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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 113 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access  
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Developments in Atmospheric Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access  
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 144)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Nīvār     Open Access  
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access  
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal  
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access  
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weather     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access  
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Number of Followers: 29  

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ISSN (Online) 2073-4433
Published by MDPI Homepage  [238 journals]
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1259: Drought Trends in the Polish Carpathian
           Mts in the Years 1991–2020

    • Authors: Anita Bokwa, Mariusz Klimek, Paweł Krzaklewski, Wojciech Kukułka
      First page: 1259
      Abstract: Mountains are highly sensitive to the effects of climate change, including extreme short- and long-term weather phenomena. Therefore, in spite of relatively high annual precipitation totals, mountains might become endangered by droughts. The paper presents drought trends in the Polish Carpathians located in Central Europe. Data from the period 1991–2020 from 12 meteorological stations located in various vertical climate zones of the mountains were used to define drought conditions using the following indices: Standardized Precipitation (SPI), Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration (SPEI), Relative Precipitation (RPI) and Sielianinov. Additionally, four forest drought indices were used in order to estimate the impact of drought on beech as a typical Carpathian tree species, i.e., the Ellenberg (EQ), Forestry Aridity (FAI), Mayr Tetratherm (MT) and De Martonne Aridity (AI) indices. Statistically significant but weak trends were obtained for the 6-month SPI for four stations (indicating an increase in seasonal to mid-term precipitation), for the 1-month SPEI for three stations, for the 3-month SPEI for four stations, and for MT for all stations (indicating an increase in drought intensity). The analysis of dry month frequency according to particular indices shows that at most of the stations during the last decade of the study period, the frequency of dry months was much higher than in previous decades, especially in the cold half-year. Two zones of the Polish Carpathians are the most prone to drought occurrence: the peak zone due to the shift in climatic vertical zones triggered by the air temperature increase, and the forelands and foothills, together with basins located about 200–400 m a.s.l., where the mean annual air temperature is the highest in all the vertical profile, the annual sums of precipitation are very diversified, and the conditions for beech are already unfavorable.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101259
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1260: Tri-Base Synergy in Sulfuric Acid-Base

    • Authors: Hong-Bin Xie, Jonas Elm
      First page: 1260
      Abstract: Synergistic effects between different bases can greatly enhance atmospheric sulfuric acid (SA)-base cluster formation. However, only the synergy between two base components has previously been investigated. Here, we extend this concept to three bases by studying large atmospherically relevant (SA)3(base)3 clusters, with the bases ammonia (A), methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA) and ethylenediamine (EDA). Using density functional theory—ωB97X-D/6-31++G(d,p)—we calculate the cluster structures and vibrational frequencies. The thermochemical parameters are calculated at 29,815 K and 1 atm, using the quasi-harmonic approximation. The binding energies of the clusters are calculated using high level DLPNO-CCSD(T0)/aug-cc-pVTZ. We find that the cluster stability in general depends on the basicity of the constituent bases, with some noteworthy additional guidelines: DMA enhances the cluster stability, TMA decreases the cluster stability and there is high synergy between DMA and EDA. Based on our calculations, we find it highly likely that three, or potentially more, different bases, are involved in the growth pathways of sulfuric acid-base clusters.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101260
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1261: Landslides Triggered by the May 2017
           Extreme Rainfall Event in the East Coast Northeast of Brazil

    • Authors: Nikolai S. Espinoza, Carlos A. C. dos Santos, Madson T. Silva, Helber B. Gomes, Rosaria R. Ferreira, Maria L. da Silva, Cláudio M. Santos e Silva, Cristiano P. de Oliveira, João Medeiros, Jason Giovannettone, Venerando E. Amaro, Celso A. G. Santos, Manoranjan Mishra
      First page: 1261
      Abstract: Given the increasing occurrence of landslides on the East Coast Northeast of Brazil (ECNEB), it is essential to understand its conditions and triggering factors because meteorological anomalies triggered by a landslide will threaten life and property in the region. In this sense, this research aimed to diagnose the meteorological conditions that triggered landslides in the ECNEB in May 2017, evaluate the terrain’s intrinsic conditions using elevation, slope, and susceptibility parameters and determine critical precipitation thresholds for the city with the highest number of landslide risk areas in the region. A dynamic downscaling experiment was carried out using the Regional Climate Model (RegCM) to verify the ability of this model to represent rainfall over the ECNEB. The results from the intrinsic factors showed that the ECNEB is highly susceptible to landslides with various high-risk sectors for landslides to the population. The extreme rainfall event was associated with the convergence of humidity at low levels over the ocean, which contributed to landslides in the ECNEB, mainly in the State of Pernambuco, where 67 landslides were registered. The RegCM numerical simulation underestimated the high daily rainfall signal seen on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. It is suggested that sensitivity tests can be performed using other physical parameters to find the best model configuration for the ECNEB. This work recommends that exploring the relationship between precipitation and landslides will provide objective criteria for assessing risk areas by contributing to the predictability of disasters in this region.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101261
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1262: Monitoring of Expansive Clays over
           Drought-Rewetting Cycles Using Satellite Remote Sensing

    • Authors: André Burnol, Michael Foumelis, Sébastien Gourdier, Jacques Deparis, Daniel Raucoules
      First page: 1262
      Abstract: New capabilities for measuring and monitoring are needed to prevent the shrink-swell risk caused by drought-rewetting cycles. A clayey soil in the Loire Valley at Chaingy (France) has been instrumented with two extensometers and several soil moisture sensors. Here we show by direct comparison between remote and in situ data that the vertical ground displacements due to clay expansion are well-captured by the Multi-Temporal Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (MT-InSAR) technique. In addition to the one-year period, two sub-annual periods that reflect both average ground shrinking and swelling timeframes are unraveled by a wavelet-based analysis. Moreover, the relative phase difference between the vertical displacement and surface soil moisture show local variations that are interpreted in terms of depth and thickness of the clay layer, as visualized by an electrical resistivity tomography. With regard to future works, a similar treatment relying fully on remote sensing observations may be scaled up to map larger areas in order to better assess the shrink-swell risk.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101262
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1263: Diurnal Variation and Distribution of
           Short-Duration Heavy Rainfall in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region in
           Summer Based on High-Density Automatic Weather Station Data

    • Authors: Conglan Cheng, Qingchun Li, Youjun Dou, Yaoting Wang
      First page: 1263
      Abstract: The distribution and diurnal variation of short-duration heavy rainfall (SDHR) and the influence of a complex underlying surface were studied by using fine-scale hourly precipitation data in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region during the summers of 2014–2020. Areas prone to SDHR are located mainly in the southern foothills of the Yanshan Mountains, the foothills area, and the trumpet-shaped topographic entrance area north of Beijing, areas inland of the west coast of Bohai Bay, and the northern Beijing urban area. Owing to the influence of topography and the geographical location, the distribution and diurnal variation SDHR is significantly different in the western and northern mountainous areas, the foothills, and the plains. Compared to the underlying urban surface, the topography and the land–sea interface have considerable effects on the distribution of SDHR. A key finding is that the foothills of northern of Beijing, eastern slope and piedmont area of the Taihang Mountains, and the land–sea interface of Bohai Bay play important roles in the formation and propagation of SDHR.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101263
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1264: Water-Soluble Anions in PM10 Samples
           Collected in the Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica: Temporal and Spatial

    • Authors: Jorge Herrera-Murillo, Tomas Soto-Murillo, José Félix Rojas-Marín, Victor Hugo Beita-Guerrero, María Hidalgo-Gutiérrez
      First page: 1264
      Abstract: The concentrations of water-soluble anions present in PM10 collected from ambient air in four sites of Costa Rica’s greater metropolitan area (GAM) were analyzed. Samples were collected over a 24-h period for three days during the 2011–2018 period, using high-volume air samplers with mass flow controller. The PM10 samples were collected using quartz fiber filters, which were analyzed using ion chromatography to identify organic and inorganic ions. The annual averages for PM10, F−, Cl−, and SO42− showed significant differences between the sampling sites, with Uruca (UR) consistently registering annual averages above the maximum concentration established by Costa Rica’s air quality regulations (30 µgm−3). The ions analyzed contributed 33%, 34%, 35%, and 37% of the PM10 mass for sampling sites UR, HA, AL, and CA, respectively. Using Spearman correlations and principal component analysis (PCA), the following contributions were identified: biomass burning, secondary particle formation processes from mobile and stationary emissions, and biogenic emissions. For each variable, seasonal patterns and trends were analyzed using time series with additive decomposition.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101264
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1265: Comparison of Atmospheric Circulation
           Anomalies between Dry and Wet Extreme High-Temperature Days in the Middle
           and Lower Reaches of the Yellow River

    • Authors: Hangcheng Ge, Gang Zeng, Vedaste Iyakaremye, Xiaoye Yang, Zongming Wang
      First page: 1265
      Abstract: Many previous studies have reported that atmospheric circulation anomalies are generally the direct cause of extreme high-temperature (EHT). However, the atmospheric circulation anomalies of EHT days with different humidity and the differences between them are less often discussed, while humidity plays an important role in how people feel in a high-temperature environment. Therefore, this study uses 1961–2016 CN05.1 daily observational data and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data to classify summer EHT days in China into dry and wet. Furthermore, we investigate the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with the dry and wet EHT days in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River (MLRYR). The results reveal that dry EHT days are likely to be caused by adiabatic heating from anomalous subsidence, while wet EHT days are more likely caused by the low-latitude water vapor and heat anomalies brought by the Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH). This may be due to a remarkable westward/southward/narrowed extension of the Continental High (CH)/WPSH/South Asian High (SAH) accompanied by an occurrence of dry EHT day. The opposite pattern is observed for wet EHT days. Moreover, a wave train like the Silk Road pattern from the midlatitudes could affect the dry EHT days, while wet EHT days are more likely to be affected by a wave train from high latitudes. Knowing the specific characteristics of dry and wet EHT days and their associated atmospheric circulations could offer new insights into disaster risk prevention and reduction.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101265
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1266: Single Image Dehazing Using Sparse
           Contextual Representation

    • Authors: Jing Qin, Liang Chen, Jian Xu, Wenqi Ren
      First page: 1266
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel method to remove haze from a single hazy input image based on the sparse representation. In our method, the sparse representation is proposed to be used as a contextual regularization tool, which can reduce the block artifacts and halos produced by only using dark channel prior without soft matting as the transmission is not always constant in a local patch. A novel way to use dictionary is proposed to smooth an image and generate the sharp dehazed result. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method performs favorably against the state-of-the-art dehazing methods and produces high-quality dehazed and vivid color results.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101266
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1267: Air Flow Experiments on a Train
           Carriage—Towards Understanding the Risk of Airborne Transmission

    • Authors: Huw Woodward, Shiwei Fan, Rajesh K. Bhagat, Maksim Dadonau, Megan Davies Wykes, Elizabeth Martin, Sarkawt Hama, Arvind Tiwari, Stuart B. Dalziel, Roderic L. Jones, Prashant Kumar, Paul F. Linden
      First page: 1267
      Abstract: A series of experiments was undertaken on an intercity train carriage aimed at providing a “proof of concept” for three methods in improving our understanding of airflow behaviour and the accompanied dispersion of exhaled droplets. The methods used included the following: measuring CO2 concentrations as a proxy for exhaled breath, measuring the concentrations of different size fractions of aerosol particles released from a nebuliser, and visualising the flow patterns at cross-sections of the carriage by using a fog machine and lasers. Each experiment succeeded in providing practical insights into the risk of airborne transmission. For example, it was shown that the carriage is not well mixed over its length, however, it is likely to be well mixed along its height and width. A discussion of the suitability of the fresh air supply rates on UK train carriages is also provided, drawing on the CO2 concentrations measured during these experiments.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101267
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1268: The Spatial Distribution Characteristics
           of Carbon Emissions at County Level in the Harbin–Changchun Urban

    • Authors: Yixia Wang
      First page: 1268
      Abstract: China has clearly put forward the strategic goals of reaching the “Carbon Emission Peak” by 2030, and achieving “Carbon Neutrality” by 2060. To achieve these goals, it is necessary to precisely understand the spatial distribution characteristics of historical carbon emissions in different regions. This paper has selected a representative national-level urban agglomeration in China, the Harbin–Changchun urban agglomeration, to study the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of carbon emissions in its counties. This paper has constructed global and local Moran’s I indexes for the 103 counties in this urban agglomeration by using the carbon emission values reflected by night light data from 1997 to 2017 to perform global and local autocorrelation analysis on a spatial level. The results show that: (1) the main characteristic of carbon emission clustering in the Harbin–Changchun urban agglomeration is similar clustering; (2) the changes in carbon emissions of the Harbin–Changchun urban agglomeration have a strong correlation with relevant policies. For example, due to the impact of the “Twelfth Five-Year Plan” policies, in 2013, the global county-level Moran’s I index of the carbon emissions in the Harbin–Changchun urban agglomeration decreased by 0.0598; (3) the areas where high carbon emission values cluster together (“High–High Cluster”) and low carbon emission values cluster together (“Low–Low Cluster”) in the Harbin–Changchun urban agglomeration are highly concentrated, and the clusters are closely related to the development level of different regions.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101268
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1269: Modeling the Impacts of City-Scale
           “Ventilation Corridor” Plans on Human Exposure to Intra-Urban PM2.5

    • Authors: Chao Liu, Qian Shu, Sen Huang, Jingwei Guo
      First page: 1269
      Abstract: Increasingly, Chinese cities are proposing city-scale ventilation corridors (VCs) to strengthen wind velocities and decrease pollution concentrations, although their influences are ambiguous. To assess VC impacts, an effort has been made to predict the impact of VC solutions in the high density and diverse land use of the coastal city of Shanghai, China, in this paper. One base scenario and three VC scenarios, with various VC widths, locations, and densities, were first created. Then, the combination of the Weather Research and Forecasting/Single-Layer Urban Canopy Model (WRFv.3.4/UCM) and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQv.5.0.1) numerical simulation models were employed to comprehensively evaluate the impacts of urban spatial form and VC plans on PM2.5 concentrations. The modeling results indicated that concentrations increased within the VCs in both summer and winter, and the upwind concentration decreased in winter. These counter-intuitive results could be explained by decreased planetary boundary layer (PBL), roughness height, deposition rate, and wind speeds induced by land use and urban height modifications. PM2.5 deposition flux decreased by 15–20% in the VCs, which was attributed to the roughness height decrease for it weakens aerodynamic resistance (Ra). PBL heights within the VCs decreased 15–100 m, and the entire Shanghai’s PBL heights also decreased in general. The modeling results suggest that VCs may not be as functional as certain urban planners have presumed.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101269
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1270: Short-Term Effects of “Polish Smog”
           on Cardiovascular Mortality in the Green Lungs of Poland: A Case-Crossover
           Study with 4,500,000 Person-Years (PL-PARTICLES Study)

    • Authors: Łukasz Kuźma, Anna Kurasz, Emil Julian Dąbrowski, Sławomir Dobrzycki, Hanna Bachórzewska-Gajewska
      First page: 1270
      Abstract: Previous studies conducted in highly polluted areas have reported associations between air pollution and daily mortality. The Green Lungs of Poland are characterized by unique natural features and a moderate pollution level. We aimed to assess the short-term impact of air pollution on cardiovascular (CVD)-, acute coronary syndrome (ACS)-, and cerebrovascular-related (CbVD) mortality. An analysis with 4,500,000 person-years and a time-stratified case-crossover design was performed. The interquartile range increase in the PM2.5 (OR 1.036, 95% CI 1.016–1.056, p < 0.001) and PM10 concentration (OR 1.034, 95% CI 1.015–1.053, p < 0.001) was associated with increased CVD mortality on lag 0, and this effect persisted on the following days. The effects of PMs were expressed more in association with ACS-related mortality (PM2.5-OR = 1.045, 95% CI 1.012–1.080, p = 0.01; PM10-OR = 1.044, 95% CI 1.010–1.078, p = 0.01) and CbVD mortality (PM10-OR = 1.099, 95% CI 1.019–1.343, p = 0.02). We also noted a higher CVD mortality OR in the cold season for PM10 in cities with area-source domination: Białystok (p = 0.001) and Suwałki (p = 0.047). The short-term impact of PMs on cardiovascular mortality is also observed in moderately polluted areas. This adverse health effect was more apparent in CbVD- and ACS-related mortality, and in the cold season. Further research focusing on the adverse health effects of “Polish smog” is sorely needed.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101270
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1271: Spatiotemporal Characteristics of the
           Surface Urban Heat Island and Its Driving Factors Based on Local Climate
           Zones and Population in Beijing, China

    • Authors: Yatong Zhang, Delong Li, Laibao Liu, Ze Liang, Jiashu Shen, Feili Wei, Shuangcheng Li
      First page: 1271
      Abstract: The increasing degree of urbanization has continuously aggravated the surface urban heat island (sUHI) effect in China. To investigate the correlation between spatiotemporal changes of sUHI and urbanization in Beijing, land surface temperature in summer from 2000 to 2017 and the distribution of local climate zones (LCZs) in 2003, 2005, 2010, and 2017 was retrieved using remote sensing data and used to analyze the sUHI area and intensity change. The statistical method GeoDetector was utilized to investigate the explanatory ability of LCZs and population as the driving factors. The year of 2006 was identified as the main turning year for sUHI evolution. The variation the sUHI from 2000 showed first an increasing trend, and then a decreasing one. The sUHI pattern changed before and after 2009. Before 2009, the sUHI mainly increased in the suburbs, and then, the enhancement area moved to the central area. The sUHI intensity change under different LCZ conversion conditions showed that the LCZ conversion influences the sUHI intensity significantly. Based on population distribution data, we found that the relationship between population density and sUHI gets weaker with increasing population density. The result of GeoDetector indicated that the LCZ is the main factor influencing the sUHI, but population density is an important auxiliary factor. This research reveals the sUHI variation pattern in Beijing from 2000 and could help city managers plan thermally comfortable urban environments with a better understanding of the effect of urban spatial form and population density on sUHIs.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101271
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1272: An Integrated Methodology of Subjective
           Investigation for a Sustainable Indoor Built Environment. The Case Study
           of a University Campus in Italy

    • Authors: Erminia Attaianese, Francesca d'Ambrosio Alfano, Boris Palella, Daniela Pepe, Roberto Vanacore
      First page: 1272
      Abstract: Indoor built environments’ design and management require a holistic approach inspired by ergonomic principles and sustainability criteria. This is especially in case of renovation of existing buildings where any kind of intervention requires the direct feedback of occupants. This work deals with two aspects of these issues, often studied separately: the quality of interior spaces, in terms of Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ), and the quality of the architecture in terms of orientation and wayfinding. A methodology focused on the subjective evaluation of the IEQ giving relevance to users and their fruition needs is also proposed. Main findings from a specific subjective investigation carried out at the Fisciano Campus of the University of Salerno (Italy) demonstrate that the subjective approach is a valuable tool to make more sustainable intervention strategies. In this way, all multidisciplinary skills can be synergically involved in improving the livability of a complex reality as University Campuses are.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101272
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1273: Microclimatic and Environmental
           Surveillance of Operating Theaters: Trend and Future Perspectives

    • Authors: Margherita Ferrante, Gea Oliveri Conti, Giuseppe Lucio Blandini, Giuseppe Cacia, Carlo Distefano, Giulia Distefano, Valerio Mantione, Agata Ursino, Giuseppa Milletari, Maria Anna Coniglio, Maria Fiore
      First page: 1273
      Abstract: The health risk level in operating rooms is correlated to the safety levels of microclimatic parameters, thermal indices, anesthetic gases and microbiological parameters. The objective of this study was to estimate the staff and medical service management compliance with the suggestions resulting from monitoring. Methods: The environmental conditions of 38 different operating rooms in the Sicily region, Italy, from January 2011 to December 2020 were monitored. The results were compared with specific standards suggested by national and international laws and guidelines. Results: Almost all microclimatic and microbiological parameters were outside the limits. The monitoring of the anesthetic gases showed that 5.6% of sevoflurane measurements exceeded the limit values. Conclusions: Constant environmental monitoring is an essential element for maintaining optimal living conditions in the working environment. The compliance of staff with guidelines and rules is a fundamental parameter for achieving this objective.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101273
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1274: Relationship between Drought and
           Precipitation Heterogeneity: An Analysis across Rain-Fed Agricultural
           Regions in Eastern Gansu, China

    • Authors: Suping Wang, Qiang Zhang, Jinsong Wang, Yuanpu Liu, Yu Zhang
      First page: 1274
      Abstract: Based on daily meteorological data from 55 meteorological stations in eastern Gansu from 1960 to 2017, the characteristics of the drought process and precipitation heterogeneity were analyzed, and the relationship between drought and precipitation heterogeneity was evaluated. Results showed that there were 1–3 drought processes in the study area every year. Drought processes in the eastern and north-central regions were more frequent than those in other regions. Droughts were mainly manifested as intra-seasonal droughts, especially across the spring and summer. PCD (Precipitation Concentration Degree, the concentration degree of the precipitation at a certain time) ranged from 0.2 to 0.7 in the area. PCD increased in spring and autumn but decreased in summer and winter for most regions from 1960 to 2017. PCP (Precipitation Concentration Period, the shortest time which the precipitation was concentrated in) was from late April to early May in spring, mid-to-late July in summer, mid-September in autumn, and late January in winter. In the last 58 years, PCP has remained consistent in most regions, varying by approximately 10 days. In addition to insignificant changes in winter, the days with light and moderate rain presented a declining trend, especially in summer and autumn. The larger the PCD, the fewer the days with light and moderate rain, and the stronger the drought intensity. However, in the east-central region, the larger the PCD in autumn, the weaker was the drought intensity. This difference is related to the PCP and the evapotranspiration. Additionally, the later the PCP, the stronger was the drought intensity, particularly in summer and autumn. When PCD was ≥0.5 in spring and ≥0.4 in summer, the PCP was after May and August in spring and summer, respectively. Droughts appeared in 28–56% of periods when seasonal precipitation was above normal. When PCD was ≥0.5 in autumn and PCP was in early and middle September, droughts appeared in 7% of periods when precipitation was above normal. Our results show that although less precipitation is the leading influencing factor of drought in the dry rain-fed agricultural areas, the influence of precipitation heterogeneity should be also considered for the prediction and diagnosis of seasonal drought.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101274
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1275: Climatological Study of Ozone over Saudi

    • Authors: Saleha Al-Kallas, Motirh Al-Mutairi, Heshmat Abdel Basset, Abdallah Abdeldym, Mostafa Morsy, Ayman Badawy
      First page: 1275
      Abstract: In this work, analysis of the variability of total column ozone (TCO) over the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has been conducted during the 1979–2020 period based on the ECMWF-ERA5 dataset. It is found that the highest values of TCO appear in the spring and winter months especially over north KSA, while the lowest values of TCO occur in the autumn months. The highest values of the coefficient of variation (COV) for TCO occur in winter and spring as they gradually decrease southward, while the lowest COV values appear in summer and autumn. The Mann–Kendall test indicates that the positive trend values are dominant for the annual and seasonal TCO values over KSA, and they gradually increase southward. The study of long-term variability of annual TCO at KSA stations shows negative trend values are the dominant behavior during the 1979–2004 period, while positive trend values are the dominant behavior during the 2004–2020 period. The Mann–Whitney test assessed the abrupt change of the annual TCO time series at 28 stations in KSA and confirmed that there is an abrupt change towards increasing values around 2000, 2005, and 2014. The climatological monthly mean of the ozone mass mixing ratio (OMR) is studied at three stations representing the north, middle, and south of KSA. The highest values of OMR are found in the layer between 20 and 4 hPa with the maximum in summer and early autumn, while the lowest values are found below 100 hPa.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101275
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1276: Comparisons of Different Methods to
           Determine Starting Altitudes for Dry Air Atmosphere by GNSS-RO Data

    • Authors: Andrea Andrisani, Francesco Vespe
      First page: 1276
      Abstract: Boundary profile evaluation (BPV) is an approach proposed in order to estimate water vapor content in the atmosphere. It exploits radio occultation (RO) observations of the signals emitted by the satellites of global navigation systems (GNSS) which are eclipsing (rising) as viewed by a low earth orbit satellite (LEO). BPV requires, as a preliminary step, the estimation of the dry background atmosphere model of refractivity (i.e., obtained from bending angle profiles) to be subtracted from the real observations in order to extract water vapor profiles. The determination of the lowest layer of the atmosphere over which the concentration of water vapor can be deemed negligible is particularly crucial for a correct application of the BPV method. In this study, we have applied three methods to set the starting altitudes for the dry air layers of the atmosphere: (1) by air temperature below some threshold values (for example, 250 K); (2) by “smooth” bending angle profiles in ROs; (3) by saturated water vapor pressure. These methods were tested with thermodynamic and bending angle profiles from 912 radiosonde excursions colocated with RO observations. For every dry air starting altitude we determined the best estimator from each of the three methods. In particular, by comparing those estimators with the quantiles and momenta of the dry air starting altitude distributions, we achieved improvements of up to 50% of the humidity profiles.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101276
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1277: Spectra of Temperature Fluctuations in
           the Solar Wind

    • Authors: Zdeněk Němeček, Jana Šafránková, František Němec, Tereza Ďurovcová, Alexander Pitňa, Benjamin L. Alterman, Yuriy M. Voitenko, Jiří Pavlů, Michael L. Stevens
      First page: 1277
      Abstract: Turbulent cascade transferring the free energy contained within the large scale fluctuations of the magnetic field, velocity and density into the smaller ones is probably one of the most important mechanisms responsible for heating of the solar corona and solar wind, thus the turbulent behavior of these quantities is intensively studied. The temperature is also highly fluctuating quantity but its variations are studied only rarely. There are probably two reasons, first the temperature is tensor and, second, an experimental determination of temperature variations requires knowledge of the full velocity distribution with an appropriate time resolution but such measurements are scarce. To overcome this problem, the Bright Monitor of the Solar Wind (BMSW) on board Spektr-R used the Maxwellian approximation and provided the thermal velocity with a 32 ms resolution, investigating factors influencing the temperature power spectral density shape. We discuss the question whether the temperature spectra determined from Faraday cups are real or apparent and analyze mutual relations of power spectral densities of parameters like the density, parallel and perpendicular components of the velocity and magnetic field fluctuations. Finally, we compare their spectral slopes with the slopes of the thermal velocity in both inertial and kinetic ranges and their evolution in course of solar wind expansion.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101277
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1278: Gap Filling and Quality Control Applied
           to Meteorological Variables Measured in the Northeast Region of Brazil

    • Authors: Rafaela Lisboa Costa, Heliofábio Barros Barros Gomes, David Duarte Cavalcante Cavalcante Pinto, Rodrigo Lins da Rocha da Rocha Júnior, Fabrício Daniel dos Santos dos Santos Silva, Helber Barros Barros Gomes, Maria Cristina Lemos da Lemos da Silva, Dirceu Luís Luís Herdies
      First page: 1278
      Abstract: In this work, we used the MICE (Multivariate Imputation by Chained Equations) technique to impute missing daily data from six meteorological variables (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and insolation) from 96 stations located in the northeast region of Brazil (NEB) for the period from 1961 to 2014. We then applied tests with a quality control system (QCS) developed for the detection, correction and possible replacement of suspicious data. Both the applied gap filling technique and the QCS showed that it was possible to solve two of the biggest problems found in time series of daily data measured in meteorological stations: the generation of plausible values for each variable of interest, in order to remedy the absence of observations, and how to detect and allow proper correction of suspicious values arising from observations.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101278
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1279: Maximum, Minimum, and Daily Air
           Temperature Range in Orchards: What Do Observations Reveal'

    • Authors: Ana Firanj Sremac, Branislava Lalic, Joan Cuxart, Milena Marcic
      First page: 1279
      Abstract: This study was designed to better understand vegetation’s impact on air maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin), and daily temperature range (DTR), as well as seasonality and variability. We selected a flat, under synoptic-scale, northern Serbian region with an operational network of automated weather stations (AWS) for the study. Data were collected directly from the eighteen AWSs placed in the orchard canopy during 2013–2018. Meteorological data, plant phenological data in the form of the BBCH scale, and orchards’ soil characteristics data were collected. Environmental factors influencing the temperature were classified as static (slow or unchangeable) and dynamic (fast-changing). The impact of both factors on maximum, minimum, and daily temperature range and its variability were analyzed. Results show that static factors (like soil texture) affect the annual variation of Tmax, Tmin, and DTR rather than its variability over the season. The dynamic factors, mainly coming from the plant’s phenology, substantially affected the seasonal variability of these variables. Studies like this suffer from missing data and sparse spatial coverage by the AWS network. Therefore, the alternatives of orchard micrometeorological data, nearest climatological station, and ERA5-Land reanalysis data are tested. Both data sets showcased limitations in their applicability, while reanalysis data deviated more from the in-situ measurements, both seasonally and regionally.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101279
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1280: Impacts of Climate Change on Blue and

    • Authors: Junjun Huo, Xing Qu, Dejun Zhu, Zhe Yuan, Yuanzhi Tang
      First page: 1280
      Abstract: The Yarlung Zangbo River is the largest river on the Tibetan Plateau and a major international river in South Asia. Changes in the blue and green water resources in its basin are of great importance to the surrounding local and Asian regions in the context of global warming. This research used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model to estimate blue and green flows (BWF and GWF) and analyze the spatial-temporal distribution characteristics under different hypothetical climate change scenarios. The results show that (1) the multi-year average BWF in the middle and upper reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin is 176.2 mm, the GWF is 213.1 mm, and the difference between precipitation and total water resources is only 5.4 mm; (2) both BWF and GWF in this basin showed a slightly increasing trend from 1980 to 2010, but the distribution of subbasins from upstream to downstream is decreasing; and (3) GWF has a positive correlation with both precipitation and temperature, but BWF only increases with precipitation and decreases with increasing temperature. Moreover, the change in blue and green water resources is more sensitive to the changes in precipitation than to changes in the temperature.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101280
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1281: Tracking Airborne Pollution with
           Environmental Magnetism in A Medium-Sized African City

    • Authors: Daouda Dawaï, Mélina Macouin, Sonia Rousse, Jean-François Léon, Merlin Gountié Dedzo, Loïc Drigo
      First page: 1281
      Abstract: As in other parts of the world, air pollution over West and Central Africa has major health and meteorological impacts. Air quality assessment and its possible sanitary impact have become essential even in medium-sized towns, therefore amplifying the need for easy-to-implement monitoring methods with low environmental impact. We present here the potential of magnetic methods to monitor air quality at street level in the medium-sized city of Maroua (northern Cameroon) affected by dust-laden desert winds. More than five hundred (544) samples of bark and leaves taken from Neem trees in Maroua were analyzed. Magnetic susceptibility, saturation remanence, and S-ratio were found to determine the concentration and nature of magnetic particles. They are dominated by magnetite-like particle signals as a part of particulate emissions due to urban activities, including both traffic, composed of a substantial proportion of motorcycles, and wood burning for food preparation. We show that both bark and leaves from Neem trees are adequate passive bio-recorders. The use of both enables different times and heights to be sampled, allowing for the high-resolution monitoring, in terms of spatialization, of various urban environments. Particle emissions require assessment and screening that could be carried out rapidly and efficiently by magnetic methods on bio-recorders, even in cities impacted by dust-laden wind.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101281
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1282: Evolution, Transport Characteristics, and
           Potential Source Regions of PM2.5 and O3 Pollution in a Coastal City of
           China during 2015–2020

    • Authors: Min Lv, Anyong Hu, Jun Chen, Bingcheng Wan
      First page: 1282
      Abstract: The evolution, transport characteristics, and potential source regions of PM2.5 and O3 were investigated from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2020 in the coastal city of Nantong. The annual mean PM2.5 concentration declined obviously over the entire study period, and was 34.7 μg/m3 in 2020. O3 had a relatively smooth decreasing trend, but rebounded greatly during 2017 when the most frequent extreme high-temperature events occurred. Similar trends were observed for PM2.5 and O3 polluted hours. No PM2.5-O3 complex air pollution happened in 2019 and 2020, likely suggesting the preliminary results from the implementation of emission controls. Notable differences in transport pathways and frequencies were observed from the backward trajectory clusters in four seasons in Nantong. Clusters with the largest percentage of polluted PM2.5 and O3 trajectories were transported mostly over short distances rather than long distances. Analysis involving the potential source contribution function (PSCF) and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) showed that PM2.5 polluted sources were from the adjacent western and northwestern provinces, whereas the influence of eastern marine sources was relatively small. O3 had a greatly different spatial distribution of polluted source regions from PM2.5, mostly covering the North China Plain, the Bohai Sea, and the Yellow Sea.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101282
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1283: Understanding the Trend of NO2, SO2 and
           CO over East Africa from 2005 to 2020

    • Authors: Ronald Opio, Isaac Mugume, Joyce Nakatumba-Nabende
      First page: 1283
      Abstract: The atmospheric chemistry constituents of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are associated with air pollution and climate change. In sub-Saharan Africa, a lack of sufficient ground-based and aircraft observations has, for a long time, limited the study of these species. This study thus utilized satellite observations as an alternative source of data to study the abundance of these species over the East African region. The instruments used included the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS), and the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI). An investigation of trends in the data series from 2005 to 2020 was carried out using the sequential Mann-Kendall test while the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to compare the data records of the instruments. The analysis revealed no trend in NO2 (p > 0.05), a decreasing trend in SO2 (p < 0.05), a decreasing trend (p < 0.05) in CO closer to the surface (850 hPa to 500 hPa) and an increasing trend (p < 0.05) in CO higher up in the atmosphere (400 hPa to 1 hPa). There is likely a vertical ascent of CO. The correlation between the instrument records was 0.54 and 0.77 for NO2 and CO, respectively. Furthermore, seasonal fires in the savanna woodlands were identified as the major source of NO2 and CO over the region, while cities such as Kampala, Nairobi, and Bujumbura and towns such as Dar es Salaam and Mombasa were identified as important NO2 hotspots. Similarly, the active volcano at Mt. Nyiragongo near Goma was identified as the most important SO2 hotspot.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101283
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1284: Intercomparisons of Tropospheric Wind
           Velocities Measured by Multi-Frequency Wind Profilers and Rawinsonde

    • Authors: Zhao-Yu Chen, Yen-Hsyang Chu, Ching-Lun Su
      First page: 1284
      Abstract: Concurrent measurements of three-dimensional wind velocities made with three co-located wind profilers operated at frequencies of 52 MHz, 449 MHz, and 1.29 GHz for the period 12–16 September 2017 are compared for the first time in this study. The velocity–azimuth display (VAD) method is employed to estimate the wind velocities. The result shows that, in the absence of precipitation, the root mean square difference (RMSD) in the horizontal wind speed velocities U and wind directions D between different pairs of wind profilers are, respectively, in the range of 0.94–0.99 ms−1 and 7.7–8.3°, and those of zonal wind component u and meridional wind component v are in the respective ranges of 0.91–1.02 ms−1 and 1.1–1.24 ms−1. However, the RMSDs between wind profilers and rawinsonde are in the range of 2.89–3.26 ms−1 for horizontal wind speed velocity and 11.17–14.48° for the wind direction, which are around 2–3 factors greater than those between the wind profilers on average. In addition to the RMSDs, MDs between wind profilers and radiosonde are around one order of magnitude larger than those between wind profilers. These results show that the RMSDs, MDs, and Stdds between radars are highly consistent with each other, and they are much smaller than those between radar and rawinsonde. This therefore suggests that the wind profiler-measured horizontal wind velocities are much more reliable, precise, and accurate than the rawinsonde measurement.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101284
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1285: The Increased Likelihood in the 21st
           Century for a Tropical Cyclone to Rapidly Intensify When Crossing a Warm
           Ocean Feature—A Simple Model’s Prediction

    • Authors: Leo Oey
      First page: 1285
      Abstract: A warm ocean feature (WOF) is a blob of the ocean’s surface where the sea-surface temperature (SST) is anomalously warmer than its adjacent ambient SST. Examples are warm coastal seas in summer, western boundary currents, and warm eddies. Several studies have suggested that a WOF may cause a crossing tropical cyclone (TC) to undergo rapid intensification (RI). However, testing the “WOF-induced RI” hypothesis is difficult due to many other contributing factors that can cause RI. The author develops a simple analytical model with ocean feedback to estimate TC rapid intensity change across a WOF. It shows that WOF-induced RI is unlikely in the present climate when the ambient SST is ≲29.5 °C and the WOF anomaly is ≲+1 °C. This conclusion agrees well with the result of a recent numerical ensemble experiment. However, the simple model also indicates that RI is very sensitive to the WOF anomaly, much more so than the ambient SST. Thus, as coastal seas and western boundary currents are warming more rapidly than the adjacent open oceans, the model suggests a potentially increased likelihood in the 21st century of WOF-induced RIs across coastal seas and western boundary currents. Particularly vulnerable are China’s and Japan’s coasts, where WOF-induced RI events may become more common.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101285
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1286: Rapid Update with EnVar Direct Radar
           Reflectivity Data Assimilation for the NOAA Regional Convection-Allowing
           NMMB Model over the CONUS: System Description and Initial Experiment

    • Authors: Yongming Wang, Xuguang Wang
      First page: 1286
      Abstract: This study first describes the extended Grid-Point Statistical Interpolation analysis system (GSI)-based ensemble-variational data assimilation (DA) system within the North American Mesoscale Rapid Refresh (NAMRR) system for the Nonhydrostatic Multiscale Model on the B grid (NMMB). Experiments were conducted to examine three critical aspects of data assimilation configuration in this system. Ten retrospective high-impact convective cases during the warm season of 2015–2016 were adopted for testing. A 10-member, 18 h ensemble forecast was launched for each experiment. Specifically, the experiment using horizontal (vertical) localization radii (Lr) of 300 km (0.55-scaled height measured in the nature log of pressure) overall had more skills than that of 500 km (1.1-scaled height) for conventional in-situ observation assimilation. Diagnostics suggest that the higher forecast skills could be attributed to applying smaller Lr in the boundary with large temperature and moisture gradients. For radar DA, the experiment was more skillful with horizontal (vertical) Lr of 15 km (1.1-scaled height) than that of 12 km (0.55-scaled height). Diagnostics suggest that the improved forecasts were achieved by using wider Lr to spread radar observations into unobserved areas more effectively. Slight forecast skill differences between the relaxation inflation factors of 95% and 65% are presented. The impact of varying inflation magnitudes primarily occurred in the upper-level spread.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101286
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1287: The Imprint of the Southern Annular Mode
           on Black Carbon AOD in the Western Cape Province

    • Authors: Chibuike Chiedozie Ibebuchi, Heiko Paeth
      First page: 1287
      Abstract: This study examines the relationship between variations of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and black carbon (BC) at 550 nm aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the Western Cape province (WC). Variations of the positive (negative) phase of the SAM are found to be related to regional circulation types (CTs) in southern Africa, associated with suppressed (enhanced) westerly wind over the WC through the southward (northward) migration of Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude cyclones. The CTs related to positive (negative) SAM anomalies induce stable (unstable) atmospheric conditions over the southwestern regions of the WC, especially during the austral winter and autumn seasons. Through the control of CTs, positive (negative) SAM phases tend to contribute to the build-up (dispersion and dilution) of BC in the study region because they imply dry (wet) conditions which favor the build-up (washing out) of pollutant particles in the atmosphere. Indeed, recent years with an above-average frequency of CTs related to positive (negative) SAM anomalies are associated with a high (low) BC AOD over southwesternmost Africa.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101287
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1288: Structure and Evolution of
           Non-Lake-Effect Snow Producing Alberta Clippers

    • Authors: Jake Wiley, Andrew Mercer
      First page: 1288
      Abstract: Alberta Clippers (clippers) have long been associated with lake-effect snow (LES) events due to their frequent passage over the Great Lakes basin. However, not all clippers produce LES, and no research has inquired into which synoptic fields most influence LES formation. This study analyzes clippers during non-LES situations to further knowledge on which atmospheric variables most regulate LES development on the synoptic scale. As no such database currently exists, a clipper repository is developed using National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis data. The repository is then cross referenced with a previously developed LES repository to identify clippers responsible for LES. Composite synoptic-scale patterns were then constructed on the remaining non-LES clippers to identify synoptic conditions that ultimately inhibited LES formation. This analysis is supplemented by an assessment of lake surface conditions in each composite to evaluate how influential the lake characteristics were in the suppression of LES activity. In total, 51 non-LES clippers were identified, tracked, and separated into three composite map types that exhibited unique storm track and spatial characteristics. Permutation testing revealed that lake surface conditions were not significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different between LES and non-LES associated clippers implying the main LES inhibition factors were meteorological.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101288
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1289: Investigation of Biofuel as a Potential
           Renewable Energy Source

    • Authors: M. Anwar H. Khan, Sophia Bonifacio, Joanna Clowes, Amy Foulds, Rayne Holland, James C. Matthews, Carl J. Percival, Dudley E. Shallcross
      First page: 1289
      Abstract: An accelerating global energy demand, paired with the harmful environmental effects of fossil fuels, has triggered the search for alternative, renewable energy sources. Biofuels are arguably a potential renewable energy source in the transportation industry as they can be used within current infrastructures and require less technological advances than other renewable alternatives, such as electric vehicles and nuclear power. The literature suggests biofuels can negatively impact food security and production; however, this is dependent on the type of feedstock used in biofuel production. Advanced biofuels, derived from inedible biomass, are heavily favoured but require further research and development to reach their full commercial potential. Replacing fossil fuels by biofuels can substantially reduce particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, but simultaneously increase emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), resulting in debates concerning the way biofuels should be implemented. The potential biofuel blends (FT-SPK, HEFA-SPK, ATJ-SPK and HFS-SIP) and their use as an alternative to kerosene-type fuels in the aviation industry have also been assessed. Although these fuels are currently more costly than conventional aviation fuels, possible reduction in production costs has been reported as a potential solution. A preliminary study shows that i-butanol emissions (1.8 Tg/year) as a biofuel can increase ozone levels by up to 6% in the upper troposphere, highlighting a potential climate impact. However, a larger number of studies will be needed to assess the practicalities and associated cost of using the biofuel in existing vehicles, particularly in terms of identifying any modifications to existing engine infrastructure, the impact of biofuel emissions, and their chemistry on the climate and human health, to fully determine their suitability as a potential renewable energy source.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-03
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101289
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1290: Impacts of Aerosol Loading in the Hindu
           Kush Himalayan Region Based on MERRA-2 Reanalysis Data

    • Authors: Shantikumar S. Ningombam, Umesh Chandra Dumka, Sivasamy Kalamani Mugil, Jagdish Chandra Kuniyal, Rakesh K. Hooda, Alok Sagar Gautam, Suresh Tiwari
      First page: 1290
      Abstract: The impacts of climate change have severely affected geosphere, biosphere and cryosphere ecosystems in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region. The impact has been accelerating further during the last few decades due to rapid increase in anthropogenic activities such as modernization, industrialization and urbanization, along with energy demands. In view of this, the present work attempts to examine aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the HKH region using the long-term homogeneous MERRA-2 reanalysis data from January, 1980 to December, 2020. The AOD trends are examined statistically with student’s t-test (t). Due to a vast landmass, fragile topography and harsh climatic conditions, we categorized the HKH region into three sub-regions, namely, the northwestern and Karakoram (HKH1), the Central (HKH2) and the southeastern Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau (HKH3). Among the sub-regions, the significant enhancement of AOD is observed at several potential sites in the HKH2 region, namely, Pokhara, Nainital, Shimla and Dehradun by 55.75 × 10−4 ± 3.76 × 10−4, 53.15 × 10−4 ± 3.94 × 10−4, 51.53 × 10−4 ± 4.99 × 10−4 and 39.16 × 10−4 ± 4.08 × 10−4 AOD year−1 (550 nm), respectively, with correlation coefficients (Rs) of 0.86 to 0.93. However, at a sub-regional scale, HKH1, HKH2 and HKH3 exhibit 23.33 × 10−4 ± 2.28 × 10−4, 32.20 × 10−4 ± 2.58 × 10−4 and 9.48 × 10−4 ± 1.21 × 10−4 AOD year−1, respectively. The estimated trends are statistically significant (t > 7.0) with R from 0.81 to 0.91. Seasonally, the present study also shows strong positive AOD trends at several potential sites located in the HKH2 region, such as Pokhara, Nainital, Shimla and Dehradun, with minimum 19.81 × 10−4 ± 3.38 × 10−4 to maximum 72.95 × 10−4 ± 4.89 × 10−4 AOD year−1 with statistical significance. In addition, there are also increasing AOD trends at all the high-altitude background sites in all seasons.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-03
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101290
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1291: Review of User-Friendly Models to Improve
           the Urban Micro-Climate

    • Authors: Britta Jänicke, Dragan Milošević, Suneja Manavvi
      First page: 1291
      Abstract: Various micro-scale models for comparing alternative design concepts have been developed in recent decades. The objective of this study is to provide an overview of current user-friendly micro-climate models. In the results, a vast majority of models identified were excluded from the review because the models were not micro-scale, lacking a user-interface, or were not available. In total, eight models met the seven-point inclusion criteria. These models were ADMS Temperature and Humidity model, advanced SkyHelios model, ANSYS FLUENT, ENVI-met, RayMan, SOLWEIG, TownScope, and UMEP. These models differ in their complexity and their widespread use in the scientific community, ranging from very few to thousands of citations. Most of these models simulate air temperature, global radiation, and mean radiant temperature, which helps to evaluate outdoor thermal comfort in cities. All of these models offer a linkage to CAD or GIS software and user support systems at various levels, which facilitates a smooth integration to planning and design. We detected that all models have been evaluated against observations. A wider model comparison, however, has only been performed for fewer models. With this review, we aim to support the finding of a reliable tool, which is fit for the specific purpose.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-03
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101291
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1292: Climate Change, Obesity, and
           COVID-19—Global Crises with Catastrophic Consequences. Is This the

    • Authors: Sarah Cuschieri, Elizabeth Grech, Andrea Cuschieri
      First page: 1292
      Abstract: Climate change and obesity were considered threats to our planet long before the onset of COVID-19. The recent pandemic has enhanced the global burden of both pre-existing crises. The aim of this narrative review is to explore the interaction between the three concurrent crises and the future of our planet should they not be dealt with accordingly. A PubMed and Google Scholar literature search was performed using different combinations of search strategies and using the keywords “obesity”, “climate/temperature change”, “cold/hot temperatures”, and “COVID-19”. High global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions link obesity and climate change as a result of the interplay between biological and behavioural factors. COVID-19 mitigation measures have indirectly impacted obesity and GHG emissions through the shift in dietary habits, restricted mobility, the impact on healthcare services, and enhanced psychological stress. Furthermore, COVID-19 has a more detrimental effect if acquired by an obese individual, with a higher chance of hospitalization and mechanical ventilation. This leads to higher GHG emissions and negative repercussions on the climate. A tri-directional relationship exists between obesity, climate change, and COVID-19. Various factors contribute to this relationship, but unless urgent global integrated action plans are implemented that target all three calamities, and not just COVID-19, a devastating and unsustainable future may ensue.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-03
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101292
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1293: Environmental Odour

    • Authors: Günther Schauberger, Martin Piringer, Chuandong Wu, Jacek A. Koziel
      First page: 1293
      Abstract: Environmental odour is perceived as a major nuisance by the rural and urban population [...]
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-04
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101293
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1294: A New Method to Estimate Heat Exposure
           Days and Its Impacts in China

    • Authors: Guizhen Guo, Dandan Wang, Zhoupeng Ren, Qian Yin, Yunbing Gao
      First page: 1294
      Abstract: Understanding the spatiotemporal trends of temperature in the context of global warming is significant for public health. Although many studies have examined changes in temperature and the impacts on human health over the past few decades in many regions, they have often been carried out in data-rich regions and have rarely considered acclimatization explicitly. The most frequent temperature (MFT) indicator provides us with the ability to solve this problem. MFT is defined as the longest period of temperature throughout the year to which a human is exposed and therefore acclimates. In this study, we propose a new method to estimate the number of heat exposure days from the perspective of temperature distribution and MFT, based on the daily mean temperature readings of 2142 weather stations in eight major climate zones in China over the past 20 years. This method can be used to calculate the number of heat exposure days in terms of heat-related mortality risk without the need for mortality data. We estimated the distribution and changes of annual mean temperature (AMT), minimum mortality temperature (MMT), and the number of heat exposure days in different climate zones in China. The AMT, MMT, and number of heat exposure days vary considerably across China. They all tend to decrease gradually from low to high latitudes. Heat exposure days are closely related to the risk of heat-related mortality. In addition, we utilized multiple linear regression (MLR) to analyze the association between the risk of heat-related mortality and the city and its climatic characteristics. Results showed that the number of heat exposure days, GDP per capita, urban population ratio, proportion of elderly population, and climate zone were found to modify the estimate on heat effect, with an R2 of 0.71. These findings will be helpful for the creation of public policies protecting against high-temperature-induced mortalities.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-05
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101294
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1295: Comparative Analysis of Predictive Models
           for Fine Particulate Matter in Daejeon, South Korea

    • Authors: Tserenpurev Chuluunsaikhan, Menghok Heak, Aziz Nasridinov, Sanghyun Choi
      First page: 1295
      Abstract: Air pollution is a critical problem that is of major concern worldwide. South Korea is one of the countries most affected by air pollution. Rapid urbanization and industrialization in South Korea have induced air pollution in multiple forms, such as smoke from factories and exhaust from vehicles. In this paper, we perform a comparative analysis of predictive models for fine particulate matter in Daejeon, the fifth largest city in South Korea. This study is conducted for three purposes. The first purpose is to determine the factors that may cause air pollution. Two main factors are considered: meteorological and traffic. The second purpose is to find an optimal predictive model for air pollutant concentration. We apply machine learning and deep learning models to the collected dataset to predict hourly air pollutant concentrations. The accuracy of the deep learning models is better than that of the machine learning models. The third purpose is to analyze the influence of road conditions on predicting air pollutant concentration. Experimental results demonstrate that considering wind direction and wind speed could significantly decrease the error rate of the predictive models.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-05
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101295
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1296: Spatial-Temporal Characteristics of
           Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Emissions of the Main Stream Area of the
           Yellow River Basin in Gansu, China

    • Authors: Lili Pu, Xingpeng Chen, Chengpeng Lu, Li Jiang, Binbin Ma, Xuedi Yang
      First page: 1296
      Abstract: In 2021, The People’s Republic of China proposed goals for peaking carbon dioxide emissions before 2030 and carbon neutrality before 2060, in the 15 counties (districts) of the Main Stream Area of the Yellow River Basin in Gansu that plays an important role in ecological protection and green development. Next the CO2 equivalents were converted according to the IPCC2 standard, the total agricultural GHG emissions was calculated, the relationship with the agricultural output value was analyzed, and the discretization of the space was analyzed by the coefficient of variation and standard deviation. Firstly, the total agricultural GHG emissions in 15 counties (districts) of the Main Stream Area of the Yellow River Basin increased 55.54% in 2000–2019, and 2.35% annually, roughly divided into three stages: the rapid growth period (2000–2008), the slow decline period (2009–2014) and the rapid decline period (2015–2019). The economic efficiency is significantly improved, with an average annual decline of 6.49%, roughly divided into three stages: the slow-descent stage (2000–2004), the period of slow-growth stage (2005–2008) and the period of fast-decline (2009–2019). Secondly, based on the characteristics of the total GHG emissions, Maqu County has the largest GHG emissions increase, from 26.8842 kt in 2000 to 38.9603 kt, in 2019, an increase of 44.92%, while the smallest GHG emissions, in Anning District, decreased 87.33% from 111 t in 2000 to 14.1 t in 2019; In the rate of increase in the total GHG emissions, Dongxiang County had the largest rate of increase from 2000 to 2019, an increase of 160.28% and an average annual increase of 4.90%. The smallest rate of decrease in GHG emissions was seen in Chengguan District, where they decreased 92.11% from 2000 to 2019, an average annual decrease of 11.93%. The characteristics of agricultural GHG emissions intensity is a significant declining trending and agricultural production efficiency has been significantly improved. Finally, to provide a basis for the formulation of differentiated agricultural energy conservation and emissions reduction policies, reduce agricultural GHG emissions intensity and reduce the use efficiency of resources by formulating differentiated emission targets, tasks and incentive measures.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-05
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101296
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1297: Radiative Energy Flux Variation from

    • Authors: Hans-Rolf Dübal, Fritz Vahrenholt
      First page: 1297
      Abstract: Radiative energy flux data, downloaded from CERES, are evaluated with respect to their variations from 2001 to 2020. We found the declining outgoing shortwave radiation to be the most important contributor for a positive TOA (top of the atmosphere) net flux of 0.8 W/m2 in this time frame. We compare clear sky with cloudy areas and find that changes in the cloud structure should be the root cause for the shortwave trend. The radiative flux data are compared with ocean heat content data and analyzed in the context of a longer-term climate system enthalpy estimation going back to the year 1750. We also report differences in the trends for the Northern and Southern hemisphere. The radiative data indicate more variability in the North and higher stability in the South. The drop of cloudiness around the millennium by about 1.5% has certainly fostered the positive net radiative flux. The declining TOA SW (out) is the major heating cause (+1.42 W/m2 from 2001 to 2020). It is almost compensated by the growing chilling TOA LW (out) (−1.1 W/m2). This leads together with a reduced incoming solar of −0.17 W/m2 to a small growth of imbalance of 0.15 W/m2. We further present surface flux data which support the strong influence of the cloud cover on the radiative budget.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-05
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101297
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1298: Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Air
           Pollutants in Nanchang, Southeast China during 2017–2020

    • Authors: Xiaoman Wang, Min Liu, Li Luo, Xi Chen, Yongyun Zhang, Haoran Zhang, Shudi Yang, Yuxiao Li
      First page: 1298
      Abstract: In response to COVID-19 in December 2019, China imposed a strict lockdown for the following two months, which led to an unprecedented reduction in industrial activities and transportation. However, haze pollution was still recorded in many Chinese cities during the lockdown period. To explore temporal and spatial variations in urban haze pollution, concentrations of air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, NO, NO2, and O3) from April 2017 to March 2020 were observed at 23 monitoring stations throughout Nanchang City (including one industrial site, sixteen urban central sites, two mountain sites, and four suburban sites). Overall, the highest concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, and SO2 were observed at industrial sites and the highest CO and NOx (NO and NO2) concentrations were recorded at urban sites. The air pollutants at mountain sites all showed the lowest concentrations, which indicated that anthropogenic activities are largely responsible for air pollutants. Concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, CO, NO, and NO2 showed similar season trends, that is, the highest levels in winter and lowest concentrations in summer, but an opposite season pattern for O3. Except for a sharply dropping pattern from January to May 2018, there were no seasonal patterns for SO2 concentration in all the observed sites. Daily PM2.5, PM10, CO, NOx, and SO2 concentrations showed a peak during the morning commute, which indicated the influences of anthropogenic activities on PM2.5, PM10, CO, NOx, and SO2. PM2.5, PM10, NOx, and CO concentrations at industrial, urban, and suburban sites were higher during nighttime than during daytime, but they showed the opposite pattern at mountain sites. In addition, PM2.5, PM10, CO, and NOx concentrations were lower during the lockdown period (D2) than those before the lockdown (B1). After the lockdown was lifted (A3), PM2.5, PM10, CO, and NOx concentrations showed a slowly increasing trend. However, O3 concentrations continuously increased from B1 to A3.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-05
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101298
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1299: Aerosol Properties within and above the

    • Authors: Eunsil Jung, Seongkyu Seo, Ki-Ho Chang, Seong-Soo Yum, Bok-Haeng Heo
      First page: 1299
      Abstract: During December 2016, airborne aerosol measurements were taken at multiple heights across the Korean Peninsula to examine the vertical properties of aerosols. This study showed that aerosols above the planetary boundary layer (PBL) show similar concentrations and particle size distributions (PSDs), regardless of the relative locations in Korea. On the other hand, aerosols within the PBL differ depending on the geographical location, origin and path of the air mass. The concentrations are the highest in Seoul, followed by Gangneung, East Sea and the Yellow Sea. The known east–west aerosol gradient did not appear and the reasons are discussed in this paper. The study further shows that the aerosols of upwind regions affect the aerosols above the PBL, whereas aerosols in the PBL are affected by local sources and atmospheric conditions in addition to aerosols of upwind areas.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-05
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101299
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1300: Air Quality in Windsor (Canada) and
           Impact of Regional Scale Transport

    • Authors: Tianchu Zhang, Yangfan Chen, Rongtai Tan, Xiaohong Xu
      First page: 1300
      Abstract: Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a scale designed in Canada to help residences understand the impact of air quality on health. This study investigated temporal variability of daily AQHI and impact of regional transport on AQHI in Windsor, Ontario, Canada from 2016 to 2019. The four-year average daily AQHI was 2.9, slightly below the upper limit of the low health risk level of 3. AQHI value decreased from 2.95 to 2.81 during the study period, indicating the improvement of air quality. Half of the days, AQHI were 3 regardless of season. AQHI was higher in the warm season (3.1) than in the cold season (2.6) due to more frequent moderate risk days (27%, AQHI = 4) in warm season and more frequent low risk days (42%, AQHI = 2) in the cold season. Among the three pollutants considered, O3 was the most frequently reported dominant contributor to daily AQHI (88% of days), followed by NO2 (12%), especially in the cold season, with small contribution from PM2.5 (<1%). Trajectory analysis found that AQHI≤3 days were closely associated with air masses from the north and northwest, whereas AQHI > 3 days were closely associated with air masses from the west and southwest. This is because northerly flows brought in clear air mass owing to less industrial facilities. Polluted air masses were transported from the south of Windsor, where several industrial states of the US were located. Directional AQHI resembles O3 more than NO2 or PM2.5 concentrations do. Further improvement of AQHI in Windsor could be challenging because O3 concentrations have continued to increase in recent years. Thus, more effective control measures to mitigate O3 pollution are warranted to reduce its impact on human health and the environment.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101300
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1301: SCAMPER Monitoring Platform to Measure
           PM10 Emission Rates from Unpaved Roads in Real-Time

    • Authors: Dennis R. Fitz, Kurt Bumiller
      First page: 1301
      Abstract: The SCAMPER method for measuring PM10 emission rates from roadways was used to evaluate mitigation methods for public unpaved roads and a treated mine haul road. The SCAMPER method uses a small trailer to measure PM10 concentrations behind a vehicle at a point that is representative of the mean PM10 concentration in the vehicle’s wake. This concentration multiplied by the frontal area has been shown to be a reasonable estimate of the emission rate in units of grams per meter traveled. On public roads it was towed by a 2006 Ford Expedition and on a mine haul road it was towed behind both the Expedition and an earth mover weighing over 150 tons fully loaded. Since the SCAMPER is capable of measuring emission rates on both paved and unpaved roadways, a direct comparison of the effectiveness of mitigation methods with respect to a similar paved road was possible.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101301
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1302: Control of the Health Risk of Radon
           Exposure in the Republic of Moldova

    • Authors: Liuba Coretchi, Antoaneta Ene, Aurelia Ababii
      First page: 1302
      Abstract: The paper presents the results of a national radon survey conducted in the context of the Republic of Moldova. The study included about 2500 homes of different types, located in urban and rural localities in different areas of the country. The RADTRAK2 detectors kindly provided by the RADONOVA laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden, for the MOL9007 project funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have been used. The exposure period was 90 days. The measured radon concentrations are the following: the average (±standard deviation) 252.8 ± 215.9 Bq/m3; the range (minimum–maximum) 10–1480 Bq/m3; the median 200 Bq/m3 and the geometric mean (± geometric standard deviation) 158.5 ± 3.0 Bq/m3. The results of the study allowed mapping indoor radon and identifying localities with increased radon concentrations. In order to reduce the high radon concentrations in places recording >300 Bq/m3, appropriate measures have been proposed according to the legislation in force. The cluster analysis showed positive links between the radon concentration in dwellings and the incidence of respiratory diseases, especially the bronchopulmonary cancer in the country.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101302
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1303: An Observational Study of GPS-Derived
           Integrated Water Vapor over India

    • Authors: Kaushik Gopalan, Bipasha Paul Shukla, Som Sharma, Prashant Kumar, Abhineet Shyam, Amita Gaur, Surendra Sunda
      First page: 1303
      Abstract: This study describes the process of deriving integrated water vapor (IWV) from (a) a set of 18 GPS receivers that were installed at different airports across India and (b) a pair of GPS receivers located in Ahmedabad situated around 8 km apart. The Zenith Tropospheric Delay was estimated from the GPS observations using the GAMIT software. Further, IWV was estimated from the ZTD values using surface temperature and pressure from ERA-I reanalysis as additional inputs. The IWV estimates for 1 year—March 2013 to February 2014—were compared with ECMWF Reanalysis Interim (ERA-I) reanalysis as well as radiosonde soundings. The Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) was ≈6 mm or better for most stations. The IWV estimates for July 2013 were assimilated into the WRF model and had a positive impact on model analysis of IWV. The forecasted rain improved by up to 3–4 mm/day in some regions as a result of GPS-derived IWV estimates. For the Ahmedabad receivers, the GPS-derived IWV was compared with IWV from ERA-I reanalysis and was found to have a RMSE of ≈7.7 mm which is <20% of the mean value. The study demonstrates that the observed IWV variation is consistent with rainfall patterns over Ahmedabad. The rise and dips in the IWV correlate well with the active-break cycle in the monsoon rain. The study demonstrates the value of local measurements of IWV with high temporal frequency, as they are more likely to respond to fast-moving weather phenomena such as rainfall. Thus, the GPS-derived IWV measurements are likely to have significant value in the short-term forecasts of precipitation.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101303
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1304: Air Pollution and Outdoor Recreation on
           Urban Trails: A Case Study of the Elizabeth River Trail, Norfolk

    • Authors: James E. McCann, Chris A. B. Zajchowski, Eddie L. Hill, Xihe Zhu
      First page: 1304
      Abstract: Poor air quality represents a significant health risk for individuals engaging in recreation activities outdoors in urban parks and trails. This study investigated temporal variability in particulate matter (PM) exposure along an urban waterfront trail. We also used recreation choice frameworks to examine the effects of visitors’ perceptions of air quality (AQ) and health benefits on trail use. Average air quality during the collection period was “good” (PM10) to “moderate” (PM2.5). We found that PM density was significantly higher (p < 0.001), though still in the “moderate” range, at 7–9 a.m., 11 a.m.–1 p.m., and 3–5 p.m., and on weekends. Visitors’ self-reported perceptions of health outcomes, but not air quality, significantly predicted trail use. Results suggest that these experiential factors may affect recreational choices depending on other factors, such as salience. Further research is merited to determine how experiential factors can be integrated with other theories of motivation to understand recreational decision-making.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101304
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1305: Method of Source Identification following
           an Accidental Release at an Unknown Location Using a Lagrangian
           Atmospheric Dispersion Model

    • Authors: Spyros Andronopoulos, Ivan V. Kovalets
      First page: 1305
      Abstract: A computationally efficient source inversion algorithm was developed and applied with the Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model DIPCOT. In the process of source location estimation by minimizing a correlation-based cost function, the algorithm uses only the values of the time-integrated concentrations at the monitoring stations instead of all of the individual measurements in the full concentration-time series, resulting in a significant reduction in the number of integrations of the backward transport equations. Following the source location estimation the release start time, duration and emission rate are assessed. The developed algorithm was verified for the conditions of the ETEX-I (European Tracer Experiment—1st release). Using time-integrated measurements from all available stations, the distance between the estimated and true source location was 108 km. The estimated start time of the release was only about 1 h different from the true value, within the possible accuracy of estimate of this parameter. The estimated release duration was 21 h (the true value was 12 h). The estimated release rate was 4.28 g/s (the true value was 7.95 g/s). The estimated released mass almost perfectly fitted the true released mass (323.6 vs. 343.4 kg). It thus could be concluded that the developed algorithm is suitable for further integration in real-time decision support systems.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101305
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1306: Assessment and Calibration of a Low-Cost
           PM2.5 Sensor Using Machine Learning (HybridLSTM Neural Network):
           Feasibility Study to Build an Air Quality Monitoring System

    • Authors: Donggeun Park, Geon-Woo Yoo, Seong-Ho Park, Jong-Hyeon Lee
      First page: 1306
      Abstract: Commercially available low-cost air quality sensors have low accuracy. The improved accuracy of low-cost PM2.5 sensors allows the use of low-cost sensor systems to reasonably investigate PM2.5 emissions from industrial activities or to accurately estimate individual exposure to PM2.5. In this work, we developed a new PM2.5 calibration model (HybridLSTM) by combining a deep neural network (DNN) optimized in calibration problems and a long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network optimized in time-dependent characteristics to improve the performance of conventional calibration algorithms of low-cost PM sensors. The PM2.5 concentrations, temperature and humidity by low-cost sensors and gravimetric-based PM2.5 measuring instrument were sampled for a sufficiently long time. The proposed model was compared with benchmarks (multiple linear regression model (MLR), DNN model) and low-cost sensor results. The gravimetric measurements were used as reference data to evaluate sensor accuracy. For root-mean-square error (RMSE) for PM2.5 concentrations, the proposed model reduced 41–60% of error when compared with the raw data of low-cost sensors, reduced 30–51% of error when compared with the MLR model and reduced 8–40% of error when compared with the MLR model. R2 of HybridLSTM, DNN, MLR and raw data were 93, 90, 80 and 59%, respectively. HybridLSTM showed the state-of-the-art calibration performance for a low-cost PM sensor. In other words, the proposed ML model has state-of-the-art calibration performance among the tested calibration algorithms.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101306
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1307: Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs)
           Composition and Human Health Risk Assessment of PM10 on the Roadways of
           Industrial Complexes in South Korea

    • Authors: Jin-Young Choi, Hyeryeong Jeong, Kongtae Ra, Kyung-Tae Kim
      First page: 1307
      Abstract: Road and industrial origin particulate matters (PM) are a significant source of potentially toxic elements (PTEs), with health risks to the surrounding residents. In Korea for 60 years, although industries, roads and automobiles have increased aggressively, there are still few PTEs data in PM in road-deposited sediment (RDS) of industrial complexes (ICs). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the PTE composition of on-road PM10 from nine major ICs and its pollution degree in Korea and evaluate its human health risks. The geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and pollution load index (PLI) elucidated that on-road PM10 were severely polluted by Sb, Zn, Ag and Pb. A combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and chemical tracers was used to define the PTEs sources. The results showed that non-exhaust emission from vehicles’ activity is the primary source of PTEs in on-road PM10, and industrial emissions are the secondary source. The riskiest pathway on carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic by on-road PM10 with PTEs was in-gestion. Traffic origin PTEs including Pb, As, Sb and Cd had a more significant impact on carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health than those of industrial origins. These results could help mitigate public health risks arising from on-road PM10 and improve air quality in ICs.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101307
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1308: Forced, Balanced, Axisymmetric Shallow
           Water Model for Understanding Short-Term Tropical Cyclone Intensity and
           Wind Structure Changes

    • Authors: Eric A. Hendricks, Jonathan L. Vigh, Christopher M. Rozoff
      First page: 1308
      Abstract: A minimal modeling system for understanding tropical cyclone intensity and wind structure changes is introduced: Shallow Water Axisymmetric Model for Intensity (SWAMI). The forced, balanced, axisymmetric shallow water equations are reduced to a canonical potential vorticity (PV) production and inversion problem, whereby PV is produced through a mass sink (related to the diabatic heating) and inverted through a PV/absolute angular momentum invertibility principle. Because the invertibility principle is nonlinear, a Newton–Krylov method is used to iteratively obtain a numerical solution to the discrete problem. Two versions of the model are described: a physical radius version which neglects radial PV advection (SWAMI-r) and a potential radius version that naturally includes the advection in the quasi-Lagrangian coordinate (SWAMI-R). In idealized numerical simulations, SWAMI-R produces a thinner and more intense PV ring than SWAMI-r, demonstrating the role of axisymmetric radial PV advection in eyewall evolution. SWAMI-R always has lower intensification rates than SWAMI-r because the reduction in PV footprint effect dominates the peak magnitude increase effect. SWAMI-r is next demonstrated as a potentially useful short-term wind structure forecasting tool using the newly added FLIGHT+ Dataset azimuthal means for initialization and forcing on three example cases: a slowly intensifying event, a rapid intensification event, and a secondary wind maximum formation event. Then, SWAMI-r is evaluated using 63 intensifying cases. Even though the model is minimal, it is shown to have some skill in short-term intensity prediction, highlighting the known critical roles of the relationship between the radial structures of the vortex inertial stability and diabatic heating rate. Because of its simplicity, SWAMI simulations are completed in seconds. Therefore, they may be of some use for hurricane nowcasting to short-term (less than 24 h) intensity and structure forecasting. Due to its favorable assumptions for tropical cyclone intensification, a potential use of SWAMI is a reasonable short-term upper-bound intensity forecast if the storm intensifies.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101308
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1309: Compositional Spatio-Temporal PM2.5
           Modelling in Wildfires

    • Authors: Joseph Sánchez-Balseca, Agustí Pérez-Foguet
      First page: 1309
      Abstract: Wildfires are natural ecological processes that generate high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that are dispersed into the atmosphere. PM2.5 could be a potential health problem due to its size. Having adequate numerical models to predict the spatial and temporal distribution of PM2.5 helps to mitigate the impact on human health. The compositional data approach is widely used in the environmental sciences and concentration analyses (parts of a whole). This numerical approach in the modelling process avoids one common statistical problem: the spurious correlation. PM2.5 is a part of the atmospheric composition. In this way, this study developed an hourly spatio-temporal PM2.5 model based on the dynamic linear modelling framework (DLM) with a compositional approach. The results of the model are extended using a Gaussian–Mattern field. The modelling of PM2.5 using a compositional approach presented adequate quality model indices (NSE = 0.82, RMSE = 0.23, and a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.91); however, the correlation range showed a slightly lower value than the conventional/traditional approach. The proposed method could be used in spatial prediction in places without monitoring stations.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101309
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1310: The Impact on Urban Air Quality of the
           COVID-19 Lockdown Periods in 2020: The Case of Nicosia, Cyprus

    • Authors: Giorgos Alexandrou, Petros Mouzourides, Andreas Eleftheriou, Marina K.-A. Neophytou
      First page: 1310
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of the lockdown measures in 2020 on the urban air quality in Nicosia capital city, in Cyprus—an island-country in the East Mediterranean—which is often affected by transboundary dust pollution. The study focuses on three criteria pollutants, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and Particulate Matter (PM10), taken from three Air Quality Monitoring Stations; two urban stations and one reference-background. The results of this study show that the decrease in traffic, which is the main source of high concentrations of pollutants in the urban area, reached up to 66.5% during the lockdown. At the beginning of the lockdown period, it exhibited a downward trend of 29% for CO concentration, and downward trend 43% for NO2 and PM10 concentrations. The NO2 concentration exhibited an upward trend towards the end of the lockdown; with the indication that this was due to meteorological conditions relevant to the monitoring stations and the transport of NO2 concentrations from sources that cannot be tracked. PM10 concentrations exhibited a varying behaviour as observed in the trends, where the decreasing trend was followed by an increasing trend due to transboundary air pollution episodes occurring in the same period.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101310
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1311: Characteristics of Subseasonal Winter
           Prediction Skill Assessment of GloSea5 for East Asia

    • Authors: Suryun Ham, Yeomin Jeong
      First page: 1311
      Abstract: In this study, the characteristics of systematic errors in subseasonal prediction for East Asia are investigated using an ensemble hindcast (1991–2010) produced by the Global Seasonal Forecasting System version 5 (GloSea5). GloSea5 is a global prediction system for the subseasonal-to-seasonal time scale, based on a fully coupled atmosphere, land, ocean, and sea ice model. To examine the fidelity of the system with respect to reproducing and forecasting phenomena, this study assesses the systematic biases in the global prediction model focusing on the prediction skill for the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), which is a major driver of weather and climate variability in East Asia. To investigate the error characteristics of GloSea5, the hindcast period is analyzed by dividing it into two periods: 1991–2000 and 2001–2010. The main results show that the prediction skill for the EAWM with a lead time of 3 weeks is significantly decreased in the 2000s compared to the 1990s. To investigate the reason for the reduced EAWM prediction performance in the 2000s, the characteristics of the teleconnections relating to the polar and equatorial regions are examined. It is found that the simulated excessive weakening of the East Asian jet relating to the tropics and a failure in representing the Siberian high pressure relating to the Arctic are mainly responsible for the decreased EAWM prediction skill.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101311
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1312: Machine Learning-Based Front Detection in
           Central Europe

    • Authors: Bogdan Bochenek, Zbigniew Ustrnul, Agnieszka Wypych, Danuta Kubacka
      First page: 1312
      Abstract: Extreme weather phenomena such as wind gusts, heavy precipitation, hail, thunderstorms, tornadoes, and many others usually occur when there is a change in air mass and the passing of a weather front over a certain region. The climatology of weather fronts is difficult, since they are usually drawn onto maps manually by forecasters; therefore, the data concerning them are limited and the process itself is very subjective in nature. In this article, we propose an objective method for determining the position of weather fronts based on the random forest machine learning technique, digitized fronts from the DWD database, and ERA5 meteorological reanalysis. Several aspects leading to the improvement of scores are presented, such as adding new fields or dates to the training database or using the gradients of fields.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-08
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101312
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1313: Exposure to Particles and Gases in a
           Shopping Mall: Spatial Heterogeneity and Outdoor Infiltration

    • Authors: Alison Tan Yui Li, Wenwei Che, Yushan Song, Jimmy Chun Kung Tong, Alexis Kai Hon Lau
      First page: 1313
      Abstract: Shopping malls in Hong Kong are usually located near major roads. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in these buildings is subject to infiltration of outdoor traffic-related pollutants, such as PM10, PM2.5, CO, and NO2. Furthermore, the existence of indoor sources and building geometry added to the complexity of variations in IAQ. To understand outdoor infiltration and spatial heterogeneity of these pollutants, we conducted fixed and cruise indoor sampling, together with simultaneous outdoor measurements, in a typical mall in Hong Kong. The cruise sampling was conducted indoors on a predesigned route and repeated 15 times. Outdoor infiltration was quantified based on regression analysis between indoor and outdoor sampling. Results showed that 75% of PM2.5, 53% of PM10, and 59% of NO2 were infiltrated into the mall during opening hours. Elevated PM2.5 and CO were observed during the dinner period, suggesting an impact from cooking. Substantial spatial variations were observed for PM10, PM2.5, and NO2, particularly at locations near entrances and restaurants. Measures are needed to reduce pollution intrusion from building openings and cooking-related sources to improve air quality in the selected mall. Fixed and cruise sampling methods used in this study provide insights on sensor deployment for future air quality monitoring in buildings.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-08
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101313
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1314: Equivalent Black Carbon Aerosol
           Properties and Their Relationship with the Heating Season in Urban

    • Authors: Wei Chen, Ge Song, Haimeng Zhao, Shanlin Sun, Yi Wu
      First page: 1314
      Abstract: Black carbon (BC) aerosols have a considerable impact on humans because they not only cause environmental pollution and reduce visibility but also harm human health. During the heating season in northern China, a large amount of coal is burned for heating, producing a large amount of BC. There are few studies on BC properties during the heating season. In this paper, BC is measured optically, so it is referred to as equivalent black carbon (EBC). This paper investigated EBC properties in depth during the heating and nonheating seasons of a typical urban environment in China with two years of EBC measurements. The results show that: (1) EBC aerosol concentrations during the heating season were significantly higher than those during the nonheating season. (2) The main sources of EBC aerosols throughout the year are liquid sources. During the heating season, solid sources (coal and biomass combustion) are dominant. (3) The proportion of brown carbon (BrC) produced by biomass energy during the heating season is greater than that during the nonheating season. (4) The resulting backward trajectory indicates that a large portion of the high EBC aerosol concentration sources originate from northern and northwestern China. Our results reveal that the characteristics and sources of EBC in the urban environment of northern China vary widely, suggesting that different measures should be taken to reduce BC aerosol concentrations during heating and nonheating seasons.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-08
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101314
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1315: Effects of Linewidth Broadening Method on
           Recoil of Sodium Laser Guide Star

    • Authors: Xiangyuan Liu, Xianmei Qian, Rui He, Dandan Liu, Chaolong Cui, Chuanyu Fan, Hao Yuan
      First page: 1315
      Abstract: The linewidth broadening of the circular-polarized continuous wave laser mitigates the recoil effects of the sodium laser guide star very well. By choice of the optimal laser linewidth, the relations between the laser intensity and average spontaneous emission rates are obtained. The numerically simulated results show that the 1–100 MHz linewidth broadening effectively weakens recoil and enhances the average spontaneous emission rates. For laser powers from 10 W to 60 W, considering the intensity distribution with random at the mesospheric sodium layer, when the laser linewidth is broadened to be 1–100 MHz from 0 MHz, increments of the return photons go up to 110% from 50% and do not have an effect on the spot sizes of the sodium laser guide star. Several cases have proven that the linewidth broadening method is correct. Further calculations show that the linewidth broadening method similarly applies to the case of the multi-mode laser. Furthermore, the linewidth broadening of re-pumping should be taken into account.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-08
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101315
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1316: A GPU-Accelerated Radiation Transfer
           Model Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method

    • Authors: Yansen Wang, Xiping Zeng, Jonathan Decker
      First page: 1316
      Abstract: A prototype of a three-dimensional (3-D) radiation model is developed using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and implemented on a graphical processing unit (GPU) to accelerate the model’s computational speed. This radiative transfer-lattice Boltzmann model (RT-LBM) results from a discretization of the radiative transfer equation in time, space, and solid angle. The collision and streaming computation algorithm, widely used in LBM for fluid flow modeling, is applied to speed up the RT-LBM computation on the GPU platform. The isotropic scattering is assumed in this study. The accuracy is evaluated using Monte Carlo method (MCM) simulations, showing RT-LBM is quite accurate when typical atmospheric coefficients of scattering and absorption are used. RT-LBM runs about 10 times faster than the MCM in a same CPU. When implemented on a NVidia Tesla V100 GPU in simulation with a large number of computation grid points, for example, RT-LBM runs ~120 times faster than running on a single CPU. The test results indicate RT-LBM is an accurate and fast model and is viable for simulating radiative transfer in the atmosphere with ranges for the isotropic atmosphere radiative parameters of albedo scattering (0.1~0.9) and optical depth (0.1~12).
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101316
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1317: Spectral Recalibration of NOAA HIRS
           Longwave CO2 Channels toward a 40+ Year Time Series for Climate Studies

    • Authors: Bin Zhang, Changyong Cao, Tung-Chang Liu, Xi Shao
      First page: 1317
      Abstract: The High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) on NOAA and MetOp A/B satellites has been observing the Earth continuously for over four decades, providing essential data for operational numerical weather prediction, retrieval of atmospheric vertical profile, and total column information on atmospheric temperature, moisture, water vapor, ozone, cloud climatology, and other geophysical parameters globally. Although the HIRS data meets the needs of the short-term weather forecast, there are inconsistencies when the long-term decadal time series is used for time series analysis. The discrepancies are caused by several factors, including spectral response differences between the HIRS models on the satellites and spectral response uncertainties and other calibration issues. Previous studies have demonstrated that significant improvements can be achieved by recalibrating some of the HIRS longwave CO2 channels (Channels 4, 5, 6, and 7), which has helped make the time series more consistent. The current study aims to extend the previous study to the remaining longwave infrared sounding channels, including Channels 1, 2, 3, and 8, using a similar approach. Similar to previous findings, the spectral shift of the HIRS bands has helped improve the consistency in the time series from NOAA-06 to MetOp-A and B for these channels. We also found that HIRS channels on MetOp-B also have bias relative to Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the same satellite, especially Channel 4, and a spectral shift significantly reduced the bias. To bridge the observation gap in time series in the mid-1980s between NOAA-07 and NOAA-09, the global mean method has been used since no transfer radiometers between them was available for this period, and the spectral response function corrections, therefore, can be applied to the earliest satellites (NOAA-06) for these channels. The recalibration parameters have been provided to other scientists at the University of Wisconsin for improving the time series in their long-term studies using historical HIRS data and are now made available to the science community.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101317
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1318: A Comparison of the Performance of
           Different Interpolation Methods in Replicating Rainfall Magnitudes under
           Different Climatic Conditions in Chongqing Province (China)

    • Authors: Ruting Yang, Bing Xing
      First page: 1318
      Abstract: Precipitation is considered a crucial component in the hydrological cycle and changes in its spatial pattern directly influence the water resources. We compare different interpolation techniques in predicting the spatial distribution pattern of precipitation in Chongqing. Six interpolation methods, i.e., Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Radial Basis Function (RBF), Diffusion Interpolation with Barrier (DIB), Kernel Interpolation with Barrier (KIB), Ordinary Kriging (OK) and Empirical Bayesian Kriging (EBK), were applied to estimate different rainfall patterns. Annual mean, rainy season and dry-season precipitation was calculated from the daily precipitation time series of 34 meteorological stations with a time span of 1991 to 2019, based on Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation (LOOCV), Mean Square Error (MSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Symmetric Mean Absolute Percentage Error (SMAPE) and Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient (NSE) as validation indexes of the applied models for calculating the error degree and accuracy. Correlation test and Spearman coefficient was performed on the estimated and observed values. A method combining Entropy Weight and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (Entropy-Weighted TOPSIS) was introduced to rank the performance of six interpolation methods. The results indicate that interpolation technique performs better in estimating during periods of low precipitation (i.e., dry season, relative to rainy season and mean annual). The performance priorities of the six methods under the combined multiple precipitation distribution patterns are KIB > EBK > OK > RBF > DIB > IDW. Among them, KIB method has the highest accuracy which maps more accurate precipitation surfaces, with the disadvantage that estimation error is prone to outliers. EBK method is the second highest, and IDW method has the lowest accuracy with a high degree of error. This paper provides information for the application of interpolation methods in estimating rainfall spatial pattern and for water resource management of concerned regions.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101318
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1319: On the Apparent Non-Uniqueness of the
           Electromagnetic Field Components of Return Strokes Revisited

    • Authors: Vernon Cooray, Gerald Cooray, Marcos Rubinstein, Farhad Rachidi
      First page: 1319
      Abstract: Recent research work shows that there are four procedures that can be used to calculate the electromagnetic fields from a current source. These different procedures, even though producing the same total field, give rise to field components that differ from one procedure to another. This has led to the understanding that the various field terms that constitute the total field cannot be uniquely determined. In this paper, it is shown that all four field expressions can be reduced to a single field expression, and the various field terms arising from acceleration, uniformly moving, and stationary charges can be uniquely determined. The differences in the field terms arising from different techniques are caused by the different ways of summing up the contribution to the total electric field coming from the accelerating, moving, and stationary charges.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101319
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1320: Indoor Air Quality Certification and
           Consumers’ Willingness: Taiwan’s Experience and Survey

    • Authors: Chih-Pei Hu, Jen-Hsiung Cheng
      First page: 1320
      Abstract: People spend about 80–90% of their time in indoor environments, and poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can seriously endanger people’s health, work quality, and efficiency. The Taiwan Government began regulating IAQ in 2011 and implemented the self-managed IAQ certification in 2021. Before the Taiwan Government officially implemented the certification, we conducted a questionnaire survey from 26 to 27 September 2020. Moreover, this survey selected Banqiao and Wuri High-Speed Rail Plaza as the survey sites and completed 337 valid questionnaires. According to the hierarchical regression results, this research found the following: firstly, IAQ certification complies with international standards and has continuous monitoring and information disclosure methods, both of which are key factors affecting people’s willingness to consume; secondly, the respondents, who are female, familiar with the regulations, and living in the northern Taiwan area, have more willingness to consume in the certificated places.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101320
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1321: Thermally and Dynamically Driven
           Atmospheric Circulations over Heterogeneous Atmospheric Boundary Layer:
           Support for Safety Protocols and Environment Management at Nuclear Central

    • Authors: Larissa de Freitas Ramos de Freitas Ramos Jacinto, Luiz Claudio Gomes Pimentel, José Francisco de Oliveira de Oliveira Júnior, Ian Cunha D’Amato Viana Dragaud, Corbiniano Silva, William Cossich Marcial de de Farias, Edilson Marton, Luiz Paulo de Freitas Assad, Jesus Salvador Perez Perez Guerrero, Paulo Fernando Lavalle Heilbron Heilbron Filho, Luiz Landau
      First page: 1321
      Abstract: Ilha Grande Bay is located in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The area is characterized by different land cover, complex topography and proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. These aspects make it susceptible to thermally and dynamically induced atmospheric circulations such as those associated with valley/mountain and land/sea breeze systems, among others. The Almirante Álvaro Alberto Nuclear Complex (CNAAA) is located in this region, with a total of two nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation in the Brazilian territory, Angra I and Angra II. Therefore, knowledge of local atmospheric circulation has become a matter of national and international security. Considering the importance of the meteorological security tool as a support for licensing, installation, routine operation and nuclear accident mitigation, the main aim of this study is the development of combined strategies of environmental statistical modeling in the analysis of thermally and dynamically driven atmospheric circulations over mountainous and coastal environments. We identified and hierarchized the influence of the thermally and mechanically driven forcing on the wind regime and stability conditions in the coastal atmospheric boundary layer over the complex topography region. A meteorological network of ground-based instruments was used along with physiographic information for the observational characterization of the atmospheric patterns in the spatial and time–frequency domain. The predominant wind directions and intensity are attributed to the combined action of multiscale weather systems, notably, the valley/mountain and continent/ocean breeze circulations, the forced channeling due to valley axis orientation, the influence of the synoptic scale systems and atmospheric thermal tide. The observational investigation of the combined influence of terrain effects and meteorological systems aimed to understand the local atmospheric circulation serves as support for safety protocols of the NPPs, contemplating operation and environmental management. The importance of the study for the adequacy and skill evaluation of computational modeling systems for atmospheric dispersion of pollutants such as radionuclide and conventional contaminants can be also highlighted, in order that such systems are used as tools for environmental planning and managing nuclear operations, particularly those located in regions over mountainous and coastal environments with a heterogeneous atmospheric boundary layer.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101321
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1322: Investigation of Air Pollutants Related
           to the Vehicular Exhaust Emissions in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    • Authors: Yukiko Fukusaki, Masataka Umehara, Yuka Kousa, Yoshimi Inomata, Satoshi Nakai
      First page: 1322
      Abstract: The Kathmandu Valley, which is surrounded by high hills and mountains, has been plagued by air pollution, especially in winter. We measured the levels of volatile organic compounds, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, ozone, PM2.5, and carbon monoxide in the Kathmandu Valley during the winter to investigate the impact of vehicular emissions and the contribution of gaseous air pollutants to secondary pollutants. The most common gaseous pollutants were discovered to be gasoline components, which were emitted more frequently by engine combustion than gasoline evaporation. Considering the ethylene to acetylene ratio, it was discovered that most vehicles lacked a well-maintained catalyst. Compared to previous studies, it was considered that an increase in the number of gasoline vehicles offset the effect of the measures and exceeded it, increasing the level of air pollutants. Aromatics and alkenes accounted for 66–79% and 43–59% of total ozone formation potential in Koteshwor and Sanepa, respectively. In terms of individual components, it was determined that ethylene, propylene, toluene, and m-xylene all significantly contributed to photochemical ozone production. As those components correlated well with isopentane, which is abundant in gasoline vehicle exhaust, it was determined that gasoline vehicles are the primary source of those components. It was indicated that strategies for regulating gasoline vehicle exhaust emissions are critical for controlling the photochemical smog in the Kathmandu Valley.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101322
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1323: Five Years (2014–2018) of Beta Activity
           Concentration and the Impact of Synoptic and Local Meteorological
           Conditions in Bilbao (Northern Spain)

    • Authors: Natalia Alegría, Miguel Ángel Hernández-Ceballos, Margarita Herranz, Raquel Idoeta, Fernando Legarda
      First page: 1323
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to statistically characterize gross beta activity concentrations in ground-level air in Bilbao (northern Spain) by analysing five years (2014–2018) worth of weekly measurements in aerosols collected in filters to analyse the impact of local meteorological parameters on concentrations. In addition, synoptic meteorological scenarios associated with anomalous beta surface activity concentrations were identified. Over this five-year period, beta activity concentrations ranged from 35.45 µBq/m3 to 1778 µBq/m3 with a mean of 520.12 ± 281.77 µBq/m3. A positive correlation was found with the alpha concentrations (0.67), with an average of 0.138 for the alpha/beta ratio, and a low correlation was found with 7Be (0.16). Statistical analysis identified a seasonal component in the time series, increasing, on average, beta activity concentrations from winter to autumn. The highest beta activity concentrations were measured under the arrival of southerly land winds with low wind speeds, while the wind analysis (surface winds and air masses) of two different seasonal periods (autumn 2015 and winter 2017) have highlighted how small variations in synoptic and local winds highly influence beta activity concentrations. These results are relevant to understand the meteorological factors affecting beta activity concentrations in this area and hence to define meteorological scenarios that are in favour to high/anomalous surface activity concentrations that are harmful to the environmental and public health.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101323
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1324: Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Heterogeneity
           and Socioeconomic Driving Factors of PM2.5 in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei
           and Its Surrounding Areas

    • Authors: Ju Wang, Ran Li, Kexin Xue, Chunsheng Fang
      First page: 1324
      Abstract: Due to rapid urbanization and socio-economic development, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution has drawn very wide concern, especially in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, as well as in its surrounding areas. Different socio-economic developments shape the unique characteristics of each city, which may contribute to the spatial heterogeneity of pollution levels. Based on ground fine particulate matter (PM2.5) monitoring data and socioeconomic panel data from 2015 to 2019, the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, and its surrounding provinces, were selected as a case study area to explore the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of PM2.5 pollution, and the driving effect of socioeconomic factors on local air pollution. The spatio-temporal heterogeneity analysis showed that PM2.5 concentration in the study area expressed a downward trend from 2015 to 2019. Specifically, the concentration in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei and Henan Province had decreased, but in Shanxi Province and Shandong Province, the concentration showed an inverted U-shaped and U-shaped variation trend, respectively. From the perspective of spatial distribution, PM2.5 concentrations in the study area had an obvious spatial positive correlation, with agglomeration characteristics of “high–high” and “low–low”. The high-value area was mainly distributed in the junction area of Henan, Shandong, and Hebei Provinces, which had been gradually moving to the southwest. The low values were mainly concentrated in the northern parts of Shanxi and Hebei Provinces, and the eastern part of Shandong Province. The results of the spatial lag model showed that Total Population (POP), Proportion of Urban Population (UP), Output of Second Industry (SI), and Roads Density (RD) had positive driving effects on PM2.5 concentration, which were opposite of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In addition, the spatial spillover effect of the PM2.5 concentrations in surrounding areas has a positive driving effect on local pollution levels. Although the PM2.5 levels in the study area have been decreasing, air pollution is still a serious problem. In the future, studies on the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of PM2.5 caused by unbalanced social development will help to better understand the interaction between urban development and environmental stress. These findings can contribute to the development of effective policies to mitigate and reduce PM2.5 pollutions from a socio-economic perspective.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101324
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1325: Evaluation of Occupational Exposure Risk
           for Employees Working in Dynamic Olfactometry: Focus on Non-Carcinogenic
           Effects Correlated with Exposure to Landfill Emissions

    • Authors: Polvara, Essna ashari, Capelli, Sironi
      First page: 1325
      Abstract: This work aims to evaluate the non-carcinogenic health effects related to landfill odor emissions, therefore focusing on workers involved in dynamic olfactometry. Currently, the most common technique to quantify odor emissions is dynamic olfactometry, a sensorial analysis involving human assessors. During the analysis, assessors are directly exposed, at increasing concentrations, to odor samples, and thus to the hazardous pollutants contained therein. This entails the need to estimate the associated exposure risk to guarantee examiners’ safety. Therefore, this paper evaluates the exposure risk for olfactometric examiners to establish the minimum dilution level to be adopted during the analysis of landfills’ odorous samples to guarantee panelists’ safety. For this purpose, an extensive literature review regarding the pollutants emitted by landfill odor sources was conducted, comparing compounds’ chemical concentrations and threshold limit values (TLVs) to calculate the Hazard Index (HI) and thus establish a minimum dilution value. The data collected indicate that a non-negligible non-carcinogenic risk exists for all landfill emissions considered. However, from the data considered, the minimum dilution factor to be adopted is lower than the typical odor concentration observed for these sources. Therefore, the olfactometric analysis of landfill samples can be generally conducted in safe conditions.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101325
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1326: Diagnostic Analysis of the Generative
           Mechanism of Extratropical Cyclones in the Northwest Pacific and Northwest

    • Authors: Gong, Diao, Sun, Xiong, Sun
      First page: 1326
      Abstract: We investigated the early-stage development of cyclones occurring in the strong baroclinic regions in the Northwest Pacific and the Northwest Atlantic based on European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis-Interim (ERA-Interim) data. The composite background conditions corresponding to the cyclones on the onset day are characterized by upper troposphere divergence of westerly jet ahead of a trough, low troposphere convergence of westerly jet behind a trough, and strong meridional air temperature gradient (baroclinicity) both in the Northwest Pacific and the Northwest Atlantic, but with stronger baroclinicity in the Northwest Pacific. The composite velocity and temperature fields of the cyclone on the onset day show a clear horizontal front and a westward and northward vertical tilting of cyclonic circulation to the cold zone. The composite Northwest Pacific cyclone filed on the onset day has a warm core, whereas the composite Northwest Atlantic cyclone field has a cold core in the low troposphere. The leading adiabatic processes that contribute to the developing of the cold core cyclone in the Northwest Atlantic on the onset day is the temperature advection, while stronger vertical motion induces stronger adiabatic warming in the Northwest Pacific cyclones, which has a significant contribution to the development of warm core cyclones on the onset day.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101326
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1327: A Haze Prediction Method Based on
           One-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network

    • Authors: Ziyan Zhang, Jiawei Tian, Weizheng Huang, Lirong Yin, Wenfeng Zheng, Shan Liu
      First page: 1327
      Abstract: In recent years, more and more people are paying close attention to the environmental problems in metropolitan areas and their harm to the human body. Among them, haze is the pollutant that people are most concerned about. The demand for a method to predict the haze level for the public and academics keeps rising. In order to predict the haze concentration on a time scale in hours, this study built a haze concentration prediction method based on one-dimensional convolutional neural networks. The gated recurrent unit method was used for comparison, which highlights the training speed of a one-dimensional convolutional neural network. In summary, the haze concentration data of the past 24 h are used as input and the haze concentration level on the next moment as output such that the haze concentration level on the time scale in hours can be predicted. Based on the results, the prediction accuracy of the proposed method is over 95% and can be used to support other studies on haze prediction.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101327
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1328: Impact of Climate Variability on Climate
           Beach-Based Tourism Aptitude: A Case Study in the Atlantic Coast of SW

    • Authors: Domingo F. Rasilla
      First page: 1328
      Abstract: The spatial and temporal variability of the summer (July–August) climate beach-based tourism aptitude along the Atlantic coast of SW Europe from 1973 to 2017 and its links with the atmospheric circulation has been analyzed, combining an empirical index and a circulation pattern approach. Three different coastal sectors were defined from a PCA analysis: Galicia-N of Portugal, the Gulf of Biscay, and the western coast of France and the English Channel. Each region experienced a contrasted evolution due to geographical factors such as latitude, orography and exposure to the prevailing circulation patterns. No significant increase in aptitude was found because the background warming has not been balanced by trends in cloudiness or precipitation. Several possible causes are discussed, from local to large-scale, such as the recent evolution of the summer NAO pattern impacting the northernmost region.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101328
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1329: Volatile Organic Compound Composition of
           Urban Air in Nairobi, Kenya and Lagos, Nigeria

    • Authors: Rebecca L. Cordell, Rikesh Panchal, Emmanuel Bernard, Michael Gatari, Ezekiel Waiguru, Moses Ng’ang’a, James Nyang’aya, Madara Ogot, Michael J. Wilde, Kevin P. Wyche, Akeem A. Abayomi, Rose Alani, Paul. S. Monks, Joshua D. Vande Hey
      First page: 1329
      Abstract: Sub-Saharan Africa is seeing rapid urbanization, with the population of cities such as Lagos and Nairobi growing at a rate of 3–4% a year. The region is extremely under-sampled for all air pollutants, particularly VOCs, which are useful markers for source apportionment as well as toxic in their own right. There are many contributors to air pollution in the region, and studies examining fine particulate pollution implicate traffic as the primary source in urban areas. In this pilot study, VOCs were analysed at a selection of roadside and urban background locations in Nairobi and Lagos, and 74 VOCs were quantified. GC×GC–MS/FID analysis revealed all locations were dominated by hydrocarbons typical of vehicle emissions, with the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene and toluene among the most abundant VOCs. Typical personal exposure scenarios for citizens of the cities were calculated to far exceed those of a resident in a city in Europe/US. Finally, the calculated ozone forming potential of the VOCs measured was found to be similarly high to other large cities studied with similar air pollution problems. Further study is therefore essential to determine the full extent of VOC pollution in the region and its impact on tropospheric chemistry.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101329
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1330: The Effects of the Width of an Isolated
           Valley on Near-Surface Turbulence

    • Authors: Sylvio Freitas, Frank Harms, Bernd Leitl
      First page: 1330
      Abstract: With the aim of ascertaining the effects of the widths (A) of valleys on near-surface turbulence, flows over an isolated symmetric three-dimensional valley of constant depth (H) and slopes are characterized in a large-boundary-layer wind tunnel. Starting at A = 4H, valley widths were systematically varied to A = 12H with constant increments of 2H. High-resolution laser-Doppler velocimetry measurements were made at several equivalent locations above each of the resulting valley geometries and compared with data from undisturbed flows over flat terrain. Flow separation caused by the first ridges generated inner-valley recirculation bubbles with lengths dependent on the valley widths. Secondary recirculation zones were also observed downstream from the crests of the second ridges. Results show that the width modifications exert the strongest effects on turbulence within the valleys and the vicinities of the second ridges. Above these locations, maximal magnitudes of turbulence are generally found for the larger width geometries. Furthermore, lateral turbulence overpowers the longitudinal counterparts nearest to the surface, with maximal gains occurring for the smaller widths. Our data indicate that valley widths are impactful on near-surface flows and should be considered together with other more established geometric parameters of influence.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101330
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1331: Health Risks to the Russian Population
           from Temperature Extremes at the Beginning of the XXI Century

    • Authors: Elena A. Grigorieva, Boris A. Revich
      First page: 1331
      Abstract: Climate change and climate-sensitive disasters caused by climatic hazards have a significant and increasing direct and indirect impact on human health. Due to its vast area, complex geographical environment and various climatic conditions, Russia is one of the countries that suffers significantly from frequent climate hazards. This paper provides information about temperature extremities in Russia in the beginning of the 21st century, and their impact on human health. A literature search was conducted using the electronic databases Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus, and e-Library, focusing on peer-reviewed journal articles published in English and in Russian from 2000 to 2021. The results are summarized in 16 studies, which are divided into location-based groups, including Moscow, Saint Petersburg and other large cities located in various climatic zones: in the Arctic, in Siberia and in the southern regions, in ultra-continental and monsoon climate. Heat waves in cities with a temperate continental climate lead to a significant increase in all-cause mortality than cold waves, compared with cities in other climatic zones. At the same time, in northern cities, in contrast to the southern regions and central Siberia, the influence of cold waves is more pronounced on mortality than heat waves. To adequately protect the population from the effects of temperature waves and to carry out preventive measures, it is necessary to know specific threshold values of air temperature in each city.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101331
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1332: Characterization of PM10 Emission Rates
           from Roadways in a Metropolitan Area Using the SCAMPER Mobile Monitoring

    • Authors: Dennis R. Fitz, Kurt Bumiller
      First page: 1332
      Abstract: The SCAMPER mobile system for measuring PM10 emission rates from paved roads was used to characterize emission rates from a wide variety of roads in the Phoenix, AZ metropolitan area. Week-long sampling episodes were conducted in March, June, September, and December. A 180 km-long route was utilized and traveled a total of 18 times. PM10 emission rate measurements were made at 5-s resolution for over 3200 km of roads with a precision of approximately 25%. The PM10 emission rates varied by over two orders of magnitude and were generally low unless the road was impacted with dust deposited by activities such as construction, sand and gravel operations, agriculture, and vehicles traveling on or near unpaved shoulders and roads. The data were tabulated into averages for each of 67 segments that the route was divided into. The segment-averaged PM10 emission rates ranged from zero to 2 mg m−1, with an average of 0.079 mg m−1. There was no significant difference in emission rates between seasons. There was a major drop in emission rates over a weekend, when dust generation activities such as construction are expected to be much reduced. By Monday, the PM10 emission rates had risen to the levels of the previous Friday. This indicates that roads quickly reach an equilibrium PM10 generating potential.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101332
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1333: Influence of the Lockdown on PM2.5
           Concentrations around an Urban School in the South of Belgium

    • Authors: Claudia Falzone, Jérémy Muller, Anne-Claude Romain
      First page: 1333
      Abstract: In 2020, the world was affected by an unprecedented health crisis. Europe had to close its internal and external borders, and the majority of countries had to impose lockdowns on their people. Shops, restaurants, building sites, and industries had to close, and working from home became the rule. This paper reflects a study conducted from 17 March to 25 June 2020, in which homemade low-cost devices measured PM2.5 concentrations at three different locations around a Belgian school and background concentrations. The period monitored covered seven reopening stages from lockdown to the reopening of borders. The overall analysis did not show any correlation between traffic and PM2.5 concentrations in the streets in any of the phases. However, the analysis of each reopening showed that it was possible to observe significant differences in the background concentrations measured in a rural town and on urban streets.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101333
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1334: Evaluation of the CRU TS3.1,
           APHRODITE_V1101, and CFSR Datasets in Assessing Water Balance Components
           in the Upper Vakhsh River Basin in Central Asia

    • Authors: Aminjon Gulakhmadov, Xi Chen, Manuchekhr Gulakhmadov, Zainalobudin Kobuliev, Nekruz Gulahmadov, Jiabin Peng, Zhengyang Li, Tie Liu
      First page: 1334
      Abstract: In this study, the applicability of three gridded datasets was evaluated (Climatic Research Unit (CRU) Time Series (TS) 3.1, “Asian Precipitation—Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Toward the Evaluation of Water Resources” (APHRODITE)_V1101, and the climate forecast system reanalysis dataset (CFSR)) in different combinations against observational data for predicting the hydrology of the Upper Vakhsh River Basin (UVRB) in Central Asia. Water balance components were computed, the results calibrated with the SUFI-2 approach using the calibration of soil and water assessment tool models (SWAT–CUP) program, and the performance of the model was evaluated. Streamflow simulation using the SWAT model in the UVRB was more sensitive to five parameters (ALPHA_BF, SOL_BD, CN2, CH_K2, and RCHRG_DP). The simulation for calibration, validation, and overall scales showed an acceptable correlation between the observed and simulated monthly streamflow for all combination datasets. The coefficient of determination (R2) and Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) showed “excellent” and “good” values for all datasets. Based on the R2 and NSE from the “excellent” down to “good” datasets, the values were 0.91 and 0.92 using the observational datasets, CRU TS3.1 (0.90 and 0.90), APHRODITE_V1101+CRU TS3.1 (0.74 and 0.76), APHRODITE_V1101+CFSR (0.72 and 0.78), and CFSR (0.67 and 0.74) for the overall scale (1982–2006). The mean annual evapotranspiration values from the UVRB were about 9.93% (APHRODITE_V1101+CFSR), 25.52% (APHRODITE_V1101+CRU TS3.1), 2.9% (CFSR), 21.08% (CRU TS3.1), and 27.28% (observational datasets) of annual precipitation (186.3 mm, 315.7 mm, 72.1 mm, 256.4 mm, and 299.7 mm, out of 1875.9 mm, 1236.9 mm, 2479 mm, 1215.9 mm, and 1098.5 mm). The contributions of the snowmelt to annual runoff were about 81.06% (APHRODITE_V1101+CFSR), 63.12% (APHRODITE_V1101+CRU TS3.1), 82.79% (CFSR), 81.66% (CRU TS3.1), and 67.67% (observational datasets), and the contributions of rain to the annual flow were about 18.94%, 36.88%, 17.21%, 18.34%, and 32.33%, respectively, for the overall scale. We found that gridded climate datasets can be used as an alternative source for hydrological modeling in the Upper Vakhsh River Basin in Central Asia, especially in scarce-observation regions. Water balance components, simulated by the SWAT model, provided a baseline understanding of the hydrological processes through which water management issues can be dealt with in the basin.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101334
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1335: Optimized Cool Coatings as a Strategy to
           Improve Urban Equivalent Albedo at Various Latitudes

    • Authors: Mattia Manni, Andrea Nicolini
      First page: 1335
      Abstract: This research study aimed to investigate the influences of angular-selective retro-reflective (AS-RR) and retro-reflective (RR) materials on the urban equivalent albedo (αeq). Full ray tracing solar analyses were conducted through the Monte Carlo-based numerical model validated in a previous work. Different geometry scenarios with different patterns of urban density were modelled. AS-RR and RR materials were alternately applied to the street and to the most irradiated façade. AS-RR materials were proposed to enhance the αeq of the urban environment particularly during summer. Solar analyses were reiterated for three latitudes (i.e., Oslo, Milan, Cairo). RR pavements and façades were capable of increasing the αeq throughout the year. However, implementing an angular-selective behavior allowed for a reduction of the mitigation potential of RR materials during the winter season. In their best application, RR and AS-RR materials enabled higher αeq in summer (122%) with negligible effects during the winter (7%). Finally, the study highlighted the need for exploiting numerical models capable of conducting full ray tracing solar analyses when investigating materials whose optical properties depend on the angle of incidence of the sunrays (such as RR materials).
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101335
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1336: Generating Flood Hazard Maps Based on an
           Innovative Spatial Interpolation Methodology for Precipitation

    • Authors: Mohammad Zare, Guy J.-P. Schumann, Felix Norman Teferle, Ruja Mansorian
      First page: 1336
      Abstract: In this study, a new approach for rainfall spatial interpolation in the Luxembourgian case study is introduced. The method used here is based on a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering method. In a typical FCM procedure, there are a lot of available data and each data point belongs to a cluster, with a membership degree [0 1]. On the other hand, in our methodology, the center of clusters is determined first and then random data are generated around cluster centers. Therefore, this approach is called inverse FCM (i-FCM). In order to calibrate and validate the new spatial interpolation method, seven rain gauges in Luxembourg, Germany and France (three for calibration and four for validation) with more than 10 years of measured data were used and consequently, the rainfall for ungauged locations was estimated. The results show that the i-FCM method can be applied with acceptable accuracy in validation rain gauges with values for R2 and RMSE of (0.94–0.98) and (9–14 mm), respectively, on a monthly time scale and (0.86–0.89) and (1.67–2 mm) on a daily time scale. In the following, the maximum daily rainfall return periods (10, 25, 50 and 100 years) were calculated using a two-parameter Weibull distribution. Finally, the LISFLOOD FP flood model was used to generate flood hazard maps in Dudelange, Luxembourg with the aim to demonstrate a practical application of the estimated local rainfall return periods in an urban area.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101336
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1337: Indoor Air Quality in Healthcare and Care
           Facilities: Chemical Pollutants and Microbiological Contaminants

    • Authors: Alexandre Baudet, Estelle Baurès, Hélène Guegan, Olivier Blanchard, Monique Guillaso, Pierre Le Cann, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Arnaud Florentin
      First page: 1337
      Abstract: The indoor air quality of healthcare and care facilities is poorly studied. The aim of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively describe the chemical pollution and the microbiological contaminations of the indoor environment of these facilities. Methods: A wide range of chemical compounds (39 volatile and 13 semi-volatile organic compounds, carbon dioxide, fine particulate matter) and microorganisms (fungi and bacteria) were studied. Sampling campaigns were conducted in two French cities in summer 2018 and winter 2019 in six private healthcare facilities (general practitioner’s offices, dental offices, pharmacies) and four care facilities (nursing homes). Results: The highest median concentrations of chemical compounds (μg/m3) were measured for alcohols (ethanol: 378.9 and isopropanol: 23.6), ketones (acetone: 18.8), aldehydes (formaldehyde: 11.4 and acetaldehyde: 6.5) and terpenes (limonene: 4.3). The median concentration of PM2.5 was 9.0 µg/m3. The main bacteria of these indoor environments were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus and Bacillus genera, with median bacterial concentrations in the indoor air of 14 cfu/m3. The two major fungal genera were Cladosporium and Penicillium, with median fungal concentrations of 7 cfu/m3. Conclusions: Indoor air in healthcare and care facilities contains a complex mixture of many pollutants found in higher concentrations compared to the indoor air in French hospitals in a previous study.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101337
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1338: Spatiotemporal Change of Air-Quality
           Patterns in Hubei Province—A Pre- to Post-COVID-19 Analysis Using Path
           Analysis and Regression

    • Authors: Muhammad Aamir, Zeyun Li, Sibghatullah Bazai, Raja Asif Wagan, Uzair Aslam Bhatti, Mir Muhammad Nizamani, Shakeel Akram
      First page: 1338
      Abstract: Mitigation measures and control strategies relating to the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been widely applied in many countries to reduce the transmission of this pandemic disease. China was the first country to implement a strong lockdown policy to control COVID-19 when countries worldwide were struggling to manage COVID-19 cases. However, lockdown causes numerous changes to air-quality patterns due to the low amount of traffic and the decreased human mobility it results in. To study the impact of the strict control measures of the new COVID-19 epidemic on the air quality of Hubei in early 2020, the air-quality monitoring data of Hubei’s four cities, namely Huangshi, Yichang, Jingzhou, and Wuhan, from 2019 to 2021, specifically 1 January to 30 August, was examined to analyze the characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution. All air-quality pollutants decreased during the active-COVID-19 period, with a maximum decrease of 26% observed in PM10, followed by 23% of PM2.5, and a minimum decrease of 5% observed in O3. Changes in air pollutants from 2017 to 2021 were also compared, and a decrease in all pollutants through to 2020 was found. The air-quality index (AQI) recorded an increase of 2% post-COVID-19, which shows that air quality will worsen in future, but it decreased by 22% during the active-COVID-19 period. A path analysis model was developed to further understand the relationship between the AQI and air-quality patterns. This path analysis shows a strong correlation between the AQI and PM10 and PM2.5, however its correlation with other air pollutants is weak. Regression analysis shows a similar pattern of there being a strong relationship between AQI and PM10 (r2 = 0.97) and PM2.5 (r2 = 0.93). Although the COVID-19 pandemic had numerous negative effects on human health and the global economy, it is likely that the reduction in air pollution and the significant improvement in ambient air quality due to lockdowns provided substantial short-term health benefits. The government must implement policies to control the environmental issues which are causing poor air quality in post-COVID-19.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101338
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1339: Impact of Agricultural Drought on
           Sunflower Production across Hungary

    • Authors: Endre Harsányi, Bashar Bashir, Firas Alsilibe, Karam Alsafadi, Abdullah Alsalman, Adrienn Széles, Muhammad Habib ur Rahman, István Bácskai, Csaba Juhász, Tamás Ratonyi, Safwan Mohammed
      First page: 1339
      Abstract: In the last few decades, agricultural drought (Ag.D) has seriously affected crop production and food security worldwide. In Hungary, little research has been carried out to assess the impacts of climate change, particularly regarding droughts and crop production, and especially on regional scales. Thus, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of agricultural drought on sunflower production across Hungary. Drought data for the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) were collected from the CARBATCLIM database (1961–2010), whereas sunflower production was collected from the Hungarian national statistical center (KSH) on regional and national scales. To address the impact of Ag.D on sunflower production, the sequence of standardized yield residuals (SSYR) and yield losses YlossAD was applied. Additionally, sunflower resilience to Ag.D (SRAg.D) was assessed on a regional scale. The results showed that Ag.D is more severe in the western regions of Hungary, with a significantly positive trend. Interestingly, drought events were more frequent between 1990 and 2010. Moreover, the lowest SSYR values were reported as −3.20 in the Hajdu-Bihar region (2010). In this sense, during the sunflower growing cycle, the relationship between SSYR and Ag.D revealed that the highest correlations were recorded in the central and western regions of Hungary. However, 75% of the regions showed that the plantation of sunflower is not resilient to drought where SRAg.Dx < 1. To cope with climate change in Hungary, an urgent mitigation plan should be implemented.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101339
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1340: Effects of Long-Term Nitrogen
           Fertilization and Ground Water Level Changes on Soil CO2 Fluxes from Oil
           Palm Plantation on Tropical Peatland

    • Authors: Auldry Chaddy, Lulie Melling, Kiwamu Ishikura, Kah Joo Goh, Yo Toma, Ryusuke Hatano
      First page: 1340
      Abstract: A long-term study on the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilization on soil carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in tropical peatland was conducted to (1) quantify the annual CO2 emissions from an oil palm plantation under different N application rates and (2) evaluate the temporal effects of groundwater level (GWL) and water-filled pore space (WFPS) on soil organic carbon (SOC) and CO2 fluxes. Monthly measurement of soil CO2 fluxes using a closed chamber method was carried out from January 2010 until December 2013 and from January 2016 to December 2017 in an oil palm plantation on tropical peat in Sarawak, Malaysia. Besides the control (T1, without N fertilization), there were three N treatments: low N (T2, 31.1 kg N ha−1 year−1), moderate N (T3, 62.2 kg N ha−1 year−1), and high N (T4, 124.3 kg N ha−1 year−1). The annual CO2 emissions ranged from 7.7 ± 1.2 (mean ± SE) to 16.6 ± 1.0 t C ha−1 year−1, 9.8 ± 0.5 to 14.8 ± 1.4 t C ha−1 year−1, 10.5 ± 1.8 to 16.8 ± 0.6 t C ha−1 year−1, and 10.4 ± 1.8 to 17.1 ± 3.9 t C ha−1 year−1 for T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Application of N fertilizer had no significant effect on annual cumulative CO2 emissions in each year (p = 0.448), which was probably due to the formation of large quantities of inorganic N when GWL was temporarily lowered from January 2010 to June 2010 (−80.9 to −103.4 cm below the peat surface), and partly due to low soil organic matter (SOM) quality. A negative relationship between GWL and CO2 fluxes (p < 0.05) and a positive relationship between GWL and WFPS (p < 0.001) were found only when the oil palm was young (2010 and 2011) (p < 0.05), indicating that lowering of GWL increased CO2 fluxes and decreased WFPS when the oil palm was young. This was possibly due to the fact that parameters such as root activity might be more predominant than GWL in governing soil respiration in older oil palm plantations when GWL was maintained near or within the rooting zone (0–50 cm). This study highlights the importance of roots and WFPS over GWL in governing soil respiration in older oil palm plantations. A proper understanding of the interaction between the direct or indirect effect of root activity on CO2 fluxes and balancing its roles in nutrient and water management strategies is critical for sustainable use of tropical peatland.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101340
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1341: Comparing Four Types Methods for Karst
           NDVI Prediction Based on Machine Learning

    • Authors: Yuju Ma, Liyuan Zuo, Jiangbo Gao, Qiang Liu, Lulu Liu
      First page: 1341
      Abstract: As a link for energy transfer between the land and atmosphere in the terrestrial ecosystem, karst vegetation plays an important role. Karst vegetation is not only affected by environmental factors but also by intense human activities. The nonlinear characteristics of vegetation growth are induced by the interaction mechanism of these factors. Previous studies of this relationship were not comprehensive, and it is necessary to further explore it using a suitable method. In this study, we selected climate, human activities, topography, and soil texture as the response factors; a nonlinear relationship model between the karst normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and these factors was established by applying a back propagation neural network (BPNN), a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), the random forest (RF) algorithm, and support vector regression (SVR); and then, the karst NDVI was predicted. The coefficient of determination (R2), mean square error (MSE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of the obtained results were calculated, and the mean R2 values of the BPNN, RBFNN, RF, and SVR models were determined to be 0.77, 0.86, 0.89, and 0.91, respectively. Compared with the BPNN, RBFNN, and RF models, the SVR model had the lowest errors, with mean MSE, RMSE, and MAPE values of 0.001, 0.02, and 2.77, respectively. The results show that the BPNN, RBFNN, RF, and SVR models are within acceptable ranges for karst NDVI prediction, but the overall performance of the SVR model is the best, and it is more suitable for karst vegetation prediction.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101341
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1342: Relationships among Indoor Radon,
           Earthquake Magnitude Data and Lung Cancer Risks in a Residential Building
           of an Apulian Town (Southern Italy)

    • Authors: Luigi Vimercati, Domenica Cavone, Maria Celeste Delfino, Luigi De Maria, Antonio Caputi, Stefania Sponselli, Vincenzo Corrado, Vito Bruno, Gianfranco Spalluto, Giorgia Eranio, Giovanni Maria Ferri
      First page: 1342
      Abstract: (1) Background: The association of radon-222 with lung cancer is well studied. The aim of the study was to validate a model of indoor radon measurements, to apply radon software to estimate lung cancer cases that are attributable to radon and to study the relationship between radon and earthquakes. (2) Methods: Different data detectors were used to obtain radon measurements in different places. Continuous data collection and predictions of indoor radon concentrations were carried out. Software was used to assess radon-attributable lung cancer cases, and data related to earthquake magnitudes were downloaded from Italian Vulcanology Institute. (3) Results: As expected, the highest radon concentrations were observed on the ground floor (232 ± 232 Bq/m3), with higher values measured during winter than in other seasons. The comparison of the detectors showed the overlapping of the two detectors-measured data sets. The cases of lung cancer that were attributable to radon in Locorotondo were studied (3.66/10,000). From the multivariate analysis of the relationship between high radon concentrations and high earthquake magnitude values, they show statistically significant ORs of just over 1. (4) Conclusions: Although the measured values are, on average, within the reference level, prevention measures must be implemented, as the measured radon values allow us to estimate an expected value of 3.66 cases of lung cancer per 10,000 people in the resident population.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101342
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1343: A Fast-Converging Kernel Density
           Estimator for Dispersion in Horizontally Homogeneous Meteorological

    • Authors: Gunther Bijloos, Johan Meyers
      First page: 1343
      Abstract: Kernel smoothers are often used in Lagrangian particle dispersion simulations to estimate the concentration distribution of tracer gasses, pollutants etc. Their main disadvantage is that they suffer from the curse of dimensionality, i.e., they converge at a rate of 4/(d+4) with d the number of dimensions. Under the assumption of horizontally homogeneous meteorological conditions, we present a kernel density estimator that estimates a 3D concentration field with the faster convergence rate of a 1D kernel smoother, i.e., 4/5. This density estimator has been derived from the Langevin equation using path integral theory and simply consists of the product between a Gaussian kernel and a 1D kernel smoother. Its numerical convergence rate and efficiency are compared with that of a 3D kernel smoother. The convergence study shows that the path integral-based estimator has a superior convergence rate with efficiency, in mean integrated squared error sense, comparable with the one of the optimal 3D Epanechnikov kernel. Horizontally homogeneous meteorological conditions are often assumed in near-field range dispersion studies. Therefore, we illustrate the performance of our method by simulating experiments from the Project Prairie Grass data set.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101343
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1344: A Gaussian Process Method with
           Uncertainty Quantification for Air Quality Monitoring

    • Authors: Peng Wang, Lyudmila Mihaylova, Rohit Chakraborty, Said Munir, Martin Mayfield, Khan Alam, Muhammad Fahim Khokhar, Zhengkai Zheng, Chengxi Jiang, Hui Fang
      First page: 1344
      Abstract: The monitoring and forecasting of particulate matter (e.g., PM2.5) and gaseous pollutants (e.g., NO, NO2, and SO2) is of significant importance, as they have adverse impacts on human health. However, model performance can easily degrade due to data noises, environmental and other factors. This paper proposes a general solution to analyse how the noise level of measurements and hyperparameters of a Gaussian process model affect the prediction accuracy and uncertainty, with a comparative case study of atmospheric pollutant concentrations prediction in Sheffield, UK, and Peshawar, Pakistan. The Neumann series is exploited to approximate the matrix inverse involved in the Gaussian process approach. This enables us to derive a theoretical relationship between any independent variable (e.g., measurement noise level, hyperparameters of Gaussian process methods), and the uncertainty and accuracy prediction. In addition, it helps us to discover insights on how these independent variables affect the algorithm evidence lower bound. The theoretical results are verified by applying a Gaussian processes approach and its sparse variants to air quality data forecasting.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101344
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1345: Unorganized Machines to Estimate the
           Number of Hospital Admissions Due to Respiratory Diseases Caused by PM10

    • Authors: Yara de Souza Tadano, Eduardo Tadeu Bacalhau, Luciana Casacio, Erickson Puchta, Thomas Siqueira Pereira, Thiago Antonini Antonini Alves, Cássia Maria Lie Ugaya, Hugo Valadares Valadares Siqueira
      First page: 1345
      Abstract: The particulate matter PM10 concentrations have been impacting hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases. The air pollution studies seek to understand how this pollutant affects the health system. Since prediction involves several variables, any disparity causes a disturbance in the overall system, increasing the difficulty of the models’ development. Due to the complex nonlinear behavior of the problem and their influencing factors, Artificial Neural Networks are attractive approaches for solving estimations problems. This paper explores two neural network architectures denoted unorganized machines: the echo state networks and the extreme learning machines. Beyond the standard forms, models variations are also proposed: the regularization parameter (RP) to increase the generalization capability, and the Volterra filter to explore nonlinear patterns of the hidden layers. To evaluate the proposed models’ performance for the hospital admissions estimation by respiratory diseases, three cities of São Paulo state, Brazil: Cubatão, Campinas and São Paulo, are investigated. Numerical results show the standard models’ superior performance for most scenarios. Nevertheless, considering divergent intensity in hospital admissions, the RP models present the best results in terms of data dispersion. Finally, an overall analysis highlights the models’ efficiency to assist the hospital admissions management during high air pollution episodes.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101345
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1346: Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting
           Using an Improved Probability-Matching Method and Its Application to a
           Typhoon Event

    • Authors: Liu, Li, Wang
      First page: 1346
      Abstract: This present study aims to explore how forecasters can quickly make accurate predictions by using various high-resolution model forecasts. Based on three high temporal-spatial resolution (3 km, hourly) numerical weather prediction models (CMA-MESO, CMA-GD, CMA-SH3) from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA), the hourly precipitation characteristics of three model within 24 h from March to September 2020 are discussed and integrated into a single, hourly, deterministic quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) by making use of an improved weighted moving average probability-matching method (WPM). The results are as follows: (1) In non-rainstorm forecasts, CMA-MESO and CMA-GD have similar forecast abilities. However, in rainstorm forecasts, CMA-MESO has a notable advantage over the other two models. Thus, CMA-MESO is selected as a critical factor when participating in sensitivity experiments. (2) Compared with the traditional equal-weight probability-matching method (PM), the WPM improves the different grade QPF because it can effectively reduce rainfall pattern bias by making use of the weighted moving average (WMA). Additionally, the WPM threat score in rainstorm forecast similarly improved from 0.051 to 0.056, with a 9.8% increase relative to the PM. (3) The sensitivity experiments show that an optimal rainfall intensity score (WPM-best) can further improve the QPF and overcome all single models in both rainstorm and non-rainstorm forecasts, and the WPM-best has a rainstorm threat score skill of 0.062, with an increase of 21.6% compared with the PM. The performance of the WPM-best will be better if the precipitation intensity is stronger and the valid forecast periods is longer. It should be noted that there is no need to select models before using the WPM-best method, because WPM-best can give a very low weight to the less-skillful model in a more objective way. (4) The improved WPM method is also applied to investigate the heavy-rainfall case induced by typhoon Mekkhala (2020), where the improved WPM technique significantly improves rainstorm forecasting ability compared with a single model.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101346
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1347: Diurnal Dynamics of the Umov Kinetic
           Energy Density Vector in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer from Minisodar

    • Authors: Alexander Potekaev, Nikolay Krasnenko, Liudmila Shamanaeva
      First page: 1347
      Abstract: The diurnal hourly dynamics of the kinetic energy flux density vector, called the Umov vector, and the mean and turbulent components of the kinetic energy are estimated from minisodar measurements of wind vector components and their variances in the lower 200-meter layer of the atmosphere. During a 24-hour period of continuous minisodar observations, it was established that the mean kinetic energy density dominated in the surface atmospheric layer at altitudes below ~50 m. At altitudes from 50 to 100 m, the relative contributions of the mean and turbulent wind kinetic energy densities depended on the time of the day and the sounding altitude. At altitudes below 100 m, the contribution of the turbulent kinetic energy component is small, and the ratio of the turbulent to mean wind kinetic energy components was in the range 0.01–10. At altitudes above 100 m, the turbulent kinetic energy density sharply increased, and the ratio reached its maximum equal to 100–1000 at altitudes of 150–200 m. A particular importance of the direction and magnitude of the wind effect, that is, of the direction and magnitude of the Umov vector at different altitudes was established. The diurnal behavior of the Umov vector depended both on the time of the day and the sounding altitude. Three layers were clearly distinguished: a near-surface layer at altitudes of 5–15 m, an intermediate layer at altitudes from 15 m to 150 m, and the layer of enhanced turbulence above. The feasibility is illustrated of detecting times and altitudes of maximal and minimal wing kinetic energy flux densities, that is, time periods and altitude ranges most and least favorable for flights of unmanned aerial vehicles. The proposed novel method of determining the spatiotemporal dynamics of the Umov vector from minisodar measurements can also be used to estimate the effect of wind on high-rise buildings and the energy potential of wind turbines.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101347
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1348: Sulfur and Nitrogen Oxides in the
           Atmosphere of Lake Baikal: Sources, Automatic Monitoring, and
           Environmental Risks

    • Authors: Vladimir Obolkin, Elena Molozhnikova, Maxim Shikhovtsev, Olga Netsvetaeva, Tamara Khodzher
      First page: 1348
      Abstract: This paper analyzes the results of the automatic (in situ) recording of the regional transport of pollutants from the large regional coal-fired thermal power plants in the atmospheric boundary layer above the southern basin of Lake Baikal. Due to high stacks (about 200 m), emissions from large thermal power plants rise to the altitudes of several hundreds of meters and spread over long distances from their source by tens and hundreds of kilometers. The continuous automatic monitoring of the atmosphere in the southern basin of Lake Baikal on top of the coastal hill (200 m above the lake) revealed the transport of a large number of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides in the form of high-altitude plumes from thermal power plants of the large cities located 70 to 100 km to the northwest of the lake (Irkutsk and Angarsk). The consequence of such transport is the increased acidity of precipitation in the southern basin of Lake Baikal and the additional influx of biogenic nitrogen compounds to the lake ecosystem. The spatial scale and possible risks of such regional transport of air pollution for the lake ecosystem require further closer study.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101348
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1349: A Theoretical Study of the N2 + H2
           Reactive Collisions for High Vibrational and Translational Energies

    • Authors: Juan de Dios Garrido, Maikel Yusat Ballester
      First page: 1349
      Abstract: High translational temperatures appear in the air inside the shock waves layers created by relatively large meteorites, reentry space vehicles, and hypersonic missiles. Under these conditions, reactions between molecular nitrogen and hydrogen are energetically permitted. In the present work, a quasiclassical trajectories study of the N2(v′)+H2(v″) reaction for relative translational energies covering the range of translational energy 20.0≤Etr/kcalmol−1≤120.0 is presented. In the calculations, several values of vibrational quantum numbers v′=0,4,6,8,10,12 and v″=4,6,8,10,12 have been considered. To model the interatomic interactions, a six-dimension global potential energy surface for the ground electronic state of N2H2 was used. The specific initial state reaction cross-sections and rate coefficients are reported. The energy effects produced by the reaction that could influence the shock wave modeling are here considered. An analysis of the possible impact of these processes under the atmospheric composition is also presented.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101349
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1350: Long-Term Variability of Dust Events in
           Southwestern Iran and Its Relationship with the Drought

    • Authors: Nasim Hossein Hamzeh, Dimitris G. Kaskaoutis, Alireza Rashki, Kaveh Mohammadpour
      First page: 1350
      Abstract: Dust storms represent a major environmental challenge in the Middle East. The southwest part of Iran is highly affected by dust events transported from neighboring desert regions, mostly from the Iraqi plains and Saudi Arabia, as well as from local dust storms. This study analyzes the spatio-temporal distribution of dust days at five meteorological stations located in southwestern Iran covering a period of 22 years (from 1997 to 2018). Dust codes (06, 07, 30 to 35) from meteorological observations are analyzed at each station, indicating that 84% of the dust events are not of local origin. The average number of dust days maximizes in June and July (188 and 193, respectively), while the dust activity weakens after August. The dust events exhibit large inter-annual variability, with statistically significant increasing trends in all of five stations. Spatial distributions of the aerosol optical depth (AOD), dust loading, and surface dust concentrations from a moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) retrievals reveal high dust accumulation over southwest Iran and surrounding regions. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the (MODIS)-AOD trend (%) over southwest Iran indicates a large spatial heterogeneity during 2000–2018 with trends ranging mostly between −9% and 9% (not statistically significant). 2009 was the most active dust year, followed by 2011 and 2008, due to prolonged drought conditions in the fertile crescent and the enhanced dust emissions in the Iraqi plains during this period. In these years, the AOD was much higher than the 19-year average (2000 to 2018), while July 2009 was the dustiest month with about 25–30 dust days in each station. The years with highest dust activity were associated with less precipitation, negative anomalies of the vegetation health index (VHI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) over the Iraqi plains and southwest Iran, and favorable meteorological dynamics triggering stronger winds.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101350
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1351: Climatology of Spread F over Tucumán
           from Massive Statistical Analysis of Autoscaled Data

    • Authors: Carlo Scotto, Dario Sabbagh
      First page: 1351
      Abstract: Automatic ionogram interpretation methods developed for real-time ionospheric monitoring can be applied in retrospective studies to analyze large quantities of data. The Autoscala software, implemented for such a purpose, includes a routine for automatic detection of diffused echoes known as spread F, which appear in ionograms due to the presence of ionospheric irregularities along the radio signal path. The main objective of this routine is to reject bad quality ionograms. This new capability was used in a climatological study including a large number of ionograms recorded at the low-latitude ionospheric station of Tucumán (26.9° S, 294.6° E, magnetic latitude 15.5° S, Argentina). The study took into account different levels of geomagnetic and solar activity from 2012 to 2020. The results demonstrate the capability of Autoscala to capture the main signature characteristics of spread F and the temporal evolution of the ionosphere peak heigh hmF2, capturing the post-sunset plasma surge that precedes development of spread F. Maximum occurrence of spread F is observed in local summer, with a tendency to shift before midnight with increasing solar activity. Other new climatological details that emerged from the study are illustrated and briefly discussed, dealing with connection with geomagnetic activity, and morning hmF2 behavior after extremely marked nighttime spread F occurrence.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101351
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1352: Short-Term Associations between Morbidity
           and Air Pollution in Metropolitan Area of Monterrey, Mexico

    • Authors: Breton, Breton, de la Luz Espinosa Fuentes, Kahl, Guzman, Martínez, Guarnaccia, del Carmen Lara Severino, Lara, Francavilla
      First page: 1352
      Abstract: Short-term effects of air pollution on the number of hospital admissions in eight municipalities of the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey, Mexico, were assessed from 2016 to 2019 using a time-series approach. Air quality data were obtained from the Atmospheric Monitoring System of Nuevo Leon State (SIMA) which belongs to SINAICA (National System of Air Quality Information), providing validated data for this study. Epidemiological data were provided by SINAIS (National System of Health Information), considering admission by all causes and specific causes, gender and different age groups. Guadalupe had the highest mean concentrations for SO2, CO and O3; whereas Santa Catarina showed the highest NO2 concentrations. Escobedo and Garcia registered the highest levels for PM10. Only PM10 and O3 exceeded the permissible maximum values established in Mexican official standards. A basal Poisson model was constructed to assess the association between daily morbidity and air pollutants, from this, a second scenario in which daily mean concentrations of air pollutant criteria increase by 10% was considered. Most of pollutants and municipalities studied showed a great number of associations between an increase of 10% in their current concentrations and morbidity, especially for the age group between 5 and 59 years during cold months, excepting ozone which showed a strongest correlation during summer. Results were comparable to those reported by other authors around the world, however, in spite of relative risk index (RRI) values being low, they are of public concern. This study demonstrated that considering the nature of their activities, economically active population and students, they could be more vulnerable to air pollution effects. Results found in this study can be used by decision makers to develop public policies focused on protecting this specific group of the population in metropolitan areas in Mexico.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101352
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1353: Determine the Land-Use Land-Cover
           Changes, Urban Expansion and Their Driving Factors for Sustainable
           Development in Gazipur Bangladesh

    • Authors: Hossain Mohammad Arifeen, Khamphe Phoungthong, Ali Mostafaeipour, Nuttaya Yuangyai, Chumpol Yuangyai, Kuaanan Techato, Warangkana Jutidamrongphan
      First page: 1353
      Abstract: At present, urbanization is a very common phenomenon around the world, especially in developing countries, and has a significant impact on the land-use/land-cover of specific areas, producing some unwanted effects. Bangladesh is a tightly inhabited country whose urban population is increasing every day due to the expansion of infrastructure and industry. This study explores the land-use/land-cover change detection and urban dynamics of Gazipur district, Bangladesh, a newly developed industrial hub and city corporation, by using satellite imagery covering every 10-year interval over the period from 1990 to 2020. Supervised classification with a maximum likelihood classifier was used to gather spatial and temporal information from Landsat 5 (TM), 7 (ETM+) and 8 (OLI/TIRS) images. The Geographical Information System (GIS) methodology was also employed to detect changes over time. The kappa coefficient ranged between 0.75 and 0.90. The agricultural land was observed to be shrinking very rapidly, with an area of 716 km2 in 2020. Urbanization increased rapidly in this area, and the urban area grew by more than 500% during the study period. The urbanized area expanded along major roads such as the Dhaka–Mymensingh Highway and Dhaka bypass road. The urbanized area was, moreover, concentrated near the boundary line of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh. Urban expansion was found to be influenced by demographic-, economic-, location- and accessibility-related factors. Therefore, similarly to many countries, concrete urban and development policies should be formulated to preserve the environment and, thereby, achieve sustainable development goal (SDG) 11 (sustainable cities and communities).
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101353
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1354: Vehicle Emissions and Air Quality: The
           Early Years (1940s–1950s)

    • Authors: S. Kent Hoekman, J. Steve Welstand
      First page: 1354
      Abstract: During the 1940s, an unusual form of air pollution was experienced in the Los Angeles (LA) area of Southern California. Referred to as LA smog, this pollution differed from previously known air pollution with respect to its temporal patterns (daytime formation and nighttime dissipation), eye irritation, high oxidant levels, and plant damage. Early laboratory and field experimentation discovered the photochemical origins of LA smog. Though mechanistic understanding was incomplete, it was determined that hydrocarbon (HC) compounds in the atmosphere participate in smog formation, enabling build-up of higher ozone concentrations than would otherwise occur. It being a significant source, there was great interest in characterizing and controlling HC emissions from motor vehicles. Considerable work was done in the 1940s and 1950s to understand how emissions varied with vehicle operating conditions and deterioration of engine components. During this time, procedures were developed (and improved) to sample and quantify vehicle emissions. Besides exhaust, HC emissions from crankcase blowby, carburetor evaporation, and fuel tank losses were measured and characterized. Initial versions of both catalytic and non-catalytic exhaust after-treatment systems were developed. The knowledge gained from this pre-1960 work laid the foundation for many advancements that reduced vehicle emissions and improved air quality during subsequent decades.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101354
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1355: Research Progress for Dynamic Effects of
           Cities on Precipitation: A Review

    • Authors: Caijun Yue, Zhihui Han, Wen Gu, Yuqi Tang, Xiangyu Ao
      First page: 1355
      Abstract: Citization significantly changes original surface properties. City areas can cause surface winds to decrease; furthermore, ground friction can be transferred layer by layer through the momentum exchange of air movement, which affects the air layers above. Precipitation modification by city environments has been an active research area. Under the conditions of high wind speed, the dynamic effects of cities on precipitation are relatively obvious. Generally, the dynamic effects fall into two main categories: (1) for weather systems under weak forcing synoptic backgrounds, such as local convective systems, shorter-lived extreme precipitation events and fronts and city barrier effects can delay the movement of weather systems, directly change the horizontal distribution characteristics and occurrence time for precipitation, change the flow field and structure, cause the bifurcation of weather systems, and change the horizontal distribution characteristics of precipitation; (2) for weather systems under strong forcing synoptic backgrounds, such as extratropical systems (with large-scale moisture transport), monsoon systems, landfalling tropical cyclones, and supercell storms, the impact of the dynamic effects of cities cannot lead to the bifurcation of the weather system, nor can it change the horizontal distribution characteristics of the whole precipitation field, but it can have an impact on the local precipitation intensity and distribution. However, currently, people do not agree on the impact of cities on precipitation, especially regarding tropical cyclones. Hence, we provide a review and provide insights into the dynamic effects of cities on precipitation.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101355
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1356: Characteristics and Extent of Particulate
           Matter Emissions of a Ropeway Public Mobility System in the City Center of
           Perugia (Central Italy)

    • Authors: Beatrice Moroni, Stefano Crocchianti, Federica Bruschi, Chiara Petroselli, Alessandro Di Menno di Bucchianico, Giorgio Cattani, Luca Ferrero, David Cappelletti
      First page: 1356
      Abstract: Minimetrò (MM) is a ropeway public mobility system that has been in operation in the city of Perugia for about ten years to integrate with urban mobility and lighten vehicular traffic in the historic city center. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the impact of MM as a source of pollutants in the urban context, and the exposure of people in the cabins and the platforms along the MM line. These topics have been investigated by means of intensive measurement and sampling campaigns performed in February and June 2015 on three specific sites of the MM line representative of different sources and levels of urban pollution. Stationary and dynamic measurements of particle size distribution, nanoparticle and black carbon aerosol number and mass concentrations measurements were performed by means of different bench and portable instruments. Aerosol sampling was carried out using low volume and high-volume aerosol samplers, and the samples nalysed by off-line methods. Results show that MM is a considerable source of atmospheric particulate matter having characteristics very similar to those of the common urban road dust in Perugia. In the lack of clear indications on road dust effect, the contribution of MM to the aerosol in Perugia cannot be neglected.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101356
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1357: Atmospheric Deposition on the Southwest
           Coast of the Southern Basin of Lake Baikal

    • Authors: Liudmila Golobokova, Olga Netsvetaeva, Tamara Khodzher, Vladimir Obolkin, Olga Khuriganova
      First page: 1357
      Abstract: A precipitation monitoring station in Listvyanka was set up to determine the potential impact of the coastal area on the state of the adjacent air environment above Lake Baikal on its southwest coast. This article presents the results of studying the chemical composition of atmospheric deposition (aerosols and precipitation) at this station in 2020, and of their comparison with the data from previous years (from 2000 to 2019). In 2020, the ionic composition of atmospheric aerosols and precipitation had changed compared to previous years. In the modern period, the total amount of ions in aerosols, accounting for 0.46 ± 0.40 μg∙m−3, was lower by an order of magnitude than between 2000 and 2004. The average annual total amount of ions in precipitation in Listvyanka was almost unchanged from the average values in 2000–2010 and was 10% lower than that from 2011 to 2019 (7.3 mg/L). The ratio of major ions of sulphates and ammonium changed in the aerosol composition: compared to the period from 2000 to 2004, in 2020, the contribution of ammonium ions had decreased significantly, from 32% to 24%; the contribution of sulphates had increased to 43%, and the contribution of calcium had increased from 8 to 13%. Since 2010, the contribution of K+ ions has increased to 8–10%, indicating the effect of smoke aerosols from wildfires. In precipitation, despite the dominance of sulphates (26%) and calcium (18%) throughout the year, the contribution of nitrates increases to 19% during the cold season (from October to March), while the contribution of ammonium ions and hydrogen ions increases to 13% and 17%, respectively, in the warm season (from April to September). In 2020, as in previous research years, the acidity of precipitation at the Listvyanka station was elevated (pH 5.1 ± 0.5); 50% of precipitation in 2020 had pH ˂ 5. We quantified ions in atmospheric aerosols and precipitation on the underlying surface of the coastal southwestern part of Lake Baikal. Ion fluxes with precipitation were the highest in the warm season, which corresponds to the annual maximum precipitation. Unlike previous years (from 2000 to 2010 and from 2011 to 2019), wet deposition of most ions—especially calcium, ammonium and nitrates—had decreased in 2020. There was a 35-fold decrease in nitrogen fluxes and a 5-fold decrease in sulphur fluxes in aerosols, as well as 1.6-fold and 1.3-fold decreases, respectively, in precipitation.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101357
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Pages 1358: Objective Calibration of Numerical
           Weather Prediction Model: Application on Fine Resolution COSMO Model over

    • Authors: Antigoni Voudouri, Euripides Avgoustoglou, Izthak Carmona, Yoav Levi, Edoardo Bucchignani, Pirmin Kaufmann, Jean-Marie Bettems
      First page: 1358
      Abstract: The objective calibration method originally performed on regional climate models is applied to a fine horizontal resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model over a mainly continental domain covering the Alpine Arc. The method was implemented on the MeteoSwiss COSMO (consortium for a small-scale modeling) model with a resolution of 0.01° (approximately 1 km). For the model calibration, five tuning parameters of the parameterization schemes affecting turbulence, soil-surface exchange and radiation were chosen. A full year was simulated, with the history of the soil included (hindcast) to find the optimal parameter value. A different year has been used to give an independent assessment of the impact of the optimization process. Although the operational MeteoSwiss model is already a well-tuned configuration, the results showed that a slight model performance gain is obtained by using the Calibration of COSMO (CALMO) methodology.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos12101358
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2021)
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