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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 112 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 133)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Developments in Atmospheric Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Weather     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Climate law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Mathematics of Climate and Weather Forecasting     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The Cryosphere Discussions (TCD)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Climate Summary of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Nīvār     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access  
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access  
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia     Open Access  
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal  

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Journal Cover
Number of Followers: 26  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2073-4433
Published by MDPI Homepage  [233 journals]
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 290: COVID-19 and Air Pollution: Measuring
           Pandemic Impact to Air Quality in Five European Countries

    • Authors: Akvilė Feiferytė Skirienė, Žaneta Stasiškienė
      First page: 290
      Abstract: The rapid spread of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic affected the economy, trade, transport, health care, social services, and other sectors. To control the rapid dispersion of the virus, most countries imposed national lockdowns and social distancing policies. This led to reduced industrial, commercial, and human activities, followed by lower air pollution emissions, which caused air quality improvement. Air pollution monitoring data from the European Environment Agency (EEA) datasets were used to investigate how lockdown policies affected air quality changes in the period before and during the COVID-19 lockdown, comparing to the same periods in 2018 and 2019, along with an assessment of the Index of Production variation impact to air pollution changes during the pandemic in 2020. Analysis results show that industrial and mobility activities were lower in the period of the lockdown along with the reduced selected pollutant NO2, PM2.5, PM10 emissions by approximately 20–40% in 2020.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030290
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 291: Impacts of Ozone Changes in the Tropopause
           Layer on Stratospheric Water Vapor

    • Authors: Jinpeng Lu, Fei Xie, Hongying Tian, Jiali Luo
      First page: 291
      Abstract: Stratospheric water vapor (SWV) changes play an important role in regulating global climate change, and its variations are controlled by tropopause temperature. This study estimates the impacts of tropopause layer ozone changes on tropopause temperature by radiative process and further influences on lower stratospheric water vapor (LSWV) using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM4). It is found that a 10% depletion in global (mid-low and polar latitudes) tropopause layer ozone causes a significant cooling of the tropical cold-point tropopause with a maximum cooling of 0.3 K, and a corresponding reduction in LSWV with a maximum value of 0.06 ppmv. The depletion of tropopause layer ozone at mid-low latitudes results in cooling of the tropical cold-point tropopause by radiative processes and a corresponding LSWV reduction. However, the effect of polar tropopause layer ozone depletion on tropical cold-point tropopause temperature and LSWV is opposite to and weaker than the effect of tropopause layer ozone depletion at mid-low latitudes. Finally, the joint effect of tropopause layer ozone depletion (at mid-low and polar latitudes) causes a negative cold-point tropopause temperature and a decreased tropical LSWV. Conversely, the impact of a 10% increase in global tropopause layer ozone on LSWV is exactly the opposite of the impact of ozone depletion. After 2000, tropopause layer ozone decreased at mid-low latitudes and increased at high latitudes. These tropopause layer ozone changes at different latitudes cause joint cooling in the tropical cold-point tropopause and a reduction in LSWV. Clarifying the impacts of tropopause layer ozone changes on LSWV clearly is important for understanding and predicting SWV changes in the context of future global ozone recovery.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030291
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 292: Heatwaves and Summer Urban Heat Islands: A
           Daily Cycle Approach to Unveil the Urban Thermal Signal Changes in Lisbon,

    • Authors: Ana Oliveira, António Lopes, Ezequiel Correia, Samuel Niza, Amílcar Soares
      First page: 292
      Abstract: Lisbon is a European Mediterranean city, greatly exposed to heatwaves (HW), according to recent trends and climate change prospects. Considering the Atlantic influence, air temperature observations from Lisbon’s mesoscale network are used to investigate the interactions between background weather and the urban thermal signal (UTS) in summer. Days are classified according to the prevailing regional wind direction, and hourly UTS is compared between HW and non-HW conditions. Northern-wind days predominate, revealing greater maximum air temperatures (up to 40 ˚C) and greater thermal amplitudes (approximately 10 ˚C), and account for 37 out of 49 HW days; southern-wind days have milder temperatures, and no HWs occur. Results show that the wind direction groups are significantly different. While southern-wind days have minor UTS variations, northern-wind days have a consistent UTS daily cycle: a diurnal urban cooling island (UCI) (often lower than –1.0 ˚C), a late afternoon peak urban heat island (UHI) (occasionally surpassing 4.0 ˚C), and a stable nocturnal UHI (1.5 ˚C median intensity). UHI/UCI intensities are not significantly different between HW and non-HW conditions, although the synoptic influence is noted. Results indicate that, in Lisbon, the UHI intensity does not increase during HW events, although it is significantly affected by wind. As such, local climate change adaptation strategies must be based on scenarios that account for the synergies between potential changes in regional air temperature and wind.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030292
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 293: Which Meteorological and Climatological
           Information Is Requested for Better Surfing Experiences' A
           Survey-Based Analysis

    • Authors: Anna Boqué Boqué Ciurana, Enric Aguilar
      First page: 293
      Abstract: This paper extends the work of previous research by investigating surfing practices and surf-recreation companies from a behavioral perspective. The study’s main aim is to gain insights into the role of meteorological/climatological information in decision-making related to the surf-tourism activities market. This information was gathered employing an online survey that asked respondents about where they surf and how they check forecasts for surfing. Climate services (CS) are promoted to support the decision-making process to better prepare for and adapt to the risks and opportunities of climate variability and change. The current market for CS is still in its early stages. In this paper, we report the findings from our recent investigation into the actual and potential market for CS for the Iberian Peninsula surf-tourism sector. Based on surfers’ and surf companies’ demands, it was found that an improved surfing climate service (herein, SCS) will have clear implications in the management of these tourism areas and provide insights into whether surfing activities may be successful. At the same time, such services can help to manage adaptive actions in regard to the impacts of climate change in surfing areas.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030293
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 294: A Synoptic Scale Perspective on Greenland
           Ice Core δ18O Variability and Related Teleconnection Patterns

    • Authors: Norel Rimbu, Monica Ionita, Gerrit Lohmann
      First page: 294
      Abstract: The variability of stable oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) from Greenland ice cores is commonly linked to changes in local climate and associated teleconnection patterns. In this respect, in this study we investigate ice core δ18O variability from a synoptic scale perspective to assess the potential of such records as proxies for extreme climate variability and associated weather patterns. We show that positive (negative) δ18O anomalies in three southern and central Greenland ice cores are associated with relatively high (low) Rossby Wave Breaking (RWB) activity in the North Atlantic region. Both cyclonic and anticyclonic RWB patterns associated with high δ18O show filaments of strong moisture transport from the Atlantic Ocean towards Greenland. During such events, warm and wet conditions are recorded over southern, western and central part of Greenland. In the same time the cyclonic and anticyclonic RWB patterns show enhanced southward advection of cold polar air masses on their eastern side, leading to extreme cold conditions over Europe. The association between high δ18O winters in Greenland ice cores and extremely cold winters over Europe is partly explained by the modulation of the RWB frequency by the tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature forcing, as shown in recent modeling studies. We argue that δ18O from Greenland ice cores can be used as a proxy for RWB activity in the Atlantic European region and associated extreme weather and climate anomalies.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030294
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 295: Validation of CloudSat-CPR Derived
           Precipitation Occurrence and Phase Estimates Across Canada

    • Authors: Rithwik Kodamana, Christopher G. Fletcher
      First page: 295
      Abstract: Snowfall affects the terrestrial climate system at high latitudes through its impacts on local meteorology, freshwater resources and energy balance. Precise snowfall monitoring is essential for cold countries such as Canada, and particularly in temperature-sensitive regions such as the Arctic; however, its size and remote location means the precipitation gauge network there is sparse. While satellite remote sensing of snowfall from instruments such as CloudSat-CPR offers a potential solution, satellite detection of precipitation phase has not been systematically evaluated across Canada. In this study, CloudSat-based precipitation occurrence and phase retrievals were validated at 26 stations across Canada maintained by Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC). Probability of Detection (POD), defined as the percentage agreement between coincident CloudSat and human-observed present weather information for precipitation (solid, liquid or no precipitation), and False Alarm Ratio (FAR) were used as the primary metrics for validation. The mean POD (FAR) for precipitation occurrence across Canada is 65.5% ± 4.3 (31.4% ± 5.1) and for no precipitation is 90.6% ± 1.4 (11% ± 2.5). The results show lower rates of detection under cloudier skies, in the presence of (freezing) drizzle and for lighter snowfall, which may be explained by a large number of false-positives due to CloudSat-CPR’s high instrumental sensitivity. When CloudSat correctly detects the occurrence of precipitation, it shows uniformly high POD (>80%) and low FAR (<10%) for classifying the phase of precipitation. Large databases of coincident ground and satellite measurements allow us to provide a new estimate of around 9% for the frequency of virga events, a factor of two smaller than a previous estimate for the Arctic. The results from this study show that CloudSat has useful accuracy in detecting precipitation occurrence and very high accuracy at classifying precipitation phase, over diverse climate zones across Canada. As such, there is significant potential for satellite monitoring of snowfall in remote, cold regions.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030295
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 296: Challenges in Applied Human Biometeorology

    • Authors: Matzarakis, Cheval, Lin, Potchter
      First page: 296
      Abstract: Facing the impacts of climate change and urbanization, adaptation and resilience to climate extremes have become important issues of global concern. [...]
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030296
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 297: Source Apportionment and Toxic Potency of
           Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Air of Harbin, a Cold City
           in Northern China

    • Authors: Haitao Liu, Bo Li, Hong Qi, Lixin Ma, Jianzhong Xu, Minling Wang, Wenwen Ma, Chongguo Tian
      First page: 297
      Abstract: A total of 68 PUF samples were collected seasonally from 17 sampling sites in Harbin, China from May 2016 to April 2017 for analyzing 15 congeners of gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Σ15PAHs). An improved non-negative matrix (NMF) model and a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model were used to apportion the sources of PAHs. The carcinogenic risk due to exposure to PAHs was estimated by the toxicity equivalent of BaP (BaPeq). The results showed that the average concentration of Σ15PAHs was 68.3 ± 22.3 ng/m3, and the proportions of 3-ring, 4-ring, 5-ring, and 6-ring PAHs were 64.4%, 32.6%, 2.10%, and 0.89%, respectively. Among the six typical functional areas in Harbin, the Σ15PAHs concentrations were 98.1 ± 76.7 ng/m3, 91.2 ± 76.2 ng/m3, 71.4 ± 75.6 ng/m3, 67.9 ± 65.6 ng/m3, 42.6 ± 34.7 ng/m3, and 38.5 ± 38.0 ng/m3 in the wastewater treatment plant, industrial zone, business district, residential area, school, and suburb, respectively. During the sampling period, the highest concentration of Σ15PAHs was in winter. The improved NMF model and PMF model apportioned the PAHs into three sources including coal combustion, biomass burning, and vehicle exhaust. The contributions of coal combustion, biomass burning, and vehicle exhausts were 34.6 ± 3.22%, 48.6 ± 4.03%, and 16.8 ± 5.06%, respectively. Biomass burning was the largest contributor of Σ15PAHs concentrations in winter and coal combustion contributed significantly to the concentrations in summer. The average ΣBaPeq concentration was 0.54 ± 0.23 ng/m3 during the sampling period, high concentrations occurred in the cold season and low levels presented in the warm period. Vehicle exhaust was the largest contributor to the ΣBaPeq concentration of PAHs in Harbin.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030297
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 298: Development of the Mesoscale Model
           GRAMM-SCI: Evaluation of Simulated Highly-Resolved Flow Fields in an
           Alpine and Pre-Alpine Region

    • Authors: Dietmar Oettl
      First page: 298
      Abstract: In this study, new developments implemented in the mesoscale model GRAMM-SCI are presented. GRAMM-SCI has been specifically developed for providing flow fields in the sub-kilometer range. A comprehensive model evaluation using wind, temperature, radiation, as well as soil moisture and soil temperature observations in an alpine valley and in a hilly pre-alpine region in Styria (Austria) is presented. Three one-way nested model domains were used, whereby the coarse model run (5000 m horizontal resolution) was initialized and forced using ERA5 reanalysis data. The grid sizes for the two inner domains were set to 1000 m and 200 m, respectively. Comparisons were carried out for a five-day period in October 2017 which was dominated by clear-sky conditions. Though, the observations reveal quite complex flow structures governed by interactions between synoptic flow and thermally-driven local flows, GRAMM-SCI was able to reproduce the main features satisfactorily. In addition, the new version of GRAMM-SCI shows significant improvement with regard to simulated air temperature compared with the previous one. Finally, microscale flow-field simulations were carried out for some monitoring sites that are apparently influenced by nearby buildings or vegetation.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030298
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 299: Effects of Recent Climate Change on Maize
           Yield in Southwest Ecuador

    • Authors: Gina Lopez, Thomas Gaiser, Frank Ewert, Amit Srivastava
      First page: 299
      Abstract: In recent years, evidence of recent climate change has been identified in South America, affecting agricultural production negatively. In response to this, our study employs a crop modelling approach to estimate the effects of recent climate change on maize yield in four provinces of Ecuador. One of them belongs to a semi-arid area. The trend analysis of maximum temperature, minimum temperature, precipitation, wind speed, and solar radiation was done for 36 years (from 1984 to 2019) using the Mann–Kendall test. Furthermore, we simulated (using the LINTUL5 model) the counterfactual maize yield under current crop management in the same time-span. During the crop growing period, results show an increasing trend in the temperature in all the four studied provinces. Los Rios and Manabi showed a decreasing trend in radiation, whereas the semi-arid Loja depicted a decreasing precipitation trend. Regarding the effects of climate change on maize yield, the semi-arid province Loja showed a more significant negative impact, followed by Manabi. The yield losses were roughly 40kg ha−1 and 10 kg ha−1 per year, respectively, when 250 kg N ha−1 is applied. The simulation results showed no effect in Guayas and Los Rios. The length of the crop growing period was significantly different in the period before and after 2002 in all provinces. In conclusion, the recent climate change impact on maize yield differs spatially and is more significant in the semi-arid regions.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030299
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 300: Assessment and Improvement of Two Low-Cost
           Particulate Matter Sensor Systems by Using Spatial Interpolation Data from
           Air Quality Monitoring Stations

    • Authors: Chen-Jui Liang, Pei-Rong Yu
      First page: 300
      Abstract: Two low-cost fine particulate matter (PM2.5) sensor systems have been established by the government and community in Taiwan. Each system combines hundreds of PM2.5 sensors through an Internet of Things architecture. Since these sensors have not been calibrated, their performance has been questioned. In this study, the spatial interpolation data from air quality monitoring stations (AQMSs) was used to quantify the performances of the two sensor systems. The linearity, sensitivity, offset, precision, accuracy, and bias of the two sensor systems were estimated. The results indicate that the linearity of the government’s sensor system was higher than that of the community sensor system. However, the sensitivity of the government’s system was lower than that of the community system. The relative standard deviation, relative error, offset, and bias of the community sensor system were higher than those of the government sensor system. However, the government sensor system exhibited superior spatial interpolation results for the AQMS data than the community sensor system did. The precision and accuracy of the two sensor systems were poor during a period of low PM2.5 concentrations. A working platform of improvements consisting of monitoring the operation loop and automatic correction loop is proposed. The monitoring operation loop comprises five modules, namely outlier detection, temporal anomaly analysis, spatial anomaly analysis, spatiotemporal anomaly analysis, and trajectory analysis modules. The automatic correction loop contains spatial interpolation module, a sensor performance detection module, and a correction module. The proposed working platform can enhance the performance of low-cost sensor systems, especially as alert systems for reportable events.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030300
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 301: Assessment of Trends and Uncertainties in
           the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Height Estimated Using Radiosounding
           Observations over Europe

    • Authors: Fabio Madonna, Donato Summa, Paolo Di Di Girolamo, Fabrizio Marra, Yuanzu Wang, Marco Rosoldi
      First page: 301
      Abstract: Trends in atmospheric boundary layer height may represent an indication of climate changes. The related modified interaction between the surface and free atmosphere affects both thermodynamics variables and dilution of chemical constituents. Boundary layer is also a major player in various feedback mechanisms of interest for climate models. This paper investigates trends in the nocturnal and convective boundary layer height at mid-latitudes in Europe using radiosounding profiles from the Integrated Global Radiosounding Archive (IGRA). Atmospheric data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ReAnalysis v5 (ERA5) and from the GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN) Lindenberg station are used as intercomparison datasets for the study of structural and parametric uncertainties in the trend analysis. Trends are calculated after the removal of the lag-1 autocorrelation term for each time series. The study confirms the large differences reported in literature between the boundary layer height estimates obtained with the two different algorithms used for IGRA and ERA5 data: ERA5 shows a density distribution with median values of 350 m and 1150 m for the night and the daytime data, respectively, while the corresponding IGRA median values are of 1150 m and 1750 m. An overall good agreement between the estimated trends is found for nighttime data, while daytime ERA5 boundary layer height estimates over Europe are characterized by a lower spatial homogeneity than IGRA. Parametric uncertainties due to missing data in both the time and space domain are also investigated: the former is not exceeding 1.5 m, while the latter are within 10 m during night and 17 m during the day. Recommendations on dataset filtering based on time series completeness are provided. Finally, the comparison between the Lindenberg data as processed at high-resolution by GRUAN and as provided to IGRA at a lower resolution, shows the significant impact of using high-resolution data in the determination of the boundary layer height, with differences from about 200 m to 450 m for both night and day, as well as a large deviation in the estimated trend.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030301
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 302: Description and Evaluation of the Fine
           Particulate Matter Forecasts in the NCAR Regional Air Quality Forecasting

    • Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Piyush Bhardwaj, Gabriele Pfister, Carl Drews, Shawn Honomichl, Garth D’Attilo
      First page: 302
      Abstract: This paper describes a quasi-operational regional air quality forecasting system for the contiguous United States (CONUS) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to support air quality decision-making, field campaign planning, early identification of model errors and biases, and support the atmospheric science community in their research. This system aims to complement the operational air quality forecasts produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), not to replace them. A publicly available information dissemination system has been established that displays various air quality products, including a near-real-time evaluation of the model forecasts. Here, we report the performance of our air quality forecasting system in simulating meteorology and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) for the first year after our system started, i.e., 1 June 2019 to 31 May 2020. Our system shows excellent skill in capturing hourly to daily variations in temperature, surface pressure, relative humidity, water vapor mixing ratios, and wind direction but shows relatively larger errors in wind speed. The model also captures the seasonal cycle of surface PM2.5 very well in different regions and for different types of sites (urban, suburban, and rural) in the CONUS with a mean bias smaller than 1 µg m−3. The skill of the air quality forecasts remains fairly stable between the first and second days of the forecasts. Our air quality forecast products are publicly available at a NCAR webpage. We invite the community to use our forecasting products for their research, as input for urban scale (<4 km), air quality forecasts, or the co-development of customized products, just to name a few applications.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030302
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 303: High-Resolution Analysis of Wind Flow
           Behavior on Ship Stacks Configuration: A Portuguese Case Study

    • Authors: Luís P. Correia, Sandra Rafael, Sandra Sorte, Vera Rodrigues, Carlos Borrego, Alexandra Monteiro
      First page: 303
      Abstract: Atmospheric emissions related to harbor-related activities can significantly contribute to air pollution of coastal urban areas and so, could have implications to the citizens’ health that live in those areas. Of great concern is the local impact of the emissions that are generated while ships are at berth, since not all types of ships switch off the main engines. This paper intends to investigate the influence of the stack configuration for generic cargo ships on the exhaust smoke dispersion, using the Port of Leixões as a case study and a series of wind tunnel experiments with support of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. For that, different configurations of the stack of a cargo ship (in terms of height, geometry and diameter) were simulated under the typical wind conditions of the study area. The PIV results indicate negligible differences between the medium and long stack height, with the short stack height presenting a strong impact on the flow field around the stack. For the short stack height, the flow field is not only disturbed by the stack, but also by the cargo ship bridge, with both obstacles promoting disturbances on the flow field and creating a large wake turbulence effect, which is important for the downwash phenomena. Regarding the effects linked with two distinct geometries (straight or curved), the results show that the straight chimney led to higher perturbation of wind field when compared with the curved geometry. The curved stack presents an increase of vorticity, indicating the generation of more turbulent structures. The PIV results also confirmed that higher wind velocity at the inlet conducts to higher vorticity levels, as well as a higher number of Kelvin–Helmholtz structures. For distinct wind conditions the PIV measurements point out different patterns, indicating the northern wind direction as the most favorable condition for the exposure of dock workers to pollutants. Overall, the results showed that a ship stack with a curved end, medium length and smaller diameter has the capability to promote the behaviors in the flow that are coherent with increased pollutant dispersion.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030303
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 304: Downscaling and Evaluation of Seasonal
           Climate Data for the European Power Sector

    • Authors: Jennifer Ostermöller, Philip Lorenz, Kristina Fröhlich, Frank Kreienkamp, Barbara Früh
      First page: 304
      Abstract: Within the Clim2Power project, two case studies focus on seasonal variations of the hydropower production in the river basins of the Danube (Germany/Austria) and the Douro (Portugal). To deliver spatially highly resolved climate data as an input for the hydrological models, the forecasts of the German Climate Forecast System (GCFS2.0) need to be downscaled. The statistical-empirical method EPISODES is used in this approach. It is adapted to the seasonal data, which consists of ensemble hindcasts and forecasts. Beside this, the two case study regions need specific configurations of the statistical model, providing appropriate predictors for the meteorological variables. This paper describes the technical details of the adaptation of the EPISODES method for the needs of Clim2Power. We analyse the hindcast skill of the downscaled hindcasts of all four seasons for the two variables near-surface (2 m) temperature and precipitation, and conclude that on the average the skill is conserved compared to the global model. This means that the seasonal information is available at a higher spatial resolution without losing skill. Furthermore, the output of the statistical downscaling is nearly bias-free, which is, beside the higher spatial resolution, an added value for the climate service.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030304
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 305: Agricultural and Forestry Land and Labor
           Use under Long-Term Climate Change in Chile

    • Authors: Oscar Melo, William Foster
      First page: 305
      Abstract: The appropriate design of land-use and rural employment policies depends upon the anticipated performance of the farm sector in the context of expected climate changes, especially with respect to land allocations to potential activities. Concerns over the possible net benefits of land-use changes are particularly acute in lower- and middle-income countries, where agriculture tends to be important in employment, income generation and foreign-exchange earnings. This paper presents an analysis of the expected impacts on land use in Chile of projected climate-change scenarios in 2040 and 2070. We developed a farmland allocation model with associated labor employment at the municipal level driven by expected relative net incomes per hectare, constructed from local average per-hectare yields, regional average output prices and per-hectare production cost estimates. The sensitivities of cropland allocations to relative net-income changes were estimated using historical land allocations at the municipal level derived from the last two Chilean Agricultural Censuses. The results show that the impacts of climate changes will be mitigated by land-use adaptation, the main export-earning crops tending to move south; in aggregate, agricultural employment will decrease in all the climate-change scenarios; forestry and agriculture would likely suffer a loss in net-income generation under severe climate-change scenarios.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030305
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 306: Associations between Space Weather Events
           and the Incidence of Acute Myocardial Infarction and Deaths from Ischemic
           Heart Disease

    • Authors: Vidmantas Vaičiulis, Jonė Venclovienė, Abdonas Tamošiūnas, Deivydas Kiznys, Dalia Lukšienė, Daina Krančiukaitė-Butylkinienė, Ričardas Radišauskas
      First page: 306
      Abstract: The effects of charged solar particles hitting the Earth’s magnetosphere are often harmful and can be dangerous to the human organism. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations of geomagnetic storms (GSs) and other space weather events (solar proton events (SPEs), solar flares (SFs), high-speed solar wind (HSSW), interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and stream interaction regions (SIRs)) with morbidity from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and mortality from ischemic heart diseases (IHDs) during the period 2000–2015 in Kaunas (Lithuania). In 2000–2015, 12,330 AMI events (men/women n = 6942/5388) and 3742 deaths from IHD (men/women n = 2480/1262) were registered. The results showed that a higher risk of AMI and deaths from IHD were related to the period of 3 days before GS—a day after GS, and a stronger effect was observed during the spring–autumn period. The strongest effect of HSSW was observed on the day of the event. We found significant associations between the risk of AMI and death from IHD and the occurrence of SFs during GSs. We also found a statistically significant increase in rate ratios (RRs) for all AMIs and deaths from IHD between the second and fourth days of the period of ICMEs.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030306
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 307: Effects of the Tibetan High and the North
           Pacific High on the Occurrence of Hot or Cool Summers in Japan

    • Authors: Makoto Inoue, Atsushi Ugajin, Osamu Kiguchi, Yousuke Yamashita, Masashi Komine, Shuji Yamakawa
      First page: 307
      Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effects of the Tibetan High near the tropopause and the North Pacific High in the troposphere on occurrences of hot or cool summers in Japan. We first classified Japan into six regions and identified hot and cool summer years in these regions from a 38-year sample (1980–2017) based on the monthly air temperature. To investigate the features of circulation fields over Asia during hot and cool summers in Japan, we calculated the composite differences (hot summer years minus cool summer years) of several variables such as geopotential height, which indicated significant high-pressure anomalies in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. These results suggest that both the North Pacific and the Tibetan Highs tend to extend to Japan during hot summer years, while cool summers seem to be associated with the weakening of these highs. We found that extension of the Tibetan High to the Japanese mainland can lead to hot summers in Northern, Eastern, and Western Japan. On the other hand, hot summers in the Southwestern Islands may be due to extension of the Tibetan High to the south. Similarly, the latitudinal direction of extension of the North Pacific High is profoundly connected with the summer climate in respective regions.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030307
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 308: Evaluation of CMIP5 Climate Models Using
           Historical Surface Air Temperatures in Central Asia

    • Authors: Yufei Xiong, Zhijie Ta, Miao Gan, MeiLin Yang, Xi Chen, Ruide Yu, Markus Disse, Yang Yu
      First page: 308
      Abstract: Using historical data compiled by the Climate Research Unit, spatial and temporal analysis, trend analysis, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, and Taylor diagram analysis were applied to test the ability of 24 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate models to accurately simulate the annual mean surface air temperature in central Asia from the perspective of the average climate state and climate variability. Results show that each model can reasonably capture the spatial distribution characteristics of the surface air temperature in central Asia but cannot accurately describe the regional details of climate change impacts. Some of the studied models, including CNRM-CM5, GFDL-CM3, and GISS-E2-H, could better simulate the high- and low-value centers and the contour distribution of the surface air temperature. Taylor diagram analysis showed that the root mean square errors of all models were less than 3, the standard deviations were between 8.36 and 13.45, and the spatial correlation coefficients were greater than 0.96. EOF analysis showed that the multi-model ensemble can accurately reproduce the surface air temperature characteristics in central Asia from 1901 to 2005, including the rising periods and the fluctuations of the north and south inversion phases. Overall, this study provides a valuable reference for future climate prediction studies in central Asia.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030308
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 309: Quantification of Element Mass
           Concentrations in Ambient Aerosols by Combination of Cascade Impactor
           Sampling and Mobile Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    • Authors: Stefan Seeger, Janos Osan, Ottó Czömpöly, Armin Gross, Hagen Stosnach, Luca Stabile, Maria Ochsenkuehn-Petropoulou, Lamprini Areti Tsakanika, Theopisti Lymperopoulou, Sharon Goddard, Markus Fiebig, Francois Gaie-Levrel, Yves Kayser, Burkhard Beckhoff
      First page: 309
      Abstract: Quantitative chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter (PM) is vital for the understanding of health effects in indoor and outdoor environments, as well as for enforcing EU air quality regulations. Typically, airborne particles are sampled over long time periods on filters, followed by lab-based analysis, e.g., with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). During the EURAMET EMPIR AEROMET project, cascade impactor aerosol sampling is combined for the first time with on-site total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy to develop a tool for quantifying particle element compositions within short time intervals and even on-site. This makes variations of aerosol chemistry observable with time resolution only a few hours and with good size resolution in the PM10 range. The study investigates the proof of principles of this methodological approach. Acrylic discs and silicon wafers are shown to be suitable impactor carriers with sufficiently smooth and clean surfaces, and a non-destructive elemental mass concentration measurement with a lower limit of detection around 10 pg/m3 could be achieved. We demonstrate the traceability of field TXRF measurements to a radiometrically calibrated TXRF reference, and the results from both analytical methods correspond satisfactorily.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030309
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 310: Climate Response of Oxygen Isotopic
           Compositions in Tree-Ring Cellulose in Java: Evaluation Using a Proxy
           System Model

    • Authors: Ryo Hisamochi, Yumiko Watanabe, Naoyuki Kurita, Takahiro Tagami
      First page: 310
      Abstract: Tree-ring cellulose oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) is controlled by several hydrological factors such as precipitation, relative humidity, and temperature. A proxy system model can reveal how these factors affect tree-ring cellulose δ18O. In this study, to identify a key control on tree-ring cellulose δ18O variations, we performed model calculation of year-to year variation of tree-ring cellulose δ18O of Javanese teak in Indonesia from 1960 to 1998. Our model results reasonably reproduce the observed δ18O values and their temporal variations (r = 0.6; p < 0.001). Moreover, the sensitivity test shows that the cellulose δ18O values are sensitive to the teak growing period. The simulation result with earlier or later shifts of the growing period captured the amplitude of observed δ18O variations over 39 years. These results indicate that the tree-ring cellulose δ18O of Javanese teak might be influenced by a subtle shift of the intra-annual growing period.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030310
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 311: Investigating the Spatio-Temporal
           Distribution of Gravity Wave Potential Energy over the Equatorial Region
           Using the ERA5 Reanalysis Data

    • Authors: Shih-Sian Yang, Chen-Jeih Pan, Uma Das
      First page: 311
      Abstract: Atmospheric gravity waves play a crucial role in affecting atmospheric circulation, energy transportation, thermal structure, and chemical composition. Using ERA5 temperature data, the present study investigates the tropospheric to the lower mesospheric gravity wave potential energy (EP) over the equatorial region to understand the vertical coupling of the atmosphere. EP is mainly controlled by two factors. The first is zonal wind through wave–mean flow interactions, and thus EP has periodic variations that are correlated to the zonal wind oscillations and enhances around the altitudes of zero-wind shears where the zonal wind reverses. The second is the convections caused by atmospheric circulations and warm oceans, resulting in longitudinal variability in EP. The lower stratospheric and the lower mesospheric EP are negatively correlated. However, warm oceanic conditions can break this wave energy coupling and further enhance the lower mesospheric EP.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030311
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 312: Features Exploration from Datasets Vision
           in Air Quality Prediction Domain

    • Authors: Ditsuhi Iskandaryan, Francisco Ramos, Sergio Trilles
      First page: 312
      Abstract: Air pollution and its consequences are negatively impacting on the world population and the environment, which converts the monitoring and forecasting air quality techniques as essential tools to combat this problem. To predict air quality with maximum accuracy, along with the implemented models and the quantity of the data, it is crucial also to consider the dataset types. This study selected a set of research works in the field of air quality prediction and is concentrated on the exploration of the datasets utilised in them. The most significant findings of this research work are: (1) meteorological datasets were used in 94.6% of the papers leaving behind the rest of the datasets with a big difference, which is complemented with others, such as temporal data, spatial data, and so on; (2) the usage of various datasets combinations has been commenced since 2009; and (3) the utilisation of open data have been started since 2012, 32.3% of the studies used open data, and 63.4% of the studies did not provide the data.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030312
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 313: Multi-Radar Analysis of the 20 May 2013
           Moore, Oklahoma Supercell through Tornadogenesis and Intensification

    • Authors: Clarice N. Satrio, David J. Bodine, Robert D. Palmer, Charles M. Kuster
      First page: 313
      Abstract: A multi-radar analysis of the 20 May 2013 Moore, Oklahoma, U.S. supercell is presented using three Weather Surveillance Radars 1988 Doppler (WSR-88Ds) and PX-1000, a rapid-scan, polarimetric, X-band radar, with a focus on the period between 1930 and 2008 UTC, encompassing supercell maturation through rapid tornado intensification. Owing to the 20-s temporal resolution of PX-1000, a detailed radar analysis of the hook echo is performed on (1) the microphysical characteristics through a hydrometeor classification algorithm (HCA)—inter-compared between X- and S-band for performance evaluation—including a hail and debris class and (2) kinematic properties of the low-level mesocyclone (LLM) assessed through ΔVr analyses. Four transient intensifications in ΔVr prior to tornadogenesis are documented and found to be associated with two prevalent internal rear-flank downdraft (RFD) momentum surges, the latter surge coincident with tornadogenesis. The momentum surges are marked by a rapidly advancing reflectivity (ZH) gradient traversing around the LLM, descending reflectivity cores (DRCs), a drop in differential reflectivity (ZDR) due to the advection of smaller drops into the hook echo, a decrease in correlation coefficient (ρhv), and the detection of debris from the HCA. Additionally, volumetric analyses of ZDR and specific differential phase (KDP) signatures show general diffusivity of the ZDR arc even after tornadogenesis in contrast with explosive deepening of the KDP foot downshear of the updraft. Similarly, while the vertical extent of the ZDR and KDP columns decrease leading up to tornadogenesis, the phasing of these signatures are offset after tornadogenesis, with the ZDR column deepening the lagging of KDP.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030313
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 314: Air Quality and Industrial Emissions in
           the Cities of Kazakhstan

    • Authors: Daulet Assanov, Valeryi Zapasnyi, Aiymgul Kerimray
      First page: 314
      Abstract: Industrial emissions are of major concern, especially in developing countries. Hence, there is a need for studies that investigate the trends in industrial emissions in these countries. The purpose of this study is to discuss trends in industrial emissions in Kazakhstan and the air pollution level in its industrial cities. Data on emission limit values from the permitting documents of twenty-one power plants and nine metallurgical enterprises of Kazakhstan were analyzed. Eight cities (out of fourteen) had a “high” level of atmospheric air pollution according to the Air Pollution Index in 2019. Most of the considered enterprises increased their emission limit values compared to previous permitting period. At some cities there is a lack of monitoring stations, indicating the need for improving the spatial coverage of the air quality monitoring network in the industrial cities of Kazakhstan. The location of industrial plants far outside the cities could reduce the exposure of the urban population to air pollution. Kazakhstan urgently needs to adopt stringent emissions standards for coal-fired power plants and heavy industrial plants. The national air quality standards and definitions of air pollutants need to be updated based on the latest scientific knowledge.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030314
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 315: Development and Assessment of Spatially
           Continuous Predictive Algorithms for Fine Particulate Matter in New York

    • Authors: Sam Lightstone, Barry Gross, Fred Moshary, Paulo Castillo
      First page: 315
      Abstract: Health risks connected with fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollutants are well documented; increased risks of asthma, heart attack and heart failure are a few of the effects associated with PM2.5. Accurately forecasting PM2.5 is crucial for state agencies directed to devise State Implementation Plans (SIPS) to deal with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) exceedances. In previous work, we explored the application of multi-temporal data-driven neural networks (NNs) to forecasting PM2.5. Our work showed that under different input conditions, the NN approach achieves higher forecasting scores for local (12 km) resolution when compared to the other Chemical Transport Model forecast models, such as the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality system (CMAQ). Critical to our approach was the inclusion of prior PM2.5 concentrations, retrieved from ground monitoring stations, as part of the input dataset for the NN. The NN approach can provide high-level forecasting accuracy; however, because of the dependency on ground monitoring stations, the forecast coverage is sparse. Here, we extend our previous station-specific efforts by forecasting hourly PM2.5 values that are spatially continuous through the use of a deep neural network (DNN). The DNN approach combines spatial Kriging with additional local source variables to interpolate the measured PM2.5 concentrations across non-station locations. These interpolated PM2.5 values are used as inputs in the original forecasting NN. Cross-validation testing, using all New York State AirNow PM2.5 stations, showed that this forecast approach achieves accurate results, with a regression coefficient (R2) of 0.59, and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 2.22 . Additionally, herein we demonstrate the usefulness of this approach on specific temporal events where significant dynamics of PM2.5 were observed; particularly, we show that even bias-corrected CMAQ forecasts do not track these transients and our NN method.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030315
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 316: Maximum Instantaneous Wind Speed
           Forecasting and Performance Evaluation by Using Numerical Weather
           Prediction and On-Site Measurement

    • Authors: Yamaguchi, Ishihara
      First page: 316
      Abstract: A maximum instantaneous wind speed forecast methodology based on the autoregressive with exogenous inputs (ARX) model is proposed, in which numerical weather prediction and on-site measurement are used as inputs and the model parameters are estimated using non-parametric regression with forgetting factors. The accuracy of prediction using a proposed dynamic model is then evaluated and compared to the conventional static model output statistics (MOS) model. It is found that the prediction accuracy is improved by utilizing numerical weather prediction with a higher horizontal resolution. Finally, the predictability of the maximum instantaneous wind speed higher than 15m/s is evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under the curve (AUC). The optimal quantile level of the maximum instantaneous wind speed is derived using a cost function.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030316
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 317: First Results on Moss Biomonitoring of
           Trace Elements in the Central Part of Georgia, Caucasus

    • Authors: Omari Chaligava, Igor Nikolaev, Khetag Khetagurov, Yulia Lavrinenko, Anvar Bazaev, Marina Frontasyeva, Konstantin Vergel, Dmitry Grozdov
      First page: 317
      Abstract: The moss biomonitoring technique was used for assessment of air pollution in the central part of Georgia, Caucasus, in the framework of the UNECE ICP Vegetation. A total of 35 major and trace elements were determined by two complementary analytical techniques, epithermal neutron activation analysis (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Se, B, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, and U) and atomic absorption spectrometry (Cu, Cd, and Pb) in the moss samples collected in 2019. Principal Component Analyses was applied to show the association between the elements in the study area. Four factors were determined, of which two are of geogenic origin (Factor 1 including Na, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Th, and U and Factor 3 with As, Sb, and W), mixed geogenic–anthropogenic (F2 with Cl, K, Zn, Se, Br, I, and Cu) and anthropogenic (F4 comprising Ca, Cd, Pb, and Br). Geographic information system (GIS) technologies were used to construct distributions maps of factor scores over the investigated territory. Comparison of the median values with the analogous data of moss biomonitoring in countries with similar climatic conditions was carried out.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030317
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 318: Radiative Effect and Mixing Processes of a
           Long-Lasting Dust Event over Athens, Greece, during the COVID-19 Period

    • Authors: Panagiotis Kokkalis, Ourania Soupiona, Christina-Anna Papanikolaou, Romanos Foskinis, Maria Mylonaki, Stavros Solomos, Stergios Vratolis, Vasiliki Vasilatou, Eleni Kralli, Dimitra Anagnou, Alexandros Papayannis
      First page: 318
      Abstract: We report on a long-lasting (10 days) Saharan dust event affecting large sections of South-Eastern Europe by using a synergy of lidar, satellite, in-situ observations and model simulations over Athens, Greece. The dust measurements (11–20 May 2020), performed during the confinement period due to the COVID-19 pandemic, revealed interesting features of the aerosol dust properties in the absence of important air pollution sources over the European continent. During the event, moderate aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (0.3–0.4) were observed inside the dust layer by the ground-based lidar measurements (at 532 nm). Vertical profiles of the lidar ratio and the particle linear depolarization ratio (at 355 nm) showed mean layer values of the order of 47 ± 9 sr and 28 ± 5%, respectively, revealing the coarse non-spherical mode of the probed plume. The values reported here are very close to pure dust measurements performed during dedicated campaigns in the African continent. By utilizing Libradtran simulations for two scenarios (one for typical midlatitude atmospheric conditions and one having reduced atmospheric pollutants due to COVID-19 restrictions, both affected by a free tropospheric dust layer), we revealed negligible differences in terms of radiative effect, of the order of +2.6% (SWBOA, cooling behavior) and +1.9% (LWBOA, heating behavior). Moreover, the net heating rate (HR) at the bottom of the atmosphere (BOA) was equal to +0.156 K/d and equal to +2.543 K/d within 1–6 km due to the presence of the dust layer at that height. On the contrary, the reduction in atmospheric pollutants could lead to a negative HR (−0.036 K/d) at the bottom of the atmosphere (BOA) if dust aerosols were absent, while typical atmospheric conditions are estimated to have an almost zero net HR value (+0.006 K/d). The NMMB-BSC forecast model provided the dust mass concentration over Athens, while the air mass advection from the African to the European continent was simulated by the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030318
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 319: Elevation-Dependent Trend in Diurnal
           Temperature Range in the Northeast China during 1961–2015

    • Authors: Yanyu Zhang, Xiangjin Shen, Gaohua Fan
      First page: 319
      Abstract: The diurnal temperature range (DTR) is considered a signature of observed climate change, which is defined as the difference between the maximum (Tmax) and minimum temperatures (Tmin). It is well known that the warming rate of mean temperature is larger at high elevations than at low elevations in northeast China. However, it is still uncertain whether DTR trend is greater at high elevations. This study examined the spatiotemporal variation in DTR and its relationship with elevation in northeast China based on data from 68 meteorological stations from 1961 to 2015. The results show that there was a significant declining trend (0.252 °C/decade) in DTR from 1961 to 2015 due to the fact that Tmin increased at a faster rate than Tmax. Seasonally, DTR in northeast China showed a decreasing trend with the largest decrease rate in spring (−0.3167 °C/decade) and the smallest decrease rate in summer (−0.1725 °C/decade). The results of correlation analysis show that there was a significant positive correlation between the annual DTR trend and elevation in northeast China. This is due to the fact that increasing elevation has a significant warming effect on Tmax. Seasonally, there were significant positive correlations between the DTR trend and elevation in all seasons. The elevation gradient of DTR trend was the greatest in winter (0.392 °C/decade/km) and the lowest in autumn (0.209 °C/decade/km). In spring, summer, and autumn, increasing elevation has a significant warming effect on Tmax, leading to a significant increase of the DTR trend with increasing elevation. However, in winter, increasing elevation has a significant cooling effect on Tmin, resulting in a significant increase of the DTR trend with increasing elevation.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030319
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 320: Carbonaceous Aerosol in Polar Areas: First
           Results and Improvements of the Sampling Strategies

    • Authors: Laura Caiazzo, Giulia Calzolai, Silvia Becagli, Mirko Severi, Alessandra Amore, Raffaello Nardin, Massimo Chiari, Fabio Giardi, Silvia Nava, Franco Lucarelli, Giulia Pazzi, Paolo Cristofanelli, Aki Virkkula, Andrea Gambaro, Elena Barbaro, Rita Traversi
      First page: 320
      Abstract: While more and more studies are being conducted on carbonaceous fractions—organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC)—in urban areas, there are still too few studies about these species and their effects in polar areas due to their very low concentrations; further, studies in the literature report only data from intensive campaigns, limited in time. We present here for the first time EC–OC concentration long-time data records from the sea-level sampling site of Ny-Ålesund, in the High Arctic (5 years), and from Dome C, in the East Antarctic Plateau (1 year). Regarding the Arctic, the median (and the interquartile range (IQR)) mass concentrations for the years 2011–2015 are 352 (IQR 283–475) ng/m3 for OC and 4.8 (IQR: 4.6–17.4) ng/m3 for EC, which is responsible for only 3% of total carbon (TC). From both the concentration data sets and the variation of the average monthly concentrations, the influence of the Arctic haze on EC and OC concentrations is evident. Summer may be interesting owing to high concentration episodes mainly due to long-range transport (e.g., from wide wildfires in the Northern Hemisphere, as happened in 2015). The average ratio of EC/OC for the summer period is 0.05, ranging from 0.02 to 0.10, and indicates a clean environment with prevailing biogenic (or biomass burning) sources, as well as aged, highly oxidized aerosol from long-range transport. Contribution from ship emission is not evident, but this result may be due to the sampling time resolution. In Antarctica, a 1 year-around data set from December 2016 to February 2018 is shown, which does not present a clear seasonal trend. The OC median (and IQR) value is 78 (64–106) ng/m3; for EC, it is 0.9 (0.6–2.4) ng/m3, weighing for 3% on TC values. The EC/OC ratio mean value is 0.20, with a range of 0.06–0.35. Due to the low EC and OC concentrations in polar areas, correction for the blank is far more important than in campaigns carried out in other regions, largely affecting uncertainties in measured concentrations. Through the years, we have thus developed a new sampling strategy that is presented here for the first time: samplers were modified in order to collect a larger amount of particulates on a small surface, enhancing the capability of the analytical method since the thermo-optical analyzer is sensitive to carbonaceous aerosol areal density. Further, we have recently coupled such modified samplers with a sampling strategy that makes a more reliable blank correction of every single sample possible.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030320
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 321: Self-Organization through the Inner
           Heliosphere: Insights from Parker Solar Probe

    • Authors: Mirko Stumpo, Virgilio Quattrociocchi, Simone Benella, Tommaso Alberti, Giuseppe Consolini
      First page: 321
      Abstract: The interplanetary medium variability has been extensively studied by means of different approaches showing the existence of a wide variety of dynamical features, such as self-similarity, self-organization, turbulence and intermittency, and so on. Recently, by means of Parker solar probe measurements, it has been found that solar wind magnetic field fluctuations in the inertial range show a clear transition near 0.4 AU, both in terms of spectral features and multifractal properties. This breakdown of the scaling features has been interpreted as the evidence of a dynamical phase transition. Here, by using the Klimontovich S-theorem, we investigate how the process of self-organization is under way through the inner heliosphere, going deeper into the characterization of this dynamical phase transition by measuring the evolution of entropic-based measures through the inner heliosphere.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030321
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 322: Estimation of the Latent Heat Flux over
           Irrigated Short Fescue Grass for Different Fetches

    • Authors: Francesc Castellví, Pedro Gavilán
      First page: 322
      Abstract: Often in agrometeorology the instrumentation required to estimate turbulent surface fluxes must be installed at sites where fetch is not sufficient for a sector of wind directions. For different integrated flux-footprints (IFFP) thresholds and taking as a reference the half-hourly latent heat fluxes (LE) measured with a large weighing lysimeter (LELys), the eddy covariance (EC) method and two methods based on surface renewal (SR) analysis to estimate LE were tested over short fescue grass. One method combined SR with the flux-gradient (profile) relationship, SR-P method, and the other with the dissipation method, SR-D method. When LE was estimated using traces of air moisture, good performances were obtained using the EC and the SR-P methods for samples with IFFP higher than 85%. However, the closest LE estimates were obtained using the residual method. For IFFP higher than 50%, the residual method combined with the sensible heat flux estimates determined using the SR-P method performed close to LELys and using the SR-D method good estimates were obtained for accumulated LELys. To estimate the sensible heat flux, the SR-D method can be recommended for day-to-day use by farmers because it is friendly and affordable.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030322
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 323: Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment
           of PM2.5-Bound PAHs during Heavy Air Pollution Episodes in Winter in Urban
           Area of Beijing, China

    • Authors: Mei Luo, Yuanyuan Ji, Yanqin Ren, Fuhong Gao, Hao Zhang, Lihui Zhang, Yanqing Yu, Hong Li
      First page: 323
      Abstract: PM2.5 level has decreased significantly in Beijing in recent years due to the strict air quality control measures taken in Jingjinji Region and the surrounding areas. However, the variation characteristics of the concentrations of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Beijing in recent years are still not so clear. In order to understand the pollution status of PM2.5-bound PAHs in Beijing, fifteen PAHs were measured in a typical urban area of Beijing from 1 March to 20 March 2018. The average mass concentration of the 15 PAHs was 21 ng/m3 and higher in the nighttime than that in the daytime. The proportion of 4-ring PAHs in 15 PAHs was highest (43%), while 6-ring PAHs was lowest (10%). The levels of PAHs were higher during heavy pollution episodes than those in non-heavy pollution episodes, and the proportions of 5- and 6-ring PAHs were increased during a heavy pollution episode. PAHs posed obvious carcinogenic risks to the exposed populations, and the risk was higher during heavy pollution episodes than the average value of the whole monitoring period. The main sources of PAHs were traffic emissions and coal/biomass burning. Air masses from the south-southeast had a great influence on the PM2.5 levels during a heavy pollution episode. It is recommended that not only the PM2.5 levels but also the PAHs levels bounded in PM2.5 should be controlled to protect human health in Beijing.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030323
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 324: Carbon Neutrality Pathways Effects on Air
           Pollutant Emissions: The Portuguese Case

    • Authors: Joana Monjardino, Luís Dias, Patrícia Fortes, Hugo Tente, Francisco Ferreira, Júlia Seixas
      First page: 324
      Abstract: Air pollution and climate change are closely interlinked, once both share common emission sources, which mainly arise from fuel combustion and industrial processes. Climate mitigation actions bring co-benefits on air quality and human health. However, specific solutions can provide negative trade-offs for one side. The Portuguese Carbon Neutrality Roadmap was developed to assess conceivable cost-effective pathways to achieve zero net carbon emissions by 2050. Assessing its impacts, on air pollutant emissions, is the main focus of the present work. The bottom-up linear optimization energy system the integrated MARKAL-EFOM system (TIMES) model was selected as a modeling tool for the decarbonization scenarios assessment. The estimation of air pollutant emissions was performed exogenously to the TIMES model. Results show that reaching net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is possible, and technologically feasible, in Portugal, by 2050. The crucial and most cost-effective vector for decarbonizing the national economy is the end-use energy consumption electrification, renewable based, across all end-use sectors. Decarbonization efforts were found to have strong co-benefits for reducing air pollutant emissions in Portugal. Transport and power generation are the sectors with the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions, providing likewise the most significant reductions of air pollutant emissions. Despite the overall positive effects, there are antagonistic effects, such as the use of biomass, mainly in industry and residential sectors, which translates into increases in particulate matter emissions. This is relevant for medium term projections, since results show that, by 2030, PM2.5 emissions are unlikely to meet the emission reduction commitments set at the European level, if no additional control measures are considered.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030324
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 325: High–Resolution Modeling of Airflows and
           Particle Deposition over Complex Terrain at Sakurajima Volcano

    • Authors: Tetsuya Takemi, Alexandros P. Poulidis, Masato Iguchi
      First page: 325
      Abstract: The realistic representation of atmospheric pollutant dispersal over areas of complex topography presents a challenging application for meteorological models. Here, we present results from high–resolution atmospheric modeling in order to gain insight into local processes that can affect ash transport and deposition. The nested Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the finest resolution of 50 m was used to simulate atmospheric flow over the complex topography of Sakurajima volcano, Japan, for two volcanic eruption cases. The simulated airflow results were shown to compare well against surface observations. As a preliminary application, idealized trajectory modeling for the two cases revealed that accounting for local circulations can significantly impact volcanic ash deposition leading to a total fall velocity up to 2–3 times the particle’s terminal velocity depending on the size. Such a modification of the estimated particle settling velocity over areas with complex topography can be used to parametrize the impact of orographic effects in dispersal models, in order to improve fidelity.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030325
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 326: Seasonal Variations of Volcanic Ash and
           Aerosol Emissions around Sakurajima Detected by Two Lidars

    • Authors: Atsushi Shimizu, Masato Iguchi, Haruhisa Nakamichi
      First page: 326
      Abstract: Two polarization-sensitive lidars were operated continuously to monitor the three-dimensional distribution of small volcanic ash particles around Sakurajima volcano, Kagoshima, Japan. Here, we estimated monthly averaged extinction coefficients of particles between the lidar equipment and the vent and compared our results with monthly records of volcanic activity reported by the Japan Meteorological Agency, namely the numbers of eruptions and explosions, the density of ash fall, and the number of days on which ash fall was observed at the Kagoshima observatory. Elevated extinction coefficients were observed when the surface wind direction was toward the lidar. Peaks in extinction coefficient did not always coincide with peaks in ash fall density, and these differences likely indicate differences in particle size.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030326
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 327: Volatile Organic Compounds Monitored
           Online at Three Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations in the Pearl
           River Delta (PRD) Region during Summer 2016: Sources and Emission Areas

    • Authors: Tao Zhang, Shaoxuan Xiao, Xinming Wang, Yanli Zhang, Chenglei Pei, Duohong Chen, Ming Jiang, Tong Liao
      First page: 327
      Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored online at three photochemical assessment monitoring stations (MDS, WQS and HGS) in the Pearl River Delta region during the summer of 2016. Measured levels of VOCs at the MDS, WQS and HGS sites were 34.78, 8.54 and 8.47 ppbv, respectively, with aromatics and alkenes as major ozone precursors and aromatics as major precursors to secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The positive matrix factorization (PMF) model revealed that VOCs at the sites mainly came from vehicle exhaust, petrochemical industry, and solvent use. Vehicle exhaust and industrial processes losses contributed most to ozone formation potentials (OFP) of VOCs, while industrial processes losses contributed most to SOA formation potentials of VOCs. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis revealed a north-south distribution for source regions of aromatics occurring at MDS with emission sources in Guangzhou mainly centered in the Guangzhou central districts, and source regions of aromatics at WQS showed an east-west distribution across Huizhou, Dongguan and east of Guangzhou, while that at HGS showed a south-north distribution across Guangzhou, Foshan, Zhaoqing and Yangjiang. This study demonstrates that multi-point high time resolution data can help resolve emission sources and locate emission areas of important ozone and SOA precursors.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030327
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 328: Generating Projections for the Caribbean
           at 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 °C from a High-Resolution Ensemble

    • Authors: Jayaka D. Campbell, Michael A. Taylor, Arnoldo Bezanilla-Morlot, Tannecia S. Stephenson, Abel Centella-Artola, Leonardo A. Clarke, Kimberly A. Stephenson
      First page: 328
      Abstract: Six members of the Hadley Centre’s Perturbed Physics Ensemble for the Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions (QUMP) project are downscaled using the PRECIS (Providing Regional Climates for Impact Studies) RCM (Regional Climate Model). Climate scenarios at long-term temperature goals (LTTGs) of 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 °C above pre-industrial warming levels are generated for the Caribbean and six sub-regions for annual and seasonal timescales. Under a high emissions scenario, the LTTGs are attained in the mid-2020s, end of the 2030s, and the early 2050s, respectively. At 1.5 °C, the region is slightly cooler than the globe, land areas warmer than ocean, and for the later months, the north is warmer than the south. The far western and southern Caribbean including the eastern Caribbean island chain dry at 1.5 °C (up to 50%). At 2.0 °C, the warming and drying intensify and there is a reversal of a wet tendency in parts of the north Caribbean. Drying in the rainfall season accounts for much of the annual change. There is limited further intensification of the region-wide drying at 2.5 °C. Changes in wind strength in the Caribbean low-level jet region may contribute to the patterns seen. There are implications for urgent and targeted adaptation planning in the Caribbean.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030328
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 329: The Combined Effects of SST and the North
           Atlantic Subtropical High-Pressure System on the Atlantic Basin Tropical
           Cyclone Interannual Variability

    • Authors: Albenis Pérez-Alarcón, José C. Fernández-Alvarez, Rogert Sorí, Raquel Nieto, Luis Gimeno
      First page: 329
      Abstract: The combined effect of the sea surface temperature (SST) and the North Atlantic subtropical high-pressure system (NASH) in the interannual variability of the genesis of tropical cyclones (TCs) and landfalling in the period 1980–2019 is explored in this study. The SST was extracted from the Centennial Time Scale dataset from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and TC records were obtained from the Atlantic Hurricane Database of the NOAA/National Hurricane Center. The genesis and landfalling regions were objectively clustered for this analysis. Seven regions of TC genesis and five for landfalling were identified. Intercluster differences were observed in the monthly frequency distribution and annual variability, both for genesis and landfalling. From the generalized least square multiple regression model, SST and NASH (intensity and position) covariates can explain 22.7% of the variance of the frequency of TC genesis, but it is only statistically significant (p < 0.1) for the NASH center latitude. The SST mostly modulates the frequency of TCs formed near the West African coast, and the NASH latitudinal variation affects those originated in the Lesser Antilles arc. For landfalling, both covariates explain 38.7% of the variance; however, significant differences are observed in the comparison between each region. With a statistical significance higher than 90%, SST and NASH explain 33.4% of the landfalling variability in the archipelago of the Bahamas and central–eastern region of Cuba. Besides, landfalls in the Gulf of Mexico and Central America seem to be modulated by SST. It was also found there was no statistically significant relationship between the frequency of genesis and landfalling with the NASH intensity. However, the NASH structure modulates the probability density of the TCs trajectory that make landfall once or several times in their lifetime. Thus, the NASH variability throughout a hurricane season affects the TCs trajectory in the North Atlantic basin. Moreover, we found that the landfalling frequency of TCs formed near the West Africa coast and the central North Atlantic is relatively low. Furthermore, the SST and NASH longitude center explains 31.6% (p < 0.05) of the variance of the landfalling intensity in the archipelago of the Bahamas, while the SST explains 26.4% (p < 0.05) in Central America. Furthermore, the 5-year moving average filter revealed decadal and multidecadal variability in both genesis and landfalling by region. Our findings confirm the complexity of the atmospheric processes involved in the TC genesis and landfalling.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030329
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 330: Impact of Climate Change on Past Indian
           Monsoon and Circulation: A Perspective Based on Radiogenic and Trace Metal

    • Authors: Harunur Rashid, Yang Wang, Alexandra T. Gourlan
      First page: 330
      Abstract: The Indian summer monsoon (ISM), one of the dramatic illustrations of seasonal hydrological variability in the climate system, affects billions of lives. The ISM dominantly controls the northern Indian Ocean sea-surface salinity, mostly in the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea, by the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Irrawaddy-Salween rivers outflow and direct rainfall. In the past decade, numerous studies have used radiogenic neodymium (εNd) isotopes of seawater to link Indian subcontinent erosion and the ensuing increase in discharge that results in changes in the north Indian Ocean sea surface. Here we synthesized the state of the ISM and ocean circulation using the neodymium and hafnium isotopes from north Indian Ocean deep-sea sediments. Our data suggest that the Bay of Bengal and north Indian Ocean sea-surface conditions were most likely modulated by changes in the ISM strength during the last glacial-interglacial cycle. These findings contrast to the hypothesis that suggests that the bottom water neodymium isotopes of the northern Indian Ocean were modulated by switching between two distant sources, namely North Atlantic Deep Water and Antarctic bottom water. Furthermore, the consistency between the neodymium and hafnium isotopes during the last glacial maximum and Holocene suggests a weak and dry ISM and strong and wet conditions, respectively. These data also indicate that the primary source of these isotopes was the Himalayas. Our results support the previously published paleo-proxy records, indicating weak and strong monsoons for the same periods. Moreover, our data further support the hypothesis that the northern Indian Ocean neodymium isotopes were decoupled from the global ocean neodymium budget due to the greater regional influence by the great Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Irrawaddy-Salween discharge draining the Indian subcontinent to the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030330
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 331: Tephra4D: A Python-Based Model for
           High-Resolution Tephra Transport and Deposition Simulations—Applications
           at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan

    • Authors: Kosei Takishita, Alexandros P. Poulidis, Masato Iguchi
      First page: 331
      Abstract: Vulcanian eruptions (short-lived explosions consisting of a rising thermal) occur daily in volcanoes around the world. Such small-scale eruptions represent a challenge in numerical modeling due to local-scale effects, such as the volcano’s topography impact on atmospheric circulation and near-vent plume dynamics, that need to be accounted for. In an effort to improve the applicability of Tephra2, a commonly-used advection-diffusion model, in the case of vulcanian eruptions, a number of key modifications were carried out: (i) the ability to solve the equations over bending plume, (ii) temporally-evolving three-dimensional meteorological fields, (iii) the replacement of the particle diameter distribution with observed particle terminal velocity distribution which provides a simple way to account for the settling velocity variation due to particle shape and density. We verified the advantage of our modified model (Tephra4D) in the tephra dispersion from vulcanian eruptions by comparing the calculations and disdrometer observations of tephra sedimentation from four eruptions at Sakurajima volcano, Japan. The simulations of the eruptions show that Tephra4D is useful for eruptions in which small-scale movement contributes significantly to ash transport mainly due to the consideration for orographic winds in advection.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030331
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 332: Real-World Contribution of Electrification
           and Replacement Scenarios to the Fleet Emissions in West Midland Boroughs,

    • Authors: Louisa K. Osei, Omid Ghaffarpasand, Francis D. Pope
      First page: 332
      Abstract: This study reports the likely real-world effects of fleet replacement with electric vehicles (EVs) and higher efficiency EURO 6 vehicles on the exhaustive emissions of NOx, PM, and CO2 in the seven boroughs of the West Midlands (WM) region, UK. National fleet composition data, local EURO distributions, and traffic compositions were used to project vehicle fleet compositions for different roads in each borough. A large dataset of real-world emission factors including over 90,000 remote-sensing measurements, obtained from remote sensing campaigns in five UK cities, was used to parameterize the emission profiles of the studied scenarios. Results show that adoption of the fleet electrification approach would have the highest emission reduction potential on urban roads in WM boroughs. It would result in maximum reductions ranging from 35.0 to 37.9%, 44.3 to 48.3%, and 46.9 to 50.3% for NOx, PM, and CO2, respectively. In comparison, the EURO 6 replacement fleet scenario would lead to reductions ranging from 10.0 to 10.4%, 4.0 to 4.2%, and 6.0 to 6.4% for NOx, PM, and CO2, respectively. The studied mitigation scenarios have higher efficacies on motorways compared to rural and urban roads because of the differences in traffic fleet composition. The findings presented will help policymakers choose climate and air quality mitigation strategies.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030332
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 333: Morphology, Mineralogy, and Chemistry of
           Atmospheric Aerosols Nearby an Active Mining Area: Aljustrel Mine (SW

    • Authors: Ana Barroso, Sandra Mogo, M. Manuela V. G. Silva, Victoria Cachorro, Ángel de Frutos
      First page: 333
      Abstract: Mining activities increase contaminant levels in the environment, so it is crucial to study the particulate matter in these areas to understand the impacts on nearby urban areas and populations. This work was conducted close to the active mine of Aljustrel (Portugal), where black dust deposition is evident. PM10 samples were collected in two periods: 10–17 July and 1–10 November of 2018. Two different techniques were used: SEM-EDX for the individual characterization of the aerosols and ICP-MS to quantify the elemental concentration of 11 elements (Ca, Na, Fe, Mn, As, Cd, Cu, Sb, Pb, and Zn). In this region, the observed PM10 mass concentration was 20 to 47 µg m −3 (July) and 4 to 23 µg m−3 (November), which is lower than the limit of 50 μg m−3 established in the European Directive. The individual characterization of 2006 particles by SEM-EDX shows oxides (17%) and sulfides (10%), while Na, Si, Fe, S, Al, and Cu are the elements with the most representativeness in all the analyzed particles. The ICP-MS results indicate that the daily elemental concentration in the samples collected in July is higher than November, and only As exceeds the limit established for European legislation.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030333
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 334: Possible Associations between Space
           Weather and the Incidence of Stroke

    • Authors: Jone Vencloviene, Ricardas Radisauskas, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Dalia Luksiene, Lolita Sileikiene, Egle Milinaviciene, Daiva Rastenyte
      First page: 334
      Abstract: The aim of our study was to detect the possible association between daily numbers of ischemic strokes (ISs) and hemorrhagic strokes (HSs) and space weather events. The daily numbers of ISs, subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAHs), and intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) were obtained from Kaunas Stroke Register during the period of 1986 to 2010. We used time- and season-stratified multivariate Poisson regression. We analyzed data of 597 patients with SAH, 1147 patients with ICH, and 7482 patients with IS. Strong/severe geomagnetic storms (GSs) were associated with an increase in the risk of SAH (by 58%) and HS (by 30%). Only GSs occurring during 6:00–12:00 UT were associated with the risk of IS. Low geomagnetic activity (GMA) was associated with the risk of ICH, HS, and IS (Rate Ratios with 95% CI were 2.51 (1.50–4.21), 2.33 (1.50–3.61), and 1.36 (1.03–1.81), respectively). The days of ≥ X9 class solar flare (SF) were associated with a 39% higher risk of IS. The risk of HS occurrence was greater than two times higher on the day after the maximum of a strong/severe solar proton event (SPE). These results showed that GSs, very low GMA, and stronger SFs and SPEs may be associated with an increased risk of different subtypes of stroke.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030334
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 335: Health Risk of Increased O3 Concentration
           Based on Regional Emission Characteristics under the Unusual State of the
           COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Yuki Okazaki, Lisa Ito, Akihiro Tokai
      First page: 335
      Abstract: Photochemical oxidant concentration increases with the decrease in nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentration in volatile organic compound (VOC)-sensitive areas with several automobiles and factories. We aimed to quantify the changes in health risks from ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using disability-adjusted life years (DALY) in Osaka City, which is one of the major cities in Japan. ADMER-PRO version 1.0, an atmospheric model for secondary products, was used to estimate the concentration distribution of NO2, VOC, and O3 using the year-on-year change of traffic during the declaration of the state of emergency in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (7 April to 21 May 2020). NO2 concentration decreased by an average of 0.962 ppb in 88.9% of the grids in Osaka City, whereas O3 concentration increased by an average of 1.00 ppb in all the grids with a 26–28% reduction of traffic volume due to the pandemic. We also found three intensities for the VOC-sensitive condition depending on the different regional emission characteristics, with the DALYs of health risks from the decrease in NO2 exceeding those from the increase in O3, reaching 811.4 and 55.90 total DALYs in the city, respectively.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030335
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 336: Air Pollutant Analysis and AQI Prediction
           Based on GRA and Improved SOA-SVR by Considering COVID-19

    • Authors: Ting Xu, Huichao Yan, Yanping Bai
      First page: 336
      Abstract: Since COVID-19 pneumonia broke out, the Chinese government has taken a series of measures to control the spread of the epidemic, which has made the air quality of Taiyuan in February 2020 significantly better than during the same period in previous years. In this paper, the Gray Relational Analysis (GRA) method was first applied to evaluate and analyze the influence of six major pollutants on air quality. Then, the improved seagull optimization algorithm (ISOA) was proposed and combined with Support Vector Regression (SVR) to establish a hybrid predicted model ISOA-SVR. Finally, the proposed ISOA-SVR was utilized to predict air quality index (AQI). The experimental results on two kinds of different data showed that the proposed ISOA-SVR had the better generalization ability and robustness compared with other predicted models. Further, the proposed ISOA-SVR is suitable for the prediction of AQI.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030336
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 337: Temporal Distribution and Gas/Particle
           Partitioning of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Atmosphere
           of Strasbourg, France

    • Authors: Supansa Chimjarn, Olivier Delhomme, Maurice Millet
      First page: 337
      Abstract: Gas and particulate phase ambient air concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Ʃ16PAHs) were determined in Strasbourg, a large city located in the Alsace region of northeastern France, from May 2018 to March 2020, to study the evolution of their temporal variations and their potential origins. The analysis of PAHs was performed using a global analytical method permitting the quantification of pesticides, PAHs, and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). Filters and Carbon doped silicon carbide NMC@SiC foams were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by a solid-phase extraction (SPE). Afterwards, extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Prior to analysis, a pre-concentration step based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) 100 µm fiber. The average total (gas plus particulate) concentration of Ʃ16PAHs varied from 0.51 to 117.31 ng m−3 with a mean of 16.87 ng m−3, with higher concentrations in the cold season of more than 2.5-fold and 6-fold that in the warm season for the gas and particulate phases, respectively. Moreover, low molecular weight (LMW) (2-ring and 3-ring) and medium molecular weight (MMW) (4-ring) PAHs contribute dominantly to the gas phase, while the particulate phase is associated with MMW (4-ring) and high molecular weight (HMW) (5-ring and 6-ring) PAHs. Gas/particle partitioning coefficient (log Kp) was calculated, and values varied between −4.13 and −1.49. It can be seen that the log Kp increased with the molecular weight of the PAHs and that the log Kp is different between cold and warm seasons for HMW PAHs but not for LMW PAHs. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs, which were employed to estimate the primary source of PAHs in Strasbourg, indicate that fuel combustion and biomass/coal burning are the possible origins of PAHs in Strasbourg’s atmosphere.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030337
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 338: Studying Interfacial Dark Reactions of
           Glyoxal and Hydrogen Peroxide Using Vacuum Ultraviolet Single Photon
           Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    • Authors: Xiao Sui, Bo Xu, Jiachao Yu, Oleg Kostko, Musahid Ahmed, Xiao Ying Yu
      First page: 338
      Abstract: Aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation from volatile and semivolatile organic compounds at the airliquid interface is considered as an important source of fine particles in the atmosphere. However, due to the lack of in situ detecting techniques, the detailed interfacial reaction mechanism and dynamics still remain uncertain. In this study, synchrotron-based vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization mass spectrometry (VUV SPI-MS) was coupled with the System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface (SALVI) to investigate glyoxal dark oxidation products at the aqueous surface. Mass spectral analysis and determination of appearance energies (AEs) suggest that the main products of glyoxal dark interfacial aging are carboxylic acid related oligomers. Furthermore, the VUV SPI-MS results were compared and validated against those of in situ liquid time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The reaction mechanisms of the dark glyoxal interfacial oxidation, obtained using two different approaches, indicate that differences in ionization and instrument operation principles could contribute to their abilities to detect different oligomers. Therefore, the mechanistic differences revealed between the VUV SPI-MS and ToF-SIMS indicate that more in situ and real-time techniques are needed to investigate the contribution of the air–liquid interfacial reactions leading to aqSOA formation.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030338
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 339: The Indirect Impact of Surface Vegetation

    • Authors: Chaowei Zhou, Xiaoming Feng, Yichu Huang, Xiaofeng Wang, Xinrong Zhang
      First page: 339
      Abstract: Extensive ecosystem restoration is increasingly seen as an essential practice to mitigate climate change and protect the ecological environment. However, the indirect impact of surface vegetation improvement on the regional climate, such as the climate effect of sand-dust events reduction, has never been evaluated. Here, we estimated the feedback of temperature and precipitation on the change of sand-dust events, arising from the vegetation growth with ecological restoration, using a simple theoretical framework with a series of scenario simulations based on a regional climate model (RegCM). The results showed that revegetation reduced dust emissions, with a contribution rate of approximately 40.15%. With the combined influence of ecological restoration and climate change, the cooling effect of sand-dust events strengthened with the increase in the intensity of sand-dust events, which is mainly caused by the strong absorption of shortwave radiation by the atmosphere. The response of precipitation was uncertain because of tropospheric circulation feedback and shortwave radiation absorption. Our results also indicate that changes in sand-dust events caused by vegetation restoration play important roles in shaping the future climate near the arid and semi-arid regions of northern China. The climatic effects of sand-dust events should be included in assessing ecological restoration impacts to promote sustainable development and enhance our understanding of climate change.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030339
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 340: Hot Days and Heat Waves in Poland in the
           Period 1951–2019 and the Circulation Factors Favoring the Most Extreme
           of Them

    • Authors: Joanna Wibig
      First page: 340
      Abstract: The aim of the study is to analyze the occurrence of hot days and heat waves in Poland, their intra-annual distribution, and their long-term variability, and to present the circulation factors favoring the appearance of extensive waves in the country. Hot days were days with Tmax not lower than the threshold value defined by the 95th percentile of summer Tmax in the period 1961–1990. Atmospheric circulation was described using sea level pressure, geopotential of 700 and 500 hPa level, and horizontal and vertical wind on these levels. A statistically significant increase in the number of hot days in the entire study period and a significant acceleration in growth after 1980 were shown. In the entire analyzed period, only 11 waves were found covering at least 25% of the country area and lasting no less than a week. Among them, only one occurred before 1990, and more than half were observed in the last decade. Four circulation patterns favoring the extensive heat waves were distinguished differing the location of main baric center location. Spatial and temporal distribution of vertical velocity anomalies allows distinguishing clear phases of strengthening, stabilization, and weakening of anticyclone accompanying the occurrence of a heat wave.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030340
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 341: Severity-Mapped Vibrotactile Cues to
           Support Interruption Management with Weather Messaging in the General
           Aviation Cockpit

    • Authors: Carolina Rodriguez-Paras, Johnathan T. McKenzie, Pasakorn Choterungruengkorn, Thomas K. Ferris
      First page: 341
      Abstract: Despite the increasing availability of technologies that provide access to aviation weather information in the cockpit, weather remains a prominent contributor to general aviation (GA) accidents. Pilots fail to detect the presence of new weather information, misinterpret it, or otherwise fail to act appropriately on it. When cognitive demands imposed by concurrent flight tasks are high, the risks increase for each of these failure modes. Previous research shows how introducing vibrotactile cues can help ease or redistribute some of these demands, but there is untapped potential in exploring how vibratory cues can facilitate “interruption management”, i.e., fitting the processing of available weather information into flight task workflow. In the current study, GA pilots flew a mountainous terrain scenario in a flight training device while receiving, processing, and acting on various weather information messages that were displayed visually, in graphical and text formats, on an experimental weather display. Half of the participants additionally received vibrotactile cues via a connected smartwatch with patterns that conveyed the “severity” of the message, allowing pilots to make informed decisions about when to fully attend to and process the message. Results indicate that weather messages were acknowledged more often and faster when accompanied by the vibrotactile cues, but the time after acknowledgment to fully process the messages was not significantly affected by vibrotactile cuing, nor was overall situation awareness. These findings illustrate that severity-encoded vibrotactile cues can support pilot awareness of updated weather as well as task management in processing weather messages while managing concurrent flight demands.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030341
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 342: The Effect of Non-Compliance of Diesel
           Vehicle Emissions with Euro Limits on Mortality in the City of Milan

    • Authors: Paolo Crosignani, Alessandro Nanni, Nicola Pepe, Cristina Pozzi, Camillo Silibello, Andrea Poggio, Marianna Conte
      First page: 342
      Abstract: Diesel exhaust is hazardous to human health. In time, this has led the EU to impose on manufacturers lower and lower emission standards. These limits are very challenging in particular for nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted by diesel-fueled vehicles. For the town of Milan (Italy), we used a complex modeling system that takes into account the NOx emissions from vehicular traffic and other urban sources, as well as their dispersion and chemical transformations in the atmosphere related to meteorological parameters. The traffic emissions in the Milan urban area were estimated using the geometric and structural characteristics of the road network, whereas the traffic flows were provided by the Environment and Territory Mobility Agency. Car emissions were estimated by the official European method COPERT 5. The nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were estimated under two scenarios: the actual scenario with real emissions and the Diesel Emission Standards Compliance (DESC) scenario. Using a recent meta-analysis, limited to European studies, we evaluated the relationship between NO2 concentrations and natural mortality. For the actual scenario, the NO2 annual concentration mean was 44.3 µg/m3, whereas under the DESC hypothetical scenario, this would have been of 37.7 µg/m3. This “extra” exposure of 6.6 µg/m3 of NO2 leads to a yearly excess of 574 “natural” deaths. Diesel emissions are very difficult to limit and are harmful for exposed people. This suggests that specific policies, including traffic limitations, need to be developed and enforced in urban environments.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030342
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 343: A Novel Convective Storm Location
           Prediction Model Based on Machine Learning Methods

    • Authors: Hansoo Lee, Jonggeun Kim, Eun Kyeong Kim, Sungshin Kim
      First page: 343
      Abstract: A weather radar is a frequently used device in remote sensing to identify meteorological phenomena using electromagnetic waves. It can observe atmospheric conditions in a wide area with a remarkably high spatiotemporal resolution, and its observation results are useful to meteorological research and services. Recent research on data analysis using radar data has concentrated on applying machine learning techniques to solve complicated problems, including quality control, quantitative precipitation estimation, and convective storm prediction. Convective storms, which consist of heavy rains and winds, are closely related to real-life and cause significant loss of life and property. This paper proposes a novel approach utilizing the given convective storms’ temporal properties based on machine learning models to predict future locations. The experimental results showed that the machine learning-based prediction models are capable of nowcasting future locations of convective storms with a slight difference.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030343
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 344: The 2017 Mega-Fires in Central Chile:
           Impacts on Regional Atmospheric Composition and Meteorology Assessed from
           Satellite Data and Chemistry-Transport Modeling

    • Authors: Rémy Lapere, Sylvain Mailler, Laurent Menut
      First page: 344
      Abstract: In January 2017, historic forest fires occurred in south-central Chile. Although their causes and consequences on health and ecosystems were studied, little is known about their atmospheric effects. Based on chemistry-transport modeling with WRF-CHIMERE, the impact of the 2017 Chilean mega-fires on regional atmospheric composition, and the associated meteorological feedback, are investigated. Fire emissions are found to increase pollutants surface concentration in the capital city, Santiago, by +150% (+30 µg/m3) for PM2.5 and +50% (+200 ppb) for CO on average during the event. Satellite observations show an intense plume extending over 2000 km, well reproduced by the simulations, with Aerosol Optical Depth at 550 nm as high as 4 on average during the days of fire activity, as well as dense columns of CO and O3. In addition to affecting atmospheric composition, meteorology is also modified through aerosol direct and indirect effects, with a decrease in surface radiation by up to 100 W/m2 on average, leading to reductions in surface temperatures by 1 K and mixing layer heights over land by 100 m, and a significant increase in cloud optical depth along the plume. Large deposition fluxes of pollutants over land, the Pacific ocean and the Andes cordillera are found, signaling potential damages to remote ecosystems.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030344
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 345: Impact of COVID-19 Lockdown on Air
           Pollutants in a Coastal Area of the Yangtze River Delta, China, Measured
           by a Low-Cost Sensor Package

    • Authors: Chen, Li, Pang, Shi, Chen, Wang, Xu
      First page: 345
      Abstract: Ningbo is a major coastal city in the Yangtze River Delta region, China, with the largest cargo capacity in the world. We conducted a field campaign in Ningbo to measure the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on air pollutants including NO2, O3 and CO from 21 January to 23 March 2020, using a home-made low-cost sensor package. The average concentrations of NO2, O3 and CO were observed to be 7.2, 37.5 and 648.5 ppb, respectively, during the lockdown. Compared with the previous year, the concentrations of NO2 and CO decreased by 63.1% and 6.9%, while the concentration of O3 increased by 37.9%. The significant reduction of NO2 concentration may be attributed to the reduced emissions of freighters and heavy trucks with lower port cargo throughput, which led to a decrease of NO concentration. The increase of O3 concentration was probably due to the lower titration of O3 by NO. After the lockdown, the concentrations of O3 and NO2 increased by 15.5% and 143.1%, respectively, compared with those during the lockdown. The temporal variations of the concentrations of NO2, O3 and CO measured by the sensor package were coincident with those obtained by the reference apparatus, which proves the sensor package to be suitable for air quality monitoring in field campaigns. This is the first time that a dramatic decrease in NO2 concentration in a coastal city due to a lockdown has been reported.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030345
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 346: The Possible Effect of Space Weather
           Factors on Various Physiological Systems of the Human Organism

    • Authors: Tatiana Alexandrovna Zenchenko, Tamara Konstantinovna Breus
      First page: 346
      Abstract: A systematic review of heliobiological studies of the last 25 years devoted to the study of the potential influence of space weather factors on human health and well-being was carried out. We proposed three criteria (coordinates), according to which the work on solar–biospheric relations was systematized: the time scale of data sampling (years, days, hours, minutes); the level of organization of the biological system under study (population, group, individual, body system); and the degree of system response (norm, adaptation, failure of adaptation (illness), disaster (death)). This systematic review demonstrates that three parameters mentioned above are closely related in the existing heliobiological studies: the larger the selected time scale, the higher the level of estimated biological system organization and the stronger the potential response degree is. The long-term studies are devoted to the possible influence of solar activity on population disasters, i.e., significant increases in morbidity and mortality. On a daily scale, a probable effect of geomagnetic storms and other space weather events on short-term local outbreaks of morbidity is shown as well as on cases of deterioration in people functional state. On an intraday scale, in the regular functioning mode, the heart and brain rhythms of healthy people turn to be synchronized with geomagnetic field variations in some frequency ranges, which apparently is the necessary organism’s existence element. The applicability of different space weather indices at different data sampling rates, the need to take into account the contribution of meteorological factors, and the prospects for an individual approach in heliobiology are discussed. The modern important results of experiments on modeling the action of magnetic storms in laboratory conditions and the substantiation of possible theoreical mechanisms are described. These results provide an experimental and theoretical basis for studies of possible connections of space weather and human health.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030346
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 347: Potential Source Contribution Function
           Analysis of High Latitude Dust Sources over the Arctic: Preliminary
           Results and Prospects

    • Authors: Stefano Crocchianti, Beatrice Moroni, Pavla Dagsson Waldhauserová, Silvia Becagli, Mirko Severi, Rita Traversi, David Cappelletti
      First page: 347
      Abstract: The results of a preliminary investigation of the dust sources in the Arctic based on their geochemical properties by potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis are presented in this paper. For this purpose, we considered one year of aerosol geochemical data from Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, and a short list of chemical elements (i.e., Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Cr, V, Ni, Cu, and Zn) variably related to the dust fraction. Based on PSCF analysis: (i) four different dust source areas (i.e., Eurasia, Greenland, Arctic-Alaska, and Iceland) were characterized by distinguishing geochemical ranges and seasonal occurrence; and (ii) a series of typical dust days from the distinct source areas were identified based on the corresponding back trajectory patterns. Icelandic dust samples revealed peculiar but very variable characteristics in relation to their geographical source regions marked by air mass back trajectories. The comparison between pure and mixed Icelandic dust samples (i.e., aerosols containing Icelandic dust along with natural and/or anthropogenic components) revealed the occurrence of different mixing situations. Comparison with Icelandic soils proved the existence of dilution effects related to the emission and the transport processes.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030347
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 348: Analysis of the Vertical Air Motions and
           Raindrop Size Distribution Retrievals of a Squall Line Based on Cloud
           Radar Doppler Spectral Density Data

    • Authors: Ningkun Ma, Liping Liu, Yichen Chen, Yang Zhang
      First page: 348
      Abstract: A squall line is a type of strongly organized mesoscale convective system that can cause severe weather disasters. Thus, it is crucial to explore the dynamic structure and hydrometeor distributions in squall lines. This study analyzed a squall line over Guangdong Province on 6 May 2016 that was observed using a Ka-band millimeter-wave cloud radar (CR) and an S-band dual-polarization radar (PR). Doppler spectral density data obtained by the CR were used to retrieve the vertical air motions and raindrop size distribution (DSD). The results showed the following: First, the CR detected detailed vertical profiles and their evolution before and during the squall line passage. In the convection time segment (segment B), heavy rain existed with a reflectivity factor exceeding 35 dBZ and a velocity spectrum width exceeding 1.3 m s−1. In the PR detection, the differential reflectivity factor (Zdr) was 1–2 dB, and the large specific differential phase (Kdp) also represented large liquid water content. In the transition and stratiform cloud time segments (segments B and C), the rain stabilized gradually, with decreasing cloud tops, stable precipitation, and a 0 °C layer bright band. Smaller Kdp values (less than 0.9) were distributed around the 0 °C layer, which may have been caused by the melting of ice crystal particles. Second, from the CR-retrieved vertical air velocity, before squall line passage, downdrafts dominated in local convection and weak updrafts existed in higher-altitude altostratus clouds. In segment B, the updraft air velocity reached more than 8 m s−1 below the 0 °C layer. From segments C to D, the updrafts changed gradually into weak and wide-ranging downdrafts. Third, in the comparison of DSD values retrieved at 1.5 km and DSD values on the ground, the retrieved DSD line was lower than the disdrometer, the overall magnitude of the DSD retrieved was smaller, and the difference decreased from segments C to D. The standardized intercept parameter (Nw) and shape parameter (μ) of the DSD retrieved at 1.8 km showed good agreement with the disdrometer results, and the mass-weighted mean diameter (Dm) was smaller than that on the ground, but very close to the PR-retrieved Dm result at 2 km. Therefore, comparing with the DSD retrieved at around 2 km, the overall number concentration remained unchanged and Dm got larger on the ground, possibly reflecting the process of raindrop coalescence. Lastly, the average vertical profiles of several quantities in all segments showed that, first of all, the decrease of Nw and Dm with height in segments C and D was similar, reflecting the collision effect of falling raindrops. The trends were opposite in segment B, indicating that raindrops underwent intense mixing and rapid collision and growth in this segment. Then, PR-retrieved Dm profiles can verify the rationality of the CR-retrieved Dm. Finally, a vertical velocity profile peak generated a larger Dm especially in segments C and D.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030348
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 349: Spatial–Temporal Distribution of
           Tropospheric Specific Humidity in the Arid Region of Northwest China

    • Authors: Hao Zhang, Meiping Sun, Xiaojun Yao, Zhilan Wang, Lei Zhang
      First page: 349
      Abstract: Based on the atmospheric temperature and dew point temperature difference series of mandatory levels in the arid region of northwest China, we calculated the specific humidity of stations at 200, 300, 400, 500, 700, and 850 hPa and analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution. The specific humidity of radiosonde is compared with two sets of reanalysis data (ERA-interim from European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts and Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications: MERRA-2). The annual specific humidity and summer specific humidity show a positive trend in the vertical atmospheric levels during the period 1958–2018. Taking the middle of the 1980s and 2002 as boundaries, the selected levels show the trend of “declining-gentle rising-fluctuation rising”. The maximum specific humidity is observed at the level of 850–700 hPa during the warm months of the year, and the most vertical expansion in specific humidity is in July. In terms of spatial distribution, the specific humidity is greatly influenced by the topography and underlying surface at lower levels. The characteristics of spatial distribution of the trend are well described by the two sets of reanalysis data in the middle and upper levels, but there are some deficiencies in depicting the trend in the lower levels.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030349
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 350: Introducing a New Detailed Long-Term
           COSMO-CLM Hindcast for the Russian Arctic and the First Results of Its

    • Authors: Vladimir Platonov, Mikhail Varentsov
      First page: 350
      Abstract: Diverse and severe weather conditions and rapid climate change rates in the Arctic emphasize the need for high-resolution climatic and environmental data that cannot be obtained from the scarce observational networks. This study presents a new detailed hydrometeorological dataset for the Russian Arctic region, obtained as a long-term hindcast with the nonhydrostatic atmospheric model COSMO-CLM for the 1980–2016 period. The modeling workflow, evaluation techniques, and preliminary analysis of the obtained dataset are discussed. The model domain included the Barents, Kara, and Laptev Seas with ≈12-km grid spacing. The optimal model setup was chosen based on preliminary simulations for several summer and winter periods with varied options, and included the usage of ERA-Interim reanalysis data as forcing data, the new model version 5.05 with so-called ICON-based physics, and a spectral nudging technique. The wind speed and temperature climatology in the new COSMO-CLM dataset closely agreed with the ERA-Interim reanalysis, but with detailed spatial patterns. The added value of the higher-resolution COSMO-CLM data with respect to the ERA-Interim was most pronounced for higher wind speeds during downslope windstorms with the influence of mountain ranges on the temperature patterns, including surface temperature inversions. The potential applications and plans of further product development are also discussed.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030350
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 351: Submicron Aerosol and Black Carbon in the
           Troposphere of Southwestern Siberia (1997–2018)

    • Authors: Mikhail Panchenko, Elena Yausheva, Dmitry Chernov, Valerii Kozlov, Valery Makarov, Svetlana Popova, Vladimir Shmargunov
      First page: 351
      Abstract: Based on the multiyear measurements in the surface atmospheric layer (from five stations) and regular flights of aircraft laboratory over the background region of Western Siberia, the compositions of mass concentrations of submicron aerosol and absorbing substances (soot and black carbon) are analyzed. The annual average concentrations of submicron aerosol and black carbon were found to be maximal in 1997, 2012, and 2016, when the largest numbers of wildfires occurred across the entire territory of Siberia. No significant, unidirectional trend of interannual variations in the concentration of submicron particles was observed, while the concentration of absorbing substance reliably decreased by 1.5% each year. To estimate the effect of urban pollutants, mass concentrations of aerosol and absorbing substance in the surface layer at the Aerosol Station (in the suburban region of Tomsk) were compared to those at the Fonovaya Observatory (in the background region). It was shown that the largest contribution of anthropogenic sources in the suburban region was observed in the winter season, while minimal difference was observed in the warm period of the year. The seasonal behavior of the concentrations of elemental carbon at three stations in Novosibirsk Oblast almost completely matched the dynamics of the variations in the black carbon concentration in the atmosphere of Tomsk Oblast. Data of aircraft sensing in the troposphere of the background region of Southwestern Siberia (2000–2018) were used to determine the average values of the vertical distribution of the submicron aerosol and black carbon concentrations in the altitude range of 0.5–7 km for each season. It was found that at altitudes of 0.5–7 km, there were no unidirectional trends in submicron aerosol; however, there was an increase of black carbon concentration at all altitudes with a positive trend of 5.3 ± 2.2% per year at an altitude of 1.5 km, significant at a p-value = 0.05.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030351
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 352: Impact of the Coronavirus Pandemic
           Lockdown on Atmospheric Nanoparticle Concentrations in Two Sites of
           Southern Italy

    • Authors: Adelaide Dinoi, Daniel Gulli, Ivano Ammoscato, Claudia R. Calidonna, Daniele Contini
      First page: 352
      Abstract: During the new coronavirus infection outbreak, the application of strict containment measures entailed a decrease in most human activities, with the consequent reduction of anthropogenic emissions into the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of lockdown on atmospheric particle number concentrations and size distributions is investigated in two different sites of Southern Italy: Lecce and Lamezia Terme, regional stations of the GAW/ACTRIS networks. The effects of restrictions are quantified by comparing submicron particle concentrations, in the size range from 10 nm to 800 nm, measured during the lockdown period and in the same period of previous years, from 2015 to 2019, considering three time intervals: prelockdown, lockdown and postlockdown. Different percentage reductions in total particle number concentrations are observed, −19% and −23% in Lecce and −7% and −4% in Lamezia Terme during lockdown and postlockdown, respectively, with several variations in each subclass of particles. From the comparison, no significant variations of meteorological factors are observed except a reduction of rainfall in 2020, which might explain the higher levels of particle concentrations measured during prelockdown at both stations. In general, the results demonstrate an improvement of air quality, more conspicuous in Lecce than in Lamezia Terme, during the lockdown, with a differed reduction in the concentration of submicronic particles that depends on the different types of sources, their distance from observational sites and local meteorology.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030352
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 353: The Value of a Decrease in Temperature by
           One Degree Celsius of the Regional Microclimate—The Cooling Effect of a
           Paddy Field

    • Authors: Ya-Wen Chiueh, Chih-Hung Tan, Hsiang-Yi Hsu
      First page: 353
      Abstract: In the face of climate change, extreme climates are becoming more frequent. There were severe droughts in Taiwan in 2020, 2014–2015, and 2002. In these years, the paddy fields were kept fallow to save water and transfer agricultural water to non-agricultural use. On the other hand, with global warming, the existence of paddy fields may be one of the natural solutions to regional temperature mitigation. This study used remote sensing to quantify the difference in temperature between paddy fields and urban areas. The result of overall surface temperature deductive analysis revealed that the temperature in the whole Taoyuan research area was 1.2 °C higher in 2002 than in 2003 because of fallowing of the paddy field, while in the Hsinchu research area, it was 1.5 °C higher in 2002 than in 2003, due to the same reason described above. In terms of the difference in land use, for the Hsinchu research area, the surface temperature deductive result showed that the average paddy field temperature in 2002 was 22.3 °C (sample area average), which was 7.7 °C lower than that of the building and road point and 4.3 °C lower than that of the bare land point. The average paddy field temperature in 2003 was 19.2 °C (sample area average), which was 10.1 °C lower than that of the building and road point and 8.3 °C lower than that of the bare land point. Then this study evaluated the economic valuation of the paddy field cooling effect using the contingent valuation method. Through the paddy field cooling effect and in the face of worsening extreme global climate, the willingness to pay (WTP) of the respondents in Taiwan for a decrease of 1 °C with regard to the regional microclimate was evaluated. It was found that people in Taiwan are willing to pay an extra 8.89 USD/per kg rice/year for the paddy for a decrease in temperature by 1 °C in the regional microclimate due to the paddy field. Furthermore, this study applied the benefits transfer method to evaluate the value of a decrease of 1 °C in the regional microclimate in Taiwan. The value of a decrease of 1 °C in the regional microclimate in Taiwan is 9,693,144,279 USD/year. In this regard, the economic value of 1 °C must not be underestimated. In conclusion, more caution is needed while making decisions to change the land use of paddy fields to other land uses.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030353
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 354: The Micrometeorology of the Haifa Bay Area
           and Mount Carmel during the summer

    • Authors: Ziv Klausner, Mattya Ben-Efraim, Yehuda Arav, Eran Tas, Eyal Fattal
      First page: 354
      Abstract: The Haifa bay area (HBA), which includes Mount Carmel and the Zevulun valley is the third largest metropolitan area in Israel. It is also a centre of heavy industry and an important transportation hub which serve as sources of local anthropogenic pollution. Such sources are associated with adverse health effects. In order to estimate the possible exposure of the inhabitants in such heterogeneous orographic area, a detailed atmospheric transport and dispersion modelling study is required, which in turn must take into account the local micrometeorology. The aim of this study is to conduct a spatio-temporal analysis of the flow field in the HBA in order to identify the common patterns of the average wind and characterize the statistical parameters of turbulence in this area, essential for detailed pollutants dispersion modelling. This study analyses data collected during four months of summer in a network of 16 weather stations which extend across Mount Carmel and the Zevulun valley. It was found that, during the evening and night time on Mount Carmel, different flow patterns may develop on each side, separated by the watershed line. When such conditions do not develop, as well as during the daytime, the wind field, both on Mount Carmel and the Zevulun valley is approximately homogenous. The analysis of the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory functions for the velocity standard deviations show a distinct difference between Mount Carmel and the Zevulun valley, as well as between strong and weak winds. This difference can be clearly seen also in the diurnal hourly distribution of atmospheric stabilities which exhibit higher proportions of unstable conditions in the Zevulun valley during day time and higher proportion of stable stratifications at the Mount Carmel during night-time.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030354
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 355: Characteristics of Historical
           Precipitation in High Mountain Asia Based on a 15-Year High Resolution
           Dynamical Downscaling

    • Authors: Collin Riley, Summer Rupper, James W. Steenburgh, Courtenay Strong, Adam K. Kochanski, Savanna Wolvin
      First page: 355
      Abstract: The mountains of High Mountain Asia serve as an important source of water for roughly one billion people living downstream. This research uses 15 years of dynamically downscaled precipitation produced by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to delineate contrasts in precipitation characteristics and events between regions dominated by the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) versus westerly disturbances during the cool season (Dec to Mar). Cluster analysis reveals a more complex spatial pattern than indicated by some previous studies and illustrates the increasing importance of westerly disturbances at higher elevations. Although prior research suggests that a small number of westerly disturbances dominate precipitation in the western Himalaya and Karakoram, the WRF-downscaled precipitation is less dominated by infrequent large events. Integrated vapor transport (IVT) and precipitation are tightly coupled in both regions during the cool season, with precipitation maximizing for IVT from the south-southwest over the Karakoram and southeast-southwest over the western Himalaya. During the ISM, Karakoram precipitation is not strongly related to IVT direction, whereas over the western Himalaya, primary and secondary precipitation maxima occur for flow from the west-southwest and northwest, respectively. These differences in the drivers and timing of precipitation have implications for hydrology, glacier mass balance, snow accumulation, and their sensitivity to climate variability and change.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030355
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 356: The Variation Characteristics and
           Influencing Factors of Base Flow of the Hexi Inland Rivers

    • Authors: Yuxin Lei, Xiaohui Jiang, Wenjie Geng, Jinyan Zhang, Huan Zhao, Liqing Ren
      First page: 356
      Abstract: The climate is becoming warmer and more humid in the inland area of northwestern China. In addition, human activities have changed the underlying surface of the river basin, and the instability of the runoff changes has intensified. As a component of river runoff, the base flow reflects the impacts of climate change and human activities. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out research on the change in the base flow and its influencing factors in the context of climate change and human activities. In this study, a base flow method suitable for the inland rivers in northwestern China was assessed, and the variation rules and influencing factors of the base flow were analyzed. The results reveal that since the 1980s, the base flow of the Hexi inland rivers has exhibited an increasing trend, and the growth rate has exhibited the following order: western > central > eastern. The Base Flow Index (the proportion of the base flow to the total runoff in a period) values are in the range of 0.45–0.65. Overall, the change in the base flow of the Hexi inland rivers is the result of the coupling of climate factors and land-use change. The influence of land-use change on the base flow of the Hexi inland rivers gradually weakens from east to west, except for the Xiying River, while the influence of climate change gradually increases. The contribution rates of land-use change to the base flow in the eastern, central, and western regions were 75%, 55%, and 27%. Temperature and precipitation are the main climate factors affecting the change in the base flow in the western and central regions, respectively.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030356
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 357: Lag Effects of Ozone, PM2.5, and
           Meteorological Factors on COVID-19 New Cases at the Disease Epicenter in
           Queens, New York

    • Authors: Atin Adhikari, Jingjing Yin
      First page: 357
      Abstract: The influences of environmental factors on COVID-19 may not be immediate and could be lagged for days to weeks. This study investigated the choice of lag days for calculating cumulative lag effects of ozone, PM2.5, and five meteorological factors (wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, absolute humidity, and cloud percentages) on COVID-19 new cases at the epicenter of Queens County, New York, before the governor’s executive order on wearing of masks in public places (1 March to 11 April 2020). Daily data for selected air pollutants and meteorological factors were collected from the US EPA Air Quality System, weather observation station of the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information at John F. Kennedy Airport, and World Weather Online. Negative binomial regression models were applied, including the autocorrelations and trend of the time series, as well as the effective reproductive number as confounders. The effects of ozone, PM2.5, and five meteorological factors were significant on COVID-19 new cases with lag9-lag13 days. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were consistent for any lag day choice between lag0-lag14 days and started fluctuating after lag15 days. Considering moving averages >14 days yielded less reliable variables for summarizing the cumulative lag effects of environmental factors on COVID-19 new cases and considering lag days from 9 to 13 would yield significant findings. Future studies should consider this approach of lag day checks concerning the modeling of COVID-19 progression in relation to meteorological factors and ambient air pollutants.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030357
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 358: Patterns of Extreme Precipitation and
           Characteristics of Related Systems in the Northern Xinjiang Region

    • Authors: Rui Xu, Jie Ming
      First page: 358
      Abstract: Based on 40 years of daily precipitation, 272 extreme precipitation days in the Northern Xinjiang region are defined. Using the daily precipitation data on these days, four precipitation spatial patterns were obtained through principal component analysis. Then, daily-averaged reanalysis data were used to analyze the variations of synoptic systems on extreme precipitation days and the two days before and after. The rainfall centers shifted with the influential systems at 500 hPa. Water vapor of the western Tianshan type (Type WT) and the north of Northern Xinjiang type (Type NN) comes from the west, while vapor of the Central Tianshan type (Type CT) mainly comes from the east. In the east of Northern Xinjiang type (Type EN), water vapor converges from both sides. The centers of the upper-level jets are located west of 80° E in Type WT and CT. However, they are to the east of 80° E in the other types. This article summarizes the variations of the systems at 500 hPa, the South Asia High, the westerly jet, and the water vapor transport between the surface and 500 hPa in four types of patterns, and builds the conceptual model for each type. The models built can be applied to the heavy rainfall forecast of Northern Xinjiang.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030358
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 359: Health Effects and Exposure Assessment to
           Bioaerosols in Indoor and Outdoor Environments

    • Authors: Ewa Brągoszewska
      First page: 359
      Abstract: The Atmosphere Special Issue entitled “Health Effects and Exposure Assessment to Bioaerosols in Indoor and Outdoor Environments” comprises five original papers [...]
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030359
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 360: High-Resolution Numerical Modelling of
           Near-Surface Atmospheric Fields in the Complex Terrain of James Ross
           Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    • Authors: Michael Matějka, Kamil Láska, Klára Jeklová, Jiří Hošek
      First page: 360
      Abstract: The Antarctic Peninsula belongs to the regions of the Earth that have seen the highest increase in air temperature in the past few decades. The warming is reflected in degradation of the cryospheric system. The impact of climate variability and interactions between the atmosphere and the cryosphere can be studied using numerical atmospheric models. In this study, the standard version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was validated on James Ross Island in the northern part of the Antarctic Peninsula. The aim of this study was to verify the WRF model output at 700 m horizontal resolution using air temperature, wind speed and wind direction observations from automatic weather stations on the Ulu Peninsula, the northernmost part of James Ross Island. Validation was carried out for two contrasting periods (summer and winter) in 2019/2020 to assess possible seasonal effects on model accuracy. Simulated air temperatures were in very good agreement with measurements (mean bias −1.7 °C to 1.4 °C). The exception was a strong air temperature inversion during two of the winter days when a significant positive bias occurred at the coastal and lower-altitude locations on the Ulu Peninsula. Further analysis of the WRF estimates showed a good skill in simulating near-surface wind speed with higher correlation coefficients in winter (0.81–0.93) than in summer (0.41–0.59). However, bias and RMSE for wind speed tended to be better in summer. The performance of three WRF boundary layer schemes (MYJ, MYNN, QNSE) was further evaluated. The QNSE scheme was generally more accurate than MYNN and MYJ, but the differences were quite small and varied with time and place. The MYNN and QNSE schemes tended to achieve better wind speed simulation quality than the MYJ scheme. The model successfully captured wind direction, showing only slight differences to the observed values. It was shown that at lower altitudes the performance of the model can vary greatly with time. The model results were more accurate during high wind speed southwestern flow, while the accuracy decreased under weak synoptic-scale forcing, accompanied by an occurrence of mesoscale atmospheric processes.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030360
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 361: Comparative Analysis between Daily Extreme
           Temperature and Precipitation Values Derived from Observations and Gridded
           Datasets in North-Western Romania

    • Authors: Mugurel Raul Sidău, Adina-Eliza Croitoru, Diana-Elena Alexandru
      First page: 361
      Abstract: Climate gridded datasets are highly needed and useful in conducting data analysis for research and practical purposes. They provide long-term information on various climatic variables for large areas worldwide, making them suitable for use at any spatial level. It is essential to assess the accuracy of gridded data by comparing the data to measured values, especially when they are used as input parameters for hydro-climatic models. From the multitude of databases available for North-western Romania, we selected three, particularly the European Climate Assessment and Dataset (E-OBS), the Romanian Climatic Dataset (ROCADA), and the Climate of the Carpathian Region (CARPATCLIM). In this paper, we analyse the extreme precipitation and temperature data derived from the above-mentioned datasets over a common 50-year period (1961–2010) and compare the data with raw values to estimate the degree of uncertainty for each set of data. The observation data, recorded at two meteorological stations located in a complex topography region, were compared to the output of the gridded datasets, by using descriptive statistics for the mean and extreme annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation data, and trend analyses. The main findings are: the high suitability of the ROCADA gridded database for climate trend analysis and of the E-OBS gridded database for extreme temperature and precipitation analysis.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030361
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 362: Documented and Simulated Warm Extremes
           during the Last 600 Years over Monsoonal China

    • Authors: Shangrong Zhou, Le Tao, Yun Su, Yue Sui, Zhongshi Zhang
      First page: 362
      Abstract: In this study, we present an analysis of warm extremes over monsoonal China (21–45° N, 106–124° E) during the last 600 years based on Chinese historical documents and simulations from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (PMIP3) and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The Chinese historical documents indicate that extreme warm records become more frequent after ~1650 CE in North China and ~1850 CE in the Yangtze River Valley. Our analyses of two threshold extreme temperature indices also illustrate that warm extremes have become more frequent since the 17th century in North China and the mid-19th century in Yangtze River Valley in good agreement with the changes in warm extremes revealed in the historical documents. This agreement suggests potential mechanisms behind the shift of periods, which should be further investigated in the future.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030362
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 363: Seasonal Estimates and Uncertainties of
           Snow Accumulation from CloudSat Precipitation Retrievals

    • Authors: George Duffy, Fraser King, Ralf Bennartz, Christopher G. Fletcher
      First page: 363
      Abstract: CloudSat is often the only measurement of snowfall rate available at high latitudes, making it a valuable tool for understanding snow climatology. The capability of CloudSat to provide information on seasonal and subseasonal time scales, however, has yet to be explored. In this study, we use subsampled reanalysis estimates to predict the uncertainties of CloudSat snow water equivalent (SWE) accumulation measurements at various space and time resolutions. An idealized/simulated subsampling model predicts that CloudSat may provide seasonal SWE estimates with median percent errors below 50% at spatial scales as small as 2° × 2°. By converting these predictions to percent differences, we can evaluate CloudSat snowfall accumulations against a blend of gridded SWE measurements during frozen time periods. Our predictions are in good agreement with results. The 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of the percent differences between the two measurements all match predicted values within eight percentage points. We interpret these results to suggest that CloudSat snowfall estimates are in sufficient agreement with other, thoroughly vetted, gridded SWE products. This implies that CloudSat may provide useful estimates of snow accumulation over remote regions within seasonal time scales.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030363
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 364: Indoor Air Quality in Museum Display
           Cases: Volatile Emissions, Materials Contributions, Impacts

    • Authors: Oscar Chiantore, Tommaso Poli
      First page: 364
      Abstract: The control of air quality in museum showcases is a growing issue for the conservation of the displayed artefacts. Inside an airtight showcase, volatile substances may rapidly concentrate and favor or directly cause the degradation or other unwanted phenomena on the objects. The role of materials used in the construction of museum display cases as a source of pollutants and volatile compounds dangerous for the cultural heritage integrity is here reviewed with an illustration of consequences and critical damages. Ways of assessing the suitability of materials used either in the construction or in use of the display cases are also discussed altogether with an overview of the possible choices for monitoring the air quality and limiting the concentration of volatile compounds in their interior.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030364
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 365: Evaluation of ENSO Prediction Skill
           Changes since 2000 Based on Multimodel Hindcasts

    • Authors: Shouwen Zhang, Hui Wang, Hua Jiang, Wentao Ma
      First page: 365
      Abstract: In this study, forecast skill over four different periods of global climate change (1982–1999, 1984–1996, 2000–2018, and 2000–2014) is examined using the hindcasts of five models in the North American Multimodel Ensemble. The deterministic evaluation shows that the forecasting skills of the Niño3.4 and Niño3 indexes are much lower during 2000–2018 than during 1982–1999, indicating that the previously reported decline in forecasting skill continues through 2018. The decreases in skill are most significant for the target months from May to August, especially for medium to long lead times, showing that the forecasts suffer more from the effect of the spring predictability barrier (SPB) post-2000. Relationships between the extratropical Pacific signal and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) weakened after 2000, contributing to a reduction in inherent predictability and skills of ENSO, which may be connected with the forecasting skills decline for medium to long lead times. It is a great challenge to predict ENSO using the memory of the local ocean itself because of the weakening intensity of the warm water volume (WWV) and its relationship with ENSO. These changes lead to a significant decrease in the autocorrelation coefficient of the persistence forecast for short to medium lead months. Moreover, for both the Niño3.4 and Niño3 indexes, after 2000, the models tend to further underestimate the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in the El Niño developing year but overestimate them in the decaying year. For the probabilistic forecast, the skills post-2000 are also generally lower than pre-2000 in the tropical Pacific, and in particular, they decayed east of 120° W after 2000. Thus, the advantages of different methods, such as dynamic modeling, statistical methods, and machine learning methods, should be integrated to obtain the best applicability to ENSO forecasts and to deal with the current low forecasting skill phenomenon.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030365
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 366: Measuring Hydrogen in Indoor Air with a
           Selective Metal Oxide Semiconductor Sensor

    • Authors: Caroline Schultealbert, Johannes Amann, Tobias Baur, Andreas Schütze
      First page: 366
      Abstract: Hydrogen is a ubiquitous but often neglected gas. In analytical measurements hydrogen—as a harmless gas—often is not considered so no studies on hydrogen in indoor air can be found. For metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors that are increasingly pushed into the application as TVOC (total volatile organic compounds) sensors, hydrogen is a severe disturbance. On the other hand, hydrogen can be an intentional choice as indicator for human presence similar to carbon dioxide. We present a field-study on hydrogen in indoor air using selective MOS sensors accompanied by an analytical reference device for hydrogen with an accuracy of 10 ppb. Selectivity is achieved by siloxane treatment combined with temperature cycled operation and training with a complex lab calibration using randomized gas mixtures, yielding an uncertainty of 40–60 ppb. The feasibility is demonstrated by release tests with several gases inside a room and by comparison to the reference device. The results show that selective MOS sensors can function as cheap and available hydrogen detectors. Fluctuations in hydrogen concentration without human presence are measured over several days to gain insight in this highly relevant parameter for indoor air quality. The results indicate that the topic needs further attention and that the usage of hydrogen as indicator for human presence might be precluded by other sources and fluctuations.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030366
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 367: The Caribbean and 1.5 °C: Is SRM an

    • Authors: Leonardo A. Clarke, Michael A. Taylor, Abel Centella-Artola, Matthew St. M. Williams, Jayaka D. Campbell, Arnoldo Bezanilla-Morlot, Tannecia S. Stephenson
      First page: 367
      Abstract: The Caribbean, along with other small island developing states (SIDS), have advocated for restricting global warming to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels by the end of the current century. Solar radiation management (SRM) may be one way to achieve this goal. This paper examines the mean Caribbean climate under various scenarios of an SRM-altered versus an SRM-unaltered world for three global warming targets, namely, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. Data from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project Phase 1 (GeoMIP1) were examined for two SRM scenarios: the G3 experiment where there is a gradual injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the tropical lower stratosphere starting in 2020 and terminating after 50 years, and the G4 experiment where a fixed 5 Teragram (Tg) of SO2 per year is injected into the atmosphere starting in 2020 and ending after 50 years. The results show that SRM has the potential to delay attainment of the 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 °C global warming targets. The extent of the delay varies depending on the SRM methodology but may be beyond mid-century for the 1.5 °C goal. In comparison, however, the higher temperature thresholds are both still attained before the end of century once SRM is ceased, raising questions about the value of the initial delay. The application of SRM also significantly alters mean Caribbean climate during the global warming target years (determined for a representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) world without SRM). The Caribbean is generally cooler but drier during the 1.5 °C years and similarly cool but less dry for years corresponding to the higher temperature targets. Finally, the mean Caribbean climate at 1.5 °C differs if the global warming target is achieved under SRM versus RCP4.5. The same is true for the higher warming targets. The implications of all the results are discussed as a background for determining whether SRM represents a viable consideration for Caribbean SIDS to achieve their “1.5 to stay alive” goal.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030367
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 368: Mechanisms for Severe Drought Occurrence
           in the Balsas River Basin (Mexico)

    • Authors: Ana E. Melgarejo, Paulina Ordoñez, Raquel Nieto, Cristina Peña-Ortiz, Ricardo García-Herrera, Luis Gimeno
      First page: 368
      Abstract: This work provides an assessment of the two most intense seasonal droughts that occurred over the Balsas River Basin (BRB) in the period 1980–2017. The detection of the drought events was performed using the 6 month scale standardized precipitation–evapotranspiration index (SPEI-6) and the 6 month standardized precipitation index (SPI-6) in October. Both indices were quite similar during the studied period, highlighting the larger contribution of precipitation deficits vs. temperature excess to the drought occurrence in the basin. The origin of the atmospheric water arriving to the BRB (1 May 1980–31 October 2017) was investigated by using a Lagrangian diagnosis method. The BRB receives moisture from the Caribbean Sea and the rest of the tropical Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, the eastern north Pacific and from three terrestrial evaporative sources: the region north of BRB, the south of BRB and the BRB itself. The terrestrial evaporative source of the BRB itself is by far the main moisture source. The two most intense drought events that occurred in the studied period were selected for further analysis. During the severe drought of 2005, the summertime sea surface temperature (SST) soared over the Caribbean Sea, extending eastward into a large swathe of tropical North Atlantic, which was accompanied by the record to date of hurricane activity. This heating generated a Rossby wave response with westward propagating anticyclonic/cyclonic gyres in the upper/lower troposphere. A cyclonic low-level circulation developed over the Gulf of Mexico and prevented the moisture from arriving to the BRB, with a consequent deficit in precipitation. Additionally, subsidence also prevented convection in most of the months of this drought period. During the extreme drought event of 1982, the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) remained southern and stronger than the climatological mean over the eastern tropical Pacific, producing an intense regional Hadley circulation. The descent branch of this cell inhibited the development of convection over the BRB, although the moisture sources increased their contributions; however, these were bounded to the lower levels by a strong trade wind inversion.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030368
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 369: Drought in South Asia: A Review of Drought
           Assessment and Prediction in South Asian Countries

    • Authors: Sewwandhi S. K. Chandrasekara, Hyun-Han Kwon, Meththika Vithanage, Jayantha Obeysekera, Tae-Woong Kim
      First page: 369
      Abstract: South Asian countries have been experiencing frequent drought incidents recently, and due to this reason, many scientific studies have been carried out to explore drought in South Asia. In this context, we review scientific studies related to drought in South Asia. The study initially identifies the importance of drought-related studies and discusses drought types for South Asian regions. The representative examples of drought events, severity, frequency, and duration in South Asian countries are identified. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was mostly adopted in South Asian countries to quantify and monitor droughts. Nevertheless, the absence of drought quantification studies in Bhutan and the Maldives is of great concern. Future studies to generate a combined drought severity map for the South Asian region are required. Moreover, the drought prediction and projection in the regions is rarely studied. Furthermore, the teleconnection between drought and large-scale atmospheric circulations in the South Asia has not been discussed in detail in most of the scientific literature. Therefore, as a take-home message, there is an urgent need for scientific studies related to drought quantification for some regions in South Asia, prediction and projection of drought for an individual country (or as a region), and drought teleconnection to atmospheric circulation.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030369
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 370: Present and Future High-Resolution Climate
           Forcings over Semiarid Catchments: Case of the Tensift (Morocco)

    • Authors: Ahmed Moucha, Lahoucine Hanich, Yves Tramblay, Amina Saaidi, Simon Gascoin, Eric Martin, Michel Le Le Page, Elhoussaine Bouras, Camille Szczypta, Lionel Jarlan
      First page: 370
      Abstract: In semiarid areas, the climate is characterized by strong spatiotemporal variability while the meteorological ground network is often very sparse. In this context, the spatial distribution of meteorological variables is thus a real issue for watershed hydrology, agronomy and the study of surface–atmosphere retroaction in these regions. The aim of this study is twofold: (1) to evaluate and to adapt a reanalysis system “Système d’Analyse Fournissant des Renseignements Adaptés à la Nivologie” (SAFRAN) to map the meteorological variables on the Tensift catchment (Morocco) between 2004 and 2014; (2) to project temperature and precipitation for the 2041–2060 horizon at high-resolution based on the Euro-CORDEX database at 12 km resolution (using two Representative Concentration Pathway -RCPs- scenarios and four Regional Climate Models), on the SAFRAN reanalysis and on a network of meteorological stations. SAFRAN was assessed: (1) based on leave-one-out for a station located in the plain and another in the mountains; (2) by comparison to another re-analysis system named the Meteorological Distribution System for High-Resolution Terrestrial Modeling (MicroMet); (3) by comparison to in situ measurements of snowfall at one station and to the daily Snow Cover Area derived from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) product at the catchment scale. The evaluation of the SAFRAN reanalysis showed that an irregular grid up to 1 km resolution is better for reproducing meteorological variables than the regular version of SAFRAN at 8 km, especially in mountains. The projection of the SAFRAN forcing is conducted in three steps corresponding to the three subsections below: (1) disaggregation of the Euro-CORDEX climate scenarios using the Q–Q approach based on stations data; (2) computation of the spatialized delta-change between historical and future Euro-CORDEX runs after Q–Q correction; (3) futurization of SAFRAN using the spatialized delta change values. The mountainous area is expected to face a higher increase in air temperature than the plains, reaching +2.5 °C for RCP8.5 and +1.71 °C for RCP4.5 over 2041–2060. This warming will be accompanied by a marked decrease in precipitation (−16% for RCP8.5). These present and future spatialized data sets should be useful for impact studies, in particular those focusing on water resources.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030370
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 371: Determination of Dose–Response
           Relationship to Derive Odor Impact Criteria for a Wastewater Treatment

    • Authors: Yan Zhang, Weihua Yang, Günther Schauberger, Jianzhuang Wang, Jing Geng, Gen Wang, Jie Meng
      First page: 371
      Abstract: Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) inside cities have been the major complained sources of odor pollution in China, whereas there is little knowledge about the dose–response relationship to describe the resident complaints caused by odor exposure. This study explored a dose–response relationship between the modelled exposure and the annoyance surveyed by questionnaires. Firstly, the time series of odor concentrations were preliminarily simulated by a dispersion model. Secondly, the perception-related odor exposures were further calculated by combining with the peak to mean factors (constant value 4 (Germany) and 2.3 (Italy)), different time periods of “a whole year”, “summer”, and “nighttime of summer”, and two approaches of odor impact criterion (OIC) (“odor-hour” and “odor concentration”). Thirdly, binomial logistic regression models were used to compare kinds of perception-related odor exposures and odor annoyance by odds ratio, goodness of fit and predictive ability. All perception-related odor exposures were positively associated with odor annoyance. The best goodness of fit was found when using “nighttime of summer” in predicting odor-annoyance responses, which highlights the importance of the time of the day and the time of the year weighting. The best predictive performance for odor perception was determined when the OIC was 4 ou/m3 at the 99th percentile for the odor exposure over time periods of nighttime of summer. The study of dose–response relationship could be useful for the odor management and control of WWTP to maximize the satisfaction of air quality for the residents inside city.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030371
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 372: Development of a Health-Based Index to
           Identify the Association between Air Pollution and Health Effects in
           Mexico City

    • Authors: Kevin Cromar, Laura Gladson, Mónica Jaimes Palomera, Lars Perlmutt
      First page: 372
      Abstract: Health risks from air pollution continue to be a major concern for residents in Mexico City. These health burdens could be partially alleviated through individual avoidance behavior if accurate information regarding the daily health risks of multiple pollutants became available. A split sample approach was used in this study to create and validate a multi-pollutant, health-based air quality index. Poisson generalized linear models were used to assess the impacts of ambient air pollution (i.e., fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ground-level ozone (O3)) on a total of 610,982 daily emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory disease obtained from 40 facilities in the metropolitan area of Mexico City from 2010 to 2015. Increased risk of respiratory ED visits was observed for interquartile increases in the 4-day average concentrations of PM2.5 (Risk Ratio (RR) 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.04), O3 (RR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.05), and to a lesser extent NO2 (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.99–1.02). An additive, multi-pollutant index was created using coefficients for these three pollutants. Positive associations of index values with daily respiratory ED visits was observed among children (ages 2–17) and adults (ages 18+). The use of previously unavailable daily health records enabled an assessment of short-term ambient air pollution concentrations on respiratory morbidity in Mexico City and the creation of a health-based air quality index, which is now currently in use in Mexico City.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030372
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 373: Validation of Ensemble-Based Probabilistic
           Tropical Cyclone Intensity Change

    • Authors: Ryan D. Torn, Mark DeMaria
      First page: 373
      Abstract: Although there has been substantial improvement to numerical weather prediction models, accurate predictions of tropical cyclone rapid intensification (RI) remain elusive. The processes that govern RI, such as convection, may be inherently less predictable; therefore a probabilistic approach should be adopted. Although there have been numerous studies that have evaluated probabilistic intensity (i.e., maximum wind speed) forecasts from high resolution models, or statistical RI predictions, there has not been a comprehensive analysis of high-resolution ensemble predictions of various intensity change thresholds. Here, ensemble-based probabilities of various intensity changes are computed from experimental Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting (HWRF) and Hurricanes in a Multi-scale Ocean-coupled Non-hydrostatic (HMON) models that were run for select cases during the 2017-2019 seasons and verified against best track data. Both the HWRF and HMON ensemble systems simulate intensity changes consistent with RI (30 knots 24 h−1; 15.4 m s−1 24 h−1) less frequent than observed, do not provide reliable probabilistic predictions, and are less skillful probabilistic forecasts relative to the Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction System Rapid Intensification Index (SHIPS-RII) and Deterministic to Probabilistic Statistical (DTOPS) statistical-dynamical systems. This issue is partly alleviated by applying a quantile-based bias correction scheme that preferentially adjusts the model-based intensity change at the upper-end of intensity changes. While such an approach works well for high-resolution models, this bias correction strategy does not substantially improve ECMWF ensemble-based probabilistic predictions. By contrast, both the HWRF and HMON systems provide generally reliable predictions of intensity changes for cases where RI does not take place. Combining the members from the HWRF and HMON ensemble systems into a large multi-model ensemble does not improve upon HMON probablistic forecasts.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030373
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 374: Air Pollution in Moscow Megacity: Data
           Fusion of the Chemical Transport Model and Observational Network

    • Authors: Nikolai Ponomarev, Vladislav Yushkov, Nikolai Elansky
      First page: 374
      Abstract: Comparisons of observational data obtained at the Moscow Ecological Monitoring network (MEM) with numerical simulations using a chemical transformation and transport model (SILAM—System for Integrated modeLling of Atmospheric coMposition) showed that the errors in determining the gaseous pollutant concentrations in the urban atmosphere have a more complex structure than those assumed under the conventional algorithms of data assimilation. These errors are statistically nonstationary; they show a pronounced diurnal cycle and a significant lifetime. The statistical features of errors in numerical calculations also depend upon the type of pollutants, i.e., the chemical reactions in which they participate. Our analysis showed that the simulation errors are not small: the ratios of calculated and measured concentrations (even for daily averages at all measuring stations) may vary in a wide range. For the chemically active pollutants, the intradiurnal error variations may reach 100%. The diurnal cycle of such errors was found to vary according to seasons (in our case, summer and winter). The analysis of statistical properties of the errors, including their temporal and spatial variability, allows one to correct and adequately forecast the air pollution in the metropolis area at lead times up to three days in advance.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030374
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 375: Sources of Formaldehyde in Bountiful, Utah

    • Authors: Nitish Bhardwaj, Ariel Kelsch, Delbert J. Eatough, Ryan Thalman, Nancy Daher, Kerry Kelly, Isabel Cristina Jaramillo, Jaron C. Hansen
      First page: 375
      Abstract: The U.S Environmental Protection Agency’s National Air Toxics Trends Stations Network has been measuring the concentration of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) including formaldehyde (HCHO) since 2003. Bountiful, Utah (USA) has served as one of the urban monitoring sites since the network was established. Starting in 2013, the mean concentration of HCHO measured in Bountiful, Utah exceeded the non-cancer risk threshold and the 1 in 1 million cancer risk threshold. In addition, the measured concentrations were more than double those found at surrounding locations in Utah. A Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis using PMF-EPA v5 was performed using historical data (2004–2017) to better understand the sources of formaldehyde in the region. The historical data set included samples that were collected every sixth day on a 24 h basis. Beginning in February 2019 an eight-week air sampling campaign was initiated to measure formaldehyde on a two-hour averaged basis. In addition, the measurements of O3, NO, NO2, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) were also collected. Corresponding back-trajectory wind calculations for selected time periods were calculated to aid in the understanding of the effects of BTEX emission sources and formaldehyde formation. The results indicate that the principal formaldehyde sources are associated with biomass burning and the conversion of biogenic emissions into HCHO. Back-trajectory wind analysis of low (≤3 ppbv) and high (23.8–32.5 ppbv) HCHO cases show a clear dominance of high HCHO originating in trajectories that come from the southwest and pass over the area of the oil refineries and industrial sources in the north Salt Lake City area.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030375
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 376: In Situ, Rotor-Based Drone Measurement of
           Wind Vector and Aerosol Concentration in Volcanic Areas

    • Authors: Kansuke Sasaki, Minoru Inoue, Tomoya Shimura, Masato Iguchi
      First page: 376
      Abstract: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), represented by rotor-based drones, are suitable for volcanic observations owing to the advantages of mobility and safety. In this study, vertical profiles of wind and aerosol concentrations at altitudes up to 1000 m around Mt. Sakurajima, one of the most active volcanoes in Japan, were measured in situ using a drone equipped with an ultrasonic anemometer and aerosol sensor. The drone-measured wind profiles were compared with Doppler LiDAR data and analysis values derived from a meteorological model. Drone-measured vertical profiles collected at a vertical speed of 1 m·s−1 (upward and downward) showed strong agreement with the LiDAR observations, as did the averaged values of hovering drone measurements. Obvious vertical wind shear was found by the drone in the vicinity of Mt. Sakurajima. An aerosol sensor was installed on the drone with the capability to measure fine (PM2.5) and coarse particles (PM10) simultaneously; in this manner, volcanic ash and aerosol pollutants around the volcano could be distinguished. Thus, it was proven that drones could be applied to investigate wind conditions and aerosols in situ, even at dangerous locations near active volcanoes.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030376
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 377: Particle Emissions and Disc Temperature
           Profiles from a Commercial Brake System Tested on a Dynamometer under
           Real-World Cycles

    • Authors: Athanasios Mamakos, Katharina Kolbeck, Michael Arndt, Thomas Schröder, Matthias Bernhard
      First page: 377
      Abstract: The particle emissions from a commercial brake system utilizing copper-free pads have been characterized on a brake dynamometer under two real-world driving cycles. These included a novel cycle developed from analysis of the database of the World Harmonized Test Procedure (WLTP-Brake) and a short version of the Los Angeles City Traffic cycle (3h-LACT) developed in the framework of the European LowBraSys project. Disc temperature measurements using an array of embedded thermocouples revealed a large temporal and spatial non-uniformity with the radial temperature distribution depending also on the test procedure. Averaging over the duration of the cycle, it effectively reduced the influence of thermocouple positioning, allowing for more reliable quantification of the effectiveness of convective cooling. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were similar for both cycles with PM2.5 averaging at 2.2 (±0.2) mg/km over the WLTP-Brake and 2.2 (±0.2) mg/km over the 3h-LACT, respectively. The corresponding PM10 emissions were 5.6 (±0.2) mg/km and 8.6 (±0.7) mg/km, respectively. The measurements revealed the formation of nanosized particles peaking at 10 nm, which were thermally stable at 350 °C under both cycles. Volatile nanoparticles were observed over the more demanding 3h-LACT cycle, with their emission rates decreasing with increasing the tunnel flow, suggesting nucleation of organic vapors released during braking as a potential formation process.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030377
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 378: Loading Rates of Dust and Bioburden in
           Dwellings in an Inland City of Southern Europe

    • Authors: Carla Viegas, Marta Dias, Beatriz Almeida, Estela Vicente, Carla Candeias, Liliana Aranha Aranha Caetano, Elisabete Carolino, Célia Alves
      First page: 378
      Abstract: Sampling campaigns indoors have shown that occupants exposed to contaminated air generally exhibit diverse health outcomes. This study intends to assess the deposition rates of total settleable dust and bioburden in the indoor air of dwellings onto quartz fiber filters and electrostatic dust collectors (EDCs), respectively. EDC extracts were inoculated onto malt extract agar (MEA) and dichloran glycerol (DG18) agar-based media used for fungal contamination characterization, while tryptic soy agar (TSA) was applied for total bacteria assessment, and violet red bile agar (VRBA) for Gram-negative bacteria. Azole-resistance screening and molecular detection by qPCR was also performed. Dust loading rates ranged from 0.111 to 3.52, averaging 0.675 μg cm−2 day−1. Bacterial counts ranged from undetectable to 16.3 colony-forming units (CFU) m−2 day−1 and to 2.95 CFU m−2 day−1 in TSA and VRBA, respectively. Fungal contamination ranged from 1.97 to 35.4 CFU m−2 day−1 in MEA, and from undetectable to 48.8 CFU m−2 day−1 in DG18. Penicillium sp. presented the highest prevalence in MEA media (36.2%) and Cladosporium sp. in DG18 (39.2%). It was possible to observe: (a) settleable dust loadings and fungal contamination higher in dwellings with pets; (b) fungal species considered indicators of harmful fungal contamination; (c) Aspergillus section Candidi identified in supplemented media with voriconazole and posaconazole; (d) specific housing typologies and (e) specific housing characteristics influencing the microbial contamination.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030378
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 379: Characteristics and Synoptic Patterns of
           Regional Extreme Rainfall over the Central and Eastern Tibetan Plateau in
           Boreal Summer

    • Authors: Jun Sun, Xiuping Yao, Guowei Deng, Yi Liu
      First page: 379
      Abstract: In this research, the observation datasets from 106 gauge stations over the central and eastern areas of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the ERA (ECMWF Re-Analysis)-Interim reanalysis datasets in the summers of 1981–2016 are used to study the characteristics and synoptic patterns of extreme precipitation events over the TP. By using a modern statistical method, the abnormal circulation characteristics at high, middle, and low latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere during extreme precipitation events over the central-eastern Tibetan Plateau are discussed, and the physical mechanisms related to the extreme precipitation events are investigated. The results show that the largest amount of extreme precipitation is found in the southern and eastern areas of the TP, where the frequency of daily extreme rainfall events (exceeding 25 mm) and the frequency of all extreme precipitation events both show obvious quasi-biweekly oscillation. When the daily extreme precipitation event threshold over the TP is met and more than 5 stations show daily extreme precipitation at the same time, with at least three of them being adjacent to each other, this is determined as a regional extreme precipitation event. As such, 33 regional daily extreme precipitation events occur during the summer periods of 1981–2016. According to the influence system, the 33 regional extreme precipitation events can be divided into three types, namely the plateau trough type, the plateau shear line type, and the plateau vortex type. For the plateau trough type, the South Asian high is anomalously strong at 100 hPa. For the other two types, the South Asian high is slightly weaker than usual. For the plateau shear line type, the development of the dynamic disturbance is the strongest, reaching 200 hPa. In the plateau trough type and plateau vortex type, the water vapor is transported by the westerly belt and the southwesterly flow from the Bay of Bengal.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030379
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 380: Balloons and Quadcopters: Intercomparison
           of Two Low-Cost Wind Profiling Methods

    • Authors: Mikhail Varentsov, Victor Stepanenko, Irina Repina, Arseniy Artamonov, Vasiliy Bogomolov Bogomolov, Natalia Kuksova, Ekaterina Marchuk, Artem Pashkin, Alexander Varentsov
      First page: 380
      Abstract: Experimental field campaigns are an essential part of atmospheric research, as well as of university education in the field of atmospheric physics and meteorology. Experimental field observations are needed to improve the understanding of the surface-atmosphere interaction and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) physics and develop corresponding model parameterizations. Information on the ABL wind profiles is essential for the interpretation of other observations. However, wind profile measurements above the surface layer remain challenging and expensive, especially for the field campaigns performed in remote places and harsh conditions. In this study, we consider the experience of using two low-cost methods for the wind profiling, which may be easily applied in the field studies with modest demands on logistical opportunities, available infrastructure, and budget. The first one is a classical and well-known method of pilot balloon sounding, i.e., when balloon is treated as a Lagrangian particle and tracked by theodolite observations of angular coordinates. Second one is based on a vertical sounding with a popular and relatively cheap mass-market quadcopter DJI Phantom 4 Pro and utilizes its built-in opportunity to restore the wind vector from quadcopter tilt angles. Both methods demonstrated reasonable agreement and applicability even in harsh weather conditions and complex terrain. Advantages and shortcomings of these methods, as well as practical recommendations for their use are discussed. For the drone-based wind estimation, the importance of calibration by comparison to high-quality wind observations is shown.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030380
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 381: Convective Characteristics and Formation
           Conditions in an Extreme Rainstorm on the Eastern Edge of the Tibetan

    • Authors: Yongren Chen, Yueqing Li
      First page: 381
      Abstract: From 7 July to 11 July 2013, an extreme rainstorm occurred in the Sichuan Basin (SCB) of China, which is located at the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, causing severe floods and huge economic losses. The rainstorm event was associated with mesoscale convection systems (MCSs). In this paper, we analyze the evolution characteristics and formation conditions of the MCSs, and the results show that: (1) the continuous activity of MCSs was a direct cause of the formation of extreme rainstorms. Under an “east high and west low” circulation mode, the MCSs formed a “cloud cluster wave train” phenomenon from the plateau to the basin; that is, the MCSs over the basin developed strongly in the process of the MCSs over the plateau area weakening. (2) The activities of MCSs over the rainstorm area was related to ascending branches of the two vertical circulations and topographic gravity wave. Under the influence of meridional vertical circulation, MCSs could move in the south–north direction in the western SCB, while under the influence of zonal circulation, it was difficult for MCSs to develop in the descending airflow east of 106°E. (3) In the mountainous area of the western part of the SCB, the gravity wave stress was obvious and its direction was opposite to the direction of the lower southeast warm–moist airflow. This configuration was able to form a drag effect in the low-level airflow, which was conducive to the convergence of the wind field and strengthening of the vertical ascending movement. These findings help in further understanding the effects of vertical circulation and terrain on MCSs and extreme rainstorms.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030381
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 382: Green Roof Enhancement on Buildings of the
           University of Applied Sciences in Neubrandenburg (Germany) in Times of
           Climate Change

    • Authors: Manfred Köhler, Daniel Kaiser
      First page: 382
      Abstract: The reduction in evaporative surfaces in cities is one driver for longer and hotter summers. Greening building surfaces can help to mitigate the loss of vegetated cover. Typical extensive green roof structures, such as sedum-based solutions, survive in dry periods, but how can green roofs be made to be more effective for the longer hot and dry periods to come' The research findings are based on continuous vegetation analytics of typical extensive green roofs over the past 20 years. -Survival of longer dry periods by fully adapted plants species with a focus on the fittest and best adapted species. -Additional technical and treatment solutions to support greater water storage in the media in dry periods and to support greater plant biomass/high biodiversity on the roofs by optimizing growing media with fertilizer to achieve higher evapotranspiration (short: ET) values. The main findings of this research: -The climate benefits of green roofs are associated with the quantity of phytomass. Selecting the right growing media is critical. -Typical extensive green roof substrates have poor nutrition levels. Fertilizer can significantly boost the ecological effects on CO2 fixation. -If the goal of the green roof is a highly biodiverse green roof, micro-structures are the right solution.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12030382
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 283: Bulk Deposition and Source Apportionment
           of Atmospheric Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Agricultural Areas of Rural
           Beijing during 2016–2020

    • Authors: Yuepeng Pan, Jin Liu, Lan Zhang, Jing Cao, Jiabao Hu, Shili Tian, Xingyu Li, Wen Xu
      First page: 283
      Abstract: While atmospheric deposition plays a vital role in cleaning air pollutants, it also supplies toxic heavy metals and metalloids (MMs) to the receiving terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and threatens human health through food chains. To characterize the input of atmospheric deposition to agricultural soils, bulk rain samples were collected on an event basis at a rural site in the North China Plain during 2016–2020. The results show that higher concentrations of MMs in bulk rain samples were associated with western and southern air masses passing polluted areas. In addition, the annual deposition flux of MMs tends to decline during the study period, coinciding with the inter-annual variations of particulate matter rather than the precipitation amounts. Of note, the deposition flux of MMs that exist entirely in fine particles declined significantly compared to those that exist in coarse particulate form, indicating that the clean air actions implemented in recent years were highly effective in reducing ambient MMs from anthropogenic emissions. The positive matrix factorization receptor model was also applied to the whole data set for bulk depositions and five sources were identified as agricultural (biomass burning and soil), dust, coal combustion, industrial and traffic emissions. These factors contributed 41%, 24%, 21%, 9% and 5% of the chemical components in bulk depositions, respectively. Future control strategies should tighten the emissions from combustion and soil/dust in the North China Plain to protect agriculture from atmospheric MMs depositions.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12020283
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 284: Sensitivity of An Idealized Tropical
           Cyclone to the Configuration of the Global Forecast System–Eddy
           Diffusivity Mass Flux Planetary Boundary Layer Scheme

    • Authors: Evan A. Kalina, Mrinal K. Biswas, Jun A. Zhang, Kathryn M. Newman
      First page: 284
      Abstract: The intensity and structure of simulated tropical cyclones (TCs) are known to be sensitive to the planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization in numerical weather prediction models. In this paper, we use an idealized version of the Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast system (HWRF) with constant sea-surface temperature (SST) to examine how the configuration of the PBL scheme used in the operational HWRF affects TC intensity change (including rapid intensification) and structure. The configuration changes explored in this study include disabling non-local vertical mixing, changing the coefficients in the stability functions for momentum and heat, and directly modifying the Prandtl number (Pr), which controls the ratio of momentum to heat and moisture exchange in the PBL. Relative to the control simulation, disabling non-local mixing produced a ~15% larger storm that intensified more gradually, while changing the coefficient values used in the stability functions had little effect. Varying Pr within the PBL had the greatest impact, with the largest Pr (~1.6 versus ~0.8) associated with more rapid intensification (~38 versus 29 m s−1 per day) but a 5–10 m s−1 weaker intensity after the initial period of strengthening. This seemingly paradoxical result is likely due to a decrease in the radius of maximum wind (~15 versus 20 km), but smaller enthalpy fluxes, in simulated storms with larger Pr. These results underscore the importance of measuring the vertical eddy diffusivities of momentum, heat, and moisture under high-wind, open-ocean conditions to reduce uncertainty in Pr in the TC PBL.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12020284
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 285: The Development of Volcanic Ash Cloud
           Layers over Hours to Days Due to Atmospheric Turbulence Layering

    • Authors: Marcus Bursik, Qingyuan Yang, Adele Bear-Crozier, Michael Pavolonis, Andrew Tupper
      First page: 285
      Abstract: Volcanic ash clouds often become multilayered and thin with distance from the vent. We explore one mechanism for the development of this layered structure. We review data on the characteristics of turbulence layering in the free atmosphere, as well as examples of observations of layered clouds both near-vent and distally. We then explore dispersion models that explicitly use the observed layered structure of atmospheric turbulence. The results suggest that the alternation of turbulent and quiescent atmospheric layers provides one mechanism for the development of multilayered ash clouds by modulating vertical particle motion. The largest particles, generally >100μm, are little affected by turbulence. For particles in which both settling and turbulent diffusion are important to vertical motion, mostly in the range of 10–100 μμm, the greater turbulence intensity and more rapid turbulent diffusion in some layers causes these particles to spend greater time in the more turbulent layers, leading to a layering of concentration. The results may have important implications for ash cloud forecasting and aviation safety.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12020285
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 286: Investigations of Museum Indoor
           Microclimate and Air Quality. Case Study from Romania

    • Authors: Dorina Camelia Ilieș, Florin Marcu, Tudor Caciora, Liliana Indrie, Alexandru Ilieș, Adina Albu, Monica Costea, Ligia Burtă, Ștefan Baias, Marin Ilieș, Mircea Sandor, Grigore Vasile Herman, Nicolaie Hodor, Gabriela Ilieș, Zharas Berdenov, Anca Huniadi, Jan Andrzej Wendt
      First page: 286
      Abstract: Poor air quality inside museums is one of the main causes influencing the state of conservation of exhibits. Even if they are mostly placed in a controlled environment because of their construction materials, the exhibits can be very vulnerable to the influence of the internal microclimate. As a consequence, museum exhibits must be protected from potential negative effects. In order to prevent and stop the process of damage of the exhibits, monitoring the main parameters of the microclimate (especially temperature, humidity, and brightness) and keeping them in strict values is extremely important. The present study refers to the investigations and analysis of air quality inside a museum, located in a heritage building, from Romania. The paper focuses on monitoring and analysing temperature of air and walls, relative humidity (RH), CO2, brightness and particulate matters (PM), formaldehyde (HCHO), and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). The monitoring was carried out in the Summer–Autumn 2020 Campaign, in two different exhibition areas (first floor and basement) and the main warehouse where the exhibits are kept and restored. The analyses aimed both at highlighting the hazard induced by the poor air quality inside the museum that the exhibits face. The results show that this environment is potentially harmful to both exposed items and people. Therefore, the number of days in which the ideal conditions in terms of temperature and RH are met are quite few, the concentration of suspended particles, formaldehyde, and total volatile organic compounds often exceed the limit allowed by the international standards in force. The results represent the basis for the development and implementation of strategies for long-term conservation of exhibits and to ensure a clean environment for employees, restorers, and visitors.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12020286
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 287: Numerical Study of Meteorological Factors
           for Tropospheric Nocturnal Ozone Increase in the Metropolitan Area of São

    • Authors: Viviana Vanesa Urbina Urbina Guerrero, Marcos Vinicius Bueno de Morais, Edmilson Dias de Freitas, Leila Droprinchinski Martins
      First page: 287
      Abstract: One of the central problems in large cities is air pollution, mainly caused by vehicular emissions. Tropospheric ozone is an atmospheric oxidizing gas that forms in minimal amounts naturally, affecting peoples' health. This pollutant is formed by the NO2 photolysis, creating a main peak during the day. Nighttime secondary peaks occur in several parts of the world, but their intensity and frequency depend on the local condition. In this sense, this works aims to study the local characteristics for tropospheric nocturnal ozone levels in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, in Brazil, using the Simple Photochemical Module coupled to the Brazilian Developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. For this, three different situations of nocturnal occurrence were studied. The results show that the nocturnal maximum of ozone concentrations is related to the vertical transport of this pollutant from higher levels of the atmosphere to the surface and is not related to the synoptic condition.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12020287
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 288: The Role of the Atmospheric Aerosol in
           Weather Forecasts for the Iberian Peninsula: Investigating the Direct
           Effects Using the WRF-Chem Model

    • Authors: Carlos Silveira, Ana Martins, Sónia Gouveia, Manuel Scotto, Ana I. Miranda, Alexandra Monteiro
      First page: 288
      Abstract: In the atmosphere, aerosols play an important role in climate change, the Earth’s environment and human health. The purpose of this study is to investigate the direct and semi-direct aerosol effects on weather forecasting, focusing on the Iberian Peninsula (IP). To that end, two Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Chem simulations (with and without aerosol feedback) for an entire year (2015) were performed. The model setup includes two nested domains run in two-way mode, allowing the downscaling for the IP domain at a 5 × 5 km2 high-horizontal resolution. The results were explored through agreement of pairs of time series and their spatial variability in order to analyse the importance of including the online-coupled aerosol radiative effect on the meteorological variables: shortwave (solar) radiation, air temperature and precipitation. Significant variations of agreement were found when capturing both temporal and spatial patterns of the analysed meteorological variables. While the spatial distribution of temperature and precipitation is similar throughout the IP domain, with agreement values ranging from 0.87 up to 1.00, the solar radiation presents a distinct spatial pattern with lower agreement values (0.68–0.75) over ocean and higher agreement (0.75–0.98) over land regions. With regard to the spatial differences between simulations, the aerosol contributed to a considerable decrease in annual mean and maximum radiation (up to 20 and 40 Wm−2, respectively), slightly impacting the temperature variation (up to 0.5 °C). These results suggest that the aerosol feedback effects should be accounted when performing weather forecasts, and not only for purposes of air quality assessment.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12020288
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 289: Effects of PM10 and Weather on Respiratory
           and Cardiovascular Diseases in the Ciuc Basin (Romanian Carpathians)

    • Authors: Katalin Bodor, Miruna Mihaela Micheu, Ágnes Keresztesi, Marius-Victor Birsan, Ion-Andrei Nita, Zsolt Bodor, Sándor Petres, Attila Korodi, Róbert Szép
      First page: 289
      Abstract: This study presents the PM10 concentration, respiratory and cardiovascular disease hospital admissions evolution in the Ciuc basin for a period of 9 years (2008–2016), taking into consideration different meteorological conditions: boundary layer, lifting condensation level, temperature-humidity index, and wind chill equivalent chart index. The PM10 and hospital admissions evolution showed a very fluctuated hourly, weekly, monthly, yearly tendency. The PM10 concentration in winter (34.72 μg/m3) was 82% higher than the multiannual average (19.00 μg/m3), and almost three times higher than in summer (11.71 μg/m3). During the winter, PM10 concentration increased by an average of 9.36 μg/m3 due to the increased household heating. Climatological parameters have a demonstrable effect on the PM10 concentration variation. Children, the elderly and men are more sensitive to air pollution, the calculated relative risk for men was (RR = 1.45), and for women (RR = 1.37), respectively. A moderate correlation (0.51) was found between PM10 and pneumonia (P), while a relatively weak correlation (0.39) was demonstrated in the case of PM10 and upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Furthermore, except thermal humidity index (THI), strong negative correlations were observed between the multiannual monthly mean PM10 and the meteorological data. The PM10 followed a moderate negative correlation with the boundary layer (−0.61). In the case of URTI and P, the highest number of hospital admissions occurred with a 5 to 7-day lag, while the 10 μg/m3 PM10 increase resulted in a 2.04% and 8.28% morbidity increase. For lung cancer (LC) and cardiovascular diseases (AMI, IHD, CCP), a maximum delay of 5-6 months was found. Three-month delay and an average growth of 1.51% was observed in the case of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Overall, these findings revealed that PM10 was and it is responsible for one-third of the diseases.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12020289
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2021)
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