy and research deliberations on promoting and adopting pyrolysis technology in addressing South Africa’s energy crisis and water hyacinth invasion.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Wood Ash Filter Material Characterization as a Carrier Material for
           Biomethanation of Biogas in Biotrickling Filter Reactors

    • Abstract: Biomethanation is a prospective biogas upgrading method to integrate renewable energy grid with existing biogas grid. Biomethane can directly substitute fossil natural gas and be used in all energy sectors. The selection of packing material for the ex-situ biomethanation in biotrickling filter reactors can be based on the physical and chemical characterization of the carrier material. The packing material selected for biotrickling filter reactors supports hydrogenotrophic methanogenic growth and thereby increases the area for H2 mass transfer. Chemical components and melting temperature analysis of wood ash material are carried out to determine optimal parameters for producing wood ash filter material. Physical characteristics of new wood ash filter material such as volume-specific surface area (m2 m−3), the external porosity (vol. %) and bulk density (kg m−3) are carried out to compare this material with other carrier materials that have been used in biotrickling filter reactors before.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Optimal Dispatch of the Energy Demand in Electrical Distribution Grid with
           Reserve Scheduling

    • Abstract: The operation of the electrical systems is a major problem for electrical companies’ subject to uncertainties threatening. In this study, the optimal management of the energy demand in the electrical distribution grid is done by interval optimization approach under electrical price uncertainty. The management of the energy demand is implemented via incentive-based modelling of the demand response programs (DRPs). The incentive-based modelling as reserve, and based on bid price for reduction of the electrical demand at peak hours is proposed. The interval optimization approach is used for the minimization of the electrical price uncertainty effects. The main objective in the proposed approach is minimizing operation cost; epsilon-constraint method is utilized to solve the problem. Finally, an electrical distribution grid has been used at various case studies to numerical simulation results and positive effects of the proposed modelling under uncertainties.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Operation of the Multiple Energy System with Optimal Coordination of the
           Consumers in Energy Market

    • Abstract: In this paper, optimal coordination of the demand side under uncertainty of the energy price in energy market is studied. The consumers by demand response programs (DRPs) have optimal role in minimization of the energy generation costs in multiple energy system. The consumers can participate via local generation strategy (LGS) and demand curtailment strategy (DCS). The optimal coordination is considered as two stage optimization, in which minimization of the consumers’ bills is done in first stage. In following, the minimization of the generation costs is performed in second stage optimization. The LGS is taken into accounted through optimal discharging of plug electric vehicles (PEVs). Finally, numerical simulation is implemented to show superiority of the proposed approach to minimization of the energy generation costs.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Optimal Participation of the Renewable Energy in Microgrids with Load
           Management Strategy

    • Abstract: In this paper, bi-level optimization model is proposed for optimal energy trading between microgrids (MGs) and distribution companies (Discos) with consideration of the renewable energies. The first level modelling is maximizing MGs’ profit and the second level is related to maximization of the Discos profit. In proposed system, power trading between MGs and Discos is considered. As well, renewable energies and demand management strategy are modelled in system for optimal energy consumption. The optimization modelling is solved by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), and results of the two case studies show optimal solution of prosed strategy in energy optimization.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Transportation Biofuels in Latvia: A Life Cycle Thinking Approach

    • Abstract: Transport consumes around one-third of Latvia’s final energy demand being the largest sector that produces greenhouse gas emissions. In Latvia, in the year 2019, the share of renewable energy sources in the transport sector was only 4.8 % of the total gross consumption with a target of 7 % of not food-based biofuels by 2030. To tackle climate change problems, one significant task is reducing pollution in the transport sector by substituting fossil with biomass-based fuels. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for evaluating biofuel production in Latvia considering economic, social, environmental, and technological aspects. A total of 16 specific criteria were selected for biofuel comparison. The methodology is based on a combination of two quantitative approaches, namely Life Cycle Assessment and Multi-Criteria Analysis. The proposed method aims to identify the most sustainable biofuel in Latvia according to a set of specific indicators.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Indoor Air Quality Guidelines Connection to IAQ Certification and
           Labelling Process

    • Abstract: The world’s leading indoor air quality guidelines provide for the identification of certain parameters with a specific limit value based on the latest empirical measurements, however, most of them do not have legal coverage and are voluntary. This leads to unequal assessment of indoor air quality, because there is an identifiable difference between the limit values set out in the various guidelines. And these values would be related to the results obtained during the experimental activities of the application of the specific parameters and the interpretation of their effects on human health. The aim of this IAQ guideline and IAQ certification review was to develop IAQ label for Nordic countries and to find gaps the legislation established by the Latvian government. The development of indoor air quality labels provides an opportunity to maintain and promote the optimal functionality of human physiological processes and the sustainability of the building.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Hydraulic Structures as Flow Measuring Devices

    • Abstract: Discharge measurement is the base of proper water management. The effective design and operation of hydraulic structures under both normal and extreme flow conditions depend on the quality of hydrological data. Understanding the water system requires consistent and long-term measurement. Despite that, the gauging station network is sparse, and its numbers are declining worldwide. This article aims to draw attention to the possibility of accurate flow measurement using existing hydraulic structures. Flow over a hydraulic structure profile is a physically well-defined phenomenon as the construction shape is fixed and simple compared to river profiles. The discharge can be derived from rating curves, turbine characteristics, and several easily measured variables. That allows continuous discharge measurement. The accuracy is compared with the gauging station on the river. Suitable technical solutions for ensuring and monitoring ecological flow are discussed.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Comparison of Suitable Business Models for the 5 Generation District
           Heating System Implementation through Game Theory Approach

    • Abstract: District Heating and Cooling (DHC) technology is widely recognised as a promising solution for reducing primary energy consumption and emissions. The 5th Generation District Heating and Cooling (5GDHC) network is the latest DHC concept characterised by low-temperature supply, bi-directional heating network operation, decentralised energy flows, and surplus heat sharing. Unlike the 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) technology, the 5GDHC technology switched to a consumer/prosumer-oriented perspective. The introduction of 5GDHC solutions requires high investments, an important barrier to further developing DHC systems. Therefore, a novel pricing and business model could include introducing co-owners or energy managers into the system. Three different local market business models for 5GDHC at the community level have been tested. The reverse technical and economic simulation has been used for a feasibility study to determine the resources, business models, and combinations closest to the break-even point with lower costs and higher gains for all involved stakeholders.
      PubDate: Sat, 07 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Minimization of the Negative Environmental Impact of Oil Sludge by Using
           it in the Production of Bitumen

    • Abstract: In this paper, the prevention of negative technogenic impact on the environment of oil sludge by using it as a secondary resource is considered. Oil sludge from various objects of oil fields in Kazakhstan (Mangystau region) has been studied. The possibilities of using oil (after its separation from oil sludge by bioremidiation) as a partial substitute for bitumen base in the production of modified bitumen are considered. The main physical and mechanical characteristics of modified bitumen are determined. The results confirm that the modified bitumen prepared with oil sludge and oil separated by bioremiation method meets the requirements for polymer-bitumen binder to Kazakhstan standards and is suitable for the production of modified bitumen in its physico-chemical characteristics.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • A Review of Bio-Based Adhesives from Primary and Secondary Biomass for
           Wood Composite Applications

    • Abstract: Today there is a great demand in the market of wood-based panels like medium density fibreboard (MDF), plywood and oriented strand board (OSB). These boards provide functionality in various industrial fields from building to furniture production. All are produced from timber and some type of binding resin, the most often used in Europe are phenol formaldehyde (FF), isocyanate (MDI) and melamine urea formaldehyde (MUF). These resins guarantee sturdiness of the material but are toxic to humans and makes recycling of the wood-based panels very difficult. There are attempts of wood-based panels industry to transition away from fossil-based adhesives. Various resins have been developed using lignin and tannin or protein. Soy based adhesive SOYAD™ has already reached the market, other soy protein-based adhesives are integrated into ultra-low formaldehyde emission particle boards like Nu green 2® and Transform™. This paper gives an overview on bio-based adhesives that are used or have the potential to be used for wood-based panel production.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Performance of Lightweight Concrete with Recycled Polyethylene
           Terephthalate and Polypropylene as Demising Wall

    • Abstract: The use of concrete has always been an important construction material used throughout the construction industry in the world. The objective of this study is to explore the potential of using lightweight concrete block mixing with plastic waste and additional plastic material as a sustainable construction material for constructing the demising wall in the current construction industry. The research is conducted quantitatively through experiments to test the density and strength of the materials. A series of experiments are conducted based on two types of plastics which are Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) as replacement of coarse aggregate and Polypropylene (PP) fibres which corresponds to the percentage of cement mass added into the concrete mix and each with a different percentage to observe the variations throughout a series of tests. The findings show that concrete mixing with 0.5 % of Polypropylene (PP) fibres showed outstanding results in the compressive strength compared to the control specimen and PET specimen. However, if comparing the amount of recycled waste incorporated into the same size of lightweight concrete block, the PET has a higher recycling rate which is 27 times the amount of PP fibres. From the findings, the research will contribute to a wider range of sustainable building materials choices for the designer or architect in the project.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Development of Eco-Friendly Transformer Oil from Neem Seed Oil using
           Periwinkle Waste Shell as Catalyst

    • Abstract: The urge for a sustainable and non-polluting industry has raised the need for a search for an alternative insulating fluid that could be used in transformers, because of the negative environmental effect of mineral-based insulating fluids. Natural esters from non-edible oil seeds showed to be feasible alternative, unfortunately they possess poor thermooxidative properties. Neem trees grow nearly on all types of soils and can be as old as 45 years before they start to produce less fruits. Neem tree can produce up to 50 kg of its fruits yearly from the tenth year and the seed oil content is 45 % making it a sustainable tree. The neem seed transformer oil (NSTO) was produced via catalysed transesterification process using neem seed oil and methanol with periwinkle shell as catalyst. Prior to the transesterification reaction the seed oil was degummed. The produced ester also underwent water treatment process. The produced NSTO density, water content, acidity flash point, pour point, viscosity, breakdown voltage, dielectric, relative dielectric constant, dissipation factor and resistivity properties were tested, presented and discussed. Results show that NSTO meet most of the standard requirements of new natural ester fluids as insulating oil. The dielectric breakdown voltage of the oil is 32 kV, which is more than the required for new natural ester fluids. The dissipation factor limit value for new natural ester of 0.20 % at 25 °C limit value was met by NSTO from 100 Hz to 400 Hz, and the relative dielectric constants of NSTO are 3.01 k, which value also meets the specification of between 2.9 k and 3.2 k. The pre-treatment of degumming of the seed oil prior to transesterification and water treatment of the produced ester appears to be a promising route for the production of electrical insulating oil for transformer.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Influence of Data Reduction Methods on Economic Evaluation of
           Energy-Communities

    • Abstract: Renewable energy communities (REC) are a valuable mean of combating climate change: they increase participant self-sufficiency, avert blackouts, minimize costs (and/or CO2 emissions), and improves the resilience of the community. The planning phase of an energy community requires an analysis of its performance and efficiency. Concretely, the calculation of optimized energy flows of each participant of the REC at each timepoint (and hence, the energy costs and/or CO2 emissions) is the objective of the analysis. The quality and accuracy of the analysis depend directly on the period of the analysis from one side, and on the modelling data from another. The most accepted period of the analysis of RECs (as a special case of micro-grids) comprises a whole year, to avoid seasonal effects. The necessary data for the analysis are energy consumption and production, trade prices and used technologies. Nowadays, most grid operators provide the values of energy flows with at least a 15-minute time resolution. It means each variable involved in the analysis will be represented as an array with 35 040 elements. Increasing the number of participants, technologies, and other involved variables, increases the amount of data, and consequently the complexity of the analysis. The main contribution of this paper is the comparison of different data reduction methods to handle this information and the validation of their results.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Finding the Generic Hygrothermal Properties of Historical Bricks by
           Supervised Agglomerative Clustering

    • Abstract: Finding the generic hygrothermal properties of historical brick for application in Heat Air and Moisture (HAM) simulation programs such as Delphin, Wufi, etc., is the main objective of this paper. In this paper hygrothermal properties and Delphin simulation results of 40 different historical brick samples from the 17th to 20th Century, were used. The clustering results of hygrothermal properties were cross-examined with the results of clustering results of Delphin simulation data. Six and three clusters were found to be optimal, accordingly for Hygrothermal properties and Delphin results data groups. After cross-examination, a total of 9 combined clusters were recognized, with two dominant clusters containing 67.5 % of all samples (30 and 37.5 %), four of the clusters had only one sample in them, and other clusters had two, three, and four samples in them. Additionally, all the resulting clusters were compared with the brick sample groups that were created based on the description of the brick: color, material type, and year of manufacturing.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Bioeconomy Sustainability Index: A Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping Approach

    • Abstract: There is no one unique parameter with value which can represent bioeconomy sustainability and development. However, many different parameters can be used to describe the economic, social, environmental technological aspects of bioeconomy. The paper present combined approach with using multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) analysis methods for bioeconomy sustainability index. Study describe methodology of fuzzy cognitive map developing, including expert involving, obtained data from survey combination to bioeconomy indicators and categories. The weight of selected FCM components were normalized using MCDA method. The critical points of the applied method and opportunities for improvement have been identified. The role of respondents in the results is also considered.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Effect of Fresnel Lens Focal Point Location on Heat Transfer in Phase
           Change Material (PCM) Enhanced Dynamic Solar Facade

    • Abstract: In recent years, the demand for energy-efficient technological solutions in the building sector has risen significantly worldwide. The exploitation of phase change material as a medium for thermal energy storage in building envelopes has increased due to its superior properties. There is still a knowledge gap to cover in the way to the effective solar thermal energy storage in the building envelope – to enhance the heat transfer, to reduce the heat loss, etc. This paper deals with the optimisation of heat transfer using a solar concentrator (Fresnel lens). This study examines the effect of Fresnel lens focal point location on heat transfer in a dynamic solar facade prototype that stores thermal energy in phase change material. Nine different setups (solar façade compositions) were tested in the laboratory – two parameters with three alternatives each. Testing conditions simulate the relevant Northern Europe climate. By changing the air gap configuration and location of the Fresnel lens focal point, the heat transfer to phase change material was observed by measuring temperatures in the phase change material container using five thermocouples. The results show the improved thermal performance in test modules with larger cone diameter by 7.2 % and Fresnel lens focal point positioning closer to the back of the phase change material container by 5.4 %.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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