A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Atmosphere
Number of Followers: 33  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2073-4433
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 241: The Application Research of FCN Algorithm
           in Different Severe Convection Short-Time Nowcasting Technology in China,
           Gansu Province

    • Authors: Wubin Huang, Jing Fu, Xinxin Feng, Runxia Guo, Junxia Zhang, Yu Lei
      First page: 241
      Abstract: This study explores the application of the fully convolutional network (FCN) algorithm to the field of meteorology, specifically for the short-term nowcasting of severe convective weather events such as hail, convective wind gust (CG), thunderstorms, and short-term heavy rain (STHR) in Gansu. The training data come from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and real-time ground observations. The performance of the proposed FCN model, based on 2017 to 2021 training datasets, demonstrated a high prediction accuracy, with an overall error rate of 16.6%. Furthermore, the model exhibited an error rate of 18.6% across both severe and non-severe weather conditions when tested against the 2022 dataset. Operational deployment in 2023 yielded an average critical success index (CSI) of 24.3%, a probability of detection (POD) of 62.6%, and a false alarm ratio (FAR) of 71.2% for these convective events. It is noteworthy that the predicting performance for STHR was particularly effective with the highest POD and CSI, as well as the lowest FAR. CG and hail predictions had comparable CSI and FAR scores, although the POD for CG surpassed that for hail. The FCN model’s optimal performances in terms of hail prediction occurred at the 4th, 8th, and 10th forecast hours, while for CG, the 6th hour was most accurate, and for STHR, the 2nd and 4th hours were most effective. These findings underscore the FCN model’s ideal suitability for short-term forecasting of severe convective weather, presenting extensive prospects for the automation of meteorological operations in the future.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030241
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 242: Experimental Characterization of
           Propeller-Induced Flow (PIF) below a Multi-Rotor UAV

    • Authors: Alexander A. Flem, Mauro Ghirardelli, Stephan T. Kral, Etienne Cheynet, Tor Olav Kristensen, Joachim Reuder
      First page: 242
      Abstract: The availability of multi-rotor UAVs with lifting capacities of several kilograms allows for a new paradigm in atmospheric measurement techniques, i.e., the integration of research-grade sonic anemometers for airborne turbulence measurements. With their ability to hover and move very slowly, this approach yields unrevealed flexibility compared to mast-based sonic anemometers for a wide range of boundary layer investigations that require an accurate characterization of the turbulent flow. For an optimized sensor placement, potential disturbances by the propeller-induced flow (PIF) must be considered. The PIF characterization can be done by CFD simulations, which, however, require validation. For this purpose, we conducted an experiment to map the PIF below a multi-rotor drone using a mobile array of five sonic anemometers. To achieve measurements in a controlled environment, the drone was mounted inside a hall at a 90° angle to its usual flying orientation, thus leading to the development of a horizontal downwash, which is not subject to a pronounced ground effect. The resulting dataset maps the PIF parallel to the rotor plane from two rotor diameters, beneath, to 10 D, and perpendicular to the rotor plane from the center line of the downwash to a distance of 3 D. This measurement strategy resulted in a detailed three-dimensional picture of the downwash below the drone in high spatial resolution. The experimental results show that the PIF quickly decreases with increasing distance from the centerline of the downwash in the direction perpendicular to the rotor plane. At a distance of 1 D from the centerline, the PIF reduced to less than 4 ms−1 within the first 5 D beneath the drone, and no conclusive disturbance was measured at 2 D out from the centerline. A PIF greater than 4 ms−1 was still observed along the center of the downwash at a distance of 10 D for both throttle settings tested (35% and 45%). Within the first 4 D under the rotor plane, flow convergence towards the center of the downwash was measured before changing to diverging, causing the downwash to expand. This coincides with the transition from the four individual downwash cores into a single one. The turbulent velocity fluctuations within the downwash were found to be largest towards the edges, where the shear between the PIF and the stagnant surrounding air is the largest.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030242
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 243: Dugs-UNet: A Novel Deep Semantic
           Segmentation Approach to Convection Detection Based on FY-4A Geostationary
           Meteorological Satellite

    • Authors: Yan Li, Xiaochang Shi, Guangbo Deng, Xutao Li, Fenglin Sun, Yanfeng Zhang, Danyu Qin
      First page: 243
      Abstract: Severe convection is a disastrous mesoscale weather system. The early detection of such systems is very important for saving peoples’ lives and properties. Previous studies address the issue mainly based on thresholding methods, which are not robust and accurate enough. In this paper, we propose a novel semantic segmentation method (Dugs-UNet) to solve the problem. Our method is based on the well-known U-Net framework. As convective clouds mimic fluids, its detection faces two important challenges. First, the shape and boundary features of clouds need to be carefully exploited. Second, the positive and negative samples for convection detection are very imbalanced. To address the two challenges, our method was carefully developed. Regarding the importance of the shape and boundary features for convective target detection, we introduce a shape stream module to extract these features. Also, a data-dependent upsample operation is adopted in the decoder of U-Net to effectively utilize the features. This is one of our contributions. To address the imbalance issue for convective target detection, the a focal loss function is employed to train our method, which is another contribution. Experimental results of 2018 Fengyun-4A satellite observations in China demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Compared to conventional thresholding-based methods and deep semantic segmentation algorithms such as SegNet, PSPNet, DeepLav-v3+ and U-Net, the proposed approach performs the best.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030243
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 244: Research on the Identification of Typical
           Terrain Patterns in Yunnan Province Based on the K-Means Technology

    • Authors: Fangrong Zhou, Xiaowei Huai, Pengcheng Yan, Cailing Zhao, Xingliang Jiang, Hao Pan, Yutang Ma, Hao Geng
      First page: 244
      Abstract: Wire icing is a prevalent challenge in both industrial and scientific domains, and it is widely acknowledged that terrain and water vapor are significant contributing factors in the formation of wire icing. Consequently, the identification of terrains that are prone to inducing water vapor uplift serves as the scientific foundation for predicting ice accumulation on power lines. Yunnan Province, a mountainous province in China, features a large elevation difference. In winter, this region is prone to wire, pole and tower icing, which can affect power transmission and cause economic and property losses. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on the identification of typical terrain patterns in this region. In previous terrain studies, more attention has been focused on slope and aspect, watershed analysis and terrain profile analysis. When the purpose of the terrain identification is to analyze which terrains are more prone to collecting water vapor, we hope to obtain slightly larger terrain blocks and analyze the water vapor sources for different terrains in order to identify typical terrains that are conducive to icing formation. A new technology for identifying terrain patterns based on the K-means clustering method is proposed in this study to explore the typical terrain in Yunnan province. Additionally, the influences of different terrain patterns on water vapor movement are also analyzed. The results indicate that the typical terrains in Yunnan are “Valley-Air Channel”, “Topographic Uplifting”, “Ravine”, “Mountain Pass” and “Alpine Divide” patterns. The results show that the identified typical terrain is consistent with observations from satellite images, which verifies the effectiveness of this identification method. Among these five typical terrains, the “Valley-Air Channel”, the “Topographic Uplifting” and the “Mountain Pass” terrains are prone to collecting water vapor and forming ice cover. The “Alpine Divide” terrain is also prone to accumulating water vapor on both sides to form ice cover. The identified typical terrain demonstrates that typical terrain patterns near water bodies are more prone to the occurrence of wire, pole and tower icing because these areas are abundant in water vapor, and the extensive water vapor is easily condensed under the effects of terrain uplifting and cooling. In these key areas, existing wires and towers, as well as those to be constructed in the future, deserve our special attention.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030244
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 245: Diffusion-Based Continuous Real-Time
           Monitoring System for Total Volatile Organic Compounds

    • Authors: Jiseok Hong, Ijung Kim
      First page: 245
      Abstract: In this study, a total volatile organic compound (TVOC) monitoring system was developed and employed for the continuous and real-time monitoring of TVOCs. Gas chromatography (GC) coupled with thermal desorption (TD) and a commercially available portable VOC detector were simultaneously applied to verify the performance of the developed system. Since the developed system was applicable with and without a pump, the effect of the pump on the monitoring performance was also investigated. Overall, the reliable accuracy and precision of the developed TVOC monitoring system were verified in the TVOC concentration of 50~5000 ppbv. Based on the simultaneous analysis with TD-GC, the TVOC monitoring system showed nearly identical performance to the TD-GC system regardless of the presence of the pump. When compared to the commercially available and portable VOC detector equipped with an internal pump, the maximum delayed response of the TVOC monitoring system was 15 min. In the VOC transport in soil, the breakthrough curve was successfully obtained compared to the case with the TD-GC system. Considering the measurement frequency of the TD-GC system, the TVOC monitoring system as a passive monitoring device can be effectively applied to the subsurface area with the TVOC concentration at or above 50 ppbv.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030245
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 246: Exploring Urban XCO2 Patterns Using PRISMA
           Satellite: A Case Study in Shanghai

    • Authors: Yu Wu, Yanan Xie, Rui Wang
      First page: 246
      Abstract: As global warming intensifies, monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) has increasingly become a focal point of research. Investigating urban XCO2 emission systems holds paramount importance, given the pivotal role of cities as major contributors to carbon emissions. Consequently, this study centers on urban locales, employing Shanghai as a case study for a comprehensive evaluation of regional XCO2 levels. We utilized high spatial resolution imagery from the PRecursore IperSpettrale della Missione Applicativa (PRISMA) satellite to conduct an XCO2 assessment over the Baoshan District with a 30 m spatial resolution from April 2021 to October 2022. Our XCO2 analysis was conducted in two steps. Firstly, we conducted a sensitivity analysis on key parameters in the inversion process, where cloud cover severely interfered with inversion accuracy. Therefore, we developed the Fmask 4.0 cloud removal and iterative maximum a posteriori differential optical absorption spectroscopy (FIMAP-DOAS) algorithm. This novel integration eliminated cloud interference during the inversion process, achieving high-precision CO2 detection in the region. Secondly, we compared the XCO2 of the region with Level-2 data from carbon monitoring satellites such as OCO-2. The comparison results showed a strong consistency, with a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.75 ppm for Shanghai XCO2 data obtained from the PRISMA satellite compared to OCO-2 Level-2 data and an RMSE of 1.49 ppm compared to OCO-3. This study successfully established a high-accuracy and high-spatial-resolution XCO2 satellite monitoring system for the Shanghai area. The efficacy of the FIMAP-DOAS algorithm has been demonstrated in CO2 monitoring and inversion within urban environments, with potential applicability to other cities.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030246
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 247: Comparison of Cold Pool Characteristics of
           Two Distinct Gust Fronts over Bohai Sea Bay in China

    • Authors: Changyi Xu, Xian Xiao
      First page: 247
      Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated that cold pools play a pivotal role in the initiation and organization of convection, yet their influence on the evolution of gust fronts (GFs) remains inadequately understood. A destructive wind event associated with a rearward gust front (RGF; 8 grade gale after passing GF) and a prior gust front (PGF; 10 grade gale before passing GF) over the north coast of China on 10 June 2016 was analyzed. Using multiple forms of observation data, as well as the four-dimensional Variational Doppler Radar Data Assimilation System (VDRAS), we found that the depth and intensity of the cold pool in RGF are relatively shallower and weaker, leading to a correspondingly reduced strength in both outflow and convergence. In contrast, the enhanced vertical shear and boundary northeaster inflow of PGF generate intensified and more organized downdrafts, resulting in a deeper cold pool, robust outflow, and convergence. Two schematic models were proposed to explain the discrepancy between GFs and associated cold pools. We further show that there is an internal correlation between meso-γ-scale vortices (MVs) and cold pools, the collision of MVs strengthened low-level convergence and updraft between these two GFs. Moreover, the consolidation of the two cold pools exacerbates low-layer instability and rotation, generating an intense horizontal vorticity that leads to rapid convective storm intensification. These findings offer novel insights into the diversity of GFs and associated cold pools.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030247
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 248: Observational Evidence of the Vertical
           Exchange of Ozone within the Urban Planetary Boundary Layer in Shanghai,
           China

    • Authors: Yixuan Gu, Fengxia Yan, Jianming Xu, Liang Pan, Changqin Yin, Wei Gao, Hong Liao
      First page: 248
      Abstract: The vertical mass exchange of ozone (O3) plays an important role in determining surface O3 air quality, the understanding of which, however, is greatly limited by the lack of continuous measurements in the vertical direction. Here, we characterize O3 variations at a high-altitude monitoring site at the top of Shanghai Tower (SHT) and discuss the potential impacts of the vertical exchange of air pollutants on O3 air quality within the urban planetary boundary layer (PBL) based on continuous measurements during 2017–2018. During the daytime, two distinct patterns of vertical O3 gradient are detected. In summer, the daytime O3 formation at SHT is observed to be more limited by nitrogen oxides (NOx) than the surface, which, together with the efficient vertical mixings, results in higher O3 levels in the upper mixing layer. In cold months, the opposite vertical gradient is observed, which is associated with weak vertical exchange and NOx-saturated O3 formation. A nighttime O3 reservoir layer and consistent morning O3 entrainments are detected all year round. These results provide direct evidence of the vertical mixings within the urban PBL, underscoring the pressing need for improving vertical resolution in near-surface layers of air quality models.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030248
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 249: El Niño-Induced Drought Impacts on
           Reservoir Water Resources in South Africa

    • Authors: Fhumulani I. Mathivha, Lufuno Mabala, Selelo Matimolane, Nkanyiso Mbatha
      First page: 249
      Abstract: The ENSO phenomenon is associated with below average rainfall and influences the climate regime of southern Africa. With the advent of climate change, drought frequencies and magnitudes have worsened in the developing world and this in turn negatively impacts the natural environment and communities’ livelihoods. This study evaluated the relationship between El Niño-induced drought and reservoir water levels over the Albasini Dam Catchment (ADC) areas in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Standardised indices (i.e., SPI and SSI) were used to define drought events over the study area. Mann–Kendall and Sequential Mann–Kendall were used for trends analysis as well as correlation and wavelet coherence to evaluate the relationship between variables of interest. There exists a relationship between El Niño-induced drought event and reservoir water levels. This was shown by the correlation between drought indices and reservoir water levels with the coefficient of determination being stronger at the 12th timescale (i.e., 0.743 and 0.59) compared to the 6th timescale (i.e., 0.07 and 0.44) for both precipitation and streamflow indices, respectively. Wavelet analysis further showed that there existed a phased relationship between the two variables. Although there are other factors that may affect reservoir water resources, these study findings show that El Niño-induced drought also negatively affect water resources. Therefore, this study recommends the development of multidimensional and multiscale management strategies to minimise drought impacts and adaptation in the region.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030249
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 250: The Behavior and Removal of Condensable
           Particulate Matter in Flue Gas in a Multi-Field Force: A Modeling and
           Experimental Study

    • Authors: Wenting Liu, Xinde Zhang, Zhiyong Zhou, Jianyi Lu
      First page: 250
      Abstract: Condensable particulate matter (CPM) is different from filterable particulate matter (FPM), which could escape from air pollution control devices (APCDs) and pose a great threat to the environment and human health. Thus, modeling and experimental studies were conducted on CPM particle behavior and removal, in a cold electrode electrostatic precipitator (CE−ESP) coupled with a electric field, temperature field and concentration field. A multi−field force coupling model was then established that was based on the mechanical behavior of particles inside the CE−ESP. The results showed that temperature field was beneficial to depositing small size particles and that, the greater the temperature gradient, the higher CPM’s removal efficiency. While the electric field tended to gather larger size particles, the greater the voltage provided, the higher the removal efficiency for CPM and FPM. In the multi−field, the augmented coagulation and the removal efficiencies of both CPM and FPM increased significantly, reaching 89% and 98%, respectively. Subsequently, experiments were conducted by a self−made CE−ESP device, which showed the removal efficiencies of CE−ESP of a CPM in a multi−field were 91% and 81% for a coal−fired power plant and a waste incineration plant, respectively. This research could make a great contribution to CPM condensation, aggregation and removal.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030250
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 251: NH3 Emissions and Lifetime Estimated by
           Satellite Observations with Differential Evolution Algorithm

    • Authors: Yu Xie, Wei Wang, Ye Chen, Zhengwei Qian, Jie Chen, Jiping Tong, Long Li, Yang Yue, Keqiong Chen, Zhong Chu, Xueyou Hu
      First page: 251
      Abstract: As an important irritant trace gas in the atmosphere, ammonia (NH3) significantly impacts human health and environment. Bottom-up emission inventories are widely used to estimate ammonia emissions and their geographical distributions over China. However, high uncertainties are still associated with emission inventories due to inaccurate emission factors used. The Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm is a population-based stochastic optimization algorithm used to solve complicated optimization problems. We quantify NH3 emissions and lifetime from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) NH3 observations together with MERRA-2 wind fields based on the DE algorithm. Two inland cities, Urumchi and Golmud in China, are chosen to study of the NH3 emissions based on the distributions of NH3 total columns and wind fields. The NH3 emissions rate estimated is about 5.84 × 10−11 and 4.19 × 10−11 kg·m−2s−1 in Urumchi and in the Golmud area from May to September from 2008 to 2023, respectively. The lifetime of NH3 estimated in the two areas is 4.31 and 9.19 h, respectively. We compare the NH3 emissions and lifetime estimated in this study with the values in other studies, and the results show the reliability of the method used. This work is one of few quantitative studies of NH3 emissions from cities using satellite observations in China.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030251
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 252: A Methodological Approach for Gap Filling
           of WFV Gaofen-1 Images from Spatial Autocorrelation and Enhanced Weighting
           

    • Authors: Tairu Chen, Tao Yu, Lili Zhang, Wenhao Zhang, Xiaofei Mi, Yan Liu, Yulin Zhan, Chunmei Wang, Juan Li, Jian Yang
      First page: 252
      Abstract: Clouds and cloud shadow cover cause missing data in some images captured by the Gaofen-1 Wide Field of View (GF-1 WFV) cameras, limiting the extraction and analysis of the image information and further applications. Therefore, this study proposes a methodology to fill GF-1 WFV images using the spatial autocorrelation and improved weighting (SAIW) method. Specifically, the search window size is adaptively determined using Getis-Ord Gi* as a metric. The spatial and spectral weights of the pixels are computed using the Chebyshev distance and spectral angle mapper to better filter the suitable similar pixels. Each missing pixel is predicted using linear regression with similar pixels on the reference image and the corresponding similar pixel located in the non-missing region of the cloudy image. Simulation experiments showed that the average correlation coefficient of the proposed method in this study is 0.966 in heterogeneous areas, 0.983 in homogeneous farmland, and 0.948 in complex urban areas. It suggests that SAIW can reduce the spread of errors in the gap-filling process to significantly improve the accuracy of the filling results and can produce satisfactory qualitative and quantitative fill results in a wide range of typical land cover types and has extensive application potential.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030252
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 253: Exploring the Interactive Influences of
           Climate Change and Urban Development on the Fraction of Absorbed
           Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    • Authors: Samuel Chukwujindu Nwokolo, Edson L. Meyer, Chinedu Christian Ahia
      First page: 253
      Abstract: This study aimed to utilize hybrid physics-based models that allow for a comprehensive evaluation of how solar–meteorological variables influence the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR). By integrating both physical and statistical approaches, these models provided a novel perspective on understanding the complex relationship between solar radiation and FAPAR dynamics. The integration of URE and CLC in studying ecosystem efficiency in the nations of China and India is crucial, owing to their interdependent nature. To achieve this, the coupled model intercomparison project phase 6 (CMIP6) was utilized, which involved interpolating data from the most recent five GCMs from the six-phase CMIP6. By integrating advanced modeling techniques with observational data, this innovative approach enabled a holistic assessment of the intricate connections between urban development, climate dynamics, and the productivity of surrounding ecosystems in these regions. The reported decline in FAPAR productivity in China and India highlights the growing concern over the impact of climate change on the health and resilience of vegetation. China experienced negative changes of −1.425, −0.414, and −0.018, while India reported negative changes of −2.463, 2.199, and 2.915 under different scenarios. Interestingly, despite these variations, both countries observed similar tidal variations in their seasonal bases, suggesting a consistent pattern in the fluctuations of vegetation productivity throughout the year. The authors of this study collected and analyzed extensive data on CLC and URE in order to investigate their impact on FAPAR fluctuations in China and India. The higher impact of URE compared to CLC in terms of effective contributions suggests that URE plays a crucial role in shaping the atmospheric physics of both China, accounting for 45.26%, and India, registering 33.95%. Conversely, the effects of CLC and PAR residual factor (PRF) were more pronounced in India compared to China, with impacts of 8.21% and 53.03% compared to 4.21% and 46.70%, respectively.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030253
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 254: Influence of Saharan Dust on the
           Composition of Urban Aerosols in Palermo City (Italy)

    • Authors: Daniela Varrica, Maria Grazia Alaimo
      First page: 254
      Abstract: The Mediterranean Basin is involved in a recurring phenomenon wherein air masses laden with dust from North Africa impact the southern regions of the European continent. Saharan dust has been associated with increased mortality and respiratory symptoms. Palermo is a large coastal city, and in addition to the impact of desert dust particles, it has a mixture of anthropogenic sources of pollutants. In this study, we collected Saharan dust samples during August 2022 and October 2023, following a high-intensity Saharan dust event, and measured concentrations of 33 major and trace elements as well as Rare Earth Elements (REE). The mineralogical characterization of the deposition dust collected during Saharan events revealed calcite, dolomite, quartz, and clay minerals. The presence of palygorskite is indicative of Saharan events. Seven elements (Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Fe, K, and Na) account for 98% of the total analyzed inorganic burden. Elemental ratios are valuable tools in atmospheric sciences for estimating sources of air masses. The results highlight that the city of Palermo is mainly affected by dust from the north-western Sahara.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030254
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 255: The WRF Simulation Influence of
           Assimilating GNSS Water Vapor and Parameterization Schemes on Typhoon
           Rumbia

    • Authors: Li Li, Yixiang Ma, Kai Li, Jianping Pan, Mingsong Zhang
      First page: 255
      Abstract: The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to simulate Typhoon Rumbia in this paper. The sensitivity experiments were conducted with 16 different parameterization combination schemes, including four microphysics (WSM6, WSM5, Lin, and Thompson), two boundary layers (YSU and MYJ), and two cumulus convection (Kain–Fritsch and Grell–Freitas) schemes. The impacts of 16 parameterization combination schemes and the data assimilation (DA) of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) water vapor were evaluated by the simulation accuracy of typhoon track and intensity. The results show that the typhoon track and intensity are significantly influenced by parameterization schemes of cumulus and boundary layers rather than microphysics. The averaged track error of Lin_KF_Y is 104.73 km in the entire 72-h simulation period. The track errors of all the other combination schemes are higher than Lin_KF_Y. During the entire 72-h, the averaged intensity error of Thompson_GF_M is 1.36 hPa. It is the lowest among all the combination schemes. As for data assimilation, the simulation accuracy of typhoon tracks can be significantly improved by adding the GNSS water vapor. Thompson_GF_M-DA combination scheme has the lowest average track error of 45.05 km in the initial 24 h. The Lin_KF_Y-DA combination scheme exhibits an average track error of 32.17 km on the second day, 28.03 km on the third day, and 35.33 km during 72-h. The study shows that the combination of parameterization schemes and the GNSS water vapor data assimilation significantly improve the initial conditions and the accuracy of typhoon predictions. The study results contribute to the selection of appropriate combinations of physical parameterization schemes for the WRF-ARW model in the mid-latitude region of the western Pacific coast.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030255
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 256: An Index for Snowmelt-Induced Landslide
           Prediction for Zavoj Lake, Serbia

    • Authors: Rastko Marković, Manfred Mudelsee, Milica G. Radaković, Aleksandar R. Radivojević, Randall J. Schaetzl, Biljana Basarin, Jugoslav Nikolić, Slobodan B. Marković, Velibor Spalević, Aleksandar Antić, Miloš Marjanović, Tin Lukić
      First page: 256
      Abstract: In February 1963, a huge landslide (ca. 1,950,000 m3) blocked the Visočica River and, thus, formed Zavoj Lake. The primary objective of this research was to investigate the importance of snowmelt in relation to landslide occurrence and to define the critical climatic conditions that may trigger massive winter landslides. We used monthly precipitation and average monthly maximum temperature data from meteorological and precipitation stations in the Visočica River basin (Dojkinci) and in the immediate proximity of Lake Zavoj (Pirot, Dimitrovgrad and Topli Do) as data inputs to the Snow-Melt Landslide (SML) index. It considers the summed monthly precipitation for previous months that continuously have an average maximum temperature below 0 °C. According to this method, the event at Zavoj Lake stands out among all other precipitation and snowmelt values for the past 72 years. After applying the SML index, all stations showed values of >300 mm for February 1963, which we consider as the threshold value for potential landslides appearance. In addition to meteorological data, we applied the SML index to data from the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) regional climate model outputs for the region from 2022 to 2100. As expected, climate change will have influenced the temperature values, especially during the winter. Conversely, the study area is experiencing drastic changes in land use caused by depopulation, leading to a reduced risk of winter landslides in the Visočica basin. We suggest that future climatic conditions in the area will make it more likely to experience extreme summer precipitation events, which might trigger large landslides. The SML method can be implemented for all landscapes that experience snowy winters, providing information in a timely manner so that local residents can react properly when the probability of landslide occurrence rises. The SML index, grounded in essential meteorological principles, provides a tailor-made, data-driven methodology applicable across varied geographical settings. Its utility extends to mitigating hydro-meteorological hazards on scales ranging from local to national scales, offering diverse and effective early warning solutions.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030256
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 257: Make Way for the Wind—Promoting
           Urban Wind Corridor Planning by Integrating RS, GIS, and CFD in Urban
           Planning and Design to Mitigate the Heat Island Effect

    • Authors: Kang-Li Wu, Liang Shan
      First page: 257
      Abstract: Under the trend in climate change, global warming, and the increasingly serious urban heat island effect, promoting urban wind corridor planning to reduce urban temperature and mitigate the effect of urban heat islands has received widespread attention in many cities. With emerging awareness of the need to explicitly incorporate climate considerations into urban planning and design, integrating current spatial analysis and simulation tools to enhance urban wind corridor planning to obtain the best urban ventilation effect has become an increasingly important research topic in green city development. However, how to systematically carry out urban wind corridor planning by employing related technology and simulation tools is a topic that needs to be explored urgently in both theory and practice. Taking Zhumadian City in China as an example, this study proposes a method and planning approach that uses remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in an integrated way to understand urban landscape and to conduct urban wind corridor planning. The research results reveal that the urban form of Zhumadian City favors the development of urban wind corridors, and that the railway lines and some major roads in the city have the potential to be developed as the city’s main wind corridors. However, there are still ventilation barriers resulting from the existing land use model and building layout patterns that need to be adjusted. In terms of local-level analysis, the CFD simulation analysis also reveals that some common building layout patterns may result in environments with poor ventilation. Finally, based on the results of our empirical analysis and local planning environment, specific suggestions are provided on how to develop appropriate strategies for urban wind corridor planning and adjustments related to land use planning and building layout patterns in order to mitigate the impact of the urban heat island effect.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030257
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 258: Temporal Dynamics of Negative Air Ion
           Concentrations in Nanjing Tulou Scenic Area

    • Authors: Zhihui Li, Changshun Li, Bo Chen, Yu Hong, Lan Jiang, Zhongsheng He, Jinfu Liu
      First page: 258
      Abstract: Negative air ions (NAIs) are crucial for assessing the impact of forests on wellbeing and enhancing the physical and mental health of individuals. They serve as pivotal indicators for assessing air quality. Comprehensive research into the distribution patterns of NAI concentrations, especially the correlation between NAI concentrations and meteorological elements in tourist environments, necessitates the accumulation of additional long-term monitoring data. In this paper, long-term on-site monitoring of NAI concentrations, air temperature, relative humidity, and other factors was conducted in real time over 24 h, from April 2020 to May 2022, to explore the temporal dynamic patterns of NAIs and their influencing factors. The results showed that (1) the daily dynamics of NAI concentrations followed a U-shaped curve. The peak concentrations usually occurred in the early morning (4:30–8:00) and evening (19:10–22:00), and the lowest concentrations usually occurred at noon (12:50–14:45). (2) At the monthly scale, NAI concentrations were relatively high in February, August, and September and low in January, June, and December. At the seasonal scale, NAI concentrations were significantly higher in winter than in other seasons, with higher concentrations occurring in the summer and autumn. (3) Relative humidity, air temperature, and air quality index (AQI) were the primary factors that influenced NAI concentrations. Relative humidity showed a significant positive correlation with NAI concentrations, while air temperature and AQI both exhibited a significant negative correlation with NAI concentrations. Higher air quality corresponds to higher NAI concentrations. Our research provides new insights into NAI temporal dynamics patterns and their driving factors, and it will aid in scheduling outdoor recreation and forest health activities.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030258
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 259: Spline Model: A
           Hydrostatic/Non-Hydrostatic Dynamic Core with Space-Time Second-Order
           Precision and Its Exact Tests

    • Authors: Xuzan Gu, Zhibin Wang, Yinglian Guo
      First page: 259
      Abstract: We present a new explicit quasi-Lagrangian integration scheme with the three-dimensional cubic spline function transform (transform = fitting + interpolation, referred to as the “spline format”) on a spherical quasi-uniform longitude–latitude grid. It is a consistent longitude–latitude grid, and to verify the feasibility, accuracy, convergence, and stability of the spline format interpolation scheme for the upstream point on the longitude–latitude grid, which may map a quasi-uniform longitude–latitude grid, a set of ideal, exact test schemes is adopted, which are recognized and proven to be effective internationally. The equilibrium flow test, cross-polar flow test, and Rossby–Haurwitz wave test are used to illustrate the spline scheme uniformity to the linear scheme and to overcome the over-dense grid in the polar region and the non-singularity of the poles. The cross-polar flow test demonstrates that the geostrophic wind crosses the polar area correctly, including the South Pole and North Pole. A non-hydrostatic, fully compressible dynamic core is used to complete the density flow test, demonstrating the existence of a time-varying reference atmosphere and that the spline format can simulate highly nonlinear fine-scale transient flows. It can be compared for the two results of the density flow test between the solution with the spline format and the benchmark reference solution with the linear format. Based on the findings, the non-hydrostatic dynamic core with the spline format is recommended for adoption. When simulated for the flow over an ideal mountain, through the “topographic gravity wave test”, the bicubic surface terrain and terrain-following height coordinates, time-split integration, and vector discrete decomposition can be derived successfully. These may serve as the foundations for a global, unified spline-format numerical model in the future.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030259
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 260: Comparative Analysis of Different Heavy
           Rainstorm Periods Lasting for Two Consecutive Days in the Qinba Region
           under the Influence of the Southwest Vortex

    • Authors: Yiqing Xiao, Ruifang Liu, Yongyong Ma, Xidi Zhang, Panxing Lou, Meng Gao
      First page: 260
      Abstract: In recent years, heavy rainfall events have occurred frequently in the Qinba region. Forecasting and predicting heavy rainfall in the Qinba region is difficult due to the unique underlying terrain and complicated mechanisms involved. One significant weather system that might bring significant rainfall to the region is the southwest vortex (SWV); however, its different positions, intensities, and interaction with other weather systems might result in precipitation with different intensities and distributions. In this study, ERA-5 reanalysis data, FY-4A satellite data, and conventional observation data were used to examine heavy rainstorms that occurred in the Qinba region in the periods of 3–4 September 2021 (referred to as Stage I) and 4–5 September 2021 (referred to as Stage II), while the SWV was in effect. During Stage I, the northwest vortex (NWV) and SWV generated a mesoscale shear line and mesoscale convective complex (MCC) in the Qinba region. This led to a considerable area of heavy rainfall, with a maximum hourly precipitation of 129 mm and heavy precipitation at 15 stations. During Stage II, a mesoscale convective system (MCS) influenced by the SWV was initiated by a low-level jet, resulting in a localized heavy downpour with a maximum hourly precipitation of 72 mm. Significant topography-forced uplift was found in both Stages I and II in the high-altitude Qinba region. Furthermore, the rainfall was stronger during Stage I due to the secondary circulation that developed in the middle and lower levels. These findings will improve our capability to predict rainstorms and prevent disasters in the Qinba region.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030260
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 261: Geochemistry and Provenance of Loess on
           the Miaodao Islands, China

    • Authors: Yunfeng Zhang, Kuifeng Wang, Jianchao Song, Paul Liu, Chuanbo Xia, Muhammad Risha, Xiaohua Qiu, Yan Xu, Minghui Lv, Kuifeng Gao, Lin Wang
      First page: 261
      Abstract: Loess deposits are widely distributed across the globe and provide detailed records of climatic changes since the Quaternary period. Their geochemical element characteristics are important indicators of paleoenvironmental evolution and provenance. Therefore, four typical loess sections from four different islands of the Miaodao Islands were selected for systematically geochemical analysis of major and trace elements. The geochemical data of major and trace elements are very similar, indicating that the loess of all islands on the Miaodao have a common provenance. The geochemical test results show that t SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and CaO are the major chemical components of loess, with an average total content of 85–90%. The average Eu/Eu*, ΣLREE/ΣHREE, LaN/YbN, GdN/YbN values of the Miaodao Islands loess range from 0.65 to 0.69, 7.84 to 8.31, 8.02 to 9.99, 1.40 to 1.76. These data are similar to and different from those of the Chinese Loess Plateau, indicating the diversity of Miaodao Islands Loess provenance. The CIA (Chemical Index of Alteration) (50–65) and Na/K results suggest that the loess here had experienced incipient chemical weathering. The A-CN-K (Al2O3-CaO* + Na2O-K2O) diagram indicates that the weathering trend of the loess sections is consistent with that of continental weathering. The local loess data points are close and parallel to the A-CN line, suggesting that the loess dust material on the Miaodao Islands originated from the extensive upper continental crust, and was highly mixed in the process of wind transport and deposition. The relationships of Log[(CaO + Na2O)/K2O] versus Log(SiO2/Al2O3), Na2O/Al2O3 versus K2O/Al2O3, LaN/YbN versus Eu/Eu*, Sc-Th-La and Zr-Sc-Th plots of major and trace elements reveal that the loess sources for the Miaodao Islands are similar to those of the Loess Plateau, which were derived from alluvial fan deposits flanking the Qilian Shan in China, the Gobi Altay and Hangayn Mountains in Mongolia. However, the loess of the Miaodao Islands is coarser in average grain size and contains abundant marine fossils, with gravel layers, indicating it is allochthous and near-source, which suggests it mainly originated from the adjacent exposed sea floor sediments of the Bohai Sea during glacial periods. Finally, we conclude that the loess of the Miaodao Islands is the result of a gradual accumulation process, in which the relative amount of distant-source material decreased and the near-source material increased in response to changes in sea level and paleoclimate. Our findings support that the loess of the Miaodao Islands was formed by mixing material from distant and proximal sources.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030261
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 262: Influence of Wind Flows on Surface O3
           Variations over a Coastal Province in Southeast China

    • Authors: Yukun Shen, Jane Liu, Zhixiong Chen, Mengmiao Yang, Lei Shu, Chende Gai, Yongcheng Jiang
      First page: 262
      Abstract: Surface ozone (O3) is influenced not only by anthropogenic emissions but also by meteorological factors, with wind direction being one of the most overlooked factors. Here, we combine the observational data of both O3 and wind flow to compare the variation in O3 with wind direction between coastal and inland regions of Fujian, a province in the southeast coast of China with a complicated topography. We further conduct a numerical simulation using a global chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem, to interpret the observational results, explore the linkages between these O3 variations and wind flows, and identify the dominant processes for the occurrence of high O3 that varies with wind flows. The results from the observations from 2015–2021 suggest that, over coastal regions, surface O3 concentrations show a strong dependence on wind flow changes. On average, during the daytime, when southeasterly winds prevail, the mean of O3 concentrations reaches 83.5 μg/m3, which is 5.0 μg/m3 higher than its baseline values (the mean O3 concentrations), while the northwesterly wind tends to reduce surface O3 by 6.4 μg/m3. Such positive O3 anomalies with southeasterly wind are higher in the autumn and summer than in the spring and winter. During the nighttime, the onshore northeasterly wind is associated with enhanced O3 levels, likely due to the airmass containing less NO2, alleviating the titration effects. Over inland regions, however, surface O3 variations are less sensitive to wind flow changes. The GEOS-Chem simulations show that the prevailing southeasterly and southwesterly winds lead to the positive anomaly of a chemical reaction of O3 over coastal regions, suggesting enhanced photochemical production rates. Furthermore, southeasterly winds also aid in transporting more O3 from the outer regions into the coastal regions of Fujian, which results in elevated surface O3 when southeasterly wind dominates. When affected by wind flows in both directions, the chemical reaction and transport in the inland regions do not exhibit significant differences in terms of their impact on O3. This could be one of the reasons for the difference in O3 distribution between coastal and inland regions. This study could help to deepen our understanding of O3 pollution and aid in providing an effective warning of high-O3 episodes.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030262
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 263: Giant Aufeis in the Pangong Tso Basin:
           Inventory of a Neglected Cryospheric Component in Eastern Ladakh and
           Western Tibet

    • Authors: Tobias Schmitt, Dagmar Brombierstäudl, Susanne Schmidt, Marcus Nüsser
      First page: 263
      Abstract: Cryosphere studies in High Mountain Asia (HMA) typically focus on glaciers, seasonal snow cover, and permafrost. As an additional and mostly overlooked cryosphere component, aufeis occurs frequently in cold-arid regions and covers extensive areas of the Trans-Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau. This largely neglected cryosphere component generally forms in winter from repeated freezing of seepage or overflow. In this article, the occurrence of aufeis fields in the endorheic Pangong Tso Basin (PTB), with a total area of 31,000 km2, is inventoried and examined. Based on a semi-automatic remote sensing approach using Sentinel-2 imagery, about 1000 aufeis fields were detected in the spring of 2019, covering a total area of approximately 86 km2 and with an average individual size of 0.08 km2, while the largest field covered an area of 14.8 km2. A striking contrast between the northern and southern portions of the PTB characterized the spatial distribution of large aufeis fields. All large (>0.5 km2) and 13 persisting aufeis fields were located along broad valleys in the northern portion. Furthermore, a multi-temporal comparison between 1994 and 2023 shows that the number of remaining aufeis fields in autumn varied between 8 and 29, with a maximum in 2019. Their total area ranged between about 0.3 km2 in 1994 and 2023 to about 1.2 km2 in 2015 and 2019. This study complements recent aufeis inventories from the Trans-Himalayan region of Ladakh and closes the gap to the Tibetan Plateau.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030263
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 264: Characteristics of Trace Metal Elements in
           Ambient Sub-Micron Particulate Matter in a Coastal Megacity of Northern
           China Influenced by Shipping Emissions from 2018 to 2022

    • Authors: Jinhua Du, Ziyang Liu, Wenxin Tao, Ting Wang, Jiaojiao Zhao, Weiwei Gong, Yue Li, Lian Xue, Jianli Yang, Chaolong Wang, Houyong Zhang, Fei Wang, Yingjie Sun, Yisheng Zhang
      First page: 264
      Abstract: Various shipping emission restrictions have recently been implemented locally and nationally, which might mitigate their impacts on regional air quality, climate change, and human health. In this study, the daily trace metal elements in PM1 were measured in a coastal megacity in Northern China, from autumn to winter from 2018 to 2022, spanning DECA 1.0 (domestic emission control area), DECA 2.0, IMO 2020, and Pre-OWG Beijing 2022 stages. The trace element changes of V, Ni, Pb, and Zn in PM1 were analyzed. The concentrations of V declined with shipping emission regulations implemented in 2018~2022 at 3.61 ± 3.01, 1.07 ± 1.04, 0.84 ± 0.62, and 0.68 ± 0.61 ng/m3, respectively, with the V/Ni ratio decreasing at 1.14 ± 0.79, 0.93 ± 1.24, 0.35 ± 0.24, and 0.22 ± 0.18. The V/Ni ratio was dominated by the shipping emissions in the DECA 1.0 stage but has been more affected by the inland sources since DECA 2.0. The V/Ni ratio of local transport air mass was higher than that of long-distance transportation, indicating that some ships were still using high-sulfur fuel oil, especially for the ships 12 nautical miles from the coastline. The multiple linear regression model showed a better fit using V as a tracer for ship emission sources of ambient SO2 in the DECA 1.0 stage, while the indication effect reduced since DECA 2.0. The V and V/Ni ratios should be carefully used as indicators of ship sources as more vessels will use clean fuels for energy, and the contribution of inland sources to V and Ni will gradually increase.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030264
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 265: Evaluating the Effects of Raindrop Motion
           on the Accuracy of the Precipitation Inversion Algorithm by X-SAR

    • Authors: Xueying Yu, Yanan Xie, Rui Wang
      First page: 265
      Abstract: Precipitation has a profound impact on both human life and the natural environment. X-band synthetic aperture radar (X-SAR) utilizes high-resolution microwave remote-sensing technology, providing opportunities for global precipitation measurements. The current precipitation inversion algorithms from X-SAR measurements assume that precipitation particles remain relatively stationary with the ground. However, the motion of raindrops could potentially reduce the accuracy of these algorithms. In this study, we first established a functional relationship between raindrop motion and SAR echoes based on the standard deviation of the raindrop Doppler velocity spectrum. Secondly, an exploratory algorithm was proposed to retrieve rainfall distribution under the raindrop motion error model (RMM) and quantitatively calculate the precipitation inversion error caused by raindrop motion. In comparison to conditions where the atmosphere is stationary, when the standard deviation of the Doppler velocity spectrum of raindrops is 1.1 m/s, the relative error of the retrieved surface rain rate increases from 2.1% to 35.8%. Numerical simulations show that SAR echoes are sensitive to changes in the standard deviation of the Doppler velocity spectrum, and the impact of raindrop motion on the accuracy of X-SAR precipitation measurements cannot be neglected.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030265
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 266: Comparative Analysis and
           High−Precision Modeling of Tropospheric CH4 in the Yangtze River
           Delta of China Obtained from the TROPOMI and GOSAT

    • Authors: Tianheng Cai, Chengzhi Xiang
      First page: 266
      Abstract: Remote sensing satellite monitoring involving the use of shortwave infrared (SWIR) solar backscatter radiation to measure atmospheric CH4 column concentrations provides wide−ranging and accurate data for quantitatively determining atmospheric CH4 emissions and is highly important for human studies of atmospheric composition and environmental protection. The ESA−launched Sentinel−2 satellite equipped with a tropospheric monitoring instrument (TROPOMI) can provide the concentration of CH4 columns in every piece of the global atmosphere every day. However, these data may be affected by surface albedo, SWIR, aerosols, cirrus cloud scattering, and other factors. The greenhouse gas observing satellite (GOSAT) launched by Japan has fairly accurate data that are minimally affected by the aforementioned factors; however, its data density is much less than that of the TROPOMI. In this study, we propose a CH4 model that combines the TROPOMI and GOSAT data. We construct the model by analyzing the data from the TROPOMI and GOSAT at the same location at the same time. Then, we apply the proposed model to a certain location at a certain time with TROPOMI data but without GOSAT data to obtain a large range of high−precision CH4 data. The most developed urban agglomeration in the Yangtze River Delta in China was selected for model construction and the correlations between the TROPOMI and GOSAT data and their spatial and temporal trends were analyzed. First, we analyzed the CH4 concentrations in the same area measured by both models. The results revealed a high degree of temporal and spatial correlation in the YRD region. The correlation coefficient reached 0.71 in the metropolitan area of the YRD. At the small−city scale, the correlation is much more significant, with the correlation reaching 0.80, 0.79, and 0.71 for Nanjing, Shanghai, and Ningbo, respectively. The most accurate model was screened through comparative construction to calibrate the TROPOMI data and high−precision and high−coverage CH4 concentration information was obtained for the study area. Five models (linear model, quadratic term model, cubic term model, lognormal model, and logistic model) were used to select the best−fitting model. The magnitudes of the differences in the CH4 concentrations calculated by each model were compared. The final results showed that the linear model, as the prediction model, had the highest accuracy, with a coefficient of determination (R22) of 0.542. To avoid the specificity of the constructed model, we used the same method in several simulations to validate. The coefficient of determination of the model constructed with different stochastic data was greater than 0.5. Subsequently, we used Nanjing as the study area and applied the same method to construct the model. The coefficient of determination of the model (R22) was approximately 0.601. The model constructed in this research can be used not only for data conversion between the same products from different sensors to obtain high−precision data products but also for calibrating newly developed satellite data products that utilize mature data products.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030266
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 267: A Study on the Formation Reactions and
           Conversion Mechanisms of HONO and HNO3 in the Atmosphere of Daejeon, Korea
           

    • Authors: Kyoungchan Kim, Chunsang Lee, Dayeong Choi, Sangwoo Han, Jiwon Eom, Jinseok Han
      First page: 267
      Abstract: Nitrogen oxides (NOX) in the atmosphere cause oxidation reactions with photochemical radicals and volatile organic compounds, leading to the accumulation of ozone (O3). NOX constitutes a significant portion of the NOy composition, with nitrous acid (HONO) and nitric acid (HNO3) following. HONO plays a crucial role in the reaction cycle of NOX and hydrogen oxides. The majority of HNO3 reduction mechanisms result from aerosolization through heterogeneous reactions, having adverse effects on humans and plants by increasing secondary aerosol concentrations in the atmosphere. The investigation of the formation and conversion mechanisms of HONO and HNO3 is important; however, research in this area is currently lacking. In this study, we observed HONO, HNO3, and their precursor gases were observed in the atmosphere using parallel-plate diffusion scrubber-ion chromatography. A 0-D box model simulated the compositional distribution of NOy in the atmosphere. The formation reactions and conversion mechanisms of HONO and HNO3 were quantified using reaction equations and reaction coefficients. Among the various mechanisms, dominant mechanisms were identified, suggesting their importance. According to the calculation results, the produce of HONO was predominantly attributed to heterogeneous reactions, excluding an unknown source. The sink processes were mainly governed by photolysis during daytime and reactions with OH radicals during nighttime. HNO3 showed dominance in its production from N2O5, and in its conversion mechanisms primarily involving aerosolization and deposition.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030267
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 268: Atmospheric Processes over the Broader
           Mediterranean Region: Effect of the El Niño–Southern
           Oscillation'

    • Authors: Harry D. Kambezidis
      First page: 268
      Abstract: The Mediterranean area is considered a hot spot on our planet because it represents the crossroads of various aerosols. Several studies have shown that the weather in the region is affected by the North-Atlantic Oscillation, which, in turn, is well connected with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Nevertheless, no study has investigated the ENSO effect on the solar radiation and atmospheric aerosols in this region. The present study considers a greater area around the Mediterranean Sea over the period 1980–2022. The results show that there exists a loose but significant dependence, in some cases, of the optical properties of aerosols (aerosol optical depth, Ångström exponent, cloud optical depth) and solar radiation (net short-wave and net long-wave radiation, direct aerosol radiative forcing) on ENSO events. The results of this study provide motivation for further investigations, since such results can increase the accuracy of general circulation models that deal with climate change. Besides the ENSO effect, the enrichment of the Mediterranean atmosphere in suspended particles from great volcanic eruptions is shown. The inter-annual variation of the examined parameters is presented. A classification of the existing aerosols over the area is also provided.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030268
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 269: Sensitive Areas’ Observation
           Simulation Experiments of Typhoon “Chaba” Based on Ensemble
           Transform Sensitivity Method

    • Authors: Yanlong Ao, Yu Zhang, Duanzhou Shao, Yinhui Zhang, Yuan Tang, Jiazheng Hu, Zhifei Zhang, Yuhan Sun, Peining Lyu, Qing Yu, Ziyan He
      First page: 269
      Abstract: High-impact weather (HIW) events, such as typhoons, usually have sensitive regions where additional observations can be deployed and sensitive observations assimilated, which can improve forecasting accuracy. The ensemble transform sensitivity (ETS) method was employed to estimate the sensitive regions in the “Chaba” case in order to explore the impact of observation data in sensitive areas on typhoon forecasting during the rapid intensification phase. A set of observation system simulation experiments were conducted, with assimilations of sensitive observations (SEN), randomly selected observations (RAN), whole domain observations(ALL), and no assimilation (CTRL). The results show that (1) the sensitive areas of Typhoon “Chaba” are primarily located in the southwest of the typhoon center and are associated with the distribution of the wind field structure; (2) the typhoon intensity and tracks simulated by the SEN and RAN experiments are closer to the truth than the CTRL; (3) the SEN experiment, with only 3.6% of assimilated data observations, is comparable with the ALL experiment during the rapid intensification phase of the typhoon; (4) the uncertainty of the mesoscale model can be improved by capturing large-scale vertical wind shear and vorticity features from the GEFS data and then using the data assimilation method, which makes the vertical shear and vorticity field more reasonable.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030269
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 270: The Assessment of PM2.5 and PM10 Immission
           in Atmospheric Air in a Climate Chamber during Tests of an Electric Car on
           a Chassis Dynamometer

    • Authors: Artur Jaworski, Krzysztof Balawender, Hubert Kuszewski, Mirosław Jaremcio
      First page: 270
      Abstract: Electric cars, like internal combustion vehicles, emit particulate pollution from non-exhaust systems, i.e., tires and brakes, which is included in the Euro 7 emission standard planned for implementation. Tests conducted on chassis dynamometers are accompanied by particulate emissions from non-exhaust systems, which are introduced into the ambient air on the test bench. Particulate emissions tests from non-engine systems on chassis dynamometers are mainly aimed at measuring the mass or number of particulates from tires and brakes. In contrast, little attention is paid to the immission of particulate matter from tires and brakes on the dynamometer during tests, which in the case of electric cars include, for example, measurements of energy consumption or range. Therefore, in order to draw attention to the problem of these emissions, the authors carried out measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 immissions into the air in the climatic chamber during tests of an electric car on a chassis dynamometer. The car tests were carried out in accordance with the WLTC (Worldwide harmonized Light duty Test Cycle) and at constant speed. Based on the test results, a model was proposed for the immission of particulate matter in laboratory air from tire and brake abrasion, taking traffic parameters into account. The results and the developed model show that air quality, in terms of particulate content, deteriorates significantly during testing.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030270
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 271: Downscaling and Wind Resource Assessment
           of Climatic Wind Speed Data Based on Deep Learning: A Case Study of the
           Tengger Desert Wind Farm

    • Authors: Hao Zhou, Qi Luo, Ling Yuan
      First page: 271
      Abstract: Analyzing historical and reanalysis datasets for wind energy climatic characteristics offers crucial insights for wind farms and short-term electricity generation forecasting. However, large-scale wind farms in Chinese deserts, the Gobi, and barren areas often lack sufficient wind measurement data, leading to challenges in assessing long-term power generation revenue and introducing uncertainty. This study focuses on the Tengger Desert as the study area, processes the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) data, and analyzes and compares wind energy’s future characteristics utilizing a developed deep learning (DL) downscaling algorithm. The findings indicate that (1) the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) downscaling model, with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) numerical simulation results as the targets, exhibits spatial distribution consistency with WRF simulation results in the experimental area. (2) Through testing and validation with three practical wind measurements, the annual average wind speed error is below 4%. (3) In the mid-term future (~2050), the average wind speed in the experimental area remains stable with a multi-year average of approximately 7.00 m·s−1. The overall wind speed distribution range is significant, meeting the requirements for wind farm development.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030271
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 272: Research on the Terrain Characteristics of
           

    • Authors: Li Liang, Wanxiu Ai, Xiaodan Yang, Luqiang Zhao
      First page: 272
      Abstract: The terrain of Changbai Mountain has great influence on the distribution of atmospheric flows and the occurrence and development of precipitation. However, quantitative studies on the real terrain characteristics and the terrain effect on precipitation distribution in this region are scant at present. This study quantitatively analyzes the regional characteristic of topographic perturbations and the relationship between terrain, wind, and precipitation in Changbai Mountain region by using a spectral analysis of the two-dimensional discrete cosine transform. Three domains with relatively heavy summer precipitation are selected as the study region. The results indicate that the overall terrain of the Changbai Mountain region exhibits anisotropic characteristics. The terrain spectra of domain B are less than those of domains A and C across the whole wavelength (λ) bands, indicating that the large-scale topographic perturbations of domain B are relatively weak. The largest topographic spectral peak of domain C shows the most pronounced undulation of terrain among the three domains. The dominant wavelengths of terrain height variance for domains A and C, both close to the respective maximum wavelengths, indicate more prominent large-scale topographic perturbations. For domain A, the variation of the precipitation spectra is consistent with that of the wind spectra at the wavelength bands of λ < 390 km, showing a high correlation between wind field and the occurrence of rainfall. The inverse relationship at larger wavelengths indicates that multiple factors contribute to the occurrence of rainfall. For domain B, there is consistency in the fluctuations of terrain spectra, precipitation spectra, and wind spectra at the wavelength bands of λ < 278.3 km, implying that the smaller-scale terrain has an important effect on the occurrence of summer precipitation. For domain C, the variations of terrain spectra, precipitation spectra, and wind spectra are almost consistent across the whole wavelength bands, indicating that the large-scale terrain and minor terrain both play a crucial role in atmospheric uplift and the occurrence and development of summer rainfall.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030272
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 273: Investigation of the Influence of Data
           Collection and Analysis Procedures on Aerosol Filtration Model Development
           

    • Authors: Gentry Berry, Alta Knizley, Ivan Beckman, Heejin Cho
      First page: 273
      Abstract: Fibrous air filters are common devices used to remove airborne particles. Their performance is typically measured through their resistance to airflow and captured particle mass. Models describing the evolution of filter performance have been heavily researched; however, the need for improvement remains. Experimental work is irreplaceable in the development of high-fidelity models, yet the estimation of necessary variables is not trivial and may be influenced by selected measurement instruments and analysis methodologies. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to propose a framework to investigate the response of common aerosol measurement instruments, their corresponding analysis methodologies, and the application of their data. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and Laser Aerosol Spectrometer (LAS) were selected for consideration, and their recorded data were compared against baseline measurements. The results of the experiments indicated that the SMPS and LAS yielded a ratio of estimated mass concentrations to the baseline mass concentrations of approximately 1.175 and 0.749, respectively. Regarding the SMPS, it was suggested that the measurable size range, application of a coverage factor, dynamic shape factor, and association between the curve fits and histograms were influential in the final estimates. For the LAS, the application of a curve fit, its association to the histograms, and the selection of the sampling periods were influential. Considering the results, the impact of these factors may not be considered negligible and may skew reproducibility between studies and fossilize confounding factors. Therefore, the proposed methodologies are useful in addressing potential errors in data collection and analysis.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030273
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 274: Interaction between the Westerlies and
           Asian Monsoons in the Middle Latitudes of China: Review and Prospect

    • Authors: Xiang-Jie Li, Bing-Qi Zhu
      First page: 274
      Abstract: The westerly circulation and the monsoon circulation are the two major atmospheric circulation systems affecting the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (NH), which have significant impacts on climate and environmental changes in the middle latitudes. However, until now, people’s understanding of the long-term paleoenvironmental changes in the westerly- and monsoon-controlled areas in China’s middle latitudes is not uniform, and the phase relationship between the two at different time scales is also controversial, especially the exception to the “dry gets drier, wet gets wetter” paradigm in global warming between the two. Based on the existing literature data published, integrated paleoenvironmental records, and comprehensive simulation results in recent years, this study systematically reviews the climate and environmental changes in the two major circulation regions in the mid-latitudes of China since the Middle Pleistocene, with a focus on exploring the phase relationship between the two systems at different time scales and its influencing mechanism. Through the reanalysis and comparative analysis of the existing data, we conclude that the interaction and relationship between the two circulation systems are relatively strong and close during the warm periods, but relatively weak during the cold periods. From the perspective of orbital, suborbital, and millennium time scales, the phase relationship between the westerly and Asian summer monsoon (ASM) circulations shows roughly in-phase, out-of-phase, and anti-phase transitions, respectively. There are significant differences between the impacts of the westerly and ASM circulations on the middle-latitude regions of northwest China, the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, and eastern China. However, under the combined influence of varied environmental factors such as BHLSR (boreal high-latitude solar radiation), SST (sea surface temperature), AMOC (north Atlantic meridional overturning circulation), NHI (Northern Hemisphere ice volume), NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation), ITCZ (intertropical convergence zone), WPSH (western Pacific subtropical high), TIOA (tropical Indian Ocean anomaly), ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation), CGT/SRP (global teleconnection/Silk Road pattern), etc., there is a complex and close coupling relationship between the two, and it is necessary to comprehensively consider their “multi-factor’s joint-action” mechanism and impact, while, in general, the dynamic mechanisms driving the changes of the westerly and ASM circulations are not the same at different time scales, such as orbital, suborbital, centennial to millennium, and decadal to interannual, which also leads to the formation of different types of phase relationships between the two at different time scales. Future studies need to focus on the impact of this “multi-factor linkage mechanism” and “multi-phase relationship” in distinguishing the interaction between the westerly and ASM circulation systems in terms of orbital, suborbital, millennium, and sub-millennium time scales.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030274
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 275: Assessing Environmental Justice at the
           Urban Scale: The Contribution of Lichen Biomonitoring for Overcoming the
           Dichotomy between Proximity-Based and Distribution-Based Approaches

    • Authors: Tania Contardo, Stefano Loppi
      First page: 275
      Abstract: In this study, we tested the use of lichen biomonitoring techniques for the assessment of air quality disparities at the urban scale. We based our evaluation on the results of a previous lichen biomonitoring study carried out in Milan (Northern Italy), which estimates the contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and its distribution over the area, also providing an evaluation of the main emission sources. Therefore, we used the traditional methodologies for environmental justice assessment: the proximity-based and the distribution-based approaches. The workflow we propose is a data-driven selection of emission sources that contributes to overcoming the dichotomy between the two approaches and is now widely debated in the scientific community. A socio-economic deprivation index was elaborated for each census unit of Milan city and then related to the proximity of the emission sources previously selected. The results suggested that in the surrounding of industries and railways, the deprivation is higher, while the proximity of main roads is inhabited by wealthier populations. The distribution-based approach was run through a quantile regression analysis, and the outcome indicated that among the wealthier groups, an increase in contamination is followed by an increase in socio-economic deprivation, whilst among the deprived groups, people with greater economic opportunities tend, however, to live in worse air quality conditions due to the proximity of communication routes. This study poses the potential to review the classical methods of EJ assessment, providing a reliable workflow applicable in urban areas—the most vulnerable in terms of air quality disparities in the present and in the future.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030275
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 276: Understanding the Inter-Model Spread of
           PDO’s Impact on Tropical Cyclone Frequency over the Western North
           Pacific in CMIP6 Models

    • Authors: Jiawei Feng, Jian Cao, Boyang Wang, Kai Zhao
      First page: 276
      Abstract: This work investigates the inter-model diversity of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation’s (PDO) impact on tropical cyclone frequency (TCF) over the Western North Pacific (WNP) from the historical simulation of twenty-two Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) models. The impact of the PDO is expressed as the TCF difference between the positive and negative PDO phases. The comparison between the models with high PDO skill and low PDO skill shows that the PDO-related sea surface temperature (SST) gradient between the western and central tropical Pacific plays an important role in changing the large-scale atmospheric dynamic fields for TC genesis and, thus, the TCF over the WNP. This SST gradient also significantly contributes to the inter-model spread of PDO’s impact on TCF across the 22 CMIP6 models. We, therefore, stress that the PDO-related eastward SST gradient between the western and central tropical Pacific triggers the lower troposphere westerly and eastward extending of the monsoon trough over the WNP. The moistening of the atmosphere and enhancing ascending motion in the mid-troposphere promote convection, leading to the easterly wind anomaly over the upper troposphere, which reduces the vertical wind shear. Those favorable dynamic conditions consistently promote the TC formation over the southeastern part of the Western North Pacific. Our results highlight that PDO could impact the WNP TCF through its associated tropical SST gradient.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030276
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 277: Improvement of Stable Atmospheric Boundary
           Simulation with High-Spatiotemporal-Resolution Nudging over the North
           China Plain

    • Authors: Tingting Xu, Zhuohao Peng, Yan Wang, Chaoyue Wan, Shenlan Liu, Shuqiao Jiang, Xiaolu Tang, Xilin Zhao
      First page: 277
      Abstract: The WRF model often struggles to accurately replicate specific characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer, particularly under highly stable conditions. In this study, we reconstructed an OBS-nudging module using meteorological data with high spatiotemporal resolution, then coupled it in the WRF model (WRF-OBS) to improve stable boundary layer (SBL) simulation over the North China Plain (NCP). The results showed that WRF-OBS improved the simulation of SBL characteristics and reduced the deviation from observations significantly. The correlations (R2) between WRF-OBS simulations and observations of 2 m temperature, relative humidity, and 10 m wind speed at 460 stations across the NCP were 0.72, 0.56, and 0.75, respectively, which were much higher than the values for results from the unassimilated WRF model (WRF-BS). The simulated vertical profiles of temperature, relative humidity, and wind were generally consistent with observations at Pingyuan station. The meteorological factors which caused heavy air pollution was also investigated based on WRF-OBS simulation. The SBL characteristics obtained from WRF-OBS showed that light wind persisted over the NCP region during the period of heavy pollution, and Pingyuan was affected by warm and humid air. Vertically, the persistent temperature inversion at Pingyuan station was one of the main drivers of the heavy pollution. The WRF-OBS simulation captured the characteristics of the two temperature inversion layers very well. The two inversion layers covered the NCP, with a horizontal scale of approximately 200 km, and created very stable conditions, preventing the vertical diffusion of pollutants and maintaining high PM2.5 concentrations.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030277
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 278: Seasonal Features of the Ionospheric Total
           Electron Content Response at Low Latitudes during Three Selected
           Geomagnetic Storms

    • Authors: Rumiana Bojilova, Plamen Mukhtarov
      First page: 278
      Abstract: In the present paper, the response of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) at low latitudes during several geomagnetic storms occurring in different seasons of the year is investigated. In the analysis of the ionospheric response, the following three geomagnetic events were selected: (i) 23–24 April 2023; (ii) 22–24.06.2015 and (iii) 16.12.2006. Global TEC data were used, with geographic coordinates recalculated with Rawer’s modified dip (modip) latitude, which improved the accuracy of the representation of the ionospheric response at low and mid-latitudes. By decomposition of the zonal distribution of the relative deviation of the TEC values from the hourly medians, the spatial distribution of the anomalies, the dependence of the response on the local time and their evolution during the selected events were analyzed. As a result of the study, it was found that the positive response (i.e., an increase in electron density relative to quiet conditions) in low latitudes occurs at the modip latitudes 30° N and 30° S. An innovative result related to the observed responses during the considered events is that they turn out to be relatively stationary. The longitude variation in the observed maxima changes insignificantly during the storms. Depending on the season, there is an asymmetry between the two hemispheres, which can be explained by the differences in the meridional neutral circulation in different seasons.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030278
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 279: Comprehensive Study of Natural
           Radioactivity in Building Materials: A Case Study in Ica, Peru

    • Authors: Rafael Liza, Patrizia Pereyra, Daniel Muñoz, Victor Viera, Maria Elena López Herrera, Jhonny Rojas, Daniel Palacios, Félix Díaz, Nhell Cerna, Segundo Rojas, Laszlo Sajo-Bohus
      First page: 279
      Abstract: This study evaluates radon exhalation rates and assesses the potential radiological risks of external exposure to primordial radionuclides in building materials employed in the Ica region of Peru, particularly those with high uranium content. The radon exhalation rates are currently measured using a combination of a closed chamber and an active monitor. We proposed a novel method that effectively ensured a hermetic seal for the closed chamber and guaranteed that the efficient maintenance of secular equilibrium. The obtained results ranged from below the detection limit (BDL) to a maximum of 52.3 mBq · kg−1h−1. Gamma spectrometry was employed to measure the concentrations of radionuclides by utilizing a 3′ × 3′ NaI detector. The analysis of cement samples revealed a strong positive correlation between the activity concentration of radium and the radon exhalation rate. The activity concentrations for radionuclides varied, with values ranging from BDL to 60.6 mBq · kg−1h−1 for 226Ra, BDL to 22.3 mBq · kg−1h−1 for 232Th, and BDL to 1074 mBq · kg−1h−1 for 40K. These findings contribute valuable insight to decision-making processes in the Peruvian construction industry, particularly regarding material safety and radiological risk management.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030279
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 280: Novel Intelligent Methods for Channel Path
           Classification and Model Determination Based on Blind Source Signals

    • Authors: Li-Feng Cao, Cheng-Guo Liu, Run-Sheng Cheng, Guang-Pu Tang, Tong Xiao, Li-Feng Huang, Hong-Guang Wang
      First page: 280
      Abstract: In this paper, the urban signal propagation characteristics based on the location of blind sources are investigated. To address the issue of blind electromagnetic radiation sources in complex urban environments, intelligent methods for propagation channel path classification, and model determination are brought forth based on field test data. The intelligent classification method distinguishes between the Line-of-Sight (LoS) path channel and a direct path, the LoS multipath channel with a direct path and other multiple paths, and the Non-Line-of-Sight (NLoS) multipath channel without a direct path from the source to the test point. The modeling aspect determines the model type to which the received signal belongs based on the statistical model derived from the tested data of a specific source. A validation measurement system was constructed for the FM broadcasting band, and validation campaigns were conducted in the city of Wuhan. The process and analysis of the data using this method demonstrate the accurate distinction of the different propagation path channels and models and involve the construction of a statistical model for the FM band in Wuhan’s urban area.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030280
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 281: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Best
           Management Practices in Adapting the Impacts of Climate Change-Induced
           Urban Flooding

    • Authors: Amrit Bhusal, Balbhadra Thakur, Ajay Kalra, Rohan Benjankar, Aruna Shrestha
      First page: 281
      Abstract: Floods are amongst the most destructive and costly natural disasters impacting communities around the globe. The severity and reoccurrence of flooding events have been more common in recent years as a result of the changing climate and urbanization. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are commonly used flood management techniques that aim to alleviate flooding and its impacts by capturing surface runoff and promoting infiltration. Recent studies have examined the effectiveness of BMPs in countering the effects of flooding; however, the performance of such strategies still needs to be analyzed for possible future climate change. In this context, this research employs climate model-driven datasets from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program to evaluate the effects of climate change on urban hydrology within a study region by calculating historical and projected 6 h 100-year storm depths. Finally, the climate-induced design storms are simulated in the PCSWMM model, and the three BMP options (i.e., porous pavement, infiltration trench, and green roof) are evaluated to alleviate the impact of flooding events. This study quantifies the impact of changing climate on flood severity based on future climate models. The results indicate that peak discharge and peak volume are projected to increase by a range of 5% to 43% and 8% to 94%, respectively. In addition, the results demonstrated that green roofs, Permeable Pavement, and infiltration trenches help to reduce peak discharge by up to 7%, 14%, and 15% and reduce flood volume by up to 19%, 24%, and 29%, respectively, thereby presenting a promising solution to address the challenges posed by climate change-induced flooding events.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030281
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 282: The Lower Atmospheric Characteristics of
           Dust Storms Using Ground-Based Sensor Data: A Comparative Analysis of Two
           Cases in Jinan, China

    • Authors: Tian Li, Chenghao Tan, Zilong Zhao, Wenjiao Yao
      First page: 282
      Abstract: Two severe dust storm (DS) events (15–17 March and 28–29 March) hit northern China in 2021 consecutively. The lower atmospheric vertical dynamic and thermal structures during the two cases were compared using the ground-based sensor data from the microwave radiometer and radar wind profiler, combined with the environmental and meteorological observations data in Jinan, China. It was found that both cases occurred under the background of cold vortexes over northeastern China. The dust was transported through the cold air on the northwest route. During the dust period, 2–3 km was the west or northwest airflow, and below 2 km was the northeast wind. The variation in the dynamic structure determined the duration of the DS. During the DS maintenance phase, the vertical wind shear (VWS) below 3 km measured approximately 10 m∙(s∙km)−1. The increased VWS during the dust intrusion period facilitated the transportation of dust. In contrast, the more significant VWS was not conducive to the maintenance of DS, and the shift to south wind control in the upper middle layer indicated the weakening of DS. In both cases, we observed a cliff-like decrease in relative humidity as a prominent indicator of dust outbreaks, occurring approximately 2–5 h beforehand. The diurnal difference between the vertical temperature and relative humidity during the dust maintenance period was found to be insignificant.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030282
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 283: The Impacts of Regime Shift in Summer
           Arctic Oscillation on Precipitation in East Asia

    • Authors: Xuxin Zou, Li Yan, Jianjun Xu, Shaojun Zheng
      First page: 283
      Abstract: Using multiple observational and reanalysis data, this paper investigates the impact of the interdecadal shift in summer Arctic Oscillation (AO) on precipitation in East Asia, by removing ENSO influences. The results indicate that the lower-layer activity center of summer AO in Atlantic shifted eastward after the mid-1980s. This regime shift of summer AO has a significant impact on precipitation in East Asia. Before the mid-1980s, the key regions in which precipitation was affected by AO in East Asia were northern East Asia and Northeastern China and adjacent regions. After the mid-1980s, the key regions in which precipitation was affected by AO in East Asia were central Inner Mongolia and Southern China. The mechanism of precipitation changes can be attributed to changes in atmospheric circulation and water vapor transport related to AO changes. After the mid-1980s, the influence of AO on geopotential height over northern East Asia weakened; meanwhile, the impact of AO on geopotential height over China increased. Consistent with the changes in atmospheric circulation, water vapor transport in East Asia also underwent interdecadal changes before and after the mid-1980s. The differences in atmospheric circulation and water vapor transport in East Asia can be traced back to the North Atlantic. Before the mid-1980s, wave activity flux related to summer AO tended to propagate in high latitudes and subtropics; after the mid-1980s, the wave activity flux changed in its subtropical path and propagated eastward from the North Atlantic through the Middle East to China, significantly affecting the summer precipitation in China.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030283
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 284: Ocean Temperatures Do Not Account for a
           Record-Setting Winter in the U.S. West

    • Authors: Matthew D. LaPlante, Liping Deng, Luthiene Dalanhese, Shih-Yu Wang
      First page: 284
      Abstract: The record-setting winter of 2022–2023 came as an answer to both figurative and literal prayers for political leaders, policy makers, and water managers reliant on snowpacks in the Upper Colorado River Basin, a vital source of water for tens of millions of people across the Western United States. But this “drought-busting” winter was not well-predicted, in part because while interannual patterns of tropical ocean temperatures have a well-known relationship to precipitation patterns across much of the American West, the Upper Colorado is part of a liminal region where these connections tend to be comparatively weak. Using historical sea surface temperature and snowpack records, and leveraging a long-term cross-basin relationship to extend the timeline for evaluation, this analysis demonstrates that the 2022–2023 winter did not present in accordance with other high-snowpack winters in this region, and that the associative pattern of surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific, and snow water equivalent in the regions that stored and supplied most of the water to the Colorado River during the 2022–2023 winter, was not substantially different from a historically incoherent arrangement of long-term correlation. These findings suggest that stochastic variability plays an outsized role in influencing water availability in this region, even in extreme years, reinforcing the importance of other trends to inform water policy and management.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030284
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 285: The Relationship between the Typhoons
           Affecting South China and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation

    • Authors: Weijian Qin, Yuexing Cai, Liyang He
      First page: 285
      Abstract: Using typhoon data from the Shanghai Typhoon Institute of the China Meteorological Administration, the Japan Meteorological Agency’s annual Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) index, and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data from 1951 to 2021, correlation and composite analyses were carried out to study the relationship between the variability among tropical cyclones of different magnitudes affecting South China and the PDO. The results show that there is an obvious out-of-phase relationship between the proportion of tropical cyclones reaching a typhoon-level intensity or above in South China and the PDO index. When the PDO is in a cold (warm) phase, the sea surface temperature in the eastern and central equatorial Pacific is cold (warm), similar to the eastern Pacific La Niña (El Niño) phenomenon, and the SST in the eastern and western tropical Pacific Ocean shows a negative (positive) gradient; the subtropical high in the western Pacific Ocean is weaker (stronger) than normal, with the western ridge point to the east (west), and the 500 hPa geopotential height in the South China Sea and the area east of the Philippines is weaker (stronger), which is conducive to (unfavorable to) the formation of a monsoon trough; and the westerly (easterly) winds at high altitudes and the southwesterly (northeasterly) winds at low altitudes from the South China Sea to the Philippines are abnormally strong, and a positive (negative) vorticity at low altitudes, a low (high) sea level pressure, and strong (weak) convection are shown. These conditions are favorable (unfavorable) for the intensification of typhoons affecting South China, and as a result, the number of tropical cyclones reaching the level of typhoons or above account for a greater (smaller) proportion of those affecting South China.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030285
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 286: Climate Change Impacts on the Energy
           System of a Climate-Vulnerable Mediterranean Country (Greece)

    • Authors: Elena Georgopoulou, Sevastianos Mirasgedis, Yannis Sarafidis, Christos Giannakopoulos, Konstantinos V. Varotsos, Nikos Gakis
      First page: 286
      Abstract: Climate change is expected to significantly affect countries in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean Basin, causing higher-than-average temperature increases, considerable reductions in rainfall and water runoff, and extreme events such as heatwaves. These pose severe threats to local energy systems, requiring a reliable and quantitative risk analysis. A methodological approach is thus proposed which covers both energy supply and demand, utilizing the latest climate projections under different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and an appropriate scale for each energy form. For energy supply technologies, risks are assessed through statistical regression models and/or mathematical equations correlating climatic parameters with energy productivity. To analyze climate risks for energy demand, bottom–up models were developed, integrating both behavioral and policy aspects which are often considered in a very limited way. The results show that climate change will mainly affect electricity generation from hydroelectric and thermal power plants, with variations depending on the plants’ locations and uncertainties associated with precipitation and runoff changes. The climate risks for solar and wind energy were found to be low. Energy consumption will also be affected, but the range of risks depends on the ambition and the effectiveness of measures for upgrading the thermal performance of buildings and the intensity of climate change.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030286
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 287: Analysis of Primary Air Pollutants’
           Spatiotemporal Distributions Based on Satellite Imagery and
           Machine-Learning Techniques

    • Authors: Yanyu Li, Meng Zhang, Guodong Ma, Haoyuan Ren, Ende Yu
      First page: 287
      Abstract: Accurate monitoring of air pollution is crucial to human health and the global environment. In this research, the various multispectral satellite data, including MODIS AOD/SR, Landsat 8 OLI, and Sentinel-2, together with the two most commonly used machine-learning models, viz. multi-layer backpropagation neural network (MLBPN) and random forest (RF), have been employed to analyze the spatiotemporal distributions of the primary air pollutant from 2019 to 2022 in Guanzhong Region, China. In the conducted experiments, the RF-based model, using the MODIS AOD data, has generally demonstrated the “optimal” estimation performance for the ground-surface concentrations of the primary air-pollutants. Then, the “optimal” estimation model has been employed to analyze the spatiotemporal distribution of the various air pollutants—in terms of temporal distribution, the annual average concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2 in the research area showed a decreasing trend from 2019 to 2022, while the annual average concentration of CO remained relatively stable and the annual average concentration of O3 slightly increased; in terms of the spatial distribution, the air pollution presents a gradual increase from west to east in the research area, with the distribution of higher concentrations in the center of the built-up areas and lower in the surrounding rural areas. The proposed estimation model and spatiotemporal analysis can provide reliable methodologies and data support for the further study of the air pollution characteristics in the research area.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030287
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 288: Integrated Predictive Modeling and Policy
           Factor Analysis for the Land Use Dynamics of the Western Jilin

    • Authors: Shibo Wen, Yongzhi Wang, Haohang Song, Hengxi Liu, Zhaolong Sun, Muhammad Atif Bilal
      First page: 288
      Abstract: The external environment in the transitional zone of the ecological barrier is fragile, and economic growth has resulted in a series of land degradation issues, significantly impacting regional economic development and the ecological environment. Therefore, monitoring, assessing, and predicting land use changes are crucial for ecological security and sustainable development. This study developed an integrated model comprising convolutional neural network, cellular automata, and Markov chain to forecast the land use status of western Jilin, located in the transitional zone of the ecological barrier, by the year 2030. Additionally, the study evaluated the role of land use policies in the context of land use changes in western Jilin. The findings demonstrate that the coupled modeling approach exhibits excellent predictive performance for land use prediction in western Jilin, yielding a Kappa coefficient of 93.26%. Policy drivers play a significant role in shaping land use patterns in western Jilin, as evidenced by the declining farmland accompanied by improved land utilization, the sustained high levels of forest aligning with sustainable development strategies, the ongoing restoration of waters and grassland, which are expected to show positive growth by 2030, and the steady growth in built-up areas. This study contributes to understanding the dynamics of land use in the transitional zone of the ecological barrier, thereby promoting sustainable development and ecological resilience in the region.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030288
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 289: Resilience Assessment and Improvement
           Strategies for Urban Haze Disasters Based on Resident Activity
           Characteristics: A Case Study of Gaoyou, China

    • Authors: Yang Cao, Tingting Yang, Hao Wu, Shuqi Yan, Huadong Yang, Chengying Zhu, Yan Liu
      First page: 289
      Abstract: The popularisation of mobile information technology has provided access to the living habits and activity trajectories of residents and enabled the accurate measurement of the impact of urban haze disasters on residents’ lives, supporting urban haze risk response. Using the main urban area of Gaoyou City as a case study, this study identifies the spatial range and trajectory characteristics of the daily activities of residents in a haze disaster environment, based on air pollution monitoring and resident travel positioning data. We constructed an evaluation index system to measure the corresponding relationship between residential activities and haze disasters. The results indicate that the interference with residential activities and the adaptability of built environments are key indicators for evaluating urban resilience in haze environments, with weights of 0.57 and 0.43, and correlation indices of 0.67 and 0.81, respectively. The interference with residential activities and the adaptability of built environments exhibit spatial characteristics of cold and hot ‘multi-core’ agglomeration and ‘strip’ agglomeration, respectively. Specific indicators show that the residential activity exposure index is significantly influenced by the built environment factor index, with the vegetation coverage index showing a significant positive correlation (0.837) and the public transportation facility accessibility index showing a significant negative correlation (−1.242). Planning should focus on improving the adaptability of the built environment or reducing the interference with residential activities and enhancing the matching degree of the two at the spatial facility level.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030289
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 290: Revisiting the Characteristics of Super
           Typhoon Saola (2023) Using GPM, Himawari-9 and FY-4B Satellite Data

    • Authors: Yuanmou Wang, Baicheng Xia, Yanan Chen, Huan Chen, Jing Xie
      First page: 290
      Abstract: Typhoon Saola was the ninth typhoon that generated over the Western North Pacific (WNP) in 2023, and it caused severe storm impacts. However, its complex moving track and heavy intensity made it extremely difficult to forecast; therefore, detailed analysis is necessary. In this study, GPM, Himawari-9, and FY-4B satellite data were used to analyze the characteristics of the structure, brightness temperature, and precipitation of the typhoon cloud system. Our results showed that, in the 89 and 183 GHz channels of GPM-1CGMI, the brightness temperature of the typhoon eye was 80–90 K higher than that of the eye wall, and the strong convective areas below 200 K were clearer in these high-frequency channels. GPM-2ADPR estimated heavy rain (over 30 mm/h) area, storm height (5 km), and vertical precipitation rate (30–40 mm/h) more accurately than the GPM-2Aka and GPM-2Aku products. Himawari-9 satellite data showed that the brightness temperature of the eye wall and spiral cloud bands was 180–200 K, the typhoon eye was small and round, and strong convective activities were mostly located in the southwest side of the center. The FY-4B CLP and CLT products showed that, in the mature period of the typhoon, the percentage of supercooled and mixed clouds first stabilized and then rapidly decreased. The trends observed among the three types of ice-phase clouds were characterized by an initial increase, followed by a decrease, and then another increase, with percentages between 10% and 25%, 5% and 15%, and 15% and 30%, respectively.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030290
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 291: Occurrence of Polycyclic Aromatic
           Hydrocarbons and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fogwater at Urban, Suburban,
           and Rural Sites in Northeast France between 2015 and 2021

    • Authors: Dani Khoury, Maurice Millet, Yasmine Jabali, Olivier Delhomme
      First page: 291
      Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exist in the atmosphere in the vapor and particulate phases, as well as in solubilized form in fog/rain/cloud waters. In the current paper, fogwater samples are collected during 42 events between 2015 and 2021 at four different sites (Strasbourg, Geispolsheim, Erstein, Cronenbourg) in the Alsace region. Organics are extracted using liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) supported on a solid cartridge (XTR Chromabond), and then analyzed by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The total PAHs and PCBs concentrations in fog samples vary between 0.58 and 6.7 µg L−1 (average of 2.70 µg L−1), and 0.14 and 15.5 µg L−1 (average of 2.75 µg L−1). Low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant and highly detectable compared to high-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs, while pentachloro-biphenyls are the dominant PCB congener. The PAHs and PCBs concentrations have increased over the sampling years at all sites, except for a slight decrease in PCBs level at Geispolsheim. A diagnostic ratio (DR) and principal component analysis (PCA) are applied to suggest potential contamination sources at Strasbourg metropolitan. Their results reveal that PAHs derive from a mixture of pyrogenic activities, while PCBs mainly come from industrial activities. The results also reveal, in some cases, inter-site variability for simultaneous and successive fog events.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030291
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 292: Oxygen Isotope Fractionation Due to
           Non-Thermal Escape of Hot O from the Atmosphere of Mars

    • Authors: James R. Lyons
      First page: 292
      Abstract: Secondary minerals in SNC meteorites from Mars exhibit O isotope ratios believed to be consistent with the non-thermal escape of O from the atmosphere. The primary source of the non-thermal O is the dissociative- recombination of O2+ in the ionosphere. I present here the results of a model that accounts for the probability of escape of non-thermal O isotopes due to collisions with overlying CO2, combined with a model for Rayleigh fractionation of the atmosphere remaining as a result of O escape. Previous analyses of MAVEN number density data have shown a strong variability with latitude and season of the heights of the homopause and exobase, with a mean homopause at 110 km and a mean difference of about 60 km. Rayleigh model results demonstrate a dependence on homopause height and on temperature profile and require a more accurate calculation of fractionation factors for the Rayleigh equation. Isothermal temperature profiles yield much smaller variation in 17O with homopause height. These results demonstrate the need for a careful assessment of O isotope enrichment due to non-thermal escape both for the modern atmosphere and for the evolution of the atmosphere over the age of the planet.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030292
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 293: The Effect of Helio-Geomagnetic Activity
           in the Geo-Environment and by Extension to Human Health

    • Authors: Panagiota Preka-Papadema, Chris G. Tzanis
      First page: 293
      Abstract: Solar activity encompasses various phenomena within the solar atmosphere, notably including eruptive events like solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) [...]
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030293
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 294: Short-Term Probabilistic Wind Speed
           Predictions Integrating Multivariate Linear Regression and Generative
           Adversarial Network Methods

    • Authors: Yingfei Dong, Chunguang Li, Hongke Shi, Pinhan Zhou
      First page: 294
      Abstract: The precise forecasting of wind speeds is critical to lessen the harmful impacts of wind fluctuations on power networks and aid in merging wind energy into the grid system. However, prior research has predominantly focused on point forecasts, often overlooking the uncertainties inherent in the prediction accuracy. For this research, we suggest a new approach for forecasting wind speed intervals (PI). Specifically, the actual wind speed series are initially procured, and the complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition coupled with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) method decomposes the actual wind speed series into constituent numerous mode functions. Furthermore, a generative adversarial network (GAN) is utilized to achieve the wind speed PI in conjunction with the multivariate linear regression method. To confirm the effectiveness of the suggested model, four datasets are selected. The validation results suggest that this suggested model attains a superior PI accuracy compared with those of numerous benchmark techniques. In the context of PI of dataset 4, the PINAW values show improvements of 68.06% and 32.35% over the CEEMDAN-CNN and VMD-GRU values in single-step forecasting, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed model excels over the counterpart models by exhibiting diminished a PINAW and CWC, while maintaining a similar PICP.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030294
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 295: Ross–Weddell Dipole Critical for
           Antarctic Sea Ice Predictability in MPI–ESM–HR

    • Authors: Davide Zanchettin, Kameswarrao Modali, Wolfgang A. Müller, Angelo Rubino
      First page: 295
      Abstract: We use hindcasts from a state-of-the-art decadal climate prediction system initialized between 1979 and 2017 to explore the predictability of the Antarctic dipole—that is, the seesaw between sea ice cover in the Weddell and Ross Seas, and discuss its implications for Antarctic sea ice predictability. Our results indicate low forecast skills for the Antarctic dipole in the first hindcast year, with a strong relaxation of March values toward the climatology contrasting with an overestimation of anomalies in September, which we interpret as being linked to a predominance of local drift processes over initialized large-scale dynamics. Forecast skills for the Antarctic dipole and total Antarctic sea ice extent are uncorrelated. Limited predictability of the Antarctic dipole is also found under preconditioning around strong warm and strong cold events of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Initialization timing and model drift are reported as potential explanations for the poor predictive skills identified.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030295
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 296: There Is Still a Need for a Comprehensive
           Investigation of the Health Consequences of Exposure to Urban Air with
           Special Regard to Particulate Matter (PM) and Cardiovascular Effects

    • Authors: Balázs Berlinger, Péter Fehérvári, Csaba Kővágó, Katalin Lányi, Gábor Mátis, Máté Mackei, László Könyves
      First page: 296
      Abstract: Air pollution is a foremost public health problem worldwide. The pulmonary effects of air pollution have been well established for decades, and substantial epidemiological evidence is consistently showing that both acute and chronic exposure to air pollution is linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The underlying cause for this link is, however, still unknown, and many questions remain open. Most of the epidemiological studies focusing on health consequences of exposure to urban air used data from air monitoring stations or—when applying personal sampling or monitoring—measured a limited number of components to assess the exposure. On the other hand, studies conducting a decent exposure characterization and measuring a relatively large number of components with personal sampling had little or no focus on the effects and investigated only a few biomarkers. The number of research studies on this topic is huge, but at the same time, it seems as if there was no need for a comprehensive examination of the effects of urban air pollution on health. Researchers and research supporting organizations, in their fascination with the search for “novelty” and “beyond state-of-the-art”, do not seem to be aware of that they will never be able to assemble the whole picture from the puzzle pieces of research activities focusing only on certain aspects. Without a comprehensive investigation, we might never be able to answer such questions as (i) which of the urban air pollutants are forerunners in causing health effects, especially cardiovascular effects' (ii) Which biomarkers have the best predictor performance in early effects' (iii) Are there biomarkers or combinations of biomarkers that can help determine the degree of individual susceptibility and sensitivity and the dependence of these by different factors (e.g., age, gender, and physical activity)' The authors of this article aim to go through the already investigated—at the same time, essential—elements of the topic and propose a more comprehensive study, which, of course, can be expanded, debated, and improved.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030296
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 297: Moss as a Biomonitor to Identify
           Atmospheric Deposition of Minor and Trace Elements in Macedonia

    • Authors: Robert Šajn, Katerina Bačeva Bačeva Andonovska, Trajče Stafilov, Lambe Barandovski
      First page: 297
      Abstract: The present work was carried out to obtain and highlight the fifth comprehensive baseline dataset on atmospheric deposition of trace elements and to assess air quality in Macedonia. In the period from August to September 2020, a total of 72 moss samples were collected in accessible areas in the country. The content of 28 elements (Ag, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Sc, Sr, Ti, U, and Zn) was determined using inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. Based on the data obtained on the content of the elements, a factor analysis was carried out to identify and characterise different sources of pollution. In addition, distribution maps were created for all elements to show the regions most affected by anthropogenic activities. The survey conducted in 2020 has shown that air pollution with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) has slightly decreased compared to the results of the previous survey from 2015. This is due to the fact that, despite the operation of all mining and smelting facilities with the same capacity, government regulations for the installation of cleaning systems and additional regulations to reduce pollution have been introduced in the last five years. Nevertheless, the fact remains that the highest anthropogenic air pollution with PTEs is still caused by the operation of the ferronickel smelter in Kavadarci (Ni and Cr) in the southern part and by the lead and zinc mines in Probištip, Makedonska Kamenica, and Kriva Palanka in the eastern part of the country (Cd, Pb, and Zn).
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030297
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 298: CFD-DPM Simulation on the Atmospheric
           Pollutant Dispersion in Industrial Park

    • Authors: Xiaofei Ma, Wenqi Zhong
      First page: 298
      Abstract: In order to mitigate the impact of particulate pollutants in Nanjing Sample Industrial Park, it is imperative to simulate the wind field and pollutant dispersion inside the park. Therefore, a CFD-DPM study was employed to simulate the wind field and pollutant dispersion with an accurate landform model. A large eddy simulation was utilized for calculating wind flow distribution inside the park, which is more suitable than Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes Equations (RANS). The physical model of the plant canopy was incorporated to assess its influence on the wind field and particulate pollutants through drag, buoyancy, and deposition effects. Using this method, the distributions of the wind field, and contaminant and the sensitivity tests were obtained by means of calculating a number of research cases under different meteorological conditions. In the numerical results, the wind field was obstructed by the plant canopy, resulting in near-ground uniformity under unstable weather conditions. The distribution of particulate pollutants was influenced not only by the drag and buoyancy effects but also by deposition, which caused an accumulation of particulate pollutants on the windward side of the canopy under unstable weather conditions. The sensitivity tests were performed by comparing the concentrations of particulate pollutants under various conditional settings. The canopy regions can remove the particulate pollutant by 50% under stable weather conditions. The deposition effect is enhanced by larger particle density and diameter and is also influenced by leaf area density.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030298
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 299: Cooling Effects of Interface Heat Control
           for Wide Permafrost Subgrades

    • Authors: Zhiyun Liu, Haojie Xie, Benheng Deng, Jine Liu, Jianbing Chen, Fuqing Cui
      First page: 299
      Abstract: Quantitative studies of the heat transfer mechanism of permafrost subgrades and its effect on the permafrost under the subgrade are crucial for the study of permafrost subgrade disposal measures; however, few studies have been conducted in this area. In the present work, by quantitatively analyzing the permafrost subgrade heat transfer mechanism and the variations in the underlying permafrost, the preliminary parameters of the interface heat control method—such as the application period, position, and imported cold energy quantity—are determined. The cooling effects of the ideal interface heat control method for different application schemes are analyzed. Finally, by determining the optimized temporal inhomogeneous interface energy control strategy, the required inlet velocity and artificial permafrost table for a mechanical ventilation permafrost subgrade are calculated and compared. The results show that (1) the suitable cold energy application position and period are a 0.5 m interface above the subgrade bottom and the lower thaw season, respectively, and that the imported cold energy needs to vary within the subgrade service life; (2) by adopting interface heat control measures, the maximum difference between the artificial permafrost table under the subgrade and the nearby natural ground table is only 0.097 m, and the temperature of the underlying permafrost and the area of the thawing bowl are significantly reduced; and (3) the mechanical ventilation subgrade employing the cold energy importing strategy of the interface heat control parameter also achieves a protection effect for permafrost, but as the cold air inside the ventilation pipe is gradually heated, it is necessary to amplify the inlet air speed to a certain extent for a better cooling effect.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030299
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 300: Comparative Study of O3 Forecast
           Performance Using Multiple Models in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei and
           Surrounding Regions

    • Authors: Lili Zhu, Wei Wang, Huihui Zheng, Xiaoyan Wang, Yonghai Huang, Bing Liu
      First page: 300
      Abstract: In order to systematically understand the operational forecast performance of current numerical, statistical, and ensemble models for O3 in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei and surrounding regions, a comprehensive evaluation was conducted for the 30 model sets regarding O3 forecasts in June–July 2023. The evaluation parameters for O3 forecasts in the next 1–3 days were found to be more reasonable and practically meaningful than those for longer lead times. When the daily maximum 8 h average concentration of O3 was below 100 μg/m3 or above 200 μg/m3, a significant decrease in the percentage of accurate models was observed. As the number of polluted days in cities increased, the overall percentage of accurate models exhibited a decreasing trend. Statistical models demonstrated better overall performance in terms of metrics such as root mean square error, standard mean bias, and correlation coefficient compared to numerical and ensemble models. Numerical models exhibited significant performance variations, with the best-performing numerical model reaching a level comparable to that of statistical models. This finding suggests that the continuous tuning of operational numerical models has a more pronounced practical effect. Although the best statistical model had higher accuracy than numerical and ensemble models, it showed a significant overestimation when O3 concentrations were low and a significant underestimation when concentrations were high. In particular, the underestimation rate for heavy polluted days was significantly higher than that for numerical and ensemble models. This implies that statistical models may be more prone to missing high-concentration O3 pollution events.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030300
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 301: Evaluation of Potential Occupational
           Exposure and Release of Nanoparticles in Semiconductor-Manufacturing
           Environments

    • Authors: Zhaobo Zhang, Paul Westerhoff, Pierre Herckes
      First page: 301
      Abstract: Occupational exposure to airborne nanoparticles in semiconductor-manufacturing facilities is of growing concern. Currently, comprehensive information regarding atmospheric concentrations, potential origins, and the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles in these industrial settings is lacking. This study investigated the occurrence of airborne nanoparticles within a semiconductor-research and -manufacturing facility, during both routine operation and maintenance activities. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer was used to monitor size-resolved airborne-nanoparticle number concentrations spanning the range of 6 to 220 nm. Breathing zone filter samples were also collected during maintenance processes and underwent subsequent analyses via Transmission Electron Microscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, to discover the size, morphology, and chemical composition of the observed nanoparticles. The findings reveal low levels of airborne nanoparticles during routine operations, but maintenance tasks resulted in substantial concentration surges particularly for plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition tools with concentrations up to 11,800 particles/cm3. More than 80% of observed particles were smaller than 30 nm. These smallest particles were predominately composed of metals such as iron, nickel, and copper. Moreover, larger particles above 100 nm were also identified, comprising process-related materials such as silicon and indium. Comparative assessment against established mass-based exposure limits did not yield any exceedances. Current exposure limits do not typically consider size though, and the preponderance of small nanoparticles (<30 nm) would warrant a more size-differentiated exposure-risk assessment.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030301
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 302: Using Citizen Science to Manage Odour
           Emissions in National IED Plants: A Systematic Review of the Scientific
           Literature

    • Authors: Mauro, Borghesi
      First page: 302
      Abstract: The potential of citizen science to address complex issues has been recognized since the 1990s. However, the systematic integration of public opinion in research has been developed only recently, thanks to the spread of questionnaire web-based surveys and artificial intelligence techniques for data elaboration. Starting from this point, we decided to investigate the literature published in Scopus during the decade 2013–2023, regarding citizen science applications for environmental purposes. More specifically, the focus of our study was to evaluate citizen science’s benefits and limitations for managing odour emissions in national industrial plants, as well as to discuss the potential integration of a participatory approach in such a field. In fact, according to European Directive 2010/75/EU, the integrated environmental permits released to reduce industrial pollution should also encourage strong public participation. In this systematic review we first applied the principles of PRISMA methodology to select the most significant papers. Then, we discuss the results of 14 publications, through bibliometric statistics and meta-analysis. Only three of them were discovered to have a specific focus on odour emissions. Overall, we pinpointed the main advantages and limitations of citizen science applied to odour pollution management, to open the door for further research.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030302
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 303: Using Diverse Data Sources to Impute
           Missing Air Quality Data Collected in a Resource-Limited Setting

    • Authors: Moses Mogakolodi Kebalepile, Loveness Nyaradzo Dzikiti, Kuku Voyi
      First page: 303
      Abstract: The sustainable operation of ambient air quality monitoring stations in developing countries is not always possible. Intermittent failures and breakdowns at air quality monitoring stations often affect the continuous measurement of data as required. These failures and breakdowns result in missing data. This study aimed to impute NO2, SO2, O3, and PM 10 to produce complete data sets of daily average exposures from 2010 to 2017. Models were built for (a) an individual pollutant at a monitoring station, (b) a combined model for the same pollutant from different stations, and (c) a data set with all the pollutants from all the monitoring stations. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of the Multiple Imputation by Chain Equations (MICE) algorithm in successfully imputing air quality data that are missing at random. The application of classification and regression trees (CART) analysis using the MICE package in the R statistical programming language was compared with the predictive mean matching (PMM) method. The CART method performed better, with the pooled R-squared statistics of the imputed data ranging from 0.3 to 0.7, compared to a range of 0.02 to 0.25 for PMM. The MICE algorithm successfully resolved the incompleteness of the data. It was concluded that the CART method produced better reliable data than the PMM method. However, in this study, the pooled R2 values were accurate for NO2, but not so much for other pollutants.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030303
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 304: A Smoke Chamber Study on Some Low-Cost
           Sensors for Monitoring Size-Segregated Aerosol and Microclimatic
           Parameters

    • Authors: László Bencs, Attila Nagy
      First page: 304
      Abstract: Low-cost sensors (LCSs) of Geekcreit PM1/PM2.5/PM10 (based on a PMS5003 sampler) and BOHU BH-1 models A3 and B3 (based on a Pando G7 sampler) were compared for different aerosol size ranges using a research-grade instrument (Grimm 1.109) under controlled laboratory conditions. An aerosol generator was utilized to produce various sizes of monodispersed particulate matter (PM), which was introduced into a laboratory smoke chamber under resistance heating/cooling and/or varying RH conditions. In addition, the accuracy of the air temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) sensors of the LCSs were assessed against calibrated, laboratory-grade instruments. The study LCSs showed generally accurate readings for PM2.5, irrespectively of the slow T and/or RH changes, which provided apt conditions for accurate calibration slopes (S) and low intercepts/bias (b) of the linear fits. On the other hand, PM1 and PM10 readings slightly deviated from those observed with the reference monitor, likely due to the lower detection efficacy of the LCSs towards fine and coarse PM. Varying RH influenced the S and b values, showing its impact on the detection efficacy of LCSs. Under low/medium RH, homoscedastic calibration curves of PMx were found, whereas rather heteroscedastic calibration plots were observed at high RH. For T calibration, low RH in the smoke chamber provided more reproducible conditions in terms of lower measurement bias for LCSs as recorded against a calibrated, reference-grade thermometer.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15030304
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 205: Evaluation of Crop Water Stress Index
           (CWSI) for High Tunnel Greenhouse Tomatoes under Different Irrigation
           Levels

    • Authors: Sedat Boyaci, Joanna Kocięcka, Atilgan Atilgan, Daniel Liberacki, Roman Rolbiecki, Burak Saltuk, Piotr Stachowski
      First page: 205
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of water stress on yield and various physiological parameters, including the crop water stress index for tomatoes in the Central Anatolian region of Turkey. For this purpose, the irrigation schedule used in this study includes 120%, 100%, 80%, and 60% (I120, I100, I80, I60) of evaporation from the gravimetrically. Water deficit was found to cause a stress effect in tomato plants, which was reflected in changes in plants’ morphological and pomological function (such as stem diameter, fruit weight, pH, titratable acidity, and total soluble solids). Irrigation levels had a significant effect on the total yield of tomatoes. The lowest water use efficiency (WUE) was obtained from the I60, while the highest WUE was found in the I100 irrigation level. The CWSI was calculated using an empirical approach from measurements of infrared canopy temperatures, ambient air temperatures, and vapor pressure deficit values for four irrigation levels. The crop water stress index (CWSI) values ranged from −0.63 to a maximum value of 0.53 in I120, from −0.27 to 0.63 in I100, from 0.06 to 0.80 in I80, and from 0.37 to 0.97 in I60. There was a significant relation between yield and CWSI. The yield was correlated with mean CWSI values, and the linear equation Total yield = −2398.9CWSI + 1240.4 can be used for yield prediction. The results revealed that the CWSI value was useful for evaluating crop water stress in tomatoes and predicting yield.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020205
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 206: Extended-Range Forecast of Winter Rainfall
           in the Yangtze River Delta Based on Intra-Seasonal Oscillation of
           Atmospheric Circulations

    • Authors: Fei Xin, Wei Wang
      First page: 206
      Abstract: The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) is an important economic region in China. Heavy winter rainfall may pose serious threats to city operations. To ensure the safe operation of the city, meteorological departments need to provide forecast results for the Spring Festival travel rush weather service. Therefore, the extended-range forecast of winter rainfall is of considerable importance. To solve this problem, based on the analysis of low-frequency rainfall and the intra-seasonal oscillation of atmospheric circulation, an extended-range forecast model for winter rainfall is developed using spatiotemporal projection methods and is applied to a case study from 2020. The results show that: (1) The precipitation in the YRD during the winter has a significant intra-seasonal oscillation (ISO) with a periodicity of 10–30 d. (2) The atmospheric circulations associated with winter rainfall in the YRD have a significant characteristic of low-frequency oscillation. From a 30-day to a 0-day lead, large modifications appear in the low-frequency atmospheric circulations at low, mid, and high latitudes. At low latitudes, strong wet convective activity characterized by a negative OLR combined with a positive RH700 correlation coefficient moves northwestward and covers the entire YRD. Meanwhile, the Western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) characterized by a positive Z500 anomaly enhances and lifts northward. At mid and high latitudes, the signal of negatively correlated Z500 northwest of Lake Balkhash propagates southeastward, indicating the cold is air moving southward. Multiple circulation factors combine together and lead to the precipitation process in the YRD. (3) Taking the intra-seasonal dynamical evolution process of the atmospheric circulation as the prediction factor, the spatiotemporal method is used to build the model for winter mean extended-range precipitation anomaly tendency in the YRD. The hindcast for the recent 10 years shows that the ensemble model has a higher skill that can reach up to 20 days. In particular, the skill of the eastern part of the YRD can reach 25 days. (4) The rainfall in the 2019/2020 winter has a significant ISO. The ensemble model could forecast the most extreme precipitation for 20 days ahead.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020206
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 207: Analysis of the Micro-Physical
           Characteristics of the Sea of Clouds Phenomena in Jiuxian Mountain Based
           on Multiple Source Observations

    • Authors: Si Cheng, Zilun Lin, Jianding Zhou, Geng Han, Zhenhao Chen, Qingbo Yang
      First page: 207
      Abstract: The micro-physical characteristics of a typical sea of clouds process in Jiuxian Mountain are investigated by comprehensively analyzing parameters that delineate the micro-physical characteristics of clouds and atmospheric stratification based on data from a cloud radar, wind profiler, meteorological gradient observation in high mountains, and other observations. The results show that water vapor condenses into cloud particles via an entrained and mixing process accompanied by an updraft originating from orographic uplift. During the thickening stage of the sea of clouds, atmospheric motion within the clouds is featured as “downdraft on the top—updraft on the bottom”. The zero vertical velocity area is located closely to the maximum of liquid water content. The thermal inversion layer is formed during the maintenance stage; however, the enhancement of inversion on the cloud top could suppress updraft in areas with a high liquid water content. The values mainly concentrate on the cloud top, and repetitively lifting and falling processes caused by the atmospheric upward and downward motion are in favor of the coalescence growth of cloud particles, which result in the persistence of strong radar echo. At the dissipation stage, warming on the cloud top is greater than that on the cloud bottom due to the short-wave absorption of clouds as the solar radiation enhances. As a result, the inversion layer thickens and elevates, evaporation caused by heating outweighs the condensation caused by cooling, a strong radar echo band descends from the top to the middle part of clouds, a sea of clouds dissipates gradually as cloud particles evaporates, and the particle size and concentration number of cloud particles decrease simultaneously.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020207
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 208: Assessment and Prediction of Future
           Climate Change in the Kaidu River Basin of Xinjiang under Shared
           Socioeconomic Pathway Scenarios

    • Authors: Chenglin Cao, Yi Wang, Lei Fan, Junwei Ding, Wen Chen
      First page: 208
      Abstract: Xinjiang, located in the arid region of the northwest, is one of the areas most sensitive to global changes. The Kaidu River Basin, situated in the heart of Xinjiang, is one of the sources of China’s largest inland river—the Tarim River. The Kaidu River not only bears the responsibility for supplying water for industrial use and agricultural production and people’s daily life in the basin, but also plays a crucial role in ecological water supply to the Tarim River. Studying and analyzing the characteristics and trends of meteorological condition in the future under climate change can provide important references and a basis for a deeper understanding of changes in the hydrological process and water resources in the basin. Therefore, this paper selects seven precipitation bias correction methods and four temperature bias correction methods to adjust the precipitation and temperature output data of eight general circulation models of the Sixth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) within the Kaidu River Basin. The applicability of different bias correction methods in the study area is evaluated, and based on the corrected future meteorological data and calculated extreme meteorological index, the trends of meteorological data (precipitation, temperature) in the future period (2025–2050) under four SSP scenarios (SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, SSP5-8.5) in the Kaidu River Basin are analyzed. The results show that: (1) Different types of bias correction methods have different correction focus and effects; their reflections on evaluation indicators are also different. (2) In the future period (2025–2050), the annual precipitation and average temperature in the Kaidu River Basin are higher than those in the historical period (1975–2014). The average annual temperature shows an upward trend in the future, but the annual precipitation shows a downward trend in the future except for the SSP2-4.5 scenario. (3) Compared with the historical period, the extreme precipitation in the future period under the SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, and SSP5-8.5 scenarios is higher than that in the historical period, and the number of rainless days decreases. In the future, under the SSP1-2.6 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios, the probability of meteorological drought events occurring due to high temperatures in the basin may further increase, while under the SSP2-4.5 scenario, the situation of high temperatures and heavy rain in the basin may continue to increase.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020208
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 209: Metrological Evaluation of the Building
           Influence on Air Temperature Measurements

    • Authors: Carmen Garcia Izquierdo, Graziano Coppa, Sonia Hernández, Andrea Merlone
      First page: 209
      Abstract: This paper describes the metrological procedure carried out for the evaluation of the building influence on air temperature measurements. This evaluation aims to produce reliable conclusions, information, and data to contribute to the WMO siting classification schemes for air temperature measurements. For this purpose, a field experiment was designed, deployed, and carried out. As a result, one-year-lasting air temperature measurements were collected and analyzed. In this field experiment, a 200 m wide building is the unique artificial heat source and the unique object projecting shades over a flat surface (no discernible slope) in an open space bigger than 40,000 m2, covered with short grass. Eight calibrated thermometers, equipped with the same model of artificially ventilated radiation shields, were set up at a height of 1.5 m from the ground and at different distances from a 200 m wide building. This configuration provides the observation of the horizontal air temperature radially distributed from the building and, as a conclusion, it enables the quantification of the building influences on air temperature measurements at different distances from the building. This document describes the field experiment, the analysis procedure, the evolution of the building influence on air temperature measurements along the day, and the impact of other meteorological parameters on this building effect. Two different building effects are observed: the positive building effect, where the air temperature decreases with the distance to the building, and the negative building effect, where the air temperature increases with the distance to the building. It is also noticed that the building influence is higher on clear days and the daily maximum building influence values are directly linked with the corresponding maximum solar irradiance. The influence of wind on the building effect is also analyzed, reaching the conclusion that due to characteristic of local winds, in terms of low speed and direction, the wind impact could be considered as negligible. The maximum values of building influence on air temperature measurements, the associated uncertainty analysis, and the conclusions are presented in this paper. All these points have been addressed using metrological principles with the purpose of giving consistency and robustness to the evidence presented here.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020209
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 210: An Analysis of the Instability Conditions
           and Water Vapor Transport Characteristics during a Typical Rainstorm in
           the Tarim Basin

    • Authors: Chen Jin, Qing He, Qian Huang, Ze Chen
      First page: 210
      Abstract: In order to deepen the understanding of the occurrence mechanism and water vapor transport characteristics of the heavy rain process in the extreme arid region of Xinjiang, a rare heavy rain process in the Tarim Basin during the period of 18–22 July 2021 was comprehensively analyzed by using multi-source data. The results show that the upper tropospheric South Asian high was distributed in a “west-high-east-low” pattern during the rainstorm process, and the rainstorm area was located on the right side of the upper jet stream entrance area, while the middle-level Iranian high pressure, Baikal high pressure and Central Asian low pressure formed a “two-highs and one-low” circulation situation. The coupling of the high and low air jets and the strong vertical upward motion provided favorable dynamic conditions. Rainstorm water vapor mainly comes from the Mediterranean Sea, Central Asia and the Indian Ocean, and it enters the basin in four paths: west, east to west, west to east, and southwest and south. The water vapor mainly flows into the middle layer of the western boundary and the southern boundary and the lower layer of the eastern boundary, and it flows out from the middle and upper layer of the eastern boundary. The negative moist potential vorticity region at a low level has a strong indicator significance for the occurrence and development of heavy rain, and the superposition of positive and negative moist potential vorticity regions at vertical height is conducive to the occurrence and development of heavy rain.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020210
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 211: The Intermittency of Turbulence in
           Magneto-Hydodynamical Simulations and in the Cosmos

    • Authors: Pierre Lesaffre, Edith Falgarone, Pierre Hily-Blant
      First page: 211
      Abstract: Turbulent dissipation is a central issue in the star and galaxy formation process. Its fundamental property of space–time intermittency, well characterised in incompressible laboratory experiments, remains elusive in cosmic turbulence. Progress requires the combination of state-of-the-art modelling, numerical simulations and observations. The power of such a combination is illustrated here, where the statistical method intended to locate the extrema of velocity shears in a turbulent field, which are the signposts of intense dissipation extrema, is applied to numerical simulations of compressible magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) turbulence dedicated to dissipation scales and to observations of a turbulent molecular cloud. We demonstrate that increments of several observables computed at the smallest lags can detect coherent structures of intense dissipation. We apply this statistical method to the observations of a turbulent molecular cloud close to the Sun in our galaxy and disclose a remarkable structure of extremely large velocity shear. At the location of the largest velocity shear, this structure is found to foster 10× more carbon monoxide molecules than standard diffuse molecular gas, an enrichment supported by models of non-equilibrium warm chemistry triggered by turbulent dissipation. In our simulations, we also compute structure functions of various synthetic observables and show that they verify Extended Self-Similarity. This allows us to compute their intermittency exponents, and we show how they constrain some properties of the underlying three-dimensional turbulence. The power of the combination of modelling and observations is also illustrated by the observations of the CH+ cation that provide unique quantitative information on the kinetic energy trail in the massive, multi-phase and turbulent circum-galactic medium of a galaxy group at redshift z=2.8.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020211
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 212: Salt Lake Aerosol Overview: Emissions,
           Chemical Composition and Health Impacts under the Changing Climate

    • Authors: Muhammad Subtain Abbas, Yajuan Yang, Quanxi Zhang, Donggang Guo, Ana Flavia Locateli Godoi, Ricardo Henrique Moreton Godoi, Hong Geng
      First page: 212
      Abstract: Salt Lakes, having a salt concentration higher than that of seawater and hosting unique extremophiles, are predominantly located in drought-prone zones worldwide, accumulating diverse salts and continuously emitting salt dust or aerosols. However, knowledge on emission, chemical composition, and health impacts of Salt Lake aerosols under climate change is scarce. This review delves into the intricate dynamics of Salt Lake aerosols in the context of climate change, pointing out that, as global warming develops and weather patterns shift, Salt Lakes undergo notable changes in water levels, salinity, and overall hydrological balance, leading to a significant alteration of Salt Lake aerosols in generation and emission patterns, physicochemical characteristics, and transportation. Linked to rising temperatures and intensified evaporation, a marked increase will occur in aerosol emissions from breaking waves on the Salt Lake surface and in saline dust emission from dry lakebeds. The hygroscopic nature of these aerosols, coupled with the emission of sulfate aerosols, will impart light-scattering properties and a cooling effect. The rising temperature and wind speed; increase in extreme weather in regard to the number of events; and blooms of aquatic microorganisms, phytoplankton, and artemia salina in and around Salt Lakes, will lead to the release of more organic substances or biogenic compounds, which contribute to the alteration of saline aerosols in regard to their quantitative and chemical composition. Although the inhalation of saline aerosols from Salt Lakes and fine salt particles suspended in the air due to salt dust storms raises potential health concerns, particularly causing respiratory and cardiovascular disease and leading to eye and skin discomfort, rock salt aerosol therapy is proved to be a good treatment and rehabilitation method for the prevention and treatment of pneumoconiosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is implied that the Salt Lake aerosols, at a certain exposure concentration, likely can delay the pathogenesis of silicosis by regulating oxidative stress and reducing interstitial fibrosis of the lungs. It emphasizes the interconnectedness of climate changes, chemical composition, and health aspects, advocating for a comprehensive and practical approach to address the challenges faced by Salt Lake aerosols in an ever-changing global climate.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020212
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 213: Composition and Reactivity of Volatile
           Organic Compounds and the Implications for Ozone Formation in the North
           China Plain

    • Authors: Saimei Hao, Qiyue Du, Xiaofeng Wei, Huaizhong Yan, Miao Zhang, Youmin Sun, Shijie Liu, Lianhuan Fan, Guiqin Zhang
      First page: 213
      Abstract: Enhanced ozone (O3) pollution has emerged as a pressing environmental concern in China, particularly for densely populated megacities and major city clusters. However, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the key precursors to O3 formation, have not been routinely measured. In this study, we characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of VOCs and examine the role of VOCs in O3 production in five cities (Dongying (DY), Rizhao (RZ), Yantai (YT), Weihai (WH), and Jinan (JN)) in the North China Plain (NCP) for two sampling periods (June and December) in 2021 through continuous field observations. Among various VOC categories, alkanes accounted for the largest proportion of VOCs in the cities. For VOCs, chemical reactivities, aromatic hydrocarbons, and alkenes were dominant contributors to O3 formation potential (OFP). Unlike inland regions, the contribution to OFP from OVOCs increased greatly at high O3 concentrations in coastal regions (especially YT). Model simulations during the O3 episode show that the net O3 production rates were 27.87, 10.24, and 10.37 ppbv/h in DY, RZ, and JN. The pathway of HO2 + NO contributed the most to O3 production in JN and RZ, while RO2 + NO was the largest contributor to O3 production in DY. The relative incremental reactivity (RIR) revealed that O3 formation in DY was the transitional regime, while it was markedly the VOC-limited regime in JN and RZ. The O3 production response is influenced by NOx concentration and has a clear daily variation pattern (the sensitivity is greater from 15:00 to 17:00). The most efficiencies in O3 reduction could be achieved by reducing NOx when the NOx concentration is low (less than 20 ppbv in this study). This study reveals the importance of ambient VOCs in O3 production over the NCP and demonstrates that a better grasp of VOC sources and profiles is critical for in-depth O3 regulation in the NCP.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020213
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 214: Assessment of Outdoor Thermal Comfort in a
           Hot Summer Region of Europe

    • Authors: José Luis Sánchez Jiménez, Manuel Ruiz de Adana
      First page: 214
      Abstract: Heat waves are increasingly frequent in Europe, especially in South European countries during the summer season. The intensity and frequency of these heat waves have increased significantly in recent years. Spain, as one of the southern European countries most affected by these recurring heat waves, particularly experiences this phenomenon in touristic cities such as Cordoba. The aim of this study was to perform an experimental assessment of outdoor thermal comfort in a typical three-hour tourist walkable path of the historical center of Cordoba. The experimental study was carried out in the three-hour period of higher temperatures from 16:30 to 19:30 h CEST (UTC+2) on a normal summer day (6 July 2023), a day with a heat wave (28 June 2023) and a day with a higher heat intensity, called a super heat wave (10 August 2023). Environmental conditions such as a radiant temperature, ambient temperature, wet bulb temperature, air velocity and relative humidity were measured at three different heights corresponding to 0.1 (ankles), 0.7 (abdomen) and 1.7 (head) m. The results show extremely high levels of heat stress in all bioclimatic indices throughout the route. Cumulative heat stress ranged from “very hot” conditions at the beginning of the route to becoming “highly sweltering” at the end of the route. The average temperature excess over the thermal comfort threshold was very high and increased with the heat intensity. In addition, a correlation analysis was carried out between the bioclimatic indices studied, with the UTCI index standing out for its strong correlation with other thermal comfort indices. The findings emphasize the need for interventions to improve the urban environment and promote better outdoor thermal comfort for city dwellers through measures such as green infrastructure, UHI mitigation and increasing public awareness.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020214
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 215: UV Exposure during Cycling as a Function
           of Solar Elevation and Orientation

    • Authors: Philipp Weihs, Sarah Helletzgruber, Sofie Kranewitter, Lara Langer, Zacharias Lumerding, Viktoria Luschin, Philipp Schmidt, Jakob Heydenreich, Alois W. Schmalwieser
      First page: 215
      Abstract: Although cycling is the most prevalent means of locomotion in the world, little research has been done in evaluating the ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure of cyclists. In this study, a volunteer using a men’s bike was equipped with 10 miniature UV-meters at different body sites. Besides erythemally effective irradiance, the ratio of personal UV exposure to ambient UV radiation was determined for solar elevations up to 65°, taking into account different orientations with respect to the sun. This method provides a universal model that allows for the calculation of UV exposure whenever ambient UV radiation and solar elevation are available. Our results show that the most exposed body sites are the back, forearm, upper arm, and anterior thigh, receiving between 50% and 75% of ambient UV radiation on average. For certain orientations, this percentage can reach 105% to 110%. However, the risk of UV overexposure depends on ambient UV radiation. At lower solar elevations (<40°), the risk of UV overexposure clearly decreases.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020215
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 216: Long-Term Exposure to PM10 Air Pollution
           Exaggerates Progression of Coronary Artery Disease

    • Authors: Tomasz Urbanowicz, Krzysztof Skotak, Anna Olasińska-Wiśniewska, Krzysztof J. Filipiak, Jakub Bratkowski, Michał Wyrwa, Jędrzej Sikora, Piotr Tyburski, Beata Krasińska, Zbigniew Krasiński, Andrzej Tykarski, Marek Jemielity
      First page: 216
      Abstract: (1) Background: The increase in cardiovascular risk related to air pollution has been a matter of interest in recent years. The role of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) has been postulated as a possible factor for premature death, including cardiovascular death. The role of long-term exposure to PM10 is less known. The aim of the study was to assess the individual relationship between air pollution in habitation and the development of coronary artery disease. (2) Methods: Out of 227 patients who underwent coronary angiography, 63 (38 men and 25 women) with a mean age of 69 (63–74) years, with nonsignificant atherosclerotic changes at the initial examination, were included in the study. The baseline and repeated coronary angiography were compared to reveal patients with atherosclerotic progression and its relation to demographic and clinical factors and exposure to air pollution in the habitation place. (3) Results: In the performed analysis, we found a significant correlation between Syntax score in de novo lesions and BMI (Spearman’s rho −0.334, p = 0.008). The significant and strong correlation between median annual PM10 values of 20 µg/m3 and at least 25 µg/m3 in air pollution and the risk of de novo coronary disease was noticed (Spearman’s rho = 0.319, p = 0.011 and Spearman’s rho = 0.809, p < 0.001, respectively). (4) Conclusions: There is a positive correlation between long-term exposure to PM10 air pollution and coronary artery disease progression, demonstrated by the increase in Syntax score. The presented analysis revealed increased morbidity at lower PM10 concentrations than generally recommended thresholds. Therefore, further investigations concerning air pollution's influence on cardiovascular risk should be accompanied by promoting lifestyle changes in the population and revisiting the needs for environmental guidelines.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020216
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 217: Understanding Rainfall Distribution
           Characteristics over the Vietnamese Mekong Delta: A Comparison between
           Coastal and Inland Localities

    • Authors: Huynh Vuong Thu Minh, Bui Thi Bich Lien, Dang Thi Hong Ngoc, Tran Van Ty, Nguyen Vo Chau Ngan, Nguyen Phuoc Cong, Nigel K. Downes, Gowhar Meraj, Pankaj Kumar
      First page: 217
      Abstract: This study examines the changing rainfall patterns in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) utilizing observational data spanning from 1978 to 2022. We employ the Mann–Kendall test, the sequential Mann–Kendall test, and innovative trend analysis to investigate trends in annual, wet, and dry season rainfall, as well as daily rainfall events. Our results show significant spatial variations. Ca Mau, a coastal province, consistently showed higher mean annual and seasonal rainfall compared to the further inland stations of Can Tho and Moc Hoa. Interestingly, Ca Mau experienced a notable decrease in annual rainfall. Conversely, Can Tho, showed an overall decrease in some months of the wet season and an increase in dry season rainfall. Furthermore, Moc Hoa showed an increase in the number of rainy days, especially during the dry season. Principal component analysis (PCA) further revealed strong correlations between annual rainfall and extreme weather events, particularly for Ca Mau, emphasizing the complex interplay of geographic and climatic factors within the region. Our findings offer insights for policymakers and planners, thus aiding the development of targeted interventions to manage water resources and prepare for changing climate conditions.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020217
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 218: An Ensemble-Based Model for Specific
           Humidity Retrieval from Landsat-8 Satellite Data for South Korea

    • Authors: Sungwon Choi, Noh-Hun Seong, Daeseong Jung, Suyoung Sim, Jongho Woo, Nayeon Kim, Sungwoo Park, Kyung-soo Han
      First page: 218
      Abstract: Specific humidity (SH) which means the amount of water vapor in 1kg of air, is used as an indicator of energy exchange between the atmosphere and the Earth’s surface. SH is typically computed using microwave satellites. However, the spatial resolution of data for microwave satellite is too low. To overcome this disadvantage, we introduced new methods that applied data collected by the Landsat-8 satellite with high spatial resolution (30 m), a meteorological model, and observation data for South Korea in 2016–2017 to 4 machine learning techniques to develop an optimized technique for computing SH. Among the 4 machine learning techniques, the random forest-based method had the highest accuracy, with a coefficient of determination (R) of 0.98, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.001, bias of 0, and Relative Root Mean Square Error (RRMSE) of 11.16%. We applied this model to compute land surface SH using data from 2018 to 2019 and found that it had high accuracy (R = 0.927, RMSE = 0.002, bias = 0, RRMSE = 28.35%). Although the data used in this study were limited, the model was able to accurately represent a small region based on an ensemble of satellite and model data, demonstrating its potential to address important issues related to SH measurements from satellites.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020218
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 219: A Case Study of Pc1 Waves Observed at the
           Polar Cap Associated with Proton Precipitation at Subauroral Latitudes

    • Authors: Giulia D’Angelo, Patrizia Francia, Marcello De Lauretis, Alexandra Parmentier, Tero Raita, Mirko Piersanti
      First page: 219
      Abstract: The importance of ElectroMagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves (and their Pc1 counterparts) is connected to their critical role in triggering energetic particle precipitation from the magnetosphere to the conjugated ionosphere via pitch angle scattering. In addition, as a prominent element of the ULF zoo, EMIC/Pc1 waves can be considered a perfect tool for the remote diagnosis of the topologies and dynamic properties of near-Earth plasmas. Based on the availability of a comprehensive set of instruments, operating on the ground and in the top-side ionosphere, the present case study provides an interesting example of the evolution of EMIC propagation to both ionospheric hemispheres up to the polar cap. Specifically, we report observations of Pc1 waves detected on 30 March 2021 under low Kp, low Sym-H, and moderate AE conditions. The proposed investigation shows that high-latitude ground magnetometers in both hemispheres and the first China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES-01) at a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) detected in-synch Pc1 waves. In strict correspondence to this, energetic proton precipitation was observed at LEO with a simultaneous appearance of an isolated proton aurora at subauroral latitudes. This supports the idea of EMIC wave-induced proton precipitation contributing to energy transfer from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020219
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 220: Growth and Breakdown of
           Kelvin–Helmholtz Billows in the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    • Authors: Qingfang Jiang
      First page: 220
      Abstract: The development and breakdown of Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) waves (billows) in the stable atmospheric boundary layer (SABL) and their impact on vertical transport of momentum and scalars have been examined utilizing large eddy simulations. These simulations are initialized with a vertically uniform geostrophic wind and a constant potential temperature lapse rate. An Ekman type of boundary layer develops, and an inflection point forms in the SABL, which triggers the KH instability (KHI). KHI develops with the kinetic energy (KE) in the KH billows growing exponentially with time. The subsequent onset of secondary shear instability along S-shaped braids leads to the turbulent breakdown of the KH billow cores and braids. The frictional ground surface tends to slow down the growth of KE near the surface, reduce the KH billow core depth, and likely suppress other types of secondary instability. KH billows induce substantial down-gradient transport of momentum and sensible heat, which can be further enhanced by the onset of secondary shear instability. Although the KHI-induced strong transport only lasts for around 10–20 min, it reduces vertical shear and stratification in the SABL, enhances surface winds, and results in a 2–3-fold increase in the SABL depth.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020220
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 221: Sensitivity of the Land–Atmosphere
           Coupling to Soil Moisture Anomalies during the Warm Season in China and
           its Surrounding Areas

    • Authors: Lan Wang, Shuwen Zhang, Xinyang Yan, Chentao He
      First page: 221
      Abstract: Significant temporal and spatial variability in soil moisture (SM) is observed during the warm season in China and its surrounding regions. Because of the existence of two different evapotranspiration regimes, i.e., soil moisture-limited and energy-limited, averaging the land–atmosphere (L–A) coupling strength for all soil wetness scenarios may result in the loss of coupling signals. This study examines the daytime-only L–A interactions under different soil moisture conditions, by using two-legged metrics in the warm season from May to September 1981–2020, partitioning the interactions between SM and latent heat flux (SM–LH, the land leg) from the interactions between latent heat flux and the lifting condensation level (LH–LCL, the atmospheric leg). The statistical results reveal large regional differences in warm-season daytime L–A feedback in China and its surrounding areas. As the soil becomes wetter, the positive SM–LH coupling strength increases in arid regions (e.g., northwest China, Hetao, and the Great Indian Desert) and the positive feedback shifts to the negative one in semi-arid/semi-humid regions (northeast and northern China). The negative LH–LCL coupling is most pronounced in wet soil months in arid regions, while the opposite is true for the Tibetan Plateau. In terms of intraseasonal variation, the large variability of SM in north China, the Tibetan Plateau, and India due to the influence of the summer monsoon leads to the sign change in the land segment coupling index, comparing pre- and post-monsoon periods. To further examine the impact of SM anomalies on L–A coupling and to explore evapotranspiration regimes in the North China Plain, four sets of sensitivity experiments with different soil moisture levels over a period of 10 years were conducted. Under relatively dry soil conditions, evapotranspiration is dominated by the soil moisture-limited regime with positive L–A coupling, regardless of external moisture inflow. The critical soil moisture value separating a soil moisture-limited and an energy-limited regime lies between 0.24 m3/m3 and 0.29 m3/m3. Stronger positive feedback under negative soil moisture anomalies may increase the risk of drought in the North China Plain.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020221
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 222: Investigation of the Synoptic and
           Dynamical Characteristics of Cyclone Shaheen (2021) and its Influence on
           the Omani Coastal Region

    • Authors: Petros Katsafados, Pantelis-Manolis Saviolakis, George Varlas, Haifa Ben-Romdhane, Kosmas Pavlopoulos, Christos Spyrou, Sufian Farrah
      First page: 222
      Abstract: Tropical Cyclone Shaheen (TCS), originating in the Arabian Sea on 30 September 2021, followed an east-to-west trajectory and made landfall as a category-1 cyclone in northern Oman on 3 October 2021, causing severe floods and damages before dissipating in the United Arab Emirates. This study aims to analyze the synoptic and dynamical conditions influencing Shaheen’s genesis and evolution. Utilizing ERA5 reanalysis data, SEVIRI-EUMETSAT imagery, and Sorbonne University Atmospheric Forecasting System (SUAFS) outputs, it was found that Shaheen manifested as a warm-core cyclone with moderate vertical wind shear within the eyewall. Distinctive features included a trajectory aligned with rising sea surface temperatures and increased specific humidity levels at 700 hPa in the Arabian Sea. As Shaheen approached the Gulf of Oman, a significant increase in rainfall rates occurred, correlated with variations in sea surface temperatures and vertical wind shear. Comparative analysis between SUAFS and ERA5 data revealed a slight northward shift in the SUAFS track and landfall. Advance warnings highlighted heavy rainfall, rough seas, and strong winds. This study provides valuable insights into the meteorological factors contributing to Shaheen’s formation and impact.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020222
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 223: Prioritization of Volatile Organic
           Compound Reduction in the Tire Manufacturing Industry through Speciation
           of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted at the Fenceline

    • Authors: Hyo Eun Lee, Jeong Hun Kim, Daram Seo, Seok J. Yoon
      First page: 223
      Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with their ubiquitous presence across numerous global industries, pose multifaceted challenges, influencing air pollution and health outcomes. In response, countries such as the United States and Canada have implemented fenceline monitoring systems, enabling real-time tracking of organic solvents, including benzene. Initially, this focus was predominantly placed on the petroleum refining industry, but it has gradually been broadening. This investigation seeks to identify and analyze the specific VOCs produced in the tire manufacturing sector by utilizing both active and passive monitoring methodologies. The findings of the present study aim to recommend prioritized reduction strategies for specific VOCs. Percentage means the ratio of VOCs detected at the research site. At research target facility A, active monitoring demonstrated the presence of Methylene chloride (20.7%) and Carbon tetrachloride (15.3%), whereas passive monitoring identified Carbon tetrachloride (43.4%) and m,p-Xylene (20.8%). After converting these substances to their equivalent concentrations, we found a noteworthy correlation between the active and passive methodologies. At research target facility B, active monitoring detected n-Pentane (45.5%) and Isoprene (11.4%), while passive monitoring revealed Toluene (21.3%) and iso-Hexane (15.8%). Interestingly, even at sites like warehouses and test tracks where VOC concentrations were projected to be low, we observed VOC levels comparable to those in process areas. This underlines the fact that the dispersal of VOCs is considerably influenced by wind direction and speed. Specifically, in the tire manufacturing industry, emissions of Xylene and 3-Methylhexane, both having high photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP), contribute significantly to air pollution. However, the overall detection concentration in the tire manufacturing industry was detected at a low concentration of less than 2 μg/m3. This is less than 9 μg/m3, which is the standard for benzene, which has strong carcinogenicity regulations. This suggests that additional research is needed on synthetic rubber manufacturing rather than tire manufacturing.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020223
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 224: A Practical Approach for On-Road
           Measurements of Brake Wear Particles from a Light-Duty Vehicle

    • Authors: Jon Andersson, Louisa J. Kramer, Michael Campbell, Ian Marshall, John Norris, Jason Southgate, Simon de de Vries, Gary Waite
      First page: 224
      Abstract: Brake wear particles are generated through frictional contact between the brake disc or brake drum and the brake pads. Some of these particles may be released into the atmosphere, contributing to airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5). In this study, an onboard system was developed and tested to measure brake wear particles emitted under real-world driving conditions. Brake wear particles were extracted from a fixed volume enclosure surrounding the pad and disc installed on the front wheel of a light-duty vehicle. Real-time data on size distribution, number concentration, PM2.5 mass, and the contribution of semi-volatiles were obtained via a suite of instruments sub-sampling from the constant volume sampler (CVS) dilution tunnel. Repeat measurements of brake particles were obtained from a 42 min bespoke drive cycle on a chassis dynamometer, from on-road tests in an urban area, and from braking events on a test track. The results showed that particle emissions coincided with braking events, with mass emissions around 1 mg/km/brake during on-road driving. Particle number emissions of low volatility particles were between 2 and 5 × 109 particles/km/brake. The highest emissions were observed under more aggressive braking. The project successfully developed a proof-of-principle measurement system for brake wear emissions from transient vehicle operation. The system shows good repeatability for stable particle metrics, such as non-volatile particle number (PN) from the solid particle counting system (SPCS), and allows for progression to a second phase of work where emissions differences between commercially available brake system components will be assessed.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020224
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 225: Gridded Assessment of Mainland
           China’s Solar Energy Resources using the Typical Meteorological Year
           Method and China Meteorological Forcing Dataset

    • Authors: Zongpeng Song, Bo Wang, Hui Zheng, Shuanglong Jin, Xiaolin Liu, Shenbing Hua
      First page: 225
      Abstract: The National Standard of China has recommended the typical meteorological year (TMY) method for assessing solar energy resources. Compared with the widely adopted multi-year averaging (MYA) methods, the TMY method can consider the year-to-year variations of weather conditions and characterize solar radiation under climatological weather conditions. However, there are very few TMY-based solar energy assessments on the scale of China. On the national scale, the difference between the TMY and MYA methods, the requirement of the data record length, and the impacts of the selection of meteorological variables on the TMY-based assessment are still unclear. This study aims to fill these gaps by assessing mainland China’s solar energy resources using the TMY method and China Meteorological Forcing Dataset. The results show that the data record length could significantly influence annual total solar radiation estimation when the record length is shorter than 30 years. Whereas, the estimation becomes stable when the length is greater or equal to 30 years, suggesting a thirty-year data record is preferred. The difference between the MYA and TMY methods is exhibited primarily in places with modest or low abundance of solar radiation. The difference is nearly independent of the examined data record lengths, hinting at the role of regional-specific weather characteristics. The TMY and MYA methods differ more pronounced when assessing the seasonal stability grade. A total of 7.4% of the area of China experiences a downgrade from the TMY relative to the MYA methods, while a 3.15% area experiences an upgrade. The selection of the meteorological variables has a notable impact on the TMY-based assessment. Among the three meteorological variables examined, wind speed has the most considerable impact on both the annual total and seasonal stability, dew point has the second most significant impact, and air temperature has the least. The results are useful for guiding future research on solar energy assessment in China and could be helpful for solar energy development planning.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020225
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 226: Assessing the Effects of Urban Canopy on
           Extreme Rainfall over the Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa Using the WRF
           Model

    • Authors: Joan Birungi, Jinhua Yu, Abdoul Aziz Saidou Chaibou, Nyasulu Matthews, Emmanuel Yeboah
      First page: 226
      Abstract: The model simulation focuses on an extreme rainfall event that triggered a flood hazard in the Lake Victoria basin region of East Africa from June 24th to 26th, 2022. This study investigates the impacts of its urban canopy on the extreme rainfall events over the Lake Victoria basin in East Africa, employing the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at a convective-permitting resolution. The rapid urbanization of the region has given rise to an urban canopy, which has notable effects on local weather patterns, including the intensity and distribution of rainfall. The model incorporates high-resolution land use and urban canopy parameters to accurately capture the influences of urbanization on local weather patterns. This research comprises three sets of experiments, two with urban areas and one without, using the WRF model; the experiments focus on three days of an extreme rainfall event in the Lake Victoria basin. Satellite-based precipitation products and reanalysis datasets are employed for a synoptic analysis and model evaluation. The results demonstrate the model’s effectiveness in capturing meteorological variables during an extreme event compared to observed data. The synoptic patterns reveal that, during the extreme event, the Mascarene and St. Helena influenced rainfall conditions over the Lake Victoria Basin by directing moist air toward the northwest. This led to increased moisture convergence from the urban–rural interface toward urban areas, enhancing convection and processes that result in extreme rainfall. Moreover, this study indicates that the urban canopy, specifically the building effect parameterization, significantly amplifies the intensity and duration of rainfall in the urban areas of the region. This research also indicates a general increase in air temperature, relative humidity, latent heat flux, and surface sensible heat flux due to the urban canopy. These findings highlight the substantial influence of urbanization on rainfall patterns in the urban environment.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020226
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 227: A Novel Evaluation Approach for Emissions
           Mitigation Budgets and Planning towards 1.5 °C and Alternative
           Scenarios

    • Authors: Joseph Akpan, Oludolapo Olanrewaju
      First page: 227
      Abstract: Achieving ambitious climate targets, such as the 1.5 °C goal, demands significant financial commitment. While technical feasibility exists, the economic implications of delayed action and differing scenarios remain unclear. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the investment attractiveness and economic risks/benefits of different climate scenarios through a novel emissions cost budgeting model. A simplified model is developed using five global scenarios: announced policies (type 1 and 2), 2.0 °C, and 1.5 °C. A unit marginal abatement cost estimated the monetary value of avoided and unavoided emissions costs for each scenario. Net present value (NPV) and cost–benefit index (BI) were then calculated to compare the scenario attractiveness of the global emission budgets. The model was further applied to emissions budgets for China, the USA, India, and the European Union (EU). Increasing discount rates and gross domestic product (GDP) led to emission increases across all scenarios. The 1.5 °C scenario achieved the lowest emissions, while the baseline scenario showed the highest potential emissions growth (between 139.48% and 146.5%). Therefore, emphasis on the need for further financial commitment becomes important as the emissions’ abatement cost used as best case was estimated at USD 2.4 trillion per unit of 1 Gtons CO2 equivalent (eq.). Policy delays significantly impacted NPV and BI values, showcasing the time value of investment decisions. The model’s behavior aligns with real-world observations, including GDP growth influencing inflation and project costs. The simplified model could be coupled to existing integrated assessment frameworks or models (IAMs) as none offer cost–benefit analysis of climate scenarios to the best of our knowledge. Also, the model may be used to examine the economic attractiveness of carbon reduction programs in various nations, cities, and organizations. Thus, the model and analytical approach presented in this work indicate promising applications.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020227
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 228: Pacific Decadal Oscillation Modulation on
           the Relationship between Moderate El Niño-Southern Oscillation and
           East Asian Winter Temperature

    • Authors: Jingwen Ge, Xiaojing Jia, Hao Ma
      First page: 228
      Abstract: Based on observation data from 1958 to 2020, the current study explores the interdecadal modulation effects on moderate El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes and East Asian (EA) winter surface air temperature (SAT) through the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Strong and moderate ENSO episodes are classified by their amplitudes. The current work investigates the influence of moderate ENSO episodes on the EA winter SAT, especially moderate La Niña episodes, which show a close relationship with the EA winter SAT. To explore the PDO modulation effect on the influence of ENSO episodes, these ENSO episodes are further divided into two categories in terms of warm or cold PDO phases. The composite results show that in the warm phase of the PDO, the moderate La Niña signal is relatively strong and stable, with a profound impact on the EA winter SAT variability, whereas in the cold PDO phase, the relationship between the EA winter SAT and moderate La Niña episodes becomes ambiguous. Further studies show that the PDO modulates the moderate La Niña impacts on EA winter SAT primarily through varying the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). While moderate La Niña episodes take place in a warm PDO phase, positive and negative anomalies of sea level pressure (SLP) are observed in the Eurasian continent and mid–high-latitude North Pacific, respectively, favoring anomalous northerlies along the eastern coast of East Asia and therefore a colder-than-normal EA winter. In contrast, in a moderate La Niña winter during the cold PDO phase, the mid–high-latitude North Pacific is controlled by an anomalous high-pressure system with southerly anomalies along its western flank, and therefore, a weak warm pattern is observed for the EA winter SAT.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020228
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 229: CO2 Absorption by Solvents Consisting of
           TMG Protic Ionic Liquids and Ethylene Glycol: The Influence of Hydrogen
           Bonds

    • Authors: Lu, Zeng, Chen, Zhang, Yang
      First page: 229
      Abstract: Herein, the absorption of CO2 by the TMG-based (TMG: 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine) ionic liquids (ILs) and the absorbents formed by TMG ILs and ethylene glycol (EG) is studied. The TMG-based ILs used are formed by TMG and 4-fluorophenol (4-F-PhOH) or carvacrol (Car), and their viscosities are low at 25 °C. The CO2 uptake capacities of [TMGH][4-F-PhO] and [TMGH][Car] are low (~0.09 mol CO2/mol IL) at 25 °C and 1.0 atm. However, the mixtures [TMGH][4-F-PhO]-EG and [TMGH][Car]-EG show much higher capacities (~1.0 mol CO2/mol IL) than those of parent ILs, which is unexpected because of the low CO2 capacity of EG (0.01 mol CO2/mol EG) in the same conditions. NMR spectra and theoretical calculations are used to determine the reason for these unexpected absorption behaviors. The spectra and theoretical results show that the strong hydrogen bonds between the [TMGH]+ cation and the phenolate anions make the used TMG-based ILs unreactive to CO2, resulting in the low CO2 capacity. In the Ils-EG mixtures, the hydrogen bonds formed between EG and phenolate anions can weaken the [TMGH]+–anion hydrogen bond strength, so ILs-EG mixtures can react with CO2 and present high CO2 capacities.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020229
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 230: Objective Algorithm for Detection and
           Tracking of Extratropical Cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere

    • Authors: Carina K. Padilha Reinke, Jeferson P. Machado, Mauricio M. Mata, José Luiz L. de Azevedo, Jaci Maria Bilhalva Saraiva, Regina Rodrigues
      First page: 230
      Abstract: In this study, we propose an easy and robust algorithm to identify and track extratropical cyclone events using 850 hPa relative vorticity data, gaussian filter and connected-component labeling technique, which recognize the cyclone as areas under a threshold. Before selecting the events, the algorithm can include essential characteristics that are good metrics of intensity, like minimum mean sea level pressure and maximum 10-m winds. We implemented the algorithm in the Southern Hemisphere, using a 41-year high resolution dataset. Sensitivity tests were performed to determine the best parameters for detection and tracking, such as degree of smoothing, thresholds of relative vorticity at 850 hPa and the minimum area within the threshold. Two case studies were used to assess the positive and negative points of the methodology. The results showed that it is efficient in obtaining the position of extratropical cyclones in their most intense stage, but it does not always perform well during cyclolysis. We compare the methodology using 1-hour temporal resolution to that using a 6-hours temporal resolution, and their reproducibility regarding the literature. The extratropical cyclone climatology in the Southern Hemisphere is provided and discussed. The algorithm developed here can be applied to datasets with good spacial and temporal resolution, providing a better inventory of extratropical cyclones.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020230
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 231: Yearly Elevation Change and Surface
           Velocity Revealed from Two UAV Surveys at Baishui River Glacier No. 1,
           Yulong Snow Mountain

    • Authors: Leiyu Li, Yuande Yang, Shijin Wang, Chuya Wang, Qihua Wang, Yuqiao Chen, Junhao Wang, Songtao Ai, Yanjun Che
      First page: 231
      Abstract: Glaciers play an important role in understanding the climate, water resources, and surrounding natural change. Baishui River Glacier No. 1, a temperate glacier in the monsoon-influenced Southeastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, has experienced significant ablation due to regional warming during the past few decades. However, little is known about the yearly changes in Baishui River Glacier No. 1. To investigate how Baishui River Glacier No. 1 has changed in recent years, digital orthophoto maps and digital elevation models were obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle on 20 October 2018 and 22 July 2021, covering 84% and 47% of the total area, respectively. The results of the Baishui River Glacier No. 1 changes were obtained by differencing the digital elevation models, manual tracking, and terminus-retreat calculation methods. Our results showed that the surveyed area had a mean elevation change of −4.26 m during 2018 and 2021, and the lower area lost more ice than other areas. The terminus of Baishui River Glacier No. 1 has retreated by 16.35 m/a on average, exhibiting spatial variation with latitude. Moreover, we initially found that there was a high correlation between surface velocity and elevation gradient in this high-speed glacier. The surface velocity of Baishui River Glacier No. 1 was derived with the manual feature tracking method and ranged from 10.48 to 32.00 m/a, which is slightly smaller than the seasonal average. However, the snow coverage and ice melting of the two epochs led to the underestimation of our elevation change and velocity results, which need further investigation.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020231
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 232: Causes of Summer Ozone Pollution Events in
           Jinan, East China: Local Photochemical Formation or Regional Transport'

    • Authors: Baolin Wang, Yuchun Sun, Lei Sun, Zhenguo Liu, Chen Wang, Rui Zhang, Chuanyong Zhu, Na Yang, Guolan Fan, Xiaoyan Sun, Zhiyong Xia, Hongyu Xu, Guang Pan, Zhanchao Zhang, Guihuan Yan, Chongqing Xu
      First page: 232
      Abstract: Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs), conventional gases and meteorological parameters were performed at an urban site in Jinan, East China, in June 2021 to explore the formation and evolution mechanisms of summertime ozone (O3) pollution events. O3 Episode Ⅰ, O3 Episode II, and non-O3 episodes were identified based on the China Ambient Air Quality Standards and the differences in precursor concentrations. The O3 concentrations in Episode I and Episode II were 145.4 μg/m3 and 166.4 μg/m3, respectively, which were significantly higher than that in non-O3 episode (90 μg/m3). For O3 precursors, VOCs and NOx concentrations increased by 48% and 34% in Episode I, and decreased by 21% and 27% in Episode II compared to non-O3 episode days. The analysis of the m,p-xylene to ethylbenzene ratio (X/E) and OH exposure demonstrated that the aging of the air masses in Episode II was significantly higher than the other two episodes, and the differences could not be explained by localized photochemical consumption. Therefore, we speculate that the high O3 concentrations in Episode II were driven by the regional transport of O3 and its precursors. Backward trajectory simulations indicated that the air masses during Episode II were concentrated from the south. In contrast, the combination of high precursor concentrations and favorable meteorological conditions (high temperatures and low humidity) led to an excess of O3 in Episode I. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model results indicated that increased emissions from combustion and gasoline vehicle exhausts contributed to the elevated concentrations of VOCs in Episode I, and solvent usage may be an important contributor to O3 formation. The results of this study emphasize the importance of strengthening regional joint control of O3 and its precursors with neighboring cities, especially in the south, which is crucial for Jinan to mitigate O3 pollution.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020232
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 233: Sources, Occurrences, and Risks of
           Polycyclic Aromatic Hydro-Carbons (PAHs) in Bangladesh: A Review of
           Current Status

    • Authors: Mohammad Mazbah Uddin, Fuliu Xu
      First page: 233
      Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution has emerged as a significant environmental issue in Bangladesh in the recent years, driven by both economic and population growth. This review aims to investigate the current trends in PAHs pollution research, covering sediments, water, aquatic organisms, air particles, and associated health risks in Bangladesh. A comparative analysis with PAHs research in other countries is conducted, and potential future research directions are explored. This review suggests that the research on PAHs pollution in Bangladesh is less well studied and has fewer research publications compared to other countries. Dominant sources of PAHs in Bangladesh are fossil fuel combustion, petroleum hydrocarbons, urban discharges, industrial emissions, shipbreaking, and shipping activities. The concentrations of PAHs in sediments, water, air particles, and aquatic organisms in Bangladesh were found to be higher than those in most of the other countries around the world. Therefore, coastal sediments showed higher PAHs pollution than urban areas. Health risk assessments reveal both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks to residents in Bangladesh due to the consumption of aquatic organisms. According to this investigation, it can be concluded that there are considerably higher PAHs concentrations in different environmental compartments in Bangladesh, which have received less research attention compared with other countries of the world. Considering these circumstances, this review recommends that future PAHs pollution research directions should focus on aquatic ecosystems, shipbreaking areas, air particles, and direct exposure to human health risks. Therefore, this study recommends addressing the identification of PAH sources, bioaccumulation, biomagnification in the food web, and biomarker responses of benthic organisms in future PAHs pollution research.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020233
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 234: Topographic Elevation’s Impact on
           Local Climate and Extreme Rainfall: A Case Study of Zhengzhou, Henan

    • Authors: Zhi Jin, Jinhua Yu, Kan Dai
      First page: 234
      Abstract: The topography significantly influences local climate precipitation and the intensity of precipitation events, yet the specific differences in its elevational effects require further understanding. This study focuses on precipitation in Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, utilizing hourly data and a topographic elevation precipitation increment model to assess the impact of topography on local climate precipitation and extreme heavy rainfall events. The results indicate that the daily precipitation attributed to topographic elevation in Zhengzhou in July was 0.21 mm, accounting for 4.9% of the total precipitation. In the extreme heavy rainfall event on 20 July 2021 (“7.20” event), the precipitation due to topographic elevation reaches 48.7 mm, constituting 15.8% of the total precipitation. Additionally, numerical simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for the 20–21 July 2021 rainfall event in Zhengzhou show that the WRF model effectively reproduces the spatiotemporal characteristics of the precipitation process. The simulated topographic elevation precipitation intensity is 49.8 mm/day, accounting for 16.6% of daily precipitation, closely resembling observational data. Sensitivity experiments further reveal that reducing the heights of the Taihang Mountains and Funiu Mountains weakens the low-level easterly winds around Zhengzhou. Consequently, as the center of the heavy rainfall shifts northward or westward, the intensity of topographic elevation-induced precipitation decreases to 7.3 mm/day and 12.9 mm/day.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020234
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 235: A Convolutional Neural Network and
           Attention-Based Retrieval of Temperature Profile for a Satellite
           Hyperspectral Microwave Sensor

    • Authors: Xiangyang Tan, Kaixue Ma, Fangli Dou
      First page: 235
      Abstract: As numerical weather forecasting advances, there is a growing demand for higher-quality atmospheric data. Hyperspectral instruments can capture more atmospheric information and increase vertical resolution, but there has been limited research into retrieval algorithms for obtaining hyperspectral microwaves in the future. This study proposes an atmospheric temperature profile detection algorithm based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Local Attention Mechanisms for local feature extraction, applied to hyperspectral microwave sensors. The study utilizes the method of information entropy to extract more effective channels in the vicinities of 60 GHz, 118 GHz, and 425 GHz. The algorithm uses the brightness temperature as the input of the network. The algorithm addresses common issues encountered in conventional networks, such as overfitting, gradient explosion, and gradient vanishing. Additionally, this method isolates the three oxygen-sensitive frequency bands for modularized local feature extraction training, thereby avoiding abrupt changes in brightness temperature between adjacent frequency bands. More importantly, the algorithm considers the correlation between multiple channels and information redundancy, focusing on variations in local information. This enhances the effectiveness of hyperspectral microwave channel information extraction. We simulated the brightness temperatures of the selected channels through ARTS and divided them into training, validation, and test sets. The retrieval capability of the proposed method is validated on a test dataset, achieving a root mean square error of 1.46 K and a mean absolute error of 1.4 K for temperature profile. Detailed comparisons are also made between this method and other commonly used networks for atmospheric retrieval. The results demonstrate that the proposed method significantly improves the accuracy of temperature profile retrieval, particularly in capturing fine details, and is more adaptable to complex environments. The model also exhibits scalability, extending from one-dimensional (pressure level) to three-dimensional space. The error for each pressure level is controlled within 0.7 K and the average error is within 0.4 K, demonstrating effectiveness across different scales with impressive results. The computational efficiency and accuracy have both been improved when handling a large amount of radiation data.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020235
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 236: Hydrometeorological Insights into the
           Forecasting Performance of Multi-Source Weather over a Typical Hill-Karst
           Basin, Southwest China

    • Authors: Chongxun Mo, Xiaoyu Wan, Xingbi Lei, Xinru Chen, Rongyong Ma, Yi Huang, Guikai Sun
      First page: 236
      Abstract: Reliable precipitation forecasts are essential for weather-related disaster prevention and water resource management. Multi-source weather (MSWX), a recently released ensemble meteorological dataset, has provided new opportunities with open access, fine horizontal resolution (0.1°), and a lead time of up to seven months. However, few studies have comprehensively evaluated the performance of MSWX in terms of precipitation forecasting and hydrological modeling, particularly in hill-karst basins. The key concerns and challenges are how precipitation prediction performance relates to elevation and how to evaluate the hydrologic performance of MSWX in hill-karst regions with complex geographic heterogeneity. To address these concerns and challenges, this study presents a comprehensive evaluation of MSWX at the Chengbi River Basin (Southwest China) based on multiple statistical metrics, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), and a multi-site calibration strategy. The results show that all ensemble members of MSWX overestimated the number of precipitation events and tended to have lower accuracies at higher altitudes. Meanwhile, the error did not significantly increase with the increased lead time. The “00” member exhibited the best performance among the MSWX members. In addition, the multi-site calibration-enhanced SWAT had reliable performance (Average Nash–Sutcliffe value = 0.73) and hence can be used for hydrological evaluation of MSWX. Furthermore, MSWX achieved satisfactory performance (Nash–Sutcliffe value > 0) in 22% of runoff event predictions, but the error increased with longer lead times. This study gives some new hydrometeorological insights into the performance of MSWX, which can provide feedback on its development and applications.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020236
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 237: Characteristics and Source Apportionment
           of Volatile Organic Compounds in an Industrial Area at the
           Zhejiang–Shanghai Boundary, China

    • Authors: Xiang Cao, Jialin Yi, Yuewu Li, Mengfei Zhao, Yusen Duan, Fei Zhang, Lian Duan
      First page: 237
      Abstract: As “fuel” for atmospheric photochemical reactions, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a key role in the secondary generation of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5, an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm). To determine the characteristics of VOCs in a high-level ozone period, comprehensive monitoring of O3 and its precursors (VOCs and NOx) was continuously conducted in an industrial area in Shanghai from 18 August to 30 September 2021. During the observation period, the average concentration of VOCs was 47.33 ppb, and alkanes (19.64 ppb) accounted for the highest proportion of TVOCs, followed by oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) (13.61 ppb), alkenes (6.92 ppb), aromatics (4.65 ppb), halogenated hydrocarbons (1.60 ppb), and alkynes (0.91 ppb). Alkenes were the predominant components that contributed to the ozone formation potential (OFP), while aromatics such as xylene, toluene, and ethylbenzene contributed the most to the secondary organic aerosol production potential (SOAFP). During the study period, O3, NOx, and VOCs showed significant diurnal variations. Industrial processes were the main source of VOCs, and the second largest source of VOCs was vehicle exhaust. While the largest contribution to OFP was from vehicle exhaust, the second largest contribution was from liquid petroleum gas (LPG). High potential source contribution function (PSCF) values were observed in western and southeastern areas near the sampling sites. The results of a health risk evaluation showed that the Hazard Index was less than 1 and there was no non-carcinogenic risk, but 1,3-butadiene, benzene, chloroform, 1,2-dibromoethane, and carbon tetrachloride pose a potential carcinogenic risk to the population.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020237
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 238: High Gravity-Enhanced Direct Air Capture:
           A Leap Forward in CO2 Adsorption Technology

    • Authors: Shufei Wang, Youzhi Liu, Chengqian Zhang, Shuwei Guo, Yuliang Li
      First page: 238
      Abstract: Given the global pressure of climate change and ecological equilibrium, there is an urgent need to develop effective carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technology. Due to its comprehensiveness and flexibility, Direct Air Capture (DAC) technology has emerged as a vital supplement to traditional emission reduction methods. This study aims to innovate Direct Air Capture (DAC) technology by utilizing the ultrasonic impregnation method to load Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) onto alumina (Al2O3) as the adsorbent. Furthermore, high gravity adsorption technology is integrated to significantly enhance the efficiency of DAC. Characterization tests, including BET, FTIR, TG, XRD, and SEM-EDS, confirm the structural stability and high capture capacity of the adsorbent. Additionally, this study demonstrates the rapid and efficient capture of CO2 from the air using TEPA-Al2O3 adsorbent under high gravity conditions for the first time. Under optimal conditions with TEPA loading at 15.06%, a high gravity factor of 2.67, and a gas flow rate of 30 L/min, TEPA-Al2O3 achieves a CO2 adsorption capacity of 48.5 mg/g in RAB, which is an improvement of 15.56 mg/g compared to traditional fixed-bed technology. Moreover, it reaches adsorption saturation faster under high gravity conditions, exhibiting a significantly higher adsorption rate compared to traditional fixed-bed systems. Furthermore, the adsorption process better conforms to the Avrami model. Steam stripping regeneration is utilized to regenerate the adsorbent, demonstrating excellent regeneration performance and stable adsorption capacity, thereby proving its feasibility and economic benefits as a DAC technology.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020238
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 239: Multi-Scale Analysis of Grain Size in the
           Component Structures of Sediments Accumulated along the Desert-Loess
           Transition Zone of the Tengger Desert and Implications for Sources and
           Aeolian Dust Transportation

    • Authors: Xinran Yang, Jun Peng, Bing Liu, Yingna Liu
      First page: 239
      Abstract: Aeolian sediments accumulated along the desert-loess transition zone of the Tengger Desert include heterogeneous textures and complex component structures in their grain-size distributions (GSD). However, the sources of these aeolian sediments have not been resolved due to the lack of large reference GSD sample datasets from adjacent regions that contain various types of sediments; such datasets could be used for fingerprinting based on grain-size properties. This lack of knowledge hinders our understanding of the mechanism of aeolian dust releases in these regions and the effects of forcing of atmospheric circulations on the transportation and accumulation of sediments in this region. In this study, we employed a multi-scale grain-size analysis method, i.e., a combination of the single-sample unmixing (SSU) and the parametric end-member modelling (PEMM) techniques, to resolve the component structures of sediments that had accumulated along the desert-loess transition zone of the Tengger Desert. We have also analyzed the component structures of GSDs of various types of sediments, including mobile and fixed sand dunes, lake sediments, and loess sediments from surrounding regions. Our results demonstrate that the patterns observed in coarser fractions of sediments (i.e., sediments with a mode grain size of >100 μm) from the transition zone match well with the patterns of component structures of several types of sediments from the interior of the Tengger Desert, and the patterns seen in the finer fractions (i.e., fine, medium, and coarse silts with a modal size of <63 μm) were broadly consistent with those of loess sediments from the Qilian Mountains. The deflation/erosion of loess from the Qilian Mountains by wind was the most important mechanism underlying the production of these finer grain-size fractions. The East Asia winter monsoon (EAWM) played a key role in transportation of the aeolian dust from these source regions to the desert-loess transition zone of the desert.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020239
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 15, Pages 240: Study on the Vertical Distribution and
           Transport of Aerosols in the Joint Observation of Satellite and
           Ground-Based LiDAR

    • Authors: Hao Yang, Xiaomeng Zhu, Zhiyuan Fang, Duoyang Qiu, Yalin Hu, Chunyan Tian, Fei Ming
      First page: 240
      Abstract: The mechanism of aerosol pollution transport remains highly elusive owing to the myriad of influential factors. In this study, ground station data, satellite data, ground-based LiDAR remote sensing data, sounding data, ERA5 reanalysis and a backward trajectory model were combined to investigate the formation process and optical properties of winter aerosol pollution in Beijing and surrounding areas. The analysis of ground station data shows that compared to 2019 and 2021, the pandemic lockdown policy resulted in a decrease in the total number of pollution days and a decrease in the average concentration of particulate matter in the Beijing area in 2020. The terrain characteristics of the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) made it prone to northeast and southwest winds. The highest incidence of aerosol pollution in Beijing occurs in February and March during the spring and winter seasons. Analysis of a typical heavy aerosol pollution process in the Beijing area from 28 February to 5 March 2019 shows that dust and fine particulate matter contributed to the primary pollution; surface air temperature inversion and an average wind speed of less than 3 m/s were conducive to the continuous accumulation of pollutants, which was accompanied by the oxidation reaction of NO2 and O3, forming photochemical pollution. The heavy aerosol pollution was transmitted and diffused towards the southeast, gradually eliminating the pollution. Our results provide relevant research support for the prevention and control of aerosol pollution.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos15020240
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 100.26.196.222
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-
JournalTOCs
 
 

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Similar Journals
Similar Journals
HOME > Browse the 73 Subjects covered by JournalTOCs  
SubjectTotal Journals
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 100.26.196.222
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-