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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
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Environmental and Climate Technologies
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.045
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1691-5208 - ISSN (Online) 2255-8837
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Potential of Using WVO for a Restaurant EV Charging Station

    • Abstract: This research comprised an evaluation study for a charging station based on waste vegetable oil or biodiesel fuel. The biodiesel was produced from waste vegetable oil (WVO) and will be used (or the WVO) to charge electric cars for restaurant’s customers in their car park. The main concept behind the charging station is to be part of a restaurant that serves its customers and then uses its WVO or biodiesel to fuel a diesel engine that generates electricity to charge their electric vehicles (EV). The economic and environmental impacts of the direct use of WVO-EV charging station are promising because the costs associated with purchasing WVO are lower than those of purchasing crude oil or gas. There are several options and scenarios when selecting the perfect sized generator; using charging up to a maximum rated power of 6.6 kW is more feasible despite its higher initial cost as the simple payback period will be less than 3 years and the internal rate of return of the project is 44 %. The total saving at the end of the project for a generator with maximum rated power of 10 kW (option B) is $ 58 000. Conversely, for a generator with maximum rated power of 6.6 kW (option A) the project will cover its initial cost in around 4 years and the internal rate of return is 26 %. The total saving at the end of the project is $ 52 000. Furthermore, lower amount of greenhouse gases is produced from the burning of WVO directly. The final results showed that WVO is more feasible as it is available for free and could be burnt directly in the diesel engine. In economic terms, the project is feasible for both WVO and biodiesel as it has a high net present value and short payback period. A WVO-EV charging station can also improve the national economy by preparing it for the electric car era and, if applied to a large number of restaurants, will save a significant amount of electricity and reduce the expected strain on the electricity grid caused by the increasing number of electric cars.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Removal of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb from Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron Amended Soil
           Using 0.1 M Acetic Acid Solution

    • Abstract: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the possibility of removing heavy metal cations from single-metal spiked soil samples, which were pretreated with nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles. Sandy soil was artificially contaminated with copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb). Contaminated soil samples were amended with different doses of nZVI (0.35, 0.70 and 1.05 %). A sequential extraction method was used to determine the fractionation of heavy metal cations in the control and nZVI amended soil samples. A solution of 0.1 M acetic acid (pH 3.0) was used to investigate the removal of heavy metals from control and nZVI-amended soil samples. The results showed that nZVI reduced the amount of metals in the exchangeable form and increased the proportion of these metals associated with amorphous iron (Fe) oxides. The results also showed that the removal efficiencies of heavy metals increased with increasing nZVI dose, that is, from 46.9 %, 5.77 %, 33.5 %, and 2.70 % to 55.9 %, 12.3 %, 46.2 %, and 3.79 % for Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb, respectively. The study indicated that the application of nZVI in soil could be beneficial for subsequent removal of heavy metals from soil using 0.1 M acetic acid solution.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Hydrothermal Carbonisation of Biomass Wastes as a Tool for Carbon Capture

    • Abstract: Replacing fossil resources with bioresources is one of the promising directions for more environmentally friendly energy production, but the production and processing of biomass generates a large amount of waste with limited use and recycling possibilities. In this respect Hydrothermal Carbonisation (HTC) offers a sustainable and cost-effective solution for disposal and creation of new products from biomass through resource recovery and through climate-neutral process. In this study the impact of biomass type and HTC conditions on the yield and properties of artificial humic substances and hydrochar to achieve carbon capture aim has investigated. A major impact on the yield of HTC products do have the duration and temperature of the treatment, as well as catalyst used (pH of the reaction) and changing the carbonisation conditions it is possible to design the desirable composition of obtained products. During HTC process significant changes of the biomass composition happens resulting in the removal of most labile components. Although the carbon dioxide sorption capacity of hydrochar is relatively low, after activation efficient sorbent (activated carbon) can be obtained, prospective for carbon capture aims.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Experimental Validation of a Fixed Bed Solid Sorption Mathematical Model
           Using Zeolite 13X

    • Abstract: With the increase in renewable energy implementation all over the globe, the need for storage technologies is also raising, in order to match the renewables intermittent production with the demand and create a more resilient energy infrastructure. Due to its importance, in this study, a thermo -chemical heat storage system is investigated. A mathematical model of an open sorption system with a fixed zeolite 13XBF (binder-free) bed is validated using a setup assembled in the laboratory. The equipment used to perform the experiments the mathematical model, and the results obtained will be here presented. A comparison between experiments and simulation was performed and the results are satisfactory.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Decreasing the Load of Air to Water Heat Pump Systems on Electrical Grids

    • Abstract: This article focuses on decreasing the energy taken from the electrical grid by air to water heat pumps in buildings that use renewable energy. Conventionally the majority of the produced renewable energy is not used directly to operate the heat pump. An energy management concept was developed, with a main new parameter – RCOP that enables to create an optimal working schedule that considers the renewable energy availability and heat pump coefficient of performance in relation to the weather. The concept was proven with computer models that use weather forecasts, renewable energy production, and heat demand. The achieved yearly savings in grid-electricity used by the heat pump were 14.3 %. The fluctuations in the grid load were decreased which as well were quantified by a lower standard deviation of the demand. In months with the best renewable energy availability, the grid electricity savings can reach up to 70 %.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Comparison of Changes in Electricity Consumption Distribution in Day and
           Night Scale Caused by Nord Pool Spot Prices Volatility

    • Abstract: Under free market conditions, there should be a correlation between price and demand. In the electricity market, it is not possible to shift all consumption to hours that are more favourable. Therefore, free market rules do not fully apply to the electricity exchange market. Household consumers have a better ability to shift their energy consumption. At the same time, a large number of household consumers have fixed-price contracts and are therefore not affected by the sharp price changes, so it can be said that they do not actively participate in the stock market. They do not need to shift their electricity consumption. High-consumption industrial companies have very low possibilities at all to react to the stock market changes. The aim of this study is to find out how much electricity consumption has been able to shift in a situation where electricity prices in Estonian were extremely high and volatile. Electricity prices are usually lower at night-time, so it can be assumed that consumption will be shifted to night-time if possible. Examining the change in the distribution of night- and daytime electrical consumption over the years, it is possible to analyse the effect of energy prices on consumer behaviour during periods of high volatility.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Passenger Transport Shift to Green Mobility – Assessment Using TIMES
           Model

    • Abstract: The transport sector accounts for about one-third of the final energy consumption in Latvia, most of which are fossil fuels in road transport. Fossil fuel consumption increases emissions and demands an immediate change in mobility habits to achieve climate neutrality by 2050. This paper focuses on the in-depth analyses of passenger transport by modelling the potential use of cleaner energy sources and the possible decrease of consumption through the modal shift. As travel modes differ for each distance, the study is done for three distances – short, medium and long. Three scenarios have been analysed – BASE scenario including existing measures and taxation policy, NECP scenario including measures defined in the National Energy and Climate Plan until 2030 and GHG TARGET scenario aiming to achieve climate neutrality by 2050. The proposed modelling approach allows for the development and evaluation of the effectiveness of existing and planned measures in greening mobility. Results proved the need for immediate action and a change in the mobility habits of the population to achieve climate neutrality by 2050.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Use of Acoustic Effects for the Prevention and Elimination of Fires as
           an Element of Modern Environmental Technologies

    • Abstract: The paper studies the current state of the art in the use of acoustic effects in the prevention and elimination of fires. For this purpose, the literature review method was applied. The well-known approaches to fire extinguishing and their impact on the environment are considered. Multifaceted studies by a wide range of scientists on the possibilities of the acoustic effect in fire extinguishing are noted. The analysis of literary sources showed the negative impact of both the fires themselves and the majority of fire extinguishing agents on the environment. Variants of the use of the acoustic effect for the prevention and elimination of fires of various combustible substances are considered. The influence of the frequency of acoustic waves, scanning speed, power, and other acoustic parameters on flame extinguishing is noted. The possibilities of using a deep neural network for flame detection have been studied. The limitations and advantages of acoustic technology and further prospects for its development as an element of environmental technologies are shown.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Incorporating User Behaviour Into System Dynamics Modelling: A Case Study
           of Private vs. Public Transport in Latvia

    • Abstract: In this paper, a newly developed dynamic simulation model for transport user behaviour analysis is presented. The study aims to evaluate the impact of various factors on human behavioural intentions, identify the inconvenience costs of public transport, and identify the necessary improvements to shift the demand for population mobility from private cars to public transport. The assessment of such aspects as travel time and travel cost is presented. Modelling assumptions are based on a specially designed public survey allowing to improve the reliability of the developed system dynamics model. Modelling results highlight the multiplicative effect of factors influencing mode shift.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Impact of COVID-19 on Energy Consumption in Public Buildings

    • Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a great impact on energy consumption in the world and many researchers have found very different energy consumption patterns. The goal of this study was to analyse the patterns of energy consumption in municipal buildings. Altogether data from 262 buildings from 4 municipalities were used and analysed. Results show very different energy consumption patterns for different types of buildings. In schools and education facilities the link between Covid-19 restrictions and energy consumption deviations are visible, but in administration and office buildings it is not the case. This leads to a conclusion that energy consumption in the buildings is not always linked to the level of occupancy of the building, meaning that there is room for improvements on energy management practices and procedures in the municipalities.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Sound Absorption: Dependence of Rubber Particles Impurities in Tyre
           Textile Fibre

    • Abstract: In recent years, the recycling of waste materials has become significant due to the movement of the European Union toward the Green Deal and the low impact on the environment. The paper studies the possibility of Waste Tyre Textile Fibre (WTTF) for sound absorption applications. WTTF is the material generated during the end-of-life tyre recycling process, which is separated from rubber and metal parts. In this study, three different types of WTTF samples were tested in which they consist of different levels of rubber impurities. In the first case, rubber particles make up to 10 % of total mass of WTTF (WTTF10), second – 54 % (WTTF54), and third – 70 % (WTTF70). The sound absorption tests were performed using the impedance tube using a two microphone technique, under the ISO 10534-2 standard. The results showed that increasing the level of rubber particles reduces the sound absorption performance of the WTTF. It was noticed that sound absorption of the sample WTTF10 reached 0.67 at low frequencies (500 Hz), while WTTF54 reached 0.31 and WTTF70 reached 0.21. It was concluded that WTTF10 samples had on average a 61 % higher sound absorption capacity compared to the other samples. The aim of the study was to determine the rubber particles impurities in WTTF dependence on sound absorption ability of the material.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Factors Affecting Photo Voltaic Solar Energy Usage Intention in Rural
           Households in Bangladesh: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    • Abstract: This research examines the factors that affect Photo Voltaic (PV) solar technology’s usage intention in rural households in Bangladesh. The conceptual model for this research was developed according to past studies. There were five hypotheses developed and verified in this study. Cross sectional quantitative method was used in this research. The model was tested using empirical data collected from 209 households. This research mentions that PV solar technology usage intention was predicted by environmental concern, environmental knowledge, adoption cost, awareness, and government initiatives. The model shows a larger proposition (95 %) in the variance of PV solar technology usage in rural households in Bangladesh. According to the results of this study, we have accepted all hypotheses (H1–H5). From a practical perspective, this study’s results provide a guideline for investment decisions for the usage of PV solar technology in Bangladesh.
      PubDate: Sun, 22 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Bibliometric Assessment of International Developments in Paper Sludge
           Research Using Scopus Database

    • Abstract: Energy viability and waste disposal have been the two significant global complication. The consumption of paper and, subsequently, recycling are increasingly growing, contributing to vast quantities of paper sludge. Therefore, in waste disposal and environmental remediation, coping with massive volumes of paper sludge has received tremendous attention worldwide. Our purpose was to assess leading study advancements globally of paper sludge based on articles published, authors intra/inter-collaborations and accumulations of keywords. Throughout entire 1967–2019 duration, 2096 publications in paper sludge topic were mined using Scopus database. The findings revealed that the number of publications was less than 30 between 1967 and 1995, less than 60 between 1996 and 2005, less than 90 between 2006 and 2010 and more than 90 between 2011 and the recent year. Consequently, the yearly publishing is forecast to keep to expand. In a total of 125 journals, a total of 217 Canadian scholars from 155 universities lead to 263 papers, comprising 10.8 % total publications, where 261 (99.2 %) of 263 total English-language publications dominate the other countries/territories, while 0.8 % in French language. Also, from each of the 15 top countries, among the most productive universities, Université Laval was ranked 251st in World University Rankings 2021. In review, the following present developments in paper sludge comprise of: (i) cement, cellulose, bioethanol/biogas and concrete; (ii) phytoremediation and vermicompost and (iii) modelling (e.g., response surface methodology).
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Avoiding Food Wastage: The Net Impact of Activities. A Carbon Footprint
           Approach

    • Abstract: Food wastage is a complex global issue. Its solution requires a multi-pronged effort and the use of diversified strategies. Since the impacts are on an environmental, social and economic level, solutions can take shape in one of these areas, knowing that there are often trade-offs between one and the other. This paper aims to evaluate the net environmental effects in terms of Carbon footprint of the activities of the Lithuanian Food Bank (Maisto Bankas). Food banks are charities that work to reduce the negative social effects associated with food waste and food insecurity. They work on the food recovery, avoiding the transformation of food surplus in food waste. The present paper assessed the positive impact generated by the Lithuanian Food Bank thanks to its activities as the non-impact of recovered food and the non-disposal of food in landfills. At the same time, also the negative impact in term of emission due to the management of all its activities has been estimated. The net impact has been derived by the comparison of the two flows. The results of the study proved that, behind the social benefit, the Food Banks, as Maisto Bankas, produce also a net positive environmental impact.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Optimal Energy Management in a Smart Micro Grid with Demand Side
           Participation

    • Abstract: The energy management in energy systems is the main solution for energy companies in order to provide minimization of the energy generation costs and emission polluting. In this work, a multi-criteria optimization model is implemented for minimizing the generation cost and emission in a smart micro grid (SMG) at day-ahead planning. In this modelling, the demand side participates in optimal energy management through two strategies such as demand shifting and onsite generation by the energy storage system (ESS). The optimal participation of demand side is modelled based on energy price in energy market. Implementation of the proposed approach in GAMS software is done, and weight sum method (WSM) is employed for solving multi-criteria optimization. The desired optimal solution of multi-criteria objectives is found via the max-min fuzzy procedure. Finally, confirmation of the proposed approach is analysed by numerical simulation in two case studies.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • A Study on a Recuperative Suspension as an Alternative Energy Source

    • Abstract: The paper describes the problem of using the vehicle’s suspension as a source of an alternative energy. One of the best ways to improve the vehicle efficiency and its smooth ride is to make some rational changes in the vehicle design, one of which is to convert the mechanical energy accumulated in the vehicle’s suspension into electricity. The shock absorber in the suspension has been replaced with two different-type new recuperative devices, which replace the shock absorber and convert into electricity the loads coming from the road irregularities to pavement.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • A New Method for the Rapid Synthesis of Gas Hydrates for their Storage and
           Transportation

    • Abstract: This presents the analysis of the main reasons for a significant decrease in the intensity of diffusion processes during formation of gas hydrates; solutions to this problem are proposed in a new process flow diagram for the continuous synthesis of gas hydrates. The physical processes, occurring at corresponding stages of the process flow are described in detail. In the proposed device, gas hydrate is formed at the boundary of gas bubbles immersed in cooled water. The dynamic effects arising at the bubble boundary contribute to destruction of a forming gas hydrate structure, making it possible to renew the contact surface and ensure efficient heat removal from the reaction zone. The article proposes an assessment technique for the main process parameters of the synthesis of gas hydrates based on the criterion of thermodynamic parameters optimization.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Assessment and Accuracy Improvement of Pyroelectric Sensors (Eco-Counter)
           Based on Visitors Count in National Park. The Case: Monitoring System of
           Tourist Traffic in StoĊ‚owe Mountains National Park, Poland

    • Abstract: The monitoring of tourist traffic helps to manage tourism in national parks. Today park managers and researchers use many different devices and technologies that facilitate data collection. Among these often used devices is the pyroelectric sensor. Despite its high degree of usefulness, this type of sensor can miscalculate. Therefore, there is a need to assess the magnitude of errors and the circumstances in which they occur. The purpose of the study was to evaluate pyroelectric sensor counting errors in relation to different visitor flow levels and time intervals between visitors. The study was based on a field experiment and on-site observations using pyroelectric sensors, part of the Monitoring System of tourist traffic (MSTT) in Stołowe Mountains National Park in Poland. The outcome of the assessment was the errors sizes and types and calibration formula. Pyroelectric sensors more often overcount than undercount. Errors occur in larger than 6-visitor groups and time intervals between visitors shorter than 3 seconds. Finally, the analysis of the causes of errors gave the ground to generate the typology of error circumstances. The calibration formula was generated based on a field experiment and on-site observation. The average error size was reduced from ±13 % to ±6 %. The calibration formula provided in the study is simple and universal and can be applied to other data.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Trend Investigation of Thermal Comfort in Different Climates of Iran in
           Past Decades

    • Abstract: Regarding climatic diversity in Iran and the dependence of many outdoor activities (occupational, recreational, tourism attraction, etc.) on climatic conditions, this study conducted aiming to evaluate thermal comfort fluctuations in Iran. Thermal comfort fluctuations in different climates of Iran were investigated between 1985 and 2014 using recorded meteorological data in 40 synoptic stations. The Mann-Kendall test and Sen’s Slope were used to analyse the changing trends of the Humidex and to determine the actual slope of a trend over time, respectively. In overall, the southern areas of Iran have the longest period with unfavourable and extremely unfavourable climatic conditions in this study. Conversely, in the northern half of Iran, especially in North West areas, the appropriate summer season provides the best climatic conditions for outdoor activities.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Assessments under the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals: A
           Bibliometric Analysis

    • Abstract: The United Nations announced its 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development worldwide in 2015. Comprehensive assessments of member states’ performance towards achieving the related UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have since become a major challenge for national and subnational governments. This article presents a bibliometric analysis on the assessment of SDGs, at both the general and specific levels, based on 418 publications obtained from Scopus. The general level of analysis includes the number, types, and subject areas of documents published each year, as well as considerations such as the most-cited publications and the leading authors, journals, countries, institutional affiliations, and funders. The specific level of analysis includes a study of the relevant concepts in the publications and their relationships, allowing for the identification of predominant assessments under the 2030 Agenda, and of the most-often evaluated SDGs. Results indicated a focus on measuring impacts and risks, with SDGs 3, 6, 13, 7, 8, and 4 having been assessed the most often among the 17 SDGs, which is consistent with findings in prevalent subject areas such as environmental sciences, social sciences, medicine, and energy. Future works should address assessments under the 2030 Agenda more comprehensively, including analyses on trade-offs among the SDGs and on the transversal nature of some of these goals.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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