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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 151)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Climate Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Climate Change and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Oxford Open Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nīvār     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  

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Atmosphere
Number of Followers: 33  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2073-4433
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1468: High Resolution Future Projections of
           Drought Characteristics in Greece Based on SPI and SPEI Indices

    • Authors: Nadia Politi, Diamando Vlachogiannis, Athanasios Sfetsos, Panagiotis T. Nastos, Nicolas R. Dalezios
      First page: 1468
      Abstract: Future changes in drought characteristics in Greece were investigated using dynamically downscaled high-resolution simulations of 5 km. The Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations were driven by EC-EARTH output for historical and future periods, under Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and 8.5. For the drought analysis, the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) were calculated. This work contributed to achieve an improved characterization of the expected high-resolution changes of drought in Greece. Overall, the results indicate that Greece will face severe drought conditions in the upcoming years, particularly under RCP8.5, up to 8/5 y of severity change signal. The results of 6-month timescale indices suggest that more severe and prolonged drought events are expected with an increase of 4 months/5 y, particularly in areas of central and eastern part of the country in near future, and areas of the western parts in far future. The indices obtained in a 12-month timescale for the period 2075–2099 and under RCP8.5 have shown an increase in the mean duration of drought events along the entire country. Drought conditions will be more severe in lowland areas of agricultural interest (e.g., Thessaly and Crete).
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091468
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1469: Development of a ZTD Vertical Profile
           Model Considering the Spatiotemporal Variation of Height Scale Factor with
           Different Reanalysis Products in China

    • Authors: Xin Wang, Ge Zhu, Liangke Huang, Haoyu Wang, Yunzhen Yang, Junyu Li, Ling Huang, Lv Zhou, Lilong Liu
      First page: 1469
      Abstract: Tropospheric delay is one of the key factors that may affect high-precision satellite navigation and positioning and water vapor retrieval performance. Its variation in the vertical direction is much greater than that in the horizontal direction. Therefore, the vertical profile model of zenith total delay (ZTD) is important for the spatial interpolation of high-precision ZTD products and the development of ZTD models. However, in China, low spatial and temporal resolutions remain persistent in ZTD vertical profile models and limit their application. In this study, ZTD vertical profile grid models (CZTD-H model: CZTD-HM and CZTD-HE models) were developed by considering the time-varying height scale factor for China and employing ZTD layered profile information with high temporal-spatial resolution calculated using MERRA-2 data and ERA5 data based on the integration method during 2012–2016. The CZTD-H model accuracy was verified using the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) data acquired from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) and radiosonde data as reference and was compared with the canonical GPT3 model accuracy. The applicability of CZTD-HM and CZTD-HE models was discussed. The results showed that: (1) CZTD-HM and CZTD-HE models exhibited excellent performance for ZTD layered vertical interpolation in northwestern and southeastern China, respectively. Among ZTD layered profiles from 84 radiosonde stations, the RMSE of ZTD data interpolated using CZTD-HM and CZTD-HE models improved by 12.9/16.23% and 13.8/17.16% compared with GPT3-1 and GPT3-5 models, respectively. (2) The CZTD-H model maintained high performance for the spatial interpolation of GGOS grid ZTD data. Validation with ZTD data from 249 GNSS stations showed that the RMSEs of both CZTD-HM and CZTD-HE models improved by 2.8 mm (19.7%) and 2.6 mm (18.6%) compared with those of the GPT3-1 and GPT3-5 models, respectively. The CZTD-HE model showed excellent performance in summer among all the models. Only the location and day of the year were required for the application of the CZTD-H model, which showed excellent ZTD vertical correction performance in China. With the different performances of the CZTD-HE and CZTD-HM models in China, the ERA5 model can be recommended for practical applications. Therefore, these results can provide a reference for the data source selection of ZTD vertical profile model construction on the basis of high-precision reanalysis data, GNSS real-time high-precision positioning, and GNSS meteorology in China.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091469
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1470: Establishing an Air Quality Index Based
           on Proxy Data for Urban Planning Part 1: Methodological Developments and
           Preliminary Tests

    • Authors: Claudia Falzone, Anne-Claude Romain
      First page: 1470
      Abstract: In the last few decades, urban planning has expanded regarding environmental considerations. However, air quality, which is regarded as an important aspect of the green development of cities, is not considered in urban planning. This research aims to propose a tool to easily introduce air quality considerations into urban projects. Nowadays, the usual air pollutants (NOx, PM, SO2, and O3) are measured via sophisticated monitoring stations—or even low-cost devices—to give near-real-time air quality indices. However, stations are not adapted to local air pollution and real-time data are not helpful for planning purposes. An index able to rank areas and projects based on urban “air proxy data” would help decision makers. This paper presents how to create an air quality index as a decision support tool for urban planning. No pollutant measurement campaign will be necessary and only data that are easily accessible, even to nonexperts, are used. This paper describes the methodological development of an index that we call AQOI (Air Quality Observed Index), and the results obtained for four different locations (industrial, urban, and rural) considered as preliminary tests.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091470
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1471: A Multi Criteria Decision Analysis
           Approach for Regional Climate Model Selection and Future Climate
           Assessment in the Mono River Basin, Benin and Togo

    • Authors: Nina Rholan Hounguè, Adrian Delos Santos Almoradie, Mariele Evers
      First page: 1471
      Abstract: Regional climate models (RCMs) are key in the current context of global warming, and they are increasingly used to support decision-making and to identify adaptation measures in response to climate change. However, considering the wide range of available RCMs, it is important to identify the most suitable ones prior to climate impact studies, especially at small scales like catchments. In this study, a multicriteria decision analysis approach, namely the technique for order preferences by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) was applied to select the best performing RCMs in the Mono River Basin of Benin and Togo (West Africa). The TOPSIS method was used to systematically rank 15 RCMs accessed from the coordinated regional downscaling experiment (CORDEX) database. Six RCMs were finally selected and averaged into an ensemble to assess the future climate in the Mono River Basin until 2070 compared to the period 1966–2015. Two climate change scenarios, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, were considered. The results show that under both climate change scenarios, the annual temperature has an increasing trend during the period 1966–2070, whereas annual rainfall for the next 50 years presents high variability and no statistically significant trend. Furthermore, seasonal cycles of rainfall are expected to change in the different parts of the catchment with delayed onset of rainfall, longer dry seasons, and rainfall intensification. In response to the projected changes, impact studies and risk assessments need to be carried out to evaluate potential implications for human security in the Mono River Basin and to provide adequate adaptation measures.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091471
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1472: Comparison of Urban Canopy Schemes and
           Surface Layer Schemes in the Simulation of a Heatwave in the Xiongan New
           Area

    • Authors: Yiguo Xu, Wanquan Gao, Junhong Fan, Zengbao Zhao, Hui Zhang, Hongqing Ma, Zhichao Wang, Yan Li, Lei Yu
      First page: 1472
      Abstract: Due to rapid growth and expansion, Xiongan New Area is at risk for heatwaves in the present and future induced by the urban heat island effect. Based on eight combined schemes, including two common WRF surface layer schemes (MM5 and Eta) and urban canopy schemes (SLAB, UCM, BEP and BEP + BEM), simulation performance for 2-m temperature, 2-m relative humidity and 10-m wind during a heatwave in July 2019 was compared and analyzed. The simulation performance is ranked from best to worst: 2-m temperature, 2-m relative humidity, 10-m wind direction and 10-m wind speed. MM5 simulate 2-m temperature and 10-m wind speed better than Eta, but 2-m relative humidity worse. MM5 coupling BEP + BEM provides the highest simulation performance for 2-m air temperature, 10-m wind direction and 10-m wind speed but the worst for 2-m relative humidity. MM5 and Eta produce nearly opposite results for wind direction and wind speed. Due to the Anxin station close to Baiyang Lake, lake-land breeze affects the simulation findings, worsening the correlation between simulated 10-m wind and observation.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091472
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1473: Spatio-Temporal Changes in Air Quality of
           the Urban Area of Chongqing from 2015 to 2021 Based on a
           Missing-Data-Filled Dataset

    • Authors: Huayu Zhang, Yong Nie, Qian Deng, Yaqin Liu, Qiyuan Lyu, Bo Zhang
      First page: 1473
      Abstract: Air pollution is one of the severe environmental issues in Chongqing. Many measures made by the government for improving air quality have been put into use these past few years, while the influence of these measures remains unknown. This study analyzed the changes in the air quality of the urban area of Chongqing between 2015 and 2021 using a complete in situ observation dataset that all missing data were filled by the interpolation of a low-rank tensor completion model with truncate nuclear norm minimization (LRTC-TNN). The results include: (1) the LRTC-TNN model robustly performs to reconstruct missing data of pollutant concentrations with an R2 of 0.93 and an RMSE of 7.78; (2) the air quality index (AQI) decreases by 15.96%, and the total polluted days decrease by 21.05% from 2015 to 2021, showing an obvious promotion in air quality; and (3) the changing air quality is attributed to decreasing concentrations of PM2.5 (34.10%), PM10 (25.03%), and NO2 (5.53%) from 2015 to 2021, whereas an increasing concentration of O3 (10.49%) is observed. The processing method for missing data, intact AQI datasets, and analysis of changes are beneficial to policy-making for environmental improvement and fill the gap in the field of data interpolation for air quality datasets in mountainous areas.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091473
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1474: Cross-Inventory Uncertainty Analysis of
           Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions for Prefecture-Level Cities in Shandong Province
           

    • Authors: Mengchu Tao, Zhaonan Cai, Ke Che, Yi Liu, Dongxu Yang, Lin Wu, Pucai Wang, Mingzhu Yang
      First page: 1474
      Abstract: A series of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission inventories with high spatial resolutions covering China have been developed in the last decade, making it possible to assess not only the anthropogenic emissions of large administrational units (countries; provinces) but also those of small administrational units (cities; counties). In this study, we investigate three open-source gridded CO2 emission inventories (EDGAR; MEIC; PKU-CO2) and two statistical data-based inventories (CHRED; CEADs) covering the period of 2000–2020 for 16 prefecture-level cities in Shandong province in order to quantify the cross-inventory uncertainty and to discuss potential reasons for it. Despite ±20% differences in aggregated provincial emissions, all inventories agree that the emissions from Shandong increased by ~10% per year before 2012 and that the increasing trend slowed down after 2012, with a quasi-stationary industrial emission proportion being observed during 2008–2014. The cross-inventory discrepancies increased remarkably when downscaled to the city level. The relative differences between two individual inventories for half of the cities exceeded 100%. Despite close estimations of aggregated provincial emissions, the MEIC provides relatively high estimates for cities with complex and dynamic industrial systems, while the CHRED tends to provide high estimates for heavily industrial cities. The CHRED and MEIC show reasonable agreement regarding the evolution of city-level emissions and the city-level industrial emission ratios over 2005–2020. The PKU-CO2 and EDGAR failed to capture the emissions and their structural changes at the city level, which is related to their point-source database stopping updates after 2012. Our results suggest that cross-inventory differences for city-level emissions exist not only in their aggregated emissions but also in their changes over time.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091474
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1475: Anthropogenic Influence on the Antarctic
           Mesospheric Cooling Observed during the Southern Hemisphere Minor Sudden
           Stratospheric Warming

    • Authors: Sunkara Eswaraiah, Kyong-Hwan Seo, Kondapalli Niranjan Kumar, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, Andrey V. Koval, Jin-Yun Jeong, Chalachew Kindie Mengist, Young-Sook Lee, Katelynn Greer, Jun-Young Hwang, Wonseok Lee, Maniyattu Pramitha, Gasthi Venkata Chalapathi, Mannem Venkatarami Reddy, Yong Ha Kim
      First page: 1475
      Abstract: Processes behind Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW), which occurs more frequently in the northern hemispheric polar latitudes and its influence from the stratosphere to the upper atmosphere are well documented. However, physical processes associated with SSW, although it ensues rarely in the southern hemisphere (SH), have a strong influence on the background atmosphere from the stratosphere to the mesosphere and are poorly understood. Using a ground-based meteor radar, satellite-borne Microwave-Limb sounder, and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications observations, we identified cooling of Antarctic mesopause by 26 K in response to a 66 K warming in the polar stratosphere during the 2019 minor SSW in the SH. The observed cooling is attributed to the interplay between planetary waves, CO2 infrared cooling, and O3 depletion, rather than adiabatic cooling due to gravity waves alone during SSW. It is proposed that anthropogenic and other sources generating chemical tracers in the lower atmosphere have caused mesospheric cooling and could be transported from the lower atmosphere both vertically and meridionally through residual mean meridional circulation from the tropics. Therefore, our study for the first time demonstrates the effect of lower atmosphere chemistry on the polar mesosphere thermal structure during the 2019 SSW.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-11
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091475
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1476: Temporal and Spatial Modal Analysis and
           Prediction of Tropospheric CO Concentration over the World and East Asia

    • Authors: Yourui Huang, Le Sun, Yuanyuan Wei, Chaoli Tang
      First page: 1476
      Abstract: Spatiotemporal modal analysis and prediction of tropospheric atmospheric CO concentration in the world and East Asia from 2002 to 2021 using the inversion data of airs sounder. The results show that: The CO concentration in the northern hemisphere is higher than that in the southern hemisphere; from the upper troposphere to the lower troposphere, the CO concentration changes from “∧“ to “√”; the fluctuation range of near surface CO concentration in the northern hemisphere is relatively intense, and the fluctuation range in the southern hemisphere is relatively small. Using MK, Sen slope estimation, and EOF analysis, it is found that CO concentration in the convective middle layer tends to decline in more than 90% of the global area, and the decline rate in the northern hemisphere is significantly higher than that in the southern hemisphere. In East Asia, the CO concentration in the lower tropospheric marine area is significantly lower than that in the land area. The average concentration and decline rate of CO in East Asia is always higher than that in the world; the CO concentration in East Asia is the highest in spring and winter in the lower troposphere; and the CO concentration in East Asia is lower in the northeast and higher in the southeast in the upper troposphere in spring, autumn, and winter, and higher in the northeast and Central Plains in summer. Compared with the three-exponential smoothing model, the prediction error of the VMD-LSTM hybrid model for atmospheric CO concentration is significantly reduced, which indicates that the improved neural network prediction model has higher prediction accuracy. The factors affecting the change of tropospheric CO concentration are not only affected by the ground factors, but also related to indirect factors such as water vapor, methane, and atmospheric temperature in the atmosphere.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091476
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1477: Comparative Analysis of the Observation
           Bias and Error Characteristics of AGRI and AHI Data for Land Areas in East
           Asia

    • Authors: Shuqing Wang, Zhengkun Qin, Fei Tang
      First page: 1477
      Abstract: Observation bias and error characteristics are the preconditions for the effective assimilation of observation data. In this paper, the bias and error characteristics of the AHI (Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) and AGRI (Multi-Channel Advanced Geostationary Orbit Radiation Imager (AGRI) data are compared and analyzed, with an emphasis on the observations obtained from land areas. The results show that the observation errors of the two instruments for the ocean area have a good channel consistency over ocean areas, which are all with errors of about 0.6 K; however, the bias and error are significantly affected by the land-surface types and terrain heights over land. For most of the AHI channels, the bias in urban-area bias is smaller than that of those of other surface types, while that of the AGRI data exhibits just the opposite trend, with obviously larger biases in urban areas. However, the observation errors of these two instruments in urban areas are significantly smaller than those of other surface types. The biases of the two instruments do not extensively change much with the terrain height, only slightly decreasing when the height is above 1000 m; however, the observation errors increase obviously with the increase of terrain heights. The difference between the two instruments is that the observation error of the AHI data tends to be stable and stabilizes above 1000 m, while that of the AGRI data is relatively stable below 500 m. The observation errors of the CO2-sensitive channels of the two instruments over the land areas are obviously smaller than those of other near-surface channels, which may indicate that the data obtained in these two CO2 channels have good application prospects for assimilation over land.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091477
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1478: Evaluation of Present-Day CMIP6 Model
           Simulations of Extreme Precipitation and Temperature over the Australian
           Continent

    • Authors: Nidhi Nishant, Giovanni Di Virgilio, Fei Ji, Eugene Tam, Kathleen Beyer, Matthew L. Riley
      First page: 1478
      Abstract: Australia experiences a variety of climate extremes that result in loss of life and economic and environmental damage. This paper provides a first evaluation of the performance of state-of-the-art Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) global climate models (GCMs) in simulating climate extremes over Australia. Here, we evaluate how well 37 individual CMIP6 GCMs simulate the spatiotemporal patterns of 12 climate extremes over Australia by comparing the GCMs against gridded observations (Australian Gridded Climate Dataset). This evaluation is crucial for informing, interpreting, and constructing multimodel ensemble future projections of climate extremes over Australia, climate-resilience planning, and GCM selection while conducting exercises like dynamical downscaling via GCMs. We find that temperature extremes (maximum-maximum temperature -TXx, number of summer days -SU, and number of days when maximum temperature is greater than 35 °C -Txge35) are reasonably well-simulated in comparison to precipitation extremes. However, GCMs tend to overestimate (underestimate) minimum (maximum) temperature extremes. GCMs also typically struggle to capture both extremely dry (consecutive dry days -CDD) and wet (99th percentile of precipitation -R99p) precipitation extremes, thus highlighting the underlying uncertainty of GCMs in capturing regional drought and flood conditions. Typically for both precipitation and temperature extremes, UKESM1-0-LL, FGOALS-g3, and GCMs from Met office Hadley Centre (HadGEM3-GC31-MM and HadGEM3-GC31-LL) and NOAA (GFDL-ESM4 and GFDL-CM4) consistently tend to show good performance. Our results also show that GCMs from the same modelling group and GCMs sharing key modelling components tend to have similar biases and thus are not highly independent.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091478
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1479: Two Decades of Satellite Observations of
           Carbon Monoxide Confirm the Increase in Northern Hemispheric Wildfires

    • Authors: Leonid Yurganov, Vadim Rakitin
      First page: 1479
      Abstract: Biomass burning is an important and changing component of global and hemispheric carbon cycles. Boreal forest fires in Russia and Canada are significant sources of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). The influence of carbon monoxide (CO) on the greenhouse effect is practically absent; its main absorption bands of 4.6 and 2.3 μm are far away from the climatically important spectral regions. Meanwhile, CO concentrations in fire plumes are closely related to CO2 and CH4 emissions from fires. On the other hand, satellite measurements of CO are much simpler than those of the aforementioned gases. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) operating in the Thermal IR spectral region has provided a satellite-based CO data set since October 2002. This satellite data allow to estimate CO emissions from biomass burning north of 30° N using a simple two-box mass-balance model. These results correlate closely with independently estimated CO emissions from the GFED4c bottom-up database. In 2021, both estimate record high emissions throughout the preceding two decades, double the annual emissions compared to previous periods. There have been two years with extremely high emissions (2003 and 2021) but for the rest of the data, an upward trend with a rate of 3.6 ± 2.2 Tg CO yr−2 (4.8 ± 2.7% yr−1) was found. A similar rate of CO emissions can be seen in the GFED4c data.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091479
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1480: Kinetic Studies on the Steam Gasification
           of Chars Derived from Coals by Different Isoconversional Methods

    • Authors: Mei An, Qingjie Guo
      First page: 1480
      Abstract: Previous studies have successfully assessed the extent to which a kinetic model accurately represents a specific reaction mechanism by comparing the kinetic parameters derived from the kinetic model to those obtained using isoconversional methods. However, this approach remains underdeveloped for the important steam gasification reaction of char. This study addresses this issue by conducting a series of steam-assisted char gasification tests, using thermogravimetric analysis at five different heating rates. The results indicate that the carbon conversion ratio of the char gasification reaction increases with the increasing heating rate. The activation energies of the reaction process are determined with different carbon conversion ratios using three isoconversional methods, including the Flynn–Wall–Ozawa, Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose, and Starink methods. The gasification mechanism is also analyzed using model-fitting methods with a wide variety of carbon conversion models, and the accuracies of the models are evaluated, firstly, by comparing the obtained goodness of fit values of the models with the experimental results, and, secondly, by comparing the obtained activation energies with those derived using the isoconversional methods. The goodness of fit results and the results of the comparisons between the activation energies obtained using the various models with the isoconversional values demonstrate that the three-dimensional Avrami–Erofeev model best represents the steam gasification char reaction, where the difference between the two activation energy values is only 0.70 KJ.mol−1. The reliability of the proposed approach for evaluating the applicability of a given kinetic model to the steam gasification reaction of char is tested by comparing the results obtained for char samples derived from three different bituminous coal sources.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091480
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1481: Properties and Atmospheric Oxidation of
           Norpinic Acid Aerosol

    • Authors: Evangelia Kostenidou, Spiro Jorga, John K. Kodros, Kalliopi Florou, Agata Kołodziejczyk, Rafal Szmigielski, Spyros N. Pandis
      First page: 1481
      Abstract: Norpinic acid is a major semi-volatile oxidation product of α-pinene and β-pinene, two of the most important biogenic atmospheric volatile organic compounds. In this study we characterized the physicochemical properties of norpinic acid aerosol using a variety of techniques, and we investigated its reaction with OH radicals. The Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) spectrum of norpinic acid was characterized by a pronounced peak at m/z 82 (C5H6O+), which can be used as its chemical signature. The measured density of norpinic acid particles was 1.3 g cm−3. Its saturation concentration at 298 K was estimated to be equal to 8.9 μg m−3 using thermodenuder measurements and 12.8 μg m−3 using isothermal dilution. Its vaporization enthalpy was equal to 71 kJ mol−1. After reaction with OH radicals for an equivalent atmospheric period of 0.6–5 days under UV radiation and low RH, there were no noticeable changes in the AMS spectrum of the particles, while the wall-loss corrected mass concentration slightly decreased. This suggests that the atmospheric aging products of norpinic acid particles are quite similar to the parent molecule when measured by the AMS, and the aging reactions lead to a small change in particle mass concentration.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091481
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1482: North–South IMF Disturbance
           Detection via an Adaptive Filter Approach

    • Authors: Erik Schmölter, Jens Berdermann
      First page: 1482
      Abstract: Geomagnetic storm-detection algorithms are important for space-weather-warning services to provide reliable warnings (e.g., ionospheric disturbances). For that reason, a new approach using an adaptive filter (least mean squares algorithm) for the detection of geomagnetic storms based on the volatility of the north–south interplanetary magnetic field Bz is presented. The adaptive filter is not dependent on solar wind plasma measurements, which are more frequently affected by data gaps than Bz, and is less dependent on the magnitude of Bz disturbances compared with other detection algorithms (e.g., static thresholds). The configuration of the filter is discussed in detail with three geomagnetic storm events, and required optimization as well as possible extensions are discussed. However, the proposed configuration performs satisfactorily without further improvements, and good correlations are observed with geomagnetic indices. Long-term changes are also reflected by the filter (solar cycles 23 and 24), and thus the performance is not affected by different solar wind conditions during the solar minimum and maximum. Conclusively, the proposed filter provides a good solution when more complex approaches (e.g., solar-wind–magnetosphere coupling functions) that rely on solar wind plasma measurements are not available.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091482
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1483: Variation Characteristics and Source
           Analysis of Cloud Condensation Nuclei at the Ridge of Liupan Mountain
           Located in Western China

    • Authors: Tong Lin, Zhiliang Shu, Hao Wu, Tao Tao, Ning Cao, Haoran Zhu, Chenxi Liu, Jianhua Mu, Lei Tian
      First page: 1483
      Abstract: Two years of data on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measured at the Liupan Mountain (LPS) Meteorological Station from August 2020 to November 2021 were analyzed in this study. The results show that the mean annual CCN concentration was 851 cm−3 and that the mean concentration of CCN increases with the supersaturation degree. The curves of the diurnal variation in CCN concentration show one peak and one valley, which correspond to the diurnal variation in the mixed-layer height and valley wind. Regarding seasonal variations, the CCN concentration, as well as the degree of internal mixing, is higher in the spring and winter, while the degree of external mixing is higher in the summer and autumn. The transport of CCN is closely related to the wind transport evolution, and the southeast and southwest sides of the LPS station contribute more to the CCN concentration in the spring and winter due to central heating in the wintertime. Though correlations between CCN concentration and pressure are scarce, the CCN concentration and temperature (or humidity) are positively (or negatively) correlated, especially in the spring. Furthermore, the 48-h backward trajectory analysis indicates that the sources in the northwest direction are a major contributor to the CCN concentration. The pollutants mainly came from the northwest and southwest sides, according to the analysis of potential sources using the PSCF and CWT approach. The study of CCN evolution and contribution area is beneficial for further research on the physical properties of cloud droplets, the influence of mountains on CCN changes and the role of CCN in terrain cloud precipitation, which are significant for the improvement of weather modification techniques.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091483
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1484: Analysis and Mapping of Sea Breeze Event
           Time in Coastal Cities: A Case Study of Sendai

    • Authors: Shiyi Peng, Hironori Watanabe
      First page: 1484
      Abstract: Due to global warming and urbanization, high-temperature events—which frequently occur in cities—are presenting an increasing threat to the daily lives of human beings. In coastal cities, sea breezes can cool the near surface and improve the urban environment to some extent. Understanding the cooling characteristics of sea breeze on the urban environment is informative for improving and mitigating the urban heat island (UHI) effect. In this paper, we analyze the basic characteristics of the timing of the cooling effect of sea breeze in urban summer based on the long-term multi-point measurements of air temperatures. Additionally, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to show the influence of sea breeze on cities in terms of the cooling action time. The whole process is reproduced based on a time distribution map created using the results of the WRF simulation. The measured temperature and WRF simulation results are also evaluated with observations. The results show little difference between the two. The analysis of the distribution map shows that the sea breeze gradually penetrates inland from coastal areas. It can therefore be concluded that the sea breeze blows at different speeds in different areas. Our results show that the sea breeze is weak in places near the coast, while it is significantly stronger around inland rivers. Moreover, in urban areas that are far from inland rivers, the speed of the sea breeze is evenly distributed in space. The spatial pattern of sea breeze retreat time and arrival time is reversed: retreats happen earlier in inland areas. The duration of the sea breeze shows a significantly decreasing trend from the coast to inland, with the longest duration at the southern end of the urban area near the coast.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091484
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1485: 24 h Evolution of an Exceptional HONO
           Plume Emitted by the Record-Breaking 2019/2020 Australian Wildfire Tracked
           from Space

    • Authors: Gaëlle Dufour, Maxim Eremenko, Guillaume Siour, Pasquale Sellitto, Juan Cuesta, Agnès Perrin, Matthias Beekmann
      First page: 1485
      Abstract: Megafires occurred in Australia during the 2019/2020 bushfire season, leading to enhanced concentrations of many tropospheric pollutants. Here, we report on a fire plume with unusually high and persistent nitrous acid (HONO) levels that we could track during one day at free tropospheric levels over the Tasman Sea on 4 January 2020 using IASI and CrIS satellite observations. HONO concentrations up to about 25 ppb were retrieved during nighttime. Persistent HONO concentrations (>10 ppb) were still observed at sunrise, likely due to large aerosol concentrations within the plume, preventing HONO photodissociation. In addition, comparison with carbon monoxide (CO) measurements suggest a secondary production during the plume transport. Model simulations confirm that the plume is transported in the lower free troposphere with concentrations as high as 30 ppb at about 4 km. However, many uncertainties and unknowns remain in the plume aerosol load and in the chemical processes which may explain the model inability to reproduce elevated HONO concentrations at sunrise.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091485
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1486: Lag Effect of Temperature and Humidity on
           COVID-19 Cases in 11 Chinese Cities

    • Authors: Fengliu Feng, Yuxia Ma, Bowen Cheng, Yifan Zhang, Heping Li, Pengpeng Qin
      First page: 1486
      Abstract: The global transmission of COVID-19 has caused considerable health burdens, and epidemiological studies have proven that temperature and humidity play an important role in the transmission of infectious respiratory diseases. This effect may not be immediate and can be delayed by days to weeks. In this study, the comprehensive effect of temperature and humidity on COVID-19 was evaluated using the discomfort index (DI). We analyzed the lag effect of the DI on COVID-19 from 21 January to 29 February 2020 in 11 Chinese cities by designing a generalized additive model (GAM). We classified the 11 Chinese cities into southern cities and northern cities to compare the potential effects in these two types of cities. The results reveal that the DI had the same negative correlation and different lag effects on daily COVID-19 cases. There was a significant negative correlation between the DI and daily COVID-19 cases (p < 0.05), except in Wuhan. The lag effect was stronger in the cities located further north. In northern cities, each unit decrease in the DI increased the COVID-19 risk from 7 to 13 lag days. In southern China, each unit decrease in the DI increased the COVID-19 risk from 0 to 7 lag days, especially in Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091486
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1487: How Should a Numerical Weather Prediction
           Be Used: Full Field or Anomaly' A Conceptual Demonstration with a
           Lorenz Model

    • Authors: Jun Du, Guo Deng
      First page: 1487
      Abstract: A forecast from a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model can be decomposed into model climate and anomaly. Each part contributes to forecast error. To avoid errors from model climate, an anomaly, rather than a full field, should be used in a model. Model climate is replaced by the observed climate to reconstruct a new forecast for application. Using a Lorenz model, which has similar error characteristics to an NWP model, the following results were obtained. (a) The new anomaly-based method can significantly and steadily increase forecast accuracy throughout the entire forecast period (28 model days). On average, the total forecast error was reduced ~25%, and the correlation was increased by ~100–200%. The correlation improvement increases with the increasing of forecast length. (b) The method has different impacts on different types of error. Bias error was almost eliminated (over 90% in reduction). However, the change in flow-dependent error was mixed: a slight reduction (~5%) for model day 1–14 forecasts and increase (~15%) for model day 15–28 forecasts on average. The larger anomaly forecast error leads to the worsening of flow-dependent error. (c) Bias error stems mainly from model climate prediction, while flow-dependent error is largely associated with anomaly forecast. The method works more effectively for a forecast that has larger bias and smaller flow-dependent error. (d) A more accurate anomaly forecast needs to be constructed relative to model climate rather than observed climate by taking advantage of cancelling model systematic error (i.e., perfect-model assumption). In principle, this approach can be applicable to any model-based prediction.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091487
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1488: Convolutional Neural Networks for
           Automated ULF Wave Classification in Swarm Time Series

    • Authors: Alexandra Antonopoulou, Georgios Balasis, Constantinos Papadimitriou, Adamantia Zoe Boutsi, Athanasios Rontogiannis, Konstantinos Koutroumbas, Ioannis A. Daglis, Omiros Giannakis
      First page: 1488
      Abstract: Ultra-low frequency (ULF) magnetospheric plasma waves play a key role in the dynamics of the Earth’s magnetosphere and, therefore, their importance in Space Weather phenomena is indisputable. Magnetic field measurements from recent multi-satellite missions (e.g., Cluster, THEMIS, Van Allen Probes and Swarm) are currently advancing our knowledge on the physics of ULF waves. In particular, Swarm satellites, one of the most successful missions for the study of the near-Earth electromagnetic environment, have contributed to the expansion of data availability in the topside ionosphere, stimulating much recent progress in this area. Coupled with the new successful developments in artificial intelligence (AI), we are now able to use more robust approaches devoted to automated ULF wave event identification and classification. The goal of this effort is to use a popular machine learning method, widely used in Earth Observation domain for classification of satellite images, to solve a Space Physics classification problem, namely to identify ULF wave events using magnetic field data from Swarm. We construct a Convolutional Neural Network (ConvNet) that takes as input the wavelet spectrum of the Earth’s magnetic field variations per track, as measured by Swarm, and whose building blocks consist of two alternating convolution and pooling layers, and one fully connected layer, aiming to classify ULF wave events within four different possible signal categories: (1) Pc3 wave events (i.e., frequency range 20–100 MHz), (2) background noise, (3) false positives, and (4) plasma instabilities. Our preliminary experiments show promising results, yielding successful identification of more than 97% accuracy. The same methodology can be easily applied to magnetometer data from other satellite missions and ground-based arrays.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091488
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1489: Characteristics of Photochemical
           Reactions with VOCs Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques on Data from
           Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations

    • Authors: Wu, Kuo
      First page: 1489
      Abstract: This study assesses the concentrations of the 54 ozone precursors (all being volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) detected at the four photochemical assessment monitoring stations that are part of the air quality monitoring network in the Kaohsiung-Pingtung area in Taiwan. Factor and cluster analyses of the multivariate statistical analysis are performed to explore the interrelationship among the 10 VOCs of relatively higher concentrations selected from the 54 ozone precursors to identify significant factors affecting ozone pollution levels in the study area. Moreover, the multivariate statistical analysis can faithfully reflect why the study area has been affected by photochemical pollution. First, results of the factor analysis suggest that the factors affecting how photochemical reactions occur in the study area can be divided into the following: “pollution from mobile sources”, “pollution from stationary sources”, and “pollution from energy sources”. Among them, mobile sources have the greatest impact on photochemical pollution levels. Second, the impacts of photochemical pollution on air quality in the study area can be classified into four clusters via cluster analysis. Each cluster represents how the 10 VOCs affect air quality, with different characteristics, and how they contribute to photochemical pollution in the study area. If there are more types and samples of photochemical pollutants when performing a multivariate statistical analysis, the analysis results will be more stable. This study adopts data on VOC monitoring over a period of nearly two years, which can effectively improve the validity and reliability of the factor analysis results, while helping environmental agencies review the effectiveness of air quality management in the future and serving as reference for the effectiveness of reducing photochemical pollution in the atmosphere.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091489
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1490: The Effects of Lake Level and Area
           Changes of Poyang Lake on the Local Weather

    • Authors: Yulu Zan, Yanhong Gao, Yingsha Jiang, Yongjie Pan, Xia Li, Peixi Su
      First page: 1490
      Abstract: Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake in China and is characterized by significant intra-annual variation, with higher water levels and area in the wet season compared to the dry season. However, the effects of the seasonal variation in Poyang Lake on the local weather are still not well-recognized. With the help of the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model, we designed one control experiment (CTL) using the default Poyang Lake level and area data and two sensitivity experiments, EXPT1 and EXPT2, the former representing the higher lake level and the greater area of Poyang Lake in the wet season and the latter representing the lower lake level and the smaller area of Poyang Lake in the dry season, to assess how these changes affect the local weather. The results of EXPT1 show that, as the lake’s level and area increase, the latent heat flux (LH), the sensible heat flux (SH), and the land surface temperature (LST) in the lake area decrease compared to those of the CTL. Meanwhile, the planetary boundary layer height (PBL), the convective available potential energy (CAPE), the wind speed, and the vapor flux over the lake decrease as well, indicating increased atmospheric stratification stability and resulting in a domain-averaged decline in precipitation of −22.3 mm. However, the low lake level and less area in EXPT2 show increasing SH, LST, PBL, and wind speed, and decreasing LH and CAPE compared to those of the CTL. The increasing SH and weakened atmospheric stratification stability in EXPT2 cause a significantly higher wind speed over the eastern part of the lake. As a result, more water vapor is transported to the east side of the lake by westerly upper winds, leading to a decreasing precipitation on the western side of the lake and a slightly increasing precipitation on the eastern side, resulting ultimately in a domain-averaged decline in precipitation of −23.8 mm in the simulation of the low level and less area of Poyang Lake. Although the LH and CAPE decline both in EXPT1 and EXPT2, the main cause is the higher water thermal capacity and lower lake-surface temperature with more lake water for EXPT1 and the lower evaporation with less lake water for EXPT2. Overall, a deeper and larger Poyang Lake will reduce the local temperature, inhibit water evaporation from the lake surface, and make the near-surface atmosphere more stable, resulting in restrained local precipitation. A shrinking lake level and area will raise the local temperature and the instability of the near-surface atmosphere but reduce water vapor and enlarge local wind and circulation, resulting in declining precipitation and a changing fall zone.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091490
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1491: Retrieval of Road Surface (Bridge Deck)
           Temperature near 0 °C Based on Random Forest Model

    • Authors: Chuanhui Wang, Beixi Jia, Jianping Zhou, Lei Feng, Jian Chen
      First page: 1491
      Abstract: Based on the road surface (bridge deck) temperature, relative humidity, air temperature, wind speed and precipitation observed at two road surface meteorological stations and two bridge deck meteorological stations, as well as subsurface temperature at different depths observed at Hefei meteorological station, the independent variables are selected to establish the relationship between these factors and road surface temperature, using random forest and stepwise regression. The performance of these two methods was compared, and the importance of each factor was analyzed. Results show that the road surface (bridge deck) temperature linearly correlates with air temperature. In the case of low air temperature conditions (air temperature ≤ 8 °C), the road surface temperature is mainly higher than air temperature observed at the same station, and the bridge deck temperature is mainly lower than air temperature. In the retrieving of road surface temperature and bridge deck temperature, the random forest algorithm has lower mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) than the stepwise regression algorithm, especially in the retrieving of road surface temperature. MAE of road surface temperature retrieved by random forest on two bridge deck stations is reduced by 0.19 °C and 0.26 °C compared with the stepwise regression, and RMSE is reduced by 0.33 °C and 0.49 °C, respectively. The bias in the retrievals can be originated from the model itself and the error in the observations. Among the factors in the random forest model, air temperature is the most important. Meanwhile, there are differences in the importance of each factor in the retrieval of road surface temperature and bridge deck temperature. The subsurface temperature is more important in retrieving road surface temperature, while humidity and wind speed are generally more important to bridge deck temperature. It should be noted that due to the limitation of the observations, this study did not consider the net radiative flux, and the influence of net radiative flux on bridge deck and road surface temperature may be different.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091491
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1492: Effects of Urban Landscapes on Pollutant
           Concentrations in Chengdu Plain Urban Agglomeration

    • Authors: Hua Hu, Shenglan Zeng, Xiao Han
      First page: 1492
      Abstract: Frequent air pollution due to urbanization poses a severe threat to urban environments. In this study, the effects of urban landscapes on pollutant concentrations at different spatial and temporal scales are examined using “3S” technology, based on land-use (LU) classification maps for two time phases (2015 and 2018) in conjunction with monitoring data for air pollutants of the same periods. The results showed that: (1) A very high overall LU ratio was found for Chengdu Plain urban agglomeration (CPUA), with only 0.3% of the land being unused. Farmlands (43%), forests (36.45%), and grasslands (14.17%) were identified as the main landscape types. A decrease in the proportions of the total area occupied by farmlands and grasslands was 0.44% and 0.72%, respectively, and 0.10%, 0.04%, and 0.97% increased in the proportions of the total area occupied by forests, water bodies, and developed lands, respectively, were found from 2015 to 2018. (2) NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 were mainly distributed in the central and eastern parts of the study area, while SO2 was mainly distributed in the southwest. In 2018, compared with 2015, the maximum concentration of NO2 decreased from 60.36 μg/m3 to 49.75 μg/m3, and the distribution range of high concentration NO2 was reduced and concentrated in Chengdu; the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 decreased significantly, and the maximum concentration decreased by 20.53% and 23.93%, respectively, but the concentration of pollution in the northeast increased significantly. The scope of SO2 pollution had shifted from the south to the southwest, and the pollution level had decreased from south to north. (3) The effects of various landscape types on pollutant concentrations were complex. At a patch-type level, increasing the area proportions of “pollution-reducing” landscape types could reduce pollutant concentrations. Specifically, increasing the area, largest patch index, and patch cohesion of forests and grasslands, as well as reducing the area, largest patch index, and patch cohesion of farmlands and developed lands, could effectively lower pollutant concentrations. From a landscape pattern perspective, high shape regularity and low diversity of landscape patches resulted in high concentrations of NO2, PM10, and PM2.5. In contrast, high levels of dominance and aggregation of landscapes lead to low concentrations of SO2.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091492
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1493: Prediction of Urban Thermal Environment
           Based on Multi-Dimensional Nature and Urban Form Factors

    • Authors: Yueyao Wang, Ze Liang, Jiaqi Ding, Jiashu Shen, Feili Wei, Shuangcheng Li
      First page: 1493
      Abstract: The urban thermal environment is affected by multiple urban form and natural environment factors; research on the accurate prediction of the urban thermal environment, considering the interaction among different urban environmental factors, is still lacking. The development of a machine learning model provides a good means of solving complex problems. This study aims to clarify the relationship between urban environmental variables and the urban thermal environment through high-precision machine learning models as well as provide scenarios of future urban thermal environment developments. We defined an urban thermal environment index (UTEI), considering twelve urban form and natural indicators sourced from the remote sensing data of 150 cities in the Jing-Jin-Ji region from 2000 to 2015. We achieved accurate predictions of UTEI through training a gradient-boosted regression trees model. By unpacking the model, we found that the contribution rate of elevation (ELEV) was the highest. Among all the urban form indicators, the elongation index (ELONG), urban population (POP), nighttime light intensity (NLI), urban area size (AREA), and urban shape index (SHAPE) also had high contributions. We set up five scenarios to simulate the possible impact of different urban form factors on the overall urban thermal environment quality in the region. Under extremely deteriorated patterns that do not control urban expansion and vegetation reduction, the average UTEI could be as high as 0.55–0.76 °C in summer and 0.24–0.29 °C in winter, yet in the extremely optimized situation, UTEI decreased by 0.69 °C in summer and 0.56 °C in winter. Results showed that better urban form improves the quality of urban environments and can provide important insights for urban planners to mitigate urban heat island problems.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091493
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1494: Cutting Cement Industry CO2 Emissions
           through Metakaolin Use in Construction

    • Authors: Yetunde Oyebolaji Abiodun, Oludolapo Akanni Olanrewaju, Oluwashina Philips Gbenebor, Ezenwanyi Fidelia Ochulor, Dumebi Victoria Obasa, Samson Oluropo Adeosun
      First page: 1494
      Abstract: Cement production is one of the most important industries on the planet, and humans have relied on is use dating back to the dawn of civilization. Cement manufacturing has increased at an exponential rate, reaching 3 billion metric tons in 2015, representing a 6.3% annual growth rate and accounting for around 5–8% of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Geopolymer materials, which are inorganic polymers made from a wide range of aluminosilicate powders, such as metakaolin, fly ash, and blast furnace or steel slags, have also been elicited for use due to concerns about the high energy consumption and CO2 emissions connected with cement and concrete manufacturing. This study focused on the mechanical and durability properties of metakaolin in concrete production. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were used to confirm the characteristics of kaolin and metakaolin. The results showed that 15 wt.% metakaolin can be used to partially replace cement, and that metakaolin, when synthesized with alkaline activators, can also be utilized as a geopolymer to totally replace cement in concrete production. For predicting the compressive strength of different concrete mixtures, few practical models have been presented. This research has shed light on the possibility of utilizing ecologically friendly materials in the building, construction, and transportation sectors to decrease carbon dioxide emissions.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091494
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1495: Evaluation of GNSS Radio Occultation
           Profiles in the Vicinity of Atmospheric Rivers

    • Authors: Michael J. Murphy, Jennifer S. Haase
      First page: 1495
      Abstract: Increasing the density of Global Navigation Satellite System radio occultation (RO) with commercial Smallsats and the next generation COSMIC-2 constellation is expected to improve analyses of the state of atmosphere, which is essential for numerical weather prediction. High vertical resolution RO profiles could be useful to observe atmospheric rivers (ARs) over the ocean, which transport water vapor in shallow, elongated corridors that frequently impact the west coasts of continents. The multi-year AR Reconnaissance campaign has extensively sampled ARs over the northeastern Pacific with dropsondes, providing an invaluable dataset to evaluate the reliability of RO retrievals. These dropsondes, and a reanalysis product that assimilates them, are compared to three RO datasets: (1) established operational missions, (2) COSMIC-2, and (3) the commercial Spire constellation. Each RO dataset has biases relative to reanalyses of less than 0.5% N in the upper troposphere and negative biases in the lower troposphere. Direct colocations with dropsondes indicate that vertical refractivity gradients present within ARs may be contributing to negative biases at higher altitudes inside than outside ARs, where the greatest variability and vertical gradients are at the well-defined boundary layer top. Observations from Spire are overly smooth, affecting the ability to resolve the low-level structure of an AR. Surprisingly, the depth of penetration into the lower troposphere is greater inside an AR than outside for all datasets. The results indicate that the observation errors used for assimilation of RO within ARs should consider the height dependent biases that are associated with the structure of the atmosphere.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091495
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1496: Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Drought
           in Central Asia from 1981 to 2020

    • Authors: Yu Sun, Xi Chen, Yang Yu, Jing Qian, Min Wang, Shuangyan Huang, Xiuwei Xing, Shiran Song, Xiaolin Sun
      First page: 1496
      Abstract: Drought is a meteorological phenomenon that threatens ecosystems, agricultural production, and living conditions. Central Asia is highly vulnerable to drought due to its special geographic location, water resource shortages, and extreme weather conditions, and poor management of water resources and reliance on irrigated agriculture exacerbate the effects of drought. In this study, the latest version of the Global Land Data Assimilation System was employed to calculate the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index at different time scales during the period from 1981 to 2020. The varimax Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function was applied for subregional delineation of drought patterns in Central Asia, and various methods were employed for a comparative analysis of the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought in these Central Asian subregions. The results show that drought patterns vary considerably in the Central Asian subregions. Over the past 40 years, alternating wet and dry conditions occurred in Central Asia. North Kazakhstan experienced more drought events with lower severity. East and west differences appear after 2001, the west becoming drier and the east becoming wetter. Some regions near lakes, such as Balkhash, Issyk-Kul, and the Aral Sea, suffer from droughts of long duration and high severity. In the Tianshan region, droughts in the northern slopes occur more frequently, with shorter durations and higher intensity and peaks. Northwestern China and western Mongolia have extensive agricultural land and grasslands with highly fragile ecosystems that have become progressively drier since 2001.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091496
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1497: Maritime Moving Target Joint Localization
           and Kinematic State Estimation Using GNSS-Based Multistatic Radar

    • Authors: Binbin Wang, Hao Cha, Zibo Zhou, Lei Zuo
      First page: 1497
      Abstract: A global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-based multistatic radar is explored for target localization and kinematic state estimation. Since any point on the earth can be illuminated by a minimum of four satellites of each GNSS constellation at any time, GNSS-based passive radars can be inherently considered multistatic radars. In this paper, a method for jointly estimating the target position and velocity by utilizing both the time delays and Doppler shifts has been proposed, and an analytical accuracy analysis is also provided. In the new method, the bistatic range and Doppler for each path are firstly estimated by the range-Doppler (RD) method, and then by using the bistatic ranges and Doppler shifts. The least squares method is applied to estimate the target position and velocity simultaneously. Compared with the precedent target localization and velocity estimation method, the proposed method achieves a better estimation result with simple procedures. Simulation results are provided to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091497
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1498: Developing the New Thermal Climate Zones
           of China for Building Energy Efficiency Using the Cluster Approach

    • Authors: Lujian Bai, Bing Song, Liu Yang
      First page: 1498
      Abstract: Climate is a key element in building design. The determination of adequate climate zoning is crucial for achieving building energy efficiency and reduced carbon emissions. In this study, a cluster analysis method was applied to develop new thermal climate zones for building envelope thermal design in China. In total, three different cluster analysis methods, including k-means, average-linkage, and Ward’s clustering, were considered. The analysis indicated that the average-linkage clustering was more appropriate for this study, and the elbow method could not accurately determine the best number of categories of average-linkage clustering. Further analysis showed that the unsupervised cluster processes may generate an unavoidable redundancy category and, to obtain precise results, supervision may be necessary in some contexts. Finally, China was classified into 10 climate zones. The North China plain and Qinghai–Tibet plateau are classified into two independent climate zones, and Turpan and Bayanbulak were classified into two newly defined climate zones different from their surrounding area in the new definition. Quantitative analysis indicated that the new zones were more precise when compared to the current ones, which can provide more precise climate information and contribute to formulating more precise standards and policies related to the thermal design of building envelopes in the future.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091498
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1499: The Influence of Solar Activity on Snow
           Cover over the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau and Its Mechanism Analysis

    • Authors: Yan Song, Zhicai Li, Yaqing Zhou, Xunqiang Bi, Biyun Sun, Tiangui Xiao, Lin Suo, Wei Zhang, Ziniu Xiao, Chunzhu Wang
      First page: 1499
      Abstract: Using global ocean vertical temperature anomaly data, we identified that a significant response of the sea temperature anomaly (STA) to the solar radio flux (SRF) exists. We found that the STA exhibited a significant correlation with Asian summer and winter precipitation, among which the response from the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (the QTP) was particularly noticeable. Based on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, the latent heat flux (LHF) anomaly, which plays a key role in winter precipitation in China, especially over the QTP, showed a significant response to the SRF in the Pacific. The results demonstrated the bottom-up mechanism of impact of solar activity (SA) on the plateau snow through sea–air interaction. Meanwhile, a top-down mechanism was also present. When the SRF was high, the stratospheric temperature in the low and mid-latitudes increased and the temperature gradient pointed to the pole to strengthen the westerly wind in the mid-latitudes. The EP flux showed that atmospheric long waves in the high altitudes propagated downward from the stratosphere to the troposphere. A westerly (easterly) wind anomaly occurred in the south (north) of the QTP at 500 hPa and the snowfall rate over the QTP tended to increase. When the SRF was low, the situation was the opposite, and the snowfall rate tended to decrease. The model results confirmed that when total solar irradiance (TSI) became stronger (weaker), both of the solar radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere and the surface temperature over the QTP increased (decreased), the vertical updraft intensified (weakened), and the snowfall rate tended to increase (decrease) accordingly. These conclusions are helpful to deepen the understanding of SA’s influence on the snow cover over the QTP.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091499
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1500: Mechanism of Response of Alveolar
           Macrophages in Wistar Rats to the Composition of Atmospheric Suspensions

    • Authors: Lyudmila S. Barskova, Tatyana I. Vitkina, Tatyana A. Gvozdenko, Elena V. Kondratyeva, Lyudmila V. Veremchuk
      First page: 1500
      Abstract: Atmospheric air quality is a crucial factor in the health of human populations. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) is one of the most dangerous components polluting urban air. The aim of the present article is to study the effect of model suspensions (MS) of SPM that are characteristic of the composition of atmospheric air at locations with various anthropogenic loads on redox processes in alveolar macrophages (AM). Atmospheric air sampling was carried out in the breathing zone according to the method developed by one of the authors. AM were isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of experimental animals. The MS of SPM were prepared in accordance with the actual air pollution: MS No. 1 corresponded to an area with a low man-made load, and MS No. 2 corresponded to an area with a high man-made load. Load tests with model suspensions were carried out for 2 days. Parameters of oxidant processes and antioxidant system (AOS) were determined in cells and culture media. The proportion of the influence of the qualitative and dispersed composition of MS and the indicator of intra-system tension were calculated based on correlation dependencies. The atmospheric air with a high man-made load was dominated by particles up to 10 µm, whereas air with an insignificant man-made load contained SPM of more than 10 µm in size. Unidirectional changes were observed due to an exposure to both model suspensions, but the most pronounced oxidative modifications of lipids, proteins and genetic structures were caused by the exposure to MS No. 2. When exposed to MS No. 1, the AOS maintained the redox balance at the physiological level, localizing the resulting destruction inside the cells. MS No. 2 caused the redox balance to shift towards oxidants, potentiating the generalization of the destruction process. An increase in the content or a longer stress-inducing effect of PM2.5 causes a depletion in the reserve capacity of the AOS and the transition of destruction processes to the systemic level, which contributes to the development of the preconditions for environmentally dependent pathology.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091500
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1501: A Holistic Approach Based on
           Biomonitoring Techniques and Satellite Observations for Air Pollution
           Assessment and Health Risk Impact of Atmospheric Trace Elements in a
           Semi-Rural Area of Southern Italy (High Sauro Valley)

    • Authors: Rosa Caggiano, Antonio Speranza, Vito Imbrenda, Nicola Afflitto, Serena Sabia
      First page: 1501
      Abstract: Air pollution is one of the most important environmental problems for rural, urban and industrial areas. This study assesses the concentrations, the possible interaction with the vegetation conditions and the sources of trace elements in atmospheric aerosol particles. To this aim, a novel holistic approach integrating biomonitoring techniques, satellite observations and multivariate statistical analysis was carried out in a semi-rural area before an on-shore reservoir (crude oil and gas) and an oil/gas pre-treatment plant identified as “Tempa Rossa” (High Sauro Valley—Southern Italy) were fully operative. The atmospheric trace element concentrations (i.e., Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn) were assessed by “lichen-bag” monitoring. Satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI’) estimates were used to support the identification of environmental imbalances affecting vegetation conditions and linked to possible anthropogenic drivers. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed identifying both natural and anthropogenic trace element sources, such as crustal resuspension, soil and road dust, traffic, biomass burning and agriculture practices. Empirical evidence highlighted an interaction between NDVI’ and S, Ni, Pb and Zn. The health risk impact of atmospheric trace elements on the exposed population, both adults and children, considering inhalation, ingestion and the dermal contact pathway, highlighted a possible non-carcinogenic risk concerning Ni and a not-negligible carcinogenic risk related to Cr(VI) for the adult population in the study area.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091501
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1502: Organic Acids in Sequential Volume-Based
           Rainwater Samples in Shanghai: Seasonal Variations and Origins

    • Authors: Zhixiong Xie, Huayun Xiao, Yu Xu
      First page: 1502
      Abstract: Organic acids were investigated in the rain sequence. Samples were collected in Shanghai (East China) over a one-year period using an automatic volume-based sequential rain sampler designed by ourselves. Organic acids significantly contributed (17.8 ± 10.2%) to the acidity of rainfall events in Shanghai. We observed that the concentration of each water-soluble ion in the sequential volume-based rainwater samples did not change significantly after the cumulative rainfall reached ~1.2 mm, on average. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid were 13.54 μeq L−1, 8.32 μeq L−1, and 5.85 μeq L−1, respectively. Organic acids might mostly come from fine particles, which was the reason for the differences in acid concentrations in rainfall events, cloud water, and early sequences of rainfall events. The VWM concentrations of organic acids in rainfall events, cloud water, and early sequences of rainfall events were highest in spring and lowest in winter. Further analysis, including positive matrix factorization (PMF), suggested that vehicle exhaust and secondary emission sources were dominant contributors of organic acids in rainfall events (40.5%), followed by biological emission sources (37.3%), and biomass combustion sources (18.6%). The overall results not only reveal the critical role of organic acids in cloud water and rainfall events but also indicate organic acids might pose an ecological threat to the local surface ecosystem.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091502
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1503: A Quantizing Method for Atmospheric
           Environment Impact Post-Assessment of Highways Based on Computational
           Fluid Dynamics Model

    • Authors: Xiaochun Qin, Dongxiao Yang, Shu Liu, Xiaoqing Yu, Vicky Wangechi Wangari
      First page: 1503
      Abstract: The post-assessment of highway atmospheric environmental impacts was limited by the traditional air pollution prediction model, which cannot adapt to complex terrain and complex obstacle scenes. The traditional model has a single evaluation index, which cannot accurately evaluate and predict the transient and long-term emissions of various pollutants. Based on the computational fluid dynamics model, this work establishes a post-assessment method of the atmospheric environment impact of the Beijing–Chengde Expressway construction project. The main pollution factors NOx and CO of highway traffic for transmission and diffusion simulation analysis were selected. The influence law of traffic function, environmental impact, meteorological conditions, and landform on the diffusion of pollution factors in complex tunnel sections were analyzed. It concludes that the pollution within 200 m along the expressway is severe and mainly concentrated in the tunnel entrance and gully area. The NOx concentration is generally higher than CO. The environmental quality is not up to standard and has a diffusion trend with increased traffic flow, operation time, wind speed, wind temperature, and wind direction frequency. The research results can provide theoretical guidance and technical support for the scientific post-assessment of highway environmental impact under complex conditions.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091503
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1504: Application of a Hybrid CEEMD-LSTM Model
           Based on the Standardized Precipitation Index for Drought Forecasting: The
           Case of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    • Authors: Yan Ding, Guoqiang Yu, Ran Tian, Yizhong Sun
      First page: 1504
      Abstract: Accurate forecasting of droughts can effectively reduce the risk of drought. We propose a hybrid model based on complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD) and long short-term memory (LSTM) to improve drought prediction accuracy. Taking the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region as an example, the prediction accuracy of the LSTM and CEEMD-LSTM models for the standardized precipitation index (SPI) on multiple timescales was compared and analyzed. Multiple evaluation metrics were used in the comparison of the models, such as the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE). The results show that (1) with increasing timescale, the prediction accuracy of the LSTM and CEEMD-LSTM models gradually improves, and both reach their highest accuracy at the 24-month timescale; (2) the CEEMD can effectively stabilize the time-series, and the prediction accuracy of the hybrid model is higher than that of the single model at each timescale; and (3) the NSE values for the hybrid CEEMD-LSTM model at SPI24 were 0.895, 0.930, 0.908, and 0.852 for Fuhai, Kuerle, Yutian, and Hami station, respectively. This indicates the applicability of the hybrid model in the forecasting of drought.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091504
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1505: Analysis of Ozone Vertical Profiles over
           Wuyishan Region during Spring 2022 and Their Correlations with
           Meteorological Factors

    • Authors: Tianfu Zhu, Huiying Deng, Jinhong Huang, Yulan Zheng, Ziliang Li, Rui Zhao, Hong Wang
      First page: 1505
      Abstract: Understanding the vertical structure of ozone concentrations in different seasons and their correlations with the associated meteorological conditions is crucial for exploring atmospheric ozone variability and improving the accuracy of regional ozone prediction. In this study, an ozone-sounding experiment was carried out at the Shaowu sounding Station in Fujian from November 2021 to May 2022 in order to obtain vertical profiles of ozone concentrations and synoptic variables. Based on these observations, we examined the characteristics of tropospheric ozone profiles in spring over the Wuyishan region and their comparison with wintertime ozone. The results show that compared with winter, the total ozone column (TOC) in spring has increased by 64.4%, with an enhancement of 23.8% for the troposphere and a greater increment of 69.1% for the stratosphere. The sub-peaks of tropospheric ozone below 12 km are found in both spring and winter of 2022, which are accompanied by lower relative humidity (<10% in winter and <15% in spring), temperature inversions in some cases, and intensive westerly winds. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship between ozone volume mixing ratio (OVMR) and synoptic conditions in the Wuyishan region and concluded that OVMR above 1.5 km is negatively correlated with temperature and relative humidity but positively correlated with wind speed. Additionally, springtime OVMR in the middle and upper troposphere exhibits a “funnel” distribution, showing a higher OVMR on the day of sounding observations and one day before and after that on adjacent days with low-level southwesterly winds and updrafts. While in winter, the strong downdrafts dominate on the sounding observation day.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091505
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1506: Assessing the Drought Variability in
           Northeast China over Multiple Temporal and Spatial Scales

    • Authors: Lin Xue, Martin Kappas, Daniel Wyss, Birgitta Putzenlechner
      First page: 1506
      Abstract: Long-term drought variation provides a scientific foundation for water resource planning and drought mitigation. However, the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of drought in northeast China (NEC) are unclear. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of drought status and trends based on the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) in NEC from 1990 until 2018. The findings show that: (1) the drying trend peaked in 2001, and then exhibited a mitigation tendency before drying again after 2013. The implementation of ecological restoration projects is primarily responsible for drought mitigation. (2) The areas with wetting and drying trends in the future would cover 86% and 17% of NEC, respectively. (3) There is a time lag between improved vegetation and the trend shift from dry to wet. (4) Spring and winter revealed wet trends within 71% and 84% of NEC, respectively, showing high sensitivity and resilience to drought, while 92–93% of NEC displayed dry tendencies during the summer and autumn seasons. The drought-affected area was the highest in summer and lowest in autumn. (5) The interannual drought severity was highest in May and June. (6) The highest drought impacts and trends occur within shrub and grass and sparsely vegetated land, as well as middle-temperate semiarid regions (M-semiarid). (7) The warmer the temperature zone, the more sensitive it is towards drought under the same hydrological conditions, showing a high drought-affected area. The drier the land, the higher the drought-affected area within the same temperature zone, with pronounced drought trends during the spring and summer seasons. Our findings highlight the need for the government to more explicitly develop drought mitigation strategies in accordance with NEC’s spatiotemporal drought variations and specifically the need to concentrate on droughts in M-semiarid regions occurring in summer, particularly in May and June.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091506
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1507: Parameterization of a Rising Smoke Plume
           for a Large Moving Ship Based on CFD

    • Authors: Jingqian Li, Jihong Song, Yine Xu, Qi Yu, Yan Zhang, Weichun Ma
      First page: 1507
      Abstract: The plume rising height of a ship will directly affect the maximum ground concentration and distance from the source caused by flue gas emission. Ship movement has an important effect on plume rising, but it is often ignored in previous studies. We simulated the weakening effect caused by ship movement by considering the influence of four main parameters (wind speed, ship speed, flue gas exit velocity, and flue gas exit temperature) on the smoke plume rising height, using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model (PHOENICS version 6.0 CHAM, London, UK). The main parameters affecting the difference in plume rising height between stationary and moving sources for the same parameter settings are the wind speed and the ship speed. Therefore, we established two simplified calculation methods that corrected the flue gas exit velocity () and the flue gas exit temperature () for approximately simulating the smoke plume rising height of the moving ship using the formula of a stationary ship. Verification cases indicated that the corrected (the average of relative error is 5.48%) and the corrected (the average of relative error is 60.07%) not only saved calculation time but also improved the simulation accuracy compared with the uncorrected stationary source scheme (the average of relative error is 135.38%). Of these correction methods, the scheme with corrected is more effective. The intention is to provide some references for the field experimentation of moving ship plume rising in different ports in the future and to further study the mechanism of moving ship plume rising.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091507
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1508: Transmission of Seeding Agent for
           Aircraft Precipitation Enhancement Based on the HYSPLIT Model

    • Authors: Xiuzhu Sha, Ronghao Chu, Meng Li, Yao Xiao, Jianfang Ding, Lisha Feng
      First page: 1508
      Abstract: The precipitation enhancement operation data of aircraft from 2014 to 2019 and the global data assimilation system (NCEP GDAS) were used in this study. The transport process of the transmission of artificial precipitation enhancement seeding agents for aircraft was successfully simulated by the HYSPLIT model. The purpose of the study was to explore the applicability of the model in determining the artificial precipitation enhancement influence area and provide a technical method for evaluating the effect of artificial precipitation enhancement. The results show that (1) the HYSPLIT model can be used to track the transmission of aircraft precipitation enhancement seeding agents hourly. Suppose the seeding route satisfies the condition that the route and its interval area are the effective seeding area within 3 h after the end of the seeding agent. In that case, the seeding area’s boundary points can be used as dynamic change markers in the influence area. (2) The HYSPLIT model was used to simulate 24 aircraft precipitation enhancement seeding agent transmission processes. The transmission path for the seeding agent influence altitude layer was mostly southwest or west; the angle ranged from 225° to 268°; the horizontal transport distance of the seeding agent for three hours was 100–200 km; the vertical transmission direction was mostly upward; the range was 0–1200 m; the influence area decreased at the third h of seeding agent transport for 71% of the precipitation enhancement operations. (3) Based on the dynamic variations of 24 aircraft precipitation affected areas determined by the HYSPLIT model, and the contrast area selected by the similarity measurement method, 15 (63%) aircraft precipitation operations contributed to the increase in precipitation.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091508
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1509: Study on Enhancing Shale Oil Recovery by
           CO2 Pre-Pad Energized Fracturing in A83 Block, Ordos Basin

    • Authors: Yang Xiao, Zhigang Li, Jiahao Wang, Jinyuan Yang, Zhonghui Ma, Shuyun Liu, Chenhui Han
      First page: 1509
      Abstract: The Ordos Basin is rich in shale oil resources. The main targeted layers of blocks A83 and X233 are the Chang 7 member of the Yanchang Formation. Due to extremely low permeability, a fracturing technique was required to enhance oil recovery. However, after adopting the stimulated reservoir volume-fracturing technology, the post-fracturing production of the A83 block is significantly lower than that of the X233 block. For this problem, the dominating factors of productivity of the two blocks were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (SRCC), showing that the main reason for the lower production of the A83 block is its insufficient formation energy. To solve this problem, the CO2 pre-pad energized fracturing method was proposed. To study the feasibility of CO2 pre-pad energized fracturing in the A83 block, an integrated reservoir numerical simulation model of well A83-1 was established based on the idea of integration of geology and engineering. Additionally, the productions within five years after conventional volume fracturing and CO2 pre-pad energized fracturing were compared. The results show that compared with conventional volume fracturing, the cumulative oil production of CO2 pre-pad energized fracturing increases by 11.8%, and the water cut decreases by 16.5%. The research results can guide the subsequent reservoir reconstruction operation in the A83 block and provide new ideas for fracturing in the future.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091509
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1510: Particle Number and Size Distributions
           (PNSD) from a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) over Laboratory and Real
           Driving Emission Tests

    • Authors: Daisy Thomas, Hu Li, Xin Wang, Karl Ropkins, Alison S. Tomlin, Chris D. Bannister, Gary Hawley
      First page: 1510
      Abstract: Particle number (PN) emissions from hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) during engine ignition and re-ignition events are an important but scarcely reported area. The objectives of the present work are to study the effects of drive cycle properties on the engine behaviour of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and to investigate how this impacts the tailpipe PN emissions and their size distributions (PNSD). Worldwide harmonised light vehicles test cycle (WLTC) testing was conducted, as well as chassis dynamometer emission measurements over a realistic real driving emissions (RDE) speed pattern, using a Euro 5 Toyota Prius HEV with a Cambustion DMS500 sampling PN concentrations at the tailpipe. It is shown that the number of vehicle stops during a test cycle has a direct impact on the re-ignition activity for the HEV. 64 ± 3% of the total PN from WLTC testing was produced during engine re-ignition events while only 6 ± 1% was from stabilised engine operation. Similar proportions were observed for the RDE-style test cycle. The majority of engine reignition and destabilised activity, and hence PN emission, was during the low-speed sections of the drive cycles used. The average PNSD across cycle phases was different between cycles, due to the influence of dynamic properties on engine behaviour and hence the PN emission profile. The PNSD at the engine re-ignition and destabilised events had a merged wide peak with a maximum at 60 nm diameter and a shoulder at 12 nm diameter. The HEV had increased emissions of particles smaller than 23 nm under cold start, but similar overall PN emission values, compared to a warm start. The results of this work highlight the importance of controlling HEV PN emissions to limit human exposure to PN in urban environments where the majority of PN emissions occur. The sensitivity of HEV PN emission factors and PNSD to engine behaviour and, in turn, test cycle dynamic properties, is important to note when considering legislative test cycles, particularly with reference to the freedoms afforded by the RDE test cycle. The results also indicate that substantial improvements to air quality could be made by reducing the particle measurement protocol PN cut-off size to 10 nm.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091510
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1511: Aerosol Property Analysis Based on
           Ground-Based Lidar in Sansha, China

    • Authors: Deyi Kong, Hu He, Jingang Zhao, Jianzhe Ma, Wei Gong
      First page: 1511
      Abstract: Marine aerosol is one of the most important natural aerosols. It has a significant impact on marine climate change, biochemical cycling and marine ecosystems. Previous studies on marine aerosols, especially in the South China Sea, were carried out by satellite and shipborne measurements. The above methods have drawbacks, such as low temporal–spatial resolution and signal interference. However, lidar has high accuracy and high temporal–spatial resolution, so it is suitable for high-precision long-term observations. In this work, we obtain marine aerosol data using Mie Lidar in Sansha, an island in the South Chain Sea. Firstly, by comparing boundary layer height (BLH) between Sansha and Hefei, we found that Sansha’s boundary layer height has significant differences with that of inland China. Secondly, we compare the aerosol extinction coefficients and their variation with height in Sansha and Hefei. Finally, we obtain hourly averaged aerosol optical depth at Sansha and explore its relation with weather. To analyze the AOD–weather relation, we select three meteorological factors (sea surface temperature, mean sea level pressure and 10 m u-component of wind) based on their feature importance, which is determined by random forest regression. We also analyze the relationship between AOD and the above meteorological factors in each season separately. The results show that there is a strong relation between the meteorological factors and AOD in spring and summer, while there is no clear correlation in fall and winter. These analyses can provide valid data for future researches on marine aerosols in the South China Sea.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091511
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1512: Impact of PM10 Particles on the
           Measurement Error of SO2 Electrochemical Gas Sensor

    • Authors: Wei Chen, Shijing Wu, Dongmei Liao, Hanping Zhang
      First page: 1512
      Abstract: To address the problems of poor measurement accuracy and long service life of SO2 electrochemical gas sensors when used in thermal power plant areas, fly ash emitted from a thermal power plant in China was used as the research object. Based on the analysis of the morphological characteristics of fly ash particles, theoretical calculations were used to obtain the settling speed of fly ash particles and the amount of fly ash deposited at different times, and then the impact of fly ash on the measurement error of a SO2 electrochemical gas sensor was investigated by experimental tests. The research results show that the particle size distribution of fly ash is 2–11 μm, the average settling speed of fly ash particles is 1.34 × 10−3 m/s, and the deposition amount of fly ash on the surface of the sensor inlet film is 0.95 mg per day. The deposition time of fly ash affects the sensor measurement error, and the longer the deposition time, the larger the sensor measurement error, which is due to the reduction of gas diffusion area S and diffusion coefficient K in the sensor caused by fly ash deposition. Fly ash deposition has a greater impact on the sensor when measuring low concentration gases. The higher the gas concentration, the lower the measurement error, because the higher the gas concentration, the faster the gas reaches the working electrode area and the higher the effective SO2 concentration detected in the limited response time. When using SO2 electrochemical sensors in environments with high concentrations of fly ash or dust, it is recommended to install dust-proof devices (such as air-permeable filter membranes with a pore size of less than 4 μm) and regularly clean the deposited fly ash, which can improve the accuracy of the sensor measurement and extend the service life.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091512
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1513: Optimization Design of Velocity
           Distribution in the Airways of the Fluidized Bed Based on CFD and Taguchi
           Algorithm

    • Authors: Hao Yan, Shisong Liu, Fei Wang, Wei Xu, Jian Li, Tengzhou Xie, Yishan Zeng
      First page: 1513
      Abstract: A vital component that is frequently employed in the industrial powder conveying sector is the fluidized bed. In the light of powder unloading with a fluidized bed as the research object, an orthogonal experiment with two factors and four levels was established for the structural parameters of the fluidized bed. In the case of different noise factors, 16 schemes are designed and all schemes via computational fluid dynamics numerical simulation. The Taguchi method and regression analysis are used to analyze the response. Finally, the accuracy of the optimization results is tested. The results show that gas velocity decreases sharply at the airway’s entrance and, then, gas flows to the second half of the airway and velocity decreases steadily and uniformly. Airway arc length L exerts a greater effect on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than airway height H. The parameter combination of 180 mm L and 17 mm H for obtaining the optimal velocity distribution uniformity is determined. The test results indicate that the overall fluidization effect of the fluidized bed with the optimal parameters is better. The linked research findings can be used as a guide when designing a fluidized bed system for transporting comparable powder.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091513
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1514: Global Distribution of Clouds over Six
           Years: A Review Using Multiple Sensors and Reanalysis Data

    • Authors: Lerato Shikwambana
      First page: 1514
      Abstract: A six-year global study of cloud distribution and cloud properties obtained from observations of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) data is presented in this study. From the CALIPSO observations, the highest clouds for both daytime and night-time were found in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) region. The lowest cloud heights were found towards the poles due to the decrease in the tropopause height. Seasonal studies also revealed a high dominance of clouds in the 70 °S–80 °S (Antarctic) region in the June–July–August (JJA) season and a high dominance of Arctic clouds in the December–January–February (DJF) and September–October–November (SON) seasons. The coldest cloud top temperatures (CTT) were mostly observed over land in the ITCZ and the polar regions, while the warmest CTTs were mostly observed in the mid-latitudes and over the oceans. Regions with CTTs greater than 0 °C experienced less precipitation than regions with CTTs less than 0 °C.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091514
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1515: Comprehensive Evaluation of Odor-Causing
           VOCs from the Painting Process of the Automobile Manufacturing Industry
           and Its Sustainable Management

    • Authors: Vanitchaya Kultan, Sarawut Thepanondh, Nattaporn Pinthong, Jutarat Keawboonchu, Mark Robson
      First page: 1515
      Abstract: Automotive manufacturing is one of the potential sources of air pollution particularly involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study intensively evaluated VOC emissions and their dispersion from the industry. The measured VOCs were speciated for further evaluation of their odor threats according to the characteristics of each compound. Mathematical emission and air dispersion models were applied to assist in elaborating the source–receptor relationship allowing the determining of existing business-as-usual conditions with proposed mitigation measures to manage the pollution of the factory studied in this paper. Seven VOC species potentially caused odor problems to the surrounding community, including 1-butanol, ethyl benzene, toluene, m,p xylene, o xylene, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl isobutyl ketone. The results from the AERMOD dispersion model revealed that the smell from these chemicals could reach up to about 800 m from the source. Analysis of mitigation measures indicated that two interesting scenarios should be considered according to their effectiveness. The concentrations of VOCs can decrease by up to 4.7, 14.0 and 24.9% from increasing the physical stack height by +1, +3 and +5 m from its existing height, respectively. Modification of the aeration tank of the wastewater treatment unit to a closed system also helped to reduce about 27.8% of emissions resulting in about a 27.6% decreased ambient air concentration. This study provided useful information on the characteristics of VOCs emitted by the automobile manufacturing industry. It also demonstrated the relevant procedures and highlights the necessity to comprehensively analyze the source–receptor relationship to evaluate the most appropriate measures in managing industrial air pollution.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091515
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1516: The Performance of S2S Models on
           Predicting the 21.7 Extreme Rainfall Event in Henan China

    • Authors: Xiaojuan Wang, Shuai Li, Li Liu, Huimin Bai, Guolin Feng
      First page: 1516
      Abstract: Extreme rainfall may cause meteorological disasters and has tremendous impact on societies and economics. Assessing the capability of current dynamic models for rainfall prediction, especially extreme rainfall event prediction, at sub-seasonal to seasonal (S2S) scale and diagnosing the probable reasons are quite important topics in the current climate study field. This study analyzes the formation mechanisms of the extreme rainfall event during 18–22 July 2021 in Henan Province and introduces the Tanimoto Coefficient (TC) to evaluate the prediction performance of S2S models. The results show that confrontation between low-latitude typhoon “In-Fa” and subtropical highs leads to sufficient water vapor transporting to Henan, and that remarkable upward air motion causes strong convergence of water vapor, thereby providing atmospheric conditions for this extreme rainfall event. Furthermore, five S2S models showed limited capability in predicting this extreme rainfall event 20 days in advance with the TCs of four models being below 0.1. Models could capture this event signal 6 days ahead with most TCs above 0.2. The performances of model prediction for this extreme rainfall event were closely related to the fact that the water vapor convergence, vertical movements, relative vorticity, and geopotential height predicted by the NCEP model 20 days ahead were close to the actual situation, in contrast to the other four models 6 days in advance. This study implies that S2S model predictions for this extreme rainfall event show obvious differences, and the application of S2S models in the prediction of extreme events needs to fully consider their prediction uncertainties. The capability of the models to properly reproduce local water vapor convergence and vertical motions is also shown to be crucial for correctly simulating the extreme event, which might provide some hints for the further amelioration of models.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091516
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1517: Variability of Equatorial Ionospheric
           Bubbles over Planetary Scale: Assessment of Terrestrial Drivers

    • Authors: Lalit-Mohan Joshi, Lung-Chih Tsai, Shin-Yi Su, Abhijit Dey
      First page: 1517
      Abstract: Nighttime F-region field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) associated with equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) are impacted by terrestrial factors, such as solar irradiance and geomagnetic activity. This paper examines the impact of the planetary-scale periodic variability of terrestrial processes on EPB activity. Continual observations of the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) have been utilized to derive the intra-seasonal variability of nighttime F-region FAIs in the context of the terrestrial factors mentioned above. A periodicity analysis using wavelet and Lomb–Scargle (LS) spectral analysis indicated significant amplitudes of the long-period planetary-scale variability in the F-region FAI signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), 10.7 cm flux, and geomagnetic indices, as well as a shorter period of variability. Interestingly, a careful inspection of the time series indicated the planetary-scale variability of F-region FAIs to be reasonably out of phase with the periodic geomagnetic variability. EPB occurrence and the FAI signal-to-noise ratio presented a systematic decrease with an increase in the level of geomagnetic activity. Non-transient quiet-time geomagnetic activity has been found to suppress both the occurrence as well as the strength of F-region FAIs. The impacts of planetary-scale geomagnetic activity appear to be non-identical in the summer and equinoctial EPBs. The results highlight the importance of periodic terrestrial processes in driving the planetary-scale variability of EPBs.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091517
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1518: Modeling Actual Evapotranspiration with
           MSI-Sentinel Images and Machine Learning Algorithms

    • Authors: Robson Argolo dos Santos, Everardo Chartuni Mantovani, Elpídio Inácio Fernandes-Filho, Roberto Filgueiras, Rodrigo Dal Sasso Lourenço, Vinícius Bof Bufon, Christopher M. U. Neale
      First page: 1518
      Abstract: The modernization of computational resources and application of artificial intelligence algorithms have led to advancements in studies regarding the evapotranspiration of crops by remote sensing. Therefore, this research proposed the application of machine learning algorithms to estimate the ETrF (Evapotranspiration Fraction) of sugar can crop using the METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution with Internalized Calibration) model with data from the Sentinel-2 satellites constellation. In order to achieve this goal, images from the MSI sensor (MultiSpectral Instrument) from the Sentinel-2 and the OLI (Operational Land Imager) and TIRS (Thermal Infrared Sensor) sensors from the Landsat-8 were acquired nearly at the same time between the years 2018 and 2020 for sugar cane crops. Images from OLI and TIR sensors were intended to calculate ETrF through METRIC (target variable), while for the MSI sensor images, the explanatory variables were extracted in two approaches, using 10 m (approach 1) and 20 m (approach 2) spatial resolution. The results showed that the algorithms were able to identify patterns in the MSI sensor data to predict the ETrF of the METRIC model. For approach 1, the best predictions were XgbLinear (R² = 0.80; RMSE = 0.15) and XgbTree (R² = 0.80; RMSE = 0.15). For approach 2, the algorithm that demonstrated superiority was the XgbLinear (R² = 0.91; RMSE = 0.10), respectively. Thus, it became evident that machine learning algorithms, when applied to the MSI sensor, were able to estimate the ETrF in a simpler way than the one that involves energy balance with the thermal band used in the METRIC model.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091518
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1519: Holiday Climate Index:
           Urban—Application for Urban and Rural Areas in Romania

    • Authors: Liliana Velea, Alessandro Gallo, Roxana Bojariu, Anisoara Irimescu, Vasile Craciunescu, Silvia Puiu
      First page: 1519
      Abstract: Nature, landscape, relaxation, and outdoor activities are important motivations when choosing rural destinations for vacations. Therefore, when selecting a rural area as a vacation destination, we assume that climate features are important. We investigated the appropriateness of the holiday climate index: urban (HCI:urban) in quantitatively describing the relationship between climate and tourism fluxes in such destinations. We employed data from 94 urban and rural tourist destinations in Romania and correlated the monthly mean HCI:urban values with sectoral data (overnight tourists) for 2010–2018. The results show that weather and climate influenced tourism fluxes similarly in rural and urban destinations, supporting the hypothesis that HCI:urban may be used for rural areas as well. The information derived from HCI:urban may be useful for tourists when planning their vacations as well as for tourism investors in managing their businesses and reducing the weather and climate-related seasonality in tourism fluxes.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091519
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1520: Evaluation of ECMWF Lightning Flash
           Forecast over Indian Subcontinent during MAM 2020

    • Authors: Rituparna Sarkar, Parthasarathi Mukhopadhyay, Peter Bechtold, Philippe Lopez, Sunil D. Pawar, Kaustav Chakravarty
      First page: 1520
      Abstract: During the pre-monsoon season (March–April–May), the eastern and northeastern parts of India, Himalayan foothills, and southern parts of India experience extensive lightning activity. Mean moisture, surface and upper-level winds, the sheared atmosphere in the lower level, and high positive values of vertically integrated moisture flux convergence (VIMFC) create favorable conditions for deep convective systems to occur, generating lightning. From mid-2018, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) operationally introduced lightning flash density on a global scale. This study evaluates the ECMWF lightning forecasts over India during the pre-monsoon season of 2020 using the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) Lightning Location Network (LLN) observation data. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the ECMWF lightning forecast has shown that the lightning forecast with a 72-h lead time can capture the spatial and temporal variation of lightning with a 90% skill score.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091520
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1521: Highly Efficient Removal of CO2 Using
           Water-Lean KHCO3/Isopropanol Solutions

    • Authors: Lei Wang, Mohammad Saeed, Jianmin Luo, Anna Lee, Rowan Simonet, Zhao Sun, Nigel Walker, Matthew Aro, Richard Davis, Mohammad Abu Zahra, Malek Alkasrawi, Sam Toan
      First page: 1521
      Abstract: The use of aqueous carbonate as an inorganic absorbent is not only inexpensive but also stable and environmentally friendly. However, the regeneration processes for aqueous carbonate sorbents require high regeneration heat duty; this energy intensity makes their wide utilization unaffordable. In this work, a low-temperature, energy-saving, and environmentally friendly carbon dioxide desorption method has been investigated in potassium bicarbonate-water-alcohol solutions. The addition of alcohol, particularly isopropanol, to the potassium bicarbonate-water solution can significantly increase carbon dioxide desorption capacity. The potassium bicarbonate-water-isopropanol solution used in this study (36 wt % isopropanol) resulted in 15.2 mmol of carbon dioxide desorption within 2400 s at 80 °C, which was 2000-fold higher than the potassium bicarbonate-water-solution. This research demonstrates a water-lean solvent-based carbon dioxide removal route with the potential to be economical, environmentally safe, and energy-efficient. CO2 sequestration, capture, and utilization technologies will play a key role in reducing CO2 emissions. The excellent desorption kinetics and relatively moderate desorption temperatures (80 °C) of water-lean solvent could help in reducing the cost of CO2 capture, particularly in terms of the heat demand at the regenerator.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091521
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1522: Impact of Radar and Surface Data
           Assimilation on the Forecast of a Nocturnal Squall Line in the
           Yangtze–Huaihe River

    • Authors: Zongmei Pan, Shuwen Zhang, Weidong Zhang
      First page: 1522
      Abstract: The impact of radar and surface data assimilation on the forecast of a nocturnal squall line initiated above the stable boundary layer in the Yangtze–Huaihe River is investigated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and its three-dimensional variational assimilation system (WRFDA 3DVar). Results show that the assimilation of radar and surface data can improve the prediction of the convection initiation time, height and vertical ascending motion during the early stage of the squall line formation by adjusting the thermodynamic structure, circulation patterns, water vapor conditions and hydrometeor mixing ratios. Although the radar and surface data assimilation can improve the forecast of the location of the squall line to a certain extent, the squall line is stronger in the radar data assimilation than that in the surface data assimilation, leading to stronger radar reflectivity and heavier precipitation. The assimilation of both radar and surface data has a more positive impact on the forecast skill than the assimilation of either type of data. Moreover, during the mature stage of the squall line, radar and surface data assimilation can enhance the intensity of the surface cold pool. Specifically, radar data assimilation or assimilating the two data simultaneously can produce a stronger cold pool than only assimilating surface data, which is more conducive to the maintenance and development of the squall line.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091522
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1523: Seismo-Ionospheric Effects Prior to Two
           Earthquakes in Taiwan Detected by the China Seismo-Electromagnetic
           Satellite

    • Authors: Yufan Guo, Xuemin Zhang, Jiang Liu, Muping Yang, Xing Yang, Xiaohui Du, Jian Lü, Jian Xiao
      First page: 1523
      Abstract: In this paper, we focused on the characteristics of the seismo-ionospheric effects related to two successive earthquakes, namely, the earthquakes in 2022 in Taitung Sea, Taiwan, China, with magnitudes (M) of 6.7 and 6.3, at 23.45° N, 121.55° E and 23.39° N, 121.52° E and with the same focal depth of 20 km, which were detected by the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES). By applying the sliding interquartile range method to electron density (Ne) data acquired by the Langmuir probe (LAP) onboard the CSES and the grid total electron content (TEC) data obtained from the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE), positive anomalies were found under quiet geomagnetic conditions on 2‒3 March and 8‒9 March 2022—that is, 19–20 and 13–14 d before the earthquakes, respectively, and the global ionospheric mapping (GIM) TEC data suggested that anomalies may also have been triggered in the magnetic conjugate area 13–14 d prior to the earthquakes occurrences. In addition, the CSES Ne data showed enhancements 3 and 5 d before the earthquakes occurred. Furthermore, 138 earthquakes with M ≥ 5.0 that occurred in Taiwan and the surrounding region during the period February 2019 to March 2022 were statistically analyzed using the CSES Ne data. The results show that most of the Ne anomalies were positive. Moreover, the greater the earthquake magnitude, the greater the frequency of the anomalies; however, the amplitude of the anomalies did not increase with the earthquake magnitude. The anomalies were concentrated during the period of 10 d before to 5 d after the earthquakes. No increase in the amplitude of anomalies was observed as the time of the earthquakes approached. Finally, based on evidence relating to earthquake precursor anomalies, we conclude that it is possible that earthquakes in Taiwan and the surrounding region affect the ionosphere through the geochemical, acoustic, and electromagnetic channels, as described by the lithosphere‒atmosphere‒ionosphere coupling (LAIC) model, and that the two studied earthquakes in Taiwan may have induced ionospheric effects through the geochemical channel.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091523
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1524: Attention-Based BiLSTM Model for Pavement
           Temperature Prediction of Asphalt Pavement in Winter

    • Authors: Shumin Bai, Wenchen Yang, Meng Zhang, Duanyang Liu, Wei Li, Linyi Zhou
      First page: 1524
      Abstract: Pavement temperature is the main factor determining road icing, and accurate and timely pavement temperature prediction is of significant importance to regional traffic safety management and preventive maintenance. The prediction of pavement temperature at the micro-scale has been a challenge to be tackled. To solve this problem, a bidirectional extended short-term memory network model based on the attention mechanism (Att-BiLSTM) was proposed to improve the prediction performance by using the time series features of pavement temperature and meteorological factors. Pavement temperature data and climatic data were collected from a road weather station in Yunnan, China. The results show that the MAE, MSE, and MAPE of the proposed Att-BiLSTM model were 0.330, 0.339, and 10.1%, respectively, which were better than the other baseline models. It was shown that 93.4% of the predicted values had an error less than 1 °C, and 82.1% had an error less than 0.5 °C, indicating that the proposed Att-BiLSTM model enables significant performance improvement. In addition, this paper quantified and analyzed the effects of parameters such as the size of the sliding window, the number of hidden layer neurons, and the optimizer on the performance of the prediction model.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091524
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1525: Increasing Wind Speeds Fuel the Wider
           Spreading of Pollution Caused by Fires over the IGP Region during the
           Indian Post-Monsoon Season

    • Authors: Vinay Kumar, Rupesh Patil, Rohini L. Bhawar, P.R.C. Rahul, Subbarao Yelisetti
      First page: 1525
      Abstract: Every year, forest fires and harvest harnessing produce atmospheric pollution in October and November over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). The fire count data (MODIS) shows a decreasing/increasing trend of fire counts in all confidence ranges in October/November over Northern India. There is a widespread increase in fires with a confidence level above 60 to 80% over the whole Northern Indian region. The Aerosol Optical Index (AOD) also shows an increase with values > 0.7 over the northwestern and IGP regions. There have been some startling results over the lower IGP belt, where there has been increasing trend in AOD during October ~56% and during November, the increase was by a whopping ~116%. However, in November, a slight turning of the winds towards central India might be transporting the AOD towards the central Indian region. Hence, during November, it is inferred that due to the low wind speed over the lower IGP belt and increased fires, the AODs in the polluted air tend to hover for a long time. During recent years from 2010, the winds have become stronger, indicating more transport of AOD is occurring over the lower IGP belt as compared to previous years till 2009, especially in October.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091525
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1526: Air Pollution and Economic Impact from
           Ships Operating in the Port of Varna

    • Authors: Yordan Garbatov, Petar Georgiev
      First page: 1526
      Abstract: The present work develops a multidisciplinary approach for evaluating the air pollution and economic impact from ships operating in the port of Varna. The work collects and analyses automatic identification system (AIS) data of the arriving and queuing dry cargo ships in the seaport of Varna in identifying the statistical descriptors of the length of the ships, gross tonnage (GT), and ship engine power. The queueing theory (QT) is employed to analyse the ship operations in a single queue and is processed by three parallel terminals, satisfying the port regulations. The Gaussian dispersion model (GDM) is adopted to predict the pollution concentration from ships arriving at the seaport, queuing, approaching, waiting, processing at the berth, and departing. The gas emission is estimated as a function of the ship movement trajectory, and the time duration at any stage is defined by QT for the most critical surrounding areas, considering the wind speed, as well as horizontal and vertical dispersion as a function of the location of the ship, accounting for the effective emission height, weather conditions, and speed. To mitigate the potential impact on health, the gas emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and air-borne particles (PM10) generated by ships during the queuing and port operation are evaluated. Potential cleaning measures for any ship are implemented to satisfy the maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) in surrounding areas. The implemented ship pollution cleaning measures and overall ship and terminal operating costs are minimised to identify the most efficient berth operation. The developed approach is flexible and can be used for any particular conditions for ships operating in ports.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091526
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1528: Numerical Investigation on Mixing
           Characteristics and Mechanism of Natural Gas/Air in a Super-Large-Bore
           Dual-Fuel Marine Engine

    • Authors: Long Liu, Shihai Liu, Qian Xia, Bo Liu, Xiuzhen Ma
      First page: 1528
      Abstract: Premixed combustion mode dual-fuel (DF) engines are widely used in large-bore marine engines due to their great potential to solve the problem of CO2 emissions. However, detonation is one of the main problems in the development of marine engines based on the premixed combustion mode, which affects the popularization of liquefied natural gas (LNG) engines. Due to the large bore and long stroke, marine dual-fuel engines have unique flow characteristics and a mixture mechanism of natural gas and air. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to present a simulated investigation on the influence of swirl on multiscale mixing and the concentration field, which provides a new supplement for mass transfer theory and engineering applications. It is suggested that the phenomenon of abnormal combustion occurs on account of the distribution of the mixture being uneven in a super-large-bore dual-fuel engine. Further analysis showed that the level of swirl at the late compression stage and the turbulence intensity are the decisive factors affecting the transmission process of natural gas (NG) and distribution of methane (CH4) concentration. Finally, a strategy of improving mixture quality and the distribution of the mixture was proposed.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091528
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1529: A Circulation Weather Type Analysis of
           Urban Effects on Daily Thermal Range for Milan (Italy)

    • Authors: Giuseppe Colangelo, Giovanni Sanesi, Luigi Mariani, Simone G. Parisi, Gabriele Cola
      First page: 1529
      Abstract: We present a first attempt to analyse the effect of a large urban park (Parco Nord Milano—PNM) on the Urban Heat Island (UHI) of the city area of Milan. Specifically, analysis of the effect of three cyclonic and three anticyclonic circulation weather types (CWTs) on the frequency distribution of the daily thermal range (DTR) of five weather stations in Milan shows the stabilizing effect of the city on the DTR when compared with suburban and rural areas, generating a modal class of 4 °C in winter and 9 °C in summer. In parallel, a temperature transect of the urban park Parco Nord Milano was performed by bicycle during a day of anticyclonic summer weather in order to understand the effect of the park on the UHI. This investigation highlighted the homogenization effect on temperatures induced by the thermal turbulence triggered by intense sunshine.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091529
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1530: Interdecadal Change of Ural Blocking
           Highs and Its Atmospheric Cause in Winter during 1979–2018

    • Authors: Yao Lu, Yan Li, Quan Xia, Qingyi Yang, Chenghai Wang
      First page: 1530
      Abstract: The Ural blocking (UB) high is a weather system closely related to the cold air process during winter, which could trigger extreme cold events in East Asia. By retrieving five single blocking indexes, including accumulation frequency, central latitude, blocking intensity, mean duration and north rim, it is found that the UB in winter occurs more frequently, grows stronger, lasts longer and is located more northward after 2002, compared with 1985–2001. In order to describe the UB comprehensively, a new comprehensive blocking index (CBI) is developed based on the above five blocking indexes. The CBI can also reflect the interdecadal change of UB synthetically. Analysis on the corresponding atmospheric circulation shows that the relationship between the UB and atmospheric circulation, such as the polar vortex and jet, is closer in 2002–2018 than in 1985–2001. Compared with the atmospheric circulation in 1985–2001, the most prominent feature in 2002–2018 is that the intensity of the polar vortex is weaker at 100 hPa, and that the subtropical jet moves northward. Meanwhile, the East Asian trough downstream of the Urals deepens at 500 hPa and the Siberian high strengthens, indicating that the East Asia winter monsoon is stronger during 2002–2018. Further analysis on atmospheric waves and baroclinicity demonstrates that the meridional circulation of planetary waves strengthens, especially the 2-waves, which may increase the frequency of the UB and shift its location northward after 2002. Additionally, the baroclinicity (−𝜕T/𝜕y) in the mid-high latitudes is weakened during winter since 2002, which is also beneficial for the establishment of meridional circulation, causing a stronger intensity and longer duration of the UB.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091530
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1531: Characteristics of Propagation of
           Meteorological to Hydrological Drought for Lake Baiyangdian in a Changing
           Environment

    • Authors: He, Zhang, Huo, Yang
      First page: 1531
      Abstract: The analysis of drought propagation has garnered mounting attention in the changing global environment. The current studies tend to focus on the propagation characteristics from meteorological to hydrological drought in rivers. Lakes, despite being a key component of watershed ecosystems, have received little attention to their response to meteorological and hydrological droughts. To this end, here, we investigated the characteristics of propagation from meteorological to hydrological drought for a lake in a changing environment. To determine the drought propagation time from meteorological to hydrological drought, we analyzed correlations between the standardized precipitation index (SPI), standardized runoff index (SRI), and standardized water level index (SWI). Lake Baiyangdian in China served as the case study. The results showed that meteorological droughts occur at high frequency but are short in duration, indicating that not every meteorological drought will necessarily lead to a hydrological drought. By contrast, lake hydrological droughts have low frequency and long duration and feature more severe consequences. Comparing drought characteristics before and after a changing environment, we found a reduced frequency of the SPI, SRI, and SWI, yet their duration was prolonged. For the SWI especially, these results were even more pronounced, which suggests the changing environment enabled further intensification of the lake hydrological drought. In addition, more time was needed for a meteorological drought to transition into a lake hydrological drought after a changing environment.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091531
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1532: Directivity of Coseismic Ionospheric
           Disturbances Propagation Following the 2016 West Sumatra Earthquake Using
           Three-Dimensional Tomography GNSS-TEC

    • Authors: Mokhamad Nur Cahyadi, Deasy Arisa, Ihsan Naufal Muafiry, Buldan Muslim, Ririn Wuri Rahayu, Meilfan Eka Putra, Mega Wulansari, Bambang Setiadi, Andria Arisal, Pakhrur Razi, Syachrul Arief
      First page: 1532
      Abstract: Ionospheric disturbances caused by the 2016 West Sumatra earthquake have been studied using total electron content (TEC) measurements by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observation stations evenly distributed in Sumatra and Java, Indonesia. Previous observation focused on the coseismic ionospheric disturbances (CID) detected 11–16 min after the earthquake. The maximum TEC amplitude measured was 2.9 TECU (TEC Unit) with speed between 1 and 1.72 km/s. A comprehensive analysis needs to be done to see how the growth and direction of the movement of the CID due to the earthquake is using the 3D tomography method. The dimensions of 3D tomographic model are setup to 1° × 1.2° × 75 km. The continuity constraints were used to stabilize the solution, and multiple resolution tests with synthetic data were conducted to evaluate the precision of the results. This research focuses on the anomalous movement of the ionosphere observed in three dimensions. From the model, the positive anomaly initially appeared 11 min after the earthquake at the altitude of 300 km, which is the highest ionization layer and correspond to the electron density profile using IRI model. The anomalous movement appeared 12 min after the mainshock and moved 1° toward the geomagnetic field every minute. The density anomaly of the ionosphere began to weaken 8 min after the appearance of CID. To check the accuracy of the 3D tomography model, we carried out two types of tests, namely checkerboard resolution test and the second resolution test.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091532
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1527: Regional Predictions of Air Pollution in
           Guangzhou: Preliminary Results and Multi-Model Cross-Validations

    • Authors: Zhi Qiao, Shengcheng Cui, Chenglei Pei, Zhou Ye, Xiaoqing Wu, Lei Lei, Tao Luo, Zihan Zhang, Xuebin Li, Wenyue Zhu
      First page: 1527
      Abstract: A precise air pollution forecast is the basis for targeted pollution control and sustained improvements in air quality. It is desirable and crucial to select the most suitable model for air pollution forecasting (APF). To achieve this goal, this paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of performances of different models in simulating the most common air pollutants (e.g., PM2.5, NO2, SO2, and CO) in Guangzhou (23.13° N, 113.26° E), China. To simulate temporal variations of the above-mentioned air pollutant concentrations in Guangzhou in September and October 2020, we use a numerical forecasting model (i.e., the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem)) and two artificial intelligence models (i.e., the back propagation neural network (BPNN) model and the long short-term memory (LSTM) model). WRF-Chem is also used to simulate the meteorological elements (e.g., the 2 m temperature (T2), 2 m relative humidity (RH), and 10 m wind speed and direction (WS, WD)). In order to investigate the simulation accuracies of classical APF models, we simultaneously compare the simulations of the WRF-Chem, BPNN, and LSTM models to ground truth observations. Comparative assessment results show that WRF-Chem simulated air pollutant (i.e., PM2.5, NO2, SO2, and CO) concentrations have the best correlations with ground measurements (i.e., Pearson correlation coefficient R = 0.88, 0.73, 0.61, and 0.61, respectively). Furthermore, to evaluate model performance in terms of accuracy and stability, the normalized mean bias (NMB, %) and mean fractional bias (MFB, %) are adopted as the standard performance metrics (SPMs) proposed by Boylan et al. The comparison results indicate that when simulating PM2.5, WRF-Chem was more effective than the BPNN but less effective than the LSTM. While simulating concentrations of NO2, SO2, and CO, the WRF-Chem model performed better than the BPNN and LSTM models. With regards to WRF-Chem, the NMBs and MFBs for the PM2.5 simulations are, respectively, 6.49% and 0.02%, –11.96% and –0.031% for NO2, 7.93% and 0.019% for CO, and 5.04% and 0.012% for SO2. Our results suggest that WRF-Chem has superior performance and better accuracy than the NN-based prediction models, making it a promising and useful tool to accurately predict and forecast regional air pollutant concentrations on a city scale.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101527
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1533: The Temporal−Spatial
           Characteristics of Column NO2 Concentration and Influence Factors in
           Xinjiang of Northwestern Arid Region in China

    • Authors: Zhixiang Yu, Xia Li
      First page: 1533
      Abstract: This paper investigates the temporal−spatial characteristics of column NO2 concentration and influence factors in Xinjiang based on the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) aboard the EU/ESA Sentinel−5 Precursor satellite. The findings indicate that there is a high linear correlation between TROPOMI NO2 data and ground-based data, with Yining having the highest correlation (R2 = 0.8132) and Aksu having the lowest correlation (R2 = 0.7307). The TROPOMI NO2 data can be used to approximate the characteristics of near−surface atmospheric NO2 concentration. NO2 VCD in the troposphere varies greatly geographically, with a noticeable ‘island’ pattern. The high−value zones are mostly found on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountain, in the capital cities of several prefectures, and occasionally in the industrial parks. Urumqi has the highest annual average NO2 VCD of 553.9 × 10−6 mol·m−2. The NO2 VCD is characterized by seasonal shifts and cyclical swings of “low in spring, high in winter, and transition in summer and autumn”. The monthly mean value is highest in December (27.14 × 10−6 mol m−2) and lowest in March (12.66 × 10−6 mol m−2). Meteorological factors can influence the temporal and spatial distribution of NO2 VCD. The GRA in Urumqi is 0.774 between the monthly mean of NO2 VCD and relative humidity. The main causes of the increase in NO2 VCD are man-made emissions. The annual GDP of the secondary industry and its annual average NO2 VCD in fifteen key cities in Xinjiang have a correlation coefficient of 0.78. TROPOMI NO2 data can provide strong support for the fine control of air pollution and air quality in early warning forecast in Xinjiang.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101533
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1534: How Photochemically Consumed Volatile
           Organic Compounds Affect Ozone Formation: A Case Study in Chengdu, China

    • Authors: Hefan Liu, Ning Wang, Dongyang Chen, Qinwen Tan, Danlin Song, Fengxia Huang
      First page: 1534
      Abstract: Surface ozone (O3) pollution has not improved significantly in recent years. It is still the primary air pollution problem in many megacities in China during summertime. In high temperature and intense radiation weather, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are easily oxidized and degraded to induce O3 pollution. In order to understand the impact of difference between photochemical initial concentration (PIC) of VOCs and the actual measured concentration on O3 formation, a campaign was carried out during O3 pollution in Chengdu (25 July–5 August 2021). During this O3 pollution episode, the maximum value of O3 concentration reached 335.0 μg/m3, and the precursor concentrations increased significantly. The mean values of VOCmeasured and VOCPICs were 19.7 ppbv and 30.7 ppbv, corresponding to O3 formation potential (OFP) of 175.3 μg/m3 and 478.8 μg/m3, respectively, indicating that the consumption of VOCs content could not be ignored. Alkenes accounted for 77.2% of VOCs consumption. Alkenes and aromatics contributed 63.0% and 29.2% to OFP values which derived from PIC of each VOC species. The relative incremental reactivity analysis based on PICs showed that the O3 formation was controlled by the cooperation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs, and the effect of NOx emission reduction was better.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101534
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1535: Sounding Data from Ground-Based Microwave
           Radiometers for a Hailstorm Case: Analyzing Spatiotemporal Differences and
           Initializing an Idealized Model for Prediction

    • Authors: Rongjun Ma, Xiaofei Li
      First page: 1535
      Abstract: Atmospheric physical sounding data from three ground-based microwave radiometers located in Xi’an were analyzed to explore the temporal and spatial differences of a hailstorm event and were initialized into an idealized Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to predict the total evolution of the event, which occurred on 29 July 2019. Liquid water and relative humidity profiles revealed a consistent sequence of hailstorm intensity among observations from surface meteorological stations and the FY-4A satellite, where the precipitation and cloud top temperature intensified from north to south, corresponding to the locations of the ground-based microwave radiometers in Gaoling, Weiyang, and Chang’an. Compared with those of a similar storm without hail that occurred on 9 August 2018, the humidity profiles and heights at 0 °C and −20 °C exhibited more dramatic changes. The heights at 0 °C and −20 °C obviously increased with a low-value zone in the relative humidity profiles during the strongest stage of the hailstorm in Chang’an and Weiyang. Later, the heights sharply dropped in Chang’an when strong, downward ice-phased hydrometers occurred with hail production in the storm. A time-saving, idealized WRF simulation, initialized with pre-3-h sounding data from ground-based microwave radiometers, was designed to qualitatively predict this hailstorm. The simulations consistently showed a strong-to-weak intensity of storms from Chang’an to Weiyang to Gaoling. Although the first attempt at this model has uncertainties in both the observations and the model, it provides a potential new method for single-point fine hailstorm prediction.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101535
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1536: Estimating FAO Blaney-Criddle b-Factor
           Using Soft Computing Models

    • Authors: Suthira Thongkao, Pakorn Ditthakit, Sirimon Pinthong, Nureehan Salaeh, Ismail Elkhrachy, Nguyen Thi Thuy Linh, Quoc Bao Pham
      First page: 1536
      Abstract: FAO Blaney-Criddle has been generally an accepted method for estimating reference crop evapotranspiration. In this regard, it is inevitable to estimate the b-factor provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Irrigation and Drainage Paper number 24. In this study, five soft computing methods, namely random forest (RF), M5 model tree (M5), support vector regression with the polynomial function (SVR-poly), support vector regression with radial basis function kernel (SVR-rbf), and random tree (RT), were adapted to estimate the b-factor. And Their performances were also compared. The suitable hyper-parameters for each soft computing method were investigated. Five statistical indices were deployed to evaluate their performance, i.e., the coefficient of determination (r2), the mean absolute relative error (MARE), the maximum absolute relative error (MXARE), the standard deviation of the absolute relative error (DEV), and the number of samples with an error greater than 2% (NE > 2%). Findings reveal that SVR-rbf gave the highest performance among five soft computing models, followed by the M5, RF, SVR-poly, and RT. The M5 also derived a new explicit equation for b estimation. SVR-rbf provided a bit lower efficacy than the radial basis function network but outperformed the regression equations. Models’ Applicability for estimating monthly reference evapotranspiration (ETo) was demonstrated.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101536
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1537: The Impact of Traditional Raw Earth
           Dwellings’ Envelope Retrofitting on Energy Saving: A Case Study from
           Zhushan Village, in West of Hunan, China

    • Authors: Liang Xie, Zhe Li, Jiayu Li, Guanglei Yang, Jishui Jiang, Zhezheng Liu, Shuyuan Tong
      First page: 1537
      Abstract: This study presents the CO2 emissions and energy performance of traditional raw earth dwellings’ envelope retrofitting located in the Zhushan Village, western Hunan Province, China. The numerical simulations of heating energy consumption on the building models were performed using DesignBuilder, an energy simulation program. The energy performance was evaluated using the indexes (including energy consumption, CO2 emissions, heat balance analysis, and air temperature profiles). The detailed evaluation process of the energy performance is presented as follows. First, the current situation was analyzed through the field research, and two typical building models were built. Second, all schemes were simulated using the DesignBuilder software. Subsequently, the four main retrofit measures (replacing the external insulation windows, setting the external wall insulation layer, setting the roof insulation layer, and setting the ceiling insulation layer) were analyzed, respectively. The optimal parameters of the respective retrofit measure were calculated. Lastly, a multi-objective optimization analysis was conducted on all retrofit plans using the coupling method. In the winter, the results indicated that the “I-shape” dwelling heat consumption of the enclosure structure was reduced by 12.8 kW·h/m2, and the CO2 emissions were reduced by 882.8 kg. While in the benchmark building, the results showed that the “L-shape” dwelling heat consumption of the enclosure structure was decreased by 13.27 kW·h/m2, and the CO2 emissions were reduced by 894.4 kg. As the renewal scheme has been progressively implemented, the whole Zhushan Village will save energy by 11.2 × 104 kW·h after the insulation renewal of the envelope structure is completed.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101537
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1538: Testing Filter-Based Air Cleaners with
           Surrogate Particles for Viruses and Exhaled Droplets

    • Authors: Stefan Schumacher, Arantxa Banda Sanchez, Anna Caspari, Katharina Staack, Christof Asbach
      First page: 1538
      Abstract: Indoor air cleaners can contribute to reducing infection risks by the filtration of virus-carrying droplets. There are various national standards to test indoor air cleaners that determine the clean air delivery rate (CADR), but typically only as a size-integrated value for particles >0.3 μm. Thus, a test method using potassium chloride (KCl) and paraffin as surrogate particles in the size range of viruses and exhaled droplets was developed. We show that air cleaners with fibrous and electrostatic filters are generally capable of reducing the airborne particle concentrations. However, for electret filters, the performance can strongly degrade over time by being loaded with particles. By comparing filters with different efficiencies in the same air cleaner, we demonstrate that the use of high-efficiency filters can be even at the expense of the cleaning efficacy. We developed a mathematical model to estimate the inhaled dose of viruses and show that the combination of natural venting and an air cleaner can lead to a substantial reduction of the infection risk.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101538
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1539: Influence of the Geographic Channel
           Effect on PM2.5 Concentrations over the Taipei Basin in Relation to
           Continental High-Pressure Systems during Winter

    • Authors: Li-Wei Lai, Chuan-Yao Lin
      First page: 1539
      Abstract: In addition to the Taiwan Strait, the geographical channel effect (GCE) has been observed in the Taipei Basin during winters. This study explored the potential links amongst GCE phenomena in the basin, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) events, and position of the continental high-pressure system (CHPS). Principal component analysis was applied to classify the CHPS distribution patterns influencing PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological parameters in the Taipei metropolis. In addition, non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis and Dwass–Steel–Critchlow–Fligner tests were applied to compare the parameters amongst distinct groups. Moreover, track analysis was utilised to trace the trajectories of air masses. The merged Dark Target Aerosol Angstrom Exponent (Ocean), Deep Blue Aerosol Angstrom Exponent (Land), and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) 3 km (Land and Ocean) of Terra/MODIS and Aqua/MODIS were used to confirm the connection of long-range PM2.5 transport. Two features in the atmospheric environment induce double GCEs: (1) wind direction below 90° in most of the upwind area of the Taisumi and Xindian River Basins; (2) CHPS centres moved across 110° E. Double GCEs can reduce the magnitude of PM2.5 air pollution and shape the distribution of PM2.5; however, they cannot prevent PM2.5 events.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101539
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1540: Cost–Benefit Analysis of
           Synergistic CO2 and NOx Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Road
           Transport Sector in China

    • Authors: Liying Ping, Yuan Wang, Lien-Chieh Lee, Binbin Peng, Bushra Y. Ahmed, Hongyu Zhang, Wenchao Ma
      First page: 1540
      Abstract: The transportation sector is a major source of greenhouse gases and air pollutants, and it has a crucial effect on the synergistic reduction of NOx and carbon. In order to find the energy-efficient vehicle technologies with the highest net reduction potential and lowest net reduction cost over the life cycle, this study traced the CO2 and NOx emission streams of 33 energy-efficient technologies, hidden in the supply chain during the production phase, through structural path analysis, and measured the emission reductions during the use phase using the emission factor method. Moreover, we applied structural decomposition analysis to quantify the three main drivers, including emission intensity, industrial structure, and final demand, of changes in CO2 and NOx emissions from 11 transport subsectors during 2012–2018. Results indicate that CO2 emissions of the transport sector more than doubled from 2012 to 2018; however, the influence of NOx was less significant. The final demand of the road subsector was the most significant driver contributing to CO2 emission changes, with an increase of 109.27 Mt. The emission intensity of road transportation caused the greatest mitigation effect on NOx emission changes, with a decrease of 1902 Kt. The findings of the scenario analysis demonstrate that the most efficient action of the pure electric technology for passenger cars reduces 20.92 Mt NOx emissions, and the parallel hybrid technology for heavy trucks offers the greatest cost effectiveness with a net abatement of 2577 Mt CO2 over its life cycle. Consequently, the aggressive development of new energy technology has become a prerequisite strategy to synergistically reduce CO2 and NOx emissions.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101540
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1541: Relationships between Mass Level of
           Allergenic Platanus acerifolia Protein 3 (Pla a3) and Redox Trace Elements
           in the Size-Resolved Particles in Shanghai Atmosphere

    • Authors: Senlin Lu, Teng Ma, Lu Zhang, Yule Feng, Shumin Zhou, Wei Zhang, Shinichi Yonemochi, Xinchun Liu, Enyoh Christian Ebere, Weiqian Wang, Qingyue Wang
      First page: 1541
      Abstract: Allergenic pollen protein can be released from pollen grains and suspended in the air to cause allergenic reactions. However, the allergenic protein and its relationship with redox trace elements in ambient size-resolved particles has not been reported. Ambient size-resolved particles in Shanghai’s atmosphere were sampled during the Platanus pollen season in the spring season of 2017. Planatus pollen protein 3 (Pla a3) and redox trace elements in the ambient particles were investigated and their relationship was analyzed. Our data demonstrated that the mass level of the Pla a3 in the size-resolved particles ranged from 0.41 ± 0.28 to 7.46 ± 2.23 pg/m3, and decreased with the size range. Mass concentrations (ppb) of crustal elements (Fe, Al, Ca, Mg, Na) in the size-resolved particles ranged from 20.11 ± 9.87 to 1126.22 ± 659.51, while trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb) varied from 0.05 ± 0.03 to 57.53 ± 19.7. Mass levels of these trace elements decreased according to particle size. The Abundance of redox trace elements, including Fe (R2 = 0.82), Mn (R2 = 0.54), Cu (R2 = 0.61), Ba (R2 = 0.82), and Pb (R2 = 0.82) in the size-resolved particles was significantly related to that of Pla a3, and our data implied redox trace elements might take syngenetic effects on the allergenicity induced by Pla a3 protein.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101541
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1542: Research on the Spatiotemporal
           Characteristics and Concentration Prediction Model of PM2.5 during Winter
           in Jiangbei New District, Nanjing, China

    • Authors: Yuanxi Li, Zhongzheng Zhu, Chengrui Xin, Zhilong Chen, Sunyuan Wang, Zhenyu Liang, Xiuguo Zou
      First page: 1542
      Abstract: Accurate prediction of PM2.5 concentration is one of the key tasks of air pollution assessment, early warning, and treatment. In this paper, four monitoring sites were arranged in Jiangbei New District of Nanjing City, China. The environmental parameters such as PM2.5/PM10 concentration, temperature, and humidity were monitored from January to February 2020. A gated recurrent unit (GRU) network based on the PM2.5 concentration prediction model was established to predict PM2.5 concentration. The mean relative error (MRE), root mean square error (RMSE), and Pearson correlation coefficient were selected as the evaluation criteria for the accuracy of the GRU model. The data set was divided into a training set, a test set and a validation set at a ratio of 7:2:1, and the GRU model was used to predict the hourly value of PM2.5 concentration in the next week. The prediction results show that the Pearson correlation coefficients between the predicted values and the monitored values of the four monitoring sites have reached more than 0.9, reflecting a strong correlation. The relative average errors are around 10%. The GRU model prediction of NJAU (Nanjing Agricultural University)-Pukou Campus Site is the most accurate, and the correlation coefficient, MRE, and RMSE are 0.970, 7.85%, and 9.6049, respectively, reflecting the good prediction performance of the model. Therefore, this research supports the prediction of air quality in different cities and regions, so people can take protective measures in advance and reduce the damage caused by air pollution to human bodies.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101542
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1543: CFD-Based Numerical Simulation on the
           Combined Spraying Dust Suppression Device

    • Authors: Shitu Mo, Pengfei Wang, Runze Gao, Shiqiang Chen, Shilin Li
      First page: 1543
      Abstract: Spraying for dust suppression is a conventional technological means for industrial dust control. The traditional spraying technique shows a few shortcomings, including low dust suppression efficiency, great water consumption, and failure in far-distance dust suppression. This study proposed a novel combined spraying dust suppression device and established the related physical model and mathematical model. Using the CFD numerical simulation method, the basic characteristics of the airflow field and spray field around the device and the related influencing factors were investigated in depth. Results showed that the Coanda effect appeared near the wall surface in the air duct when the combined spraying dust suppression device was operated. Under this effect, negative pressure formed at the center of the device. The velocity of the combined device showed a symmetrical distribution and decayed steadily downward from the outlet of the device. An obvious stratification can be observed in the spray field. The mean droplet size first increased and then decreased along the airflow direction. Meanwhile, the effects of the air supply pressure and water supply pressure were examined. On the one hand, the velocity of the combined spraying dust suppression device and the spraying range were in direct proportion with the air supply pressure. As the air supply pressure increased, the droplet size first increased and then decreased. On the other hand, increasing the water supply pressure imposed almost no effect on the airflow field of the combined spraying dust suppression device but can reduce the droplet size and enhance the spraying range.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101543
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1544: Influence of Karst Reservoir Capacity on
           Flood in Lijiang Basin Based on Modified HEC-HMS through Soil Moisture
           Accounting Loss

    • Authors: Dai, Rad, Xu, Wan, Li, Pan, Shahab
      First page: 1544
      Abstract: The objective of this work was to modify the HEC-HMS flood prediction for the karstic watershed of the Lijiang River, South China, through the quantitative inclusion into the model of the available reservoir capacity of karst (ARCK) as a case study. Due to the complexities caused by hidden drainage networks in karst hydrology, as a new approach, soil moisture accounting loss was used to reflect the ARCK in flood forecasting. The soil moisture loss was analyzed against daily rainfall runoff data across 1.5 years by using an artificial neural network via phyton programming. Through the correlations found among the amounts of soil moisture and river flow fluctuations in response to precipitation and its intervals, coefficients were introduced to the model for output modifications. ARCK analysis revealed that while heavy rainfalls with longer intervals (i.e., 174 mm/2d after 112 days of the dry season) may not cause considerable changes in the river flow magnitude (0.1–0.64 higher owing to high ARCK), relatively small rainfalls with higher frequency (i.e., 83 mm/4d during the wet season) can cause drastic raise of river flow (10–20 times greater at different stations) due to lower ARCK. Soil moisture accounting loss coefficients did enhance the model’s simulated hydrographs accuracy (NSE) up to 16% on average as compared to the initial forecasting via real data. However, the modifications were valid for flood events within a few years from the soil moisture observation period. Our result suggested that the inclusion of ARCK in modeling through soil moisture accounting loss can lead to increased prediction accuracy through consistent monitoring.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101544
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1545: Estimation of Sensible and Latent Heat
           Fluxes Using Flux Variance Method under Unstable Conditions: A Case Study
           of Tea Plants

    • Authors: Noman Ali Buttar, Hu Yongguang, Josef Tanny, Ali Raza, Yasir Niaz, Muhammad Imran Khan, Naeem Saddique, Abid Sarwar, Ahmad Azeem, Fiaz Ahmed, Muhammad Bilal Idrees
      First page: 1545
      Abstract: Evapotranspiration is essential for precise irrigation and water resource management. Previous literature suggested that eddy covariance (EC) systems could directly measure evapotranspiration in agricultural fields. However, the eddy covariance method remains difficult for routine use, due to its high cost, operational complexity, and relatively multifaceted raw data processing. An alternative method is the flux variance (FV) method, which can estimate the sensible heat flux using high-frequency air temperature measurements by fine-wire thermocouples, at relatively low-cost and with less complexity. Additional measurements of the net radiation and soil heat flux permit the extraction of latent heat flux through the energy balance closure equation. This study examined the performance of the FV method and the results were compared against direct eddy covariance measurements. Data were collected from September 2020 to August 2021, covering seasonal variations. Due to the method’s limitation, only the data under unstable conditions were used for the analysis and days with rainfall were omitted. The results showed that the FV-estimated sensible heat flux was in good agreement with that of eddy covariance in the seasons of winter 2020 and summer 2021. The best agreement between the estimated and measured sensible heat fluxes was observed in the summer, with R2 = 0.83, RMSE = 34.97 Wm−2 and RE = 8.20%. The FV extracted latent heat flux was in good agreement with that measured by EC for both seasons. The best result was obtained in the summer, with R2 = 0.92, RMSE = 23.12 Wm−2, and RE = 6.37%. Overall estimations of sensible and latent heat fluxes by the FV method were in close relation with the eddy covariance data.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101545
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1546: Physical Formation Mechanisms of the
           Southwest China Vortex

    • Authors: Liu, Li, Liu, Ye
      First page: 1546
      Abstract: On the basis of the Prandtl boundary layer theory and an improved perturbation method, the process of laminar flow bifurcating into the Southwest China vortex (SWV) in the Hengduan Mountains is studied. The results show that the formation of SWV is mainly determined by the speed of incoming airflow in the direction of the main axis of the Hengduan Mountains. The vortex is generated in the leeward area of the HengduanMountains when the speed of incoming airflow is greater than the critical velocity. Moreover, it means that the laminar flow bifurcates into a vortex. The formation position of the SWV is mainly determined by the relative position of the incoming airflow in the windward area of the Hengduan Mountains and the main axis of the Hengduan Mountains. The seasonal distribution of SWVs is determined by both the velocity of the incoming airflow and the relative position of the incoming airflow to the main axis of the Hengduan Mountains. These findings are consistent with the SWV observation facts, which not only adequately explain the physical formation mechanisms and processes of SWVs, but also present the formation location and seasonal distribution of SWVs. Meanwhile, a solution from laminar to vortex in circumflow motion is also presented.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101546
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1547: Editorial for the Special Issue
           “Atmospheric Composition and Regional Climate Studies in
           Bulgaria”

    • Authors: Kostadin Ganev, Georgi Gadzhev
      First page: 1547
      Abstract: The Special Issue “Atmospheric composition and regional climate studies in Bulgaria” is focused on the following two problems, which are of great societal and scientific importance: [...]
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101547
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1548: Evaluation of Urban Canopy Models against
           Near-Surface Measurements in Houston during a Strong Frontal Passage

    • Authors: Eric A. Hendricks, Jason C. Knievel
      First page: 1548
      Abstract: Urban canopy models (UCMs) in mesoscale numerical weather prediction models need evaluation to understand biases in urban environments under a range of conditions. The authors evaluate a new drag formula in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model’s multilayer UCM, the Building Effect Parameterization combined with the Building Energy Model (BEP+BEM), against both in-situ measurements in the urban environment as well as simulations with a simple bulk scheme and BEP+BEM using the old drag formula. The new drag formula varies with building packing density, while the old drag formula is constant. The case study is a strong cold frontal passage that occurred in Houston during the winter of 2017, causing high winds. It is found that both BEP+BEM simulations have lower peak wind speeds, consistent with near-surface measurements, while the bulk simulation has winds that are too strong. The constant-drag BEP+BEM simulation has a near-zero wind speed bias, while the new-drag simulation has a negative bias. Although the focus is on the impact of drag on the urban wind speeds, both BEP+BEM simulations have larger negative biases in the near-surface temperature than the bulk-scheme simulation. Reasons for the different performances are discussed.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101548
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1549: Contrasts in the Evolution and
           Microphysical Features of Two Convective Systems during a Heavy Rainfall
           Event along the Coast of South China

    • Authors: Ye, Liu, Pu, Li, Xia, Xu
      First page: 1549
      Abstract: On 1 June 2021, a heavy rainstorm hit the coast of South China (148.6 mm in 1 h, 361 mm over 12 h). The storm process was successively affected by two convective systems (CSs). The initial convection of the two CSs occurred at a similar location; however, they subsequently showed different evolution characteristics. Based on multi-source data, including dual-polarimetric radars, wind profiling radars, sounding, and automatic weather stations, we explored the differences in the key characteristics of these two CSs. It was found that the convection was initially triggered at a similar location for both CSs, closely related to the mesoscale boundary and the hilly terrain. After formation, CS1 moved eastward to the regions with lower surface temperature and weaker lower-level convergence but similar humidity, which means the environmental conditions for sustaining the CS became less favorable. As a result, CS1 dissipated rapidly and only lasted for about 90 min, resulting in 5% of the total precipitation of the overall storm. In contrast, during the lifespan of CS2, the southerly wind over the South China Sea became stronger. This caused an intense lower-level convergence zone along the coastal region of Guangdong Province, which provided favorable dynamic conditions for maintaining CS2. Favored by the strong coastal convergence and abundant moisture, new convective cells (CCs) were generated continuously and merged with CS2, acting as another favorable condition for its sustainment. Overall, CS2 lasted for 8 h, and its precipitation accounted for 95% of the total rainfall. In CS1, CCs showed a notable evaporation process below 4 km, manifested by the large raindrops. However, in CS2, the CCs had a higher concentration of small raindrops and higher ice and liquid water content. Since CS2 was close to the coastal region, the warm local environment promoted convection, leading to intense precipitation. In addition, the riming and melting processes were active, leading to a high precipitation efficiency and strong local precipitation during a short period of time.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101549
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1550: Arctic Stratosphere Dynamical Processes
           in the Winter 2021–2022

    • Authors: Pavel N. Vargin, Andrey V. Koval, Vladimir V. Guryanov
      First page: 1550
      Abstract: The Arctic stratosphere winter season of 2021–2022 was characterized by a stable, cold stratospheric polar vortex with a volume of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) close to the maximum values since 1980, before the beginning of minor sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events in the late February and early March and major SSW on 20 March. Analysis of dynamical processes of the Arctic stratosphere using reanalysis data indicates that the main reasons for the strengthening of the stratospheric polar vortex in January–February are the minimum propagation of planetary wave activity from the troposphere to the stratosphere over the past 40 years and its reflection in the upper stratosphere–lower mesosphere in the second half of January. The first minor SSW was limited to the upper polar stratosphere, whereas the second one propagated to the middle and lower stratosphere and led to the disappearance of the PSC, which prevented significant ozone depletion. Both minor and major SSW events led to a weakening of the residual meridional circulation in the upper Arctic stratosphere and its intensification in the middle and lower stratosphere, which contributed to additional warming of the subpolar region and weakening of the polar vortex.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101550
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1551: Depolarization Ratio for Randomly
           Oriented Ice Crystals of Cirrus Clouds

    • Authors: Natalia Kustova, Alexander Konoshonkin, Victor Shishko, Dmitry Timofeev, Ilya Tkachev, Zhenzhu Wang, Anatoli Borovoi
      First page: 1551
      Abstract: The depolarization ratio and backscattering cross sections have been calculated for shapes and size of ice crystals that are typical in cirrus clouds. The calculations are performed in the physical-optics approximation. It is shown that the depolarization ratio approaches some constant when the size of the crystals becomes much larger than the incident wavelength. For the transparent ice crystals, when absorption is absent, the magnitude of this constant strongly depends on crystal shapes. This fact allows inferring the crystal shape from magnitudes of the depolarization ratio in lidar signals. For the lidar wavelengths, where absorption of light is considerable, the depolarization ratio of lidar signals can be used for inferring crystal sizes. Such results are important for the development of algorithms interpreting the signals obtained by both ground-based and space-borne lidars.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101551
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1552: Satellite Support to Estimate Livestock
           Ammonia Emissions: A Case Study in Hebei, China

    • Authors: Liu, Ding, Ji, Xu, Liu, Xiao, Jin, Zhong, Guo, Wang, Liu
      First page: 1552
      Abstract: Ammonia (NH3) is an important precursor of secondary inorganic aerosols that affect air quality and human health. Livestock production is an essential source of NH3 emissions, which exceeded half of the total NH3 emissions in China. However, our understanding of the livestock point NH3 emissions is still limited, due to the lack of both monitoring and statistical data. In this study, we established a satellite-based approach to estimating livestock point NH3 emissions by combining satellite observations and digital maps of points-of-interest (POI). Taking a case study in Hebei province over China, 1267 livestock points were identified. The point livestock NH3 emissions in 2020 ranged from 16.8 to 126.6 kg N ha−1 yr−1, with an average emission of 42.0 kg N ha−1 yr−1. The livestock NH3 emissions in Hebei showed an overall increasing trend, with a growth rate of 5.8% yr−1 between 2008 and 2020. In terms of seasonal changes, high livestock NH3 emissions mainly occurred in spring and summer, while low NH3 emissions were generally in autumn and winter. Satellite-derived point livestock NH3 emissions in Hebei were 2–4 times that of bottom-up NH3 emissions (EDGAR), suggesting that current used bottom-up emissions underestimated point livestock NH3 emissions. This study proposed a framework for the satellite-based estimation of livestock NH3 emissions, which is of great significance for relevant N management and NH3 emission reduction policy formulation.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101552
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1553: Impact of Aviation Emissions and its
           Changes Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic on Air Quality in South Korea

    • Authors: Yoonbae Chung, Young Sunwoo
      First page: 1553
      Abstract: This study analyzed the impact of aviation emissions based on the 2017 CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System) data. We focused on major airports in South Korea and examined the concentration of NO2 and PM2.5 by the WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ modeling system. Furthermore, the number of flights in Korea greatly declined in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. To assess the impact of COVID-19 on aviation emissions, time resolution data were newly derived and air pollutant emissions for 2020 were calculated. Additional BAU (Business as Usual) emissions were calculated as well for comparison. Among airports in Korea, RKSI (Incheon International Airport) had the greatest impact on air quality in nearby areas. Changes in emissions due to COVID-19 showed a large deviation by airports for domestic emissions while international emissions had a consistent decrease. The reduced emissions had the strongest impact on air quality in the RKSI area as well. By analyzing aviation emissions due to COVID-19, this study confirmed the notable relationship with the pandemic and air quality. We conclusively recommend that policymakers and industry take note of trends in aviation emissions while establishing future atmospheric environment plans.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101553
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1554: Using Low-Cost Sensors to Assess PM2.5
           

    • Authors: Esmeralda Mendez, Owen Temby, Dawid Wladyka, Katarzyna Sepielak, Amit U. Raysoni
      First page: 1554
      Abstract: Low-cost sensors have been used considerably to characterize air pollution in the last few years. This study involves the usage of this technology for the first time to assess PM2.5 pollution at four cities on the U.S.–Mexico border. These cities in the Lower Rio Grande Valley Region of South Texas are Brownsville, Edinburg, Weslaco, and Port Isabel. A year-long sampling campaign was undertaken from 1 March 2021 to 31 March 2022. TSI BlueSky™ Air Quality Monitors were deployed concurrently at 11 different locations in these four cities. Twenty-four-hour PM2.5 concentrations from these sensors were then compared with ambient PM2.5 data available at the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) Continuous Ambient Monitoring Station (CAMS) sites to elucidate spatial and temporal variability in the pollutant concentrations at the neighborhood level. The results indicate low to moderate spatial heterogeneity in the PM2.5 concentrations throughout the region. Our findings suggest that low-cost sensors in combination with CAMS sites have the potential to aid community monitoring for real-time spatiotemporal PM2.5 pollution patterns.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101554
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1555: Effects of Effective Precipitation and
           Accumulated Temperature on the Terrestrial EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index)
           in the Yellow River Basin, China

    • Authors: Huiliang Wang, Linpo He, Jun Yin, Zhilei Yu, Simin Liu, Denghua Yan
      First page: 1555
      Abstract: To identify the vegetation dynamics and relationship with the hydrothermal conditions in the Yellow River basin (YRB), the spatial–temporal variations of EVI, effective precipitation (Epr), accumulated temperature (At), and their relationships were obtained based on the MODIS EVI data and meteorological data from the YRB during 2001–2020. The results indicate that EVI trends increased during 2001 to 2020, especially in the farmland, forestland, and grassland ecosystems. Epr and At have also increased over the last 20 years. Epr mostly increased faster in the grassland, and water bodies and wetland ecosystems. At mostly increased faster in the water bodies and wetland, desert, and forest ecosystems. Affected by Epr and At, the correlation between the EVI and hydrothermal conditions varied under different hydrothermal conditions. Compared to the At, the Epr was the restrictive factor for the EVI variations in the terrestrial ecosystem in the YRB. In addition, the dynamical thresholds of the EVI, Epr, and At were confirmed. This study can improve the understanding of vegetation variations and their response to regional climate change, which is critical for ecological conservation and the high-quality development of the YRB.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101555
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1556: Characteristics Analysis of the
           Multi-Channel Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Observations during
           Various Weather Conditions

    • Authors: Meng Liu, Yan-An Liu, Jiong Shu
      First page: 1556
      Abstract: Ground-based multi-channel microwave radiometers (MWRs) can continuously detect atmospheric profiles in the tropospheric atmosphere. This makes MWR an ideal tool to supplement radiosonde and satellite observations in monitoring the thermodynamic evolution of the atmosphere and improving numerical weather prediction (NWP) through data assimilation. The analysis of product characteristics of MWR is the basis for applying its data to real-time monitoring and assimilation. In this paper, observations from the latest generation of ground-based multi-channel MWR RPG-HATPRO-G5 installed in Shanghai, China, are compared with the radiosonde observations (RAOB) observed in the same location. The detection performance, characteristics of various channels, and the accuracy of the retrieval profile products of the MWR RPG are comprehensively evaluated during various weather conditions. The results show that the brightness temperatures (BTs) observed by the ground-based MWR RPG during precipitation conditions were high, which affected its detection performance. The bias and the standard deviation (SD) between the BT observed by MWR RPG and the simulated BT during clear and cloudy sky conditions were slight and large, respectively, and the coefficient of determination (R2) was high and low, respectively. However, when the cloud liquid water (CLW) information was added when simulating BT, the bias and the SD of the observed BT and the simulated BT during cloudy days were reduced and the R2 value improved, which indicated that CLW information should be taken into account when simulating BT during cloudy conditions. The temperature profiles of the MWR retrieval had the same accuracy of RMSEs (root-mean-square error) with heights during both clear-sky and cloudy sky conditions, where the RMSEs were below 2 K when the heights were below 4 km. In addition, the MWR RPG has the potential ability to retrieve the temperature inversion in the boundary layer, which has important application value for fog and air pollution monitoring.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101556
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1557: The Importance of Cumulus
           Parameterization and Resolution in Simulating Rainfall over Peninsular
           Malaysia

    • Authors: Abdul Azim Amirudin, Ester Salimun, Muhamad Zuhairi, Fredolin Tangang, Liew Juneng, Mohd Syazwan Faisal Mohd, Jing Xiang Chung
      First page: 1557
      Abstract: In this study, five simulations were conducted using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model with different cumulus parameterizations schemes (CPSs) for the period from 2013 until 2018. A one-year simulation of 2013 with three different horizontal resolutions of 25, 5, and 1.6 km was also performed. The CPSs used were Kain–Fritsch (KF), Grell–Devenyi (GR), Betts–Miller–Janjic (BM), and a non-parameterized scheme (NC). In assessments of model resolutions, both the 25 and 5 km resolutions depicted a strong negative bias in the northeastern part of Peninsular Malaysia during December–January–February (DJF), with marginal differences between the two simulations. Among all 5 km experiments, the best performing scheme was the BM scheme for almost all seasons. Furthermore, the 5 km simulation did not exhibit significant differences relative to the 25 km of the diurnal cycle. The 1.6 km simulation showed significant added value as it was the only simulation that was able to simulate the high precipitation intensity in the morning and a precipitation peak during the evening. The 1.6 km resolution was also the only resolution capable of picking up the precipitation signals in the R4 region (South Peninsular Malaysia) compared to the other two resolutions. While both CPSs and resolutions are important for accurate predictions, the role of CPSs became less significant in a higher resolution simulation.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101557
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1558: Potential Strong Inhibition on Ozone
           Production Sensitivity by Particle Uptake

    • Authors: Xinliang Cheng, Liqiang Wang, Lijuan Fang, Shiyan Chen, Xin Zhou, Jingjun Ma, Yuqing Pan, Pengfei Li
      First page: 1558
      Abstract: The accurate identification of ozone (O3) production sensitivity is central to developing O3 pollution control policies. It is determined by the relative ratio of the radical loss to the total primary radical production. However, such radical losses in the traditional sensitivity analysis typically rely on nitrogen oxide (NOx) sinks while ignoring particle uptake (collisions between compounds in the gas phase and condensed phases that result in irreversible uptake due to chemical reactions). Therefore, we combine NOx and particle uptakes to optimize peroxy radical loss estimates and thus analyze the relative sensitivity. We also assess the absolute responses of precursor reduction to O3 production. Such relative and absolute sensitivity analysis is applied to measurements in Chun’an, a county in China, where volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NOx are both rich. Consequently, the relative sensitivity analysis presents that the dominant precursor for O3 production sensitivity shifts from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the morning and evening to NOx in the afternoon, the main driver of which is related to NO depletion. In contrast, the absolute sensitivity analysis confirms that VOCs persistently determine the diurnal ozone production sensitivity. Moreover, they both show that particle uptake does not change the regime classification of O3 production sensitivity (i.e., VOC- or NOx-sensitive regime) but potentially has a strong inhibition on the sensitivity magnitude (within 16% and 38% for VOC- or NOx-sensitive regimes, respectively). Our results partly explain more insensitive O3 production measurements than those suggested by traditional sensitivity analyses, which has important implications for synergistic controls on O3 and fine particulate matter pollution.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101558
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1559: Application of Empirical Orthogonal
           Function Analysis to 1 km Ensemble Simulations and Himawari–8
           Observation in the Intensification Phase of Typhoon Hagibis (2019)

    • Authors: Akiyoshi Wada, Masahiro Hayashi, Wataru Yanase
      First page: 1559
      Abstract: An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was performed for the inner core of Typhoon Hagibis (2019) in the intensification phase. The Himawari–8 geostationary infrared (IR) brightness temperature (BT) collocated at the Hagibis’s center was combined with the IR BT simulated by a radiative transfer model, with 1 km ensemble simulations conducted by an atmosphere model and the coupled atmosphere–wave–ocean model. The ensemble simulations were conducted under one control atmospheric initial condition and the 26 perturbed ones with two different oceanic initial conditions. The first four EOF modes showed symmetric and asymmetric patterns such as a curved band, cloud dense overcast, and eye pattern used in the classification of the Dvorak technique. The influence of ocean coupling on the modes appeared only in the early intensification phase but was relatively small compared to the difference from the Himawari–8 observations. While ocean coupling and different oceanic initial condition quantitatively affected the IR BT, the normalized amplitude for the first EOF mode did not become close to that of the Himawari–8 observation in the late intensification phase. The intensification rate in the late intensification phase was inconsistent between the simulation results and the estimate from the Himawari–8 normalized amplitude by multiple linear regression analysis.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101559
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1560: Measurement of Indoor-Outdoor Carbonyls
           in Three Different Universities Located in the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico
           Valley during the First Period of Confinements Due to COVID-19

    • Authors: Rocío García, Sandra Silva Gómez, Gema Andraca, Ricardo Torres Jardón, Agustín García Reynoso, Julia Griselda Cerón, Rosa María Cerón, Violeta Mugica Alvarez
      First page: 1560
      Abstract: Carbonyl concentrations in indoor-outdoor air were measured at three urban sites in the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico Valley (MZMV) during the first period of confinements due to COVID-19; the exposure for people living in indoor environments was also assessed. Indoor and outdoor samples were simultaneously collected sequentially with Sep-Pack DNPH-Silica cartridges. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde and acrolein were quantified according to the US-EPA TO-11A method. Acrolein and acetone were the most abundant carbonyls in indoor air, with average concentrations of 55.5 µg m−3 and 46.4 µg m−3, respectively, followed by formaldehyde (29.1 µg m−3), acetaldehyde (21.4 µg m−3) and butyraldehyde (7.31 µg m−3). Propionaldehyde was not detected. Acetone was the dominant carbonyl in outdoor samples with an average concentration of 8.4 µg m−3, followed by formaldehyde (2.8 µg m−3) and acetaldehyde (0.7 µg m−3). Butyraldehyde and acrolein were not detected in outdoor air. Indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios showed that indoor sources prevail for most aldehydes. Statistical analysis of simple correlations showed that the measured carbonyls were influenced by the presence of indoor sources. The average cancer risk coefficients (LTCR) for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde and the non-cancer risk coefficients (HQ) for acrolein and formaldehyde were higher than the recommended limits, which should be a cause for public concern.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-24
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101560
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1561: Temporal Variability of Temperature,
           Precipitation and Drought Indices in Hyper-Arid Region of Northwest China
           for the Past 60 Years

    • Authors: Jing He, Boshan Li, Yang Yu, Lingxiao Sun, Haiyan Zhang, Ireneusz Malik, Malgorzata Wistuba, Ruide Yu
      First page: 1561
      Abstract: The temporal variability and abrupt change analysis of temperature and precipitation in Turpan was investigated and examined based on a monthly data set of temperature, precipitation and drought indices (1960–2019) from three meteorological stations over the study area. The Yamamoto method, Mann–Kendall test, Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation Evaporation Index (SPEI), and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) were applied to reveal temperature, precipitation and drought indices trends in their annual volumes. The conclusions were as follows: (1) in the past 60 years, the annual average temperature in the Turpan region has increased at a rate of 0.33 °C·(10a)−1. Whereas the temperature has accelerated since the 1980s, the annual average minimum temperature has increased more than the annual average maximum temperature, and the temperature difference between winter and summer has increased since the 1990s. (2) The inter-annual, inter-decadal and normal value changes in precipitation in the Turpan region and its three meteorological stations indicated a decreasing trend during 1960–2019. Though the normal value of summer and autumn precipitation decreased and increased as a whole, the normal values of spring, summer, winter and annual precipitation in the Turpan region displayed downward trends. (3) Abrupt changes in temperature were observed in the mid-1990s, and abrupt changes in precipitation were not obvious. (4) The SPI and RDI responded quickly to precipitation and temperature, and the overall characteristics of dry and wet trend changes were consistent. When the SPEI considered the combined effect of temperature and precipitation, the SPI and SPEI are better correlated, and the SPI and RDI are better correlated than the SPEI and RDI. On the whole, the occurrence of drought has obvious regional and seasonal characteristics. These conclusions not only provide scientific data for sustainable development in Turpan but also offer scientific information to further understand the trends and periodicity of climate change and drought conditions in hyper-arid regions around the world.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-24
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101561
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1562: Ozone-Induced Lung and Bronchial Injury:
           A Mouse Model Study

    • Authors: Shi Liang, Yan Sha, Chuanhong Yang, Huangwen Lai, Chong Sun, Weisen Zhao, An Zhang, Qingwen Qi, Ying Xie
      First page: 1562
      Abstract: Ozone pollution is a prominent public health issue, but there are few studies on the effect of ozone on the ultrastructure of respiratory system; we conducted this research. Exposed to 1.1 ppm O3 4 h per day, the mice lungs and bronchi were taken on the 15th or 30th day. The sections stained with HE and immunohistochemical streptavidin–peroxidase methods for NQO1, Nrf2, and Keap1 were observed and measured under the optical microscope. TEM was used for ultrastructure observation. The animals’ serums were detected for CRP and IL-6 levels. The HE-stained sections showed no obvious micromorphological changes in the O3 exposure, but the NQO1 average optical density was higher than the control on the 15th day (p < 0.05). The ultrastructural changes were found in the O3 exposure group, such as bulges and vacuoles in type I alveolar cells, the increased evacuation of substance from lamellar bodies in the type II alveolar cells, the increased space around the goblet nucleus, binuclear goblet, and columnar cells. CRP and IL-6 levels increased compared with the control (p < 0.05). Although inhaling 1.1 ppm O3 had no significant effect on the micromorphology of the mice lungs and bronchi, it did affect the ultrastructure with oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-24
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101562
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1563: Assessment of Lockdown Effectiveness
           during COVID-19 Pandemic Using Air Pollution Data in Armenia in
           March–June 2019 and 2020: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Aelita Sargsyan, Narek Galstyan, Hamazasp Nahatakyan, Maria Manuela Morales-Suárez-Varela
      First page: 1563
      Abstract: Various methods used by different countries’ governments to control the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the cause of pandemic in 2020, affected air quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lockdown in Armenia on the content of the main air pollutants—dust, SO2 and NO2. This was a cross-sectional study. We analyzed data on the concentrations of SO2, NO2 and dust from March to June, 2019 and the same period in 2020 as well as data on positive COVID-19 cases from Yerevan, Vanadzor and Hrazdan. In 2020, dust was found to be lower in Yerevan and in Hrazdan and higher in Vanadzor than in the same period in 2019. The same pattern was present for SO2 concentrations: in Yerevan and Hrazdan there was a decrease, and there was an increase in Vanadzor. The concentrations of NO2 increased in Yerevan and Hrazdan, with a slight decrease in Vanadzor. New cases of COVID-19 had a negative correlation with dust and a positive correlation with SO2. The strict quarantine measures were effective in containing the spread of COVID-19.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-24
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101563
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1564: Detailed Evolution Characteristics of an
           Inclined Structure Hailstorm Observed by Polarimetric Radar over the South
           China Coast

    • Authors: Honghao Zhang, Xiaona Rao, Zeyong Guo, Xiantong Liu, Xiaoding Yu, Xingdeng Chen, Huiqi Li, Jingjing Zhang, Guangyu Zeng, Shidong Chen
      First page: 1564
      Abstract: A hailstorm with an inclined structure occurred in the western part of the South China coast on 27 March 2020. This study investigates the detailed evolution characteristics of this inclined structure using the Doppler radar data assimilation system (VDRAS) and the improved fuzzy logic hydrometeor classification algorithm (HCA). Obvious differential reflectivity (often referred to as ZDR) arc characteristics, ZDR column characteristics, and the specific differential phase (often referred to as KDP) of the column are observed using dual-polarization radar prior to hailfall. Both the ZDR column and KDP column reached their strongest intensities during the hailfall phase, with their heights exceeding the height of the −20 °C layer (7.997 km above ground level), displaying a cross-correlation coefficient (CC) valley during this phase. Meanwhile, two centers of strong reflectivity were found, with one (C1) being located at 2–4 km, and the other (C2) being located at 6–8 km. The maximum horizontal distance between the two centers is 8 km, suggesting a strongly inclined structure. This inclined structure was closely related to the interaction between upper-level divergent outflows and ambient horizontal winds. The updraft on the front edge of the hailstorm continued to increase, keeping C2 at the upper level. At the same time, large raindrops at the lower part of C2 are continuously lifted, leading to ice formation. These ice particles then fell obliquely from their high altitude, merging with C1.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101564
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1565: Molecule Simulation of CH4/CO2
           Competitive Adsorption and CO2 Storage in Shale Montmorillonite

    • Authors: Dali Hou, Fengming Gong, Hongming Tang, Jianchun Guo, Xianyu Qiang, Lei Sun
      First page: 1565
      Abstract: The main source of production in the middle and late stages of shale gas extraction is the adsorbed gas in shale, and the adsorbed gas in shale mainly comes from organic matter casein and clay minerals in shale; therefore, this paper uses sodium-based montmorillonite to characterize the clay minerals in shale and study the CH4 adsorption law in clay minerals, and this study has certain guiding significance for shale gas extraction. In addition, this paper also conducts a study on the competitive adsorption law of CH4 and CO2, and at the same time, predicts the theoretical sequestration of CO2 in shale clay minerals, which is a reference value for the study of CO2 burial in shale and is beneficial to the early realization of carbon neutral. In this paper, the slit model of sodium-based montmorillonite and the fluid model of CH4 and CO2 were constructed using Materials Studio software, and the following two aspects were studied based on the Monte Carlo method: Firstly, the microscopic adsorption behavior of CH4 in sodium-based montmorillonite was studied, and the simulations showed that the adsorption capacity of montmorillonite decreases with increasing temperature, increases and then decreases with increasing pressure, and decreases with increasing pore size. CH4 has two states of adsorption and free state in the slit. The adsorption type of CH4 in montmorillonite is physical adsorption. Secondly, the competitive adsorption of CH4 and CO2 in sodium-based montmorillonite was studied, and the simulations showed that the CO2 repulsion efficiency increased with increasing CO2 injection pressure, and the CO2/CH4 competitive adsorption ratio decreased with increasing pressure. The amount of CO2 storage decreased with increasing temperature and increased with increasing CO2 injection pressure.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101565
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1566: 15N Natural Abundance Characteristics of
           Ammonia Volatilization from Soils Applied by Different Types of Fertilizer
           

    • Authors: Lingyun Peng, Limin Tao, Shutan Ma, Xi Wang, Ruhai Wang, Yonghui Tu, Liangjie Wang, Chaopu Ti, Xiaoyuan Yan
      First page: 1566
      Abstract: Ammonia (NH3) volatilized from cropland significantly impacts the ecological environment and human health. The identification and quantification of atmospheric sources of NH3 from cropland are therefore important for NH3 emission reduction and air pollution control. Choosing appropriate nitrogen (N) fertilizer types is one of the key ways to reduce NH3 emissions from agricultural systems due to different N fertilizers with different emission factors. The natural abundance isotope of N (δ15N) values can well identify the source of NH3 volatilization, although there is rare research on δ15N-NH3 values volatilized when applying different types of N fertilizers. Here, we conducted an incubation experiment to study the characteristics of δ15N-NH3 values during the whole volatilization process after different N fertilizers were applied to the soil. The results show that the cumulative NH3 volatilization from urea (U), urease inhibitor fertilizer (UI), compound fertilizer (CF) and ammonium nitrate phosphate fertilizer (AP) treatment was 5.25 ± 0.00, 3.11 ± 0.00, 3.22 ± 0.19 and 1.38 ± 0.12 kg N ha−1 at the end of the 15-day incubation period, respectively. The average δ15N value of NH3 volatilized from the U, UI, CF and AP treatments was −36.02 ± 4.95, −29.08 ± 9.70, −35.18 ± 4.98 and −29.42 ± 4.33‰, respectively. Generally, the δ15N-NH3 values ranged from −41.33 to −6.30‰ during the NH3 volatilization process. The δ15N-NH3 value was lower in the U treatment than in the UI and AP treatments (p < 0.05), which suggests that N forms and the slow-release additions of different fertilizers, such as NO3−-N and urease inhibitors, can delay or slow down NH3 volatilization, resulting in relative isotopic enrichment. Therefore, the basic properties of different N fertilizers, the changes in soil NH4+-N and cumulative NH3 during the volatilization process significantly impacted the δ15N-NH3 values.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101566
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1567: The Impacts of Wind Shear on Spatial
           Variation of the Meteorological Element Field in the Atmospheric
           Convective Boundary Layer Based on Large Eddy Simulation

    • Authors: Hailiang Zhang, Jinfang Yin, Qing He, Minzhong Wang
      First page: 1567
      Abstract: As wind shear increases, the quasi-two-dimensional structure of flows becomes more significant in the convective boundary layer (CBL), indicating that wind shear plays an essential role in the variation of the field of atmospheric flow. Therefore, sensitive numerical experiments based on Large Eddy Simulation (LES) techniques were conducted to comprehensively investigate the effects of wind shear on the spatial variations in the velocity and potential temperature (θ) horizontal fields. Under the constant surface heat flux condition, the main findings are summarized. Firstly, in the CBL, the variances of the streamwise velocity (u), cross-stream velocity (v), and θ enhance as wind shear increases, whereas the variance of vertical velocity (w) is insensitive to wind shear. Secondly, in the CBL, with increasing wind shear, low-wavenumber Power Spectrum Densities (PSDs) of u, v, w, and θ increase significantly, suggesting that the increasing wind shear always enhances the large-scale motions of the atmosphere (i.e., low-wavenumber PSD). Therefore, it is more likely that some mesoscale weather processes will be triggered. Thirdly, generally, in the high-wavenumber range, with increasing wind shear, the PSDs of u, v, and θ increase slightly, whereas the PSD of w decreases slightly. This study provides a new perspective for understanding the role of wind shear in the spatial variations of the horizontal fields of meteorological elements under the same conditions of surface heat flux.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101567
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
       
 
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